Novial/Hound Lesson 5

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Contents - Lesson 1 - Lesson 2 - Lesson 3 - Lesson 4 - Lesson 5 - Lesson 6 - Lesson 7 -

Prefixes - Suffixes

Li Hunde de Inferne[edit]

Mortimer kontinua lekte:

After ke les had voyaja tra un o du kilometres, les pasad mutone-farmere e klamad a lo ob lo had vida li chaso. Tamen li home esed tam foli pro timo ke lo apene poved parla. Ma finalim lo dikted ke ya lo had vida li hundes sekuent li desfelisi yuna. Lo dikted: ’Ma ultru me ha vida ke Hugo Baskerville pasad me sur sen nigri kavala e hintru esed tal hunde de inferne ke me prega ke lu non mey seku me.’

”Li ebri siniores kavalkad a devanu til ke li nigri kavala did veni galopant kun vakui sadle e arosat per blanki skume. Aftru les kavalkad proxim mutu, pro ke les tre timad. Kavalkant lentim ye ti manere les trovad finalim li hundes. Quankam kurajosi tipe de hunde, les ploretad timosim regardant angusti vale devan les.

”Tri ek li homes, li maxim kurajosis o forsan li maxim ebris, kavalkad en li angusti vale. Tand lu larjisad en larji spatie in kel sidad du grandi stones kel esed plasat da serteni oblivet popule de oldi tempes. Li lune lumad klarim vor li desfelisi yuna had fala, morit pro timo e fatigo. Proximu liad li kadavre de Hugo Baskerville. Apud li kadavre mordant li kole, stead sordidu: grandi, nigri bestie kun forme de hunde, ma plu grandi kam irgi hunde kel mortal home ha vida. Durant ke les regardad, lu did tonda eku li kole de Hugo Baskerville, after ke, kand lu turnad sen brulanti okules vers les, li tri homes kriad pro timo e kavalkad for, ankore kriant. On dikte ke un ek les morid ye ti sami nokte pro tu kel lo had vida e ke li du altris esed ruptet homes durant sen seteri vivos.”

Vocabulary[edit]

  • after ke - after which
  • aftru - after that, afterwards
  • altri - other
  • angusti - narrow
  • apene - hardly, scarcely
  • apud - near
  • arosa - (to) sprinkle (with liquid), water
  • bestie - beast
  • blanki - white
  • brula - (to) burn
  • chaso - (the, a) chase, hunt
  • da - by (indicates agent of an act)
  • desfelisi - unhappy
  • devan - in front of, ahead of, before (in space)
  • devanu - ahead
  • ebri - drunk, intoxicated
  • en - into (instead of a in)
  • fala - (to) fall
  • fatigo - tiredness, fatigue
  • finalim - finally
  • foli - mad, crazy
  • forme - form
  • forsan - perhaps, maybe
  • galopa - (to) gallop
  • hintru - behind, behind that (him, her, it etc.
  • inferne - hell
  • irgi - any, no matter which
  • kadavre - corpse, cadaver, dead body
  • kavalka - (to) ride (on horseback)
  • kilometre - kilometre
  • klama - (to) shout
  • klarim - clearly, brightly
  • kole - neck
  • kria - (to) cry out, scream
  • kuraje - courage
  • kurajosi - courageous, brave
  • larji - wide, broad
  • larjisa - (to) widen, broaden
  • lentim - slowly
  • lia - (to) lie, be lying down
  • luma - (to) shine
  • lune - moon
  • manere - manner, way
  • mey - may, let it be that
  • morda - (to) bite
  • mori - to die
  • mortal - mortal
  • mutone-farmere - sheep farmer
  • mutu - each other, one another
  • nigri - black
  • nokte - night
  • oblive - (to) forget
  • parla - to speak
  • pasa - (to) pass (by)
  • per - by, with (instrument with which something is done)
  • plasa - (to) place, put on a place
  • ploreta - (to) whimper
  • popule - people
  • prega - (to) pray
  • proximu - nearby, near to that
  • quankam - although
  • regarda - to watch, to regard, to look at attentively
  • rupte - (to) break
  • sadle - saddle
  • sami - same
  • seku - to follow
  • seteri - remaining, rest of
  • skume - froth, foam, scum
  • sordidi - foul, disgusting, nasty, sordid
  • spatie - space
  • stea - (to) stand
  • stone - (a) stone
  • tal(i) - such (a), of that kind
  • tand - then
  • tamen - however, nevertheless, yet, still
  • til ke - until
  • timosim - fearfully
  • tipe - type, kind
  • tonda - (to) tear, rip, shear
  • tra - through, across
  • ultru - moreover, further
  • vakui - empty
  • vale - valley
  • vivo - life
  • vor - where
  • voyaja - (to) travel
  • ya - indeed, certainly (used to confirm a statement, in a sentence)

Grammar Notes[edit]

Active and Passive Participles[edit]

The active participle is formed by adding -nt to the simple stem if it ends in -a or -e. If the stem ends in -u or -i -ent is added to the stem:

  • brula – brulant ((to) burn – burning)
  • rupte – ruptent ((to) break – breaking)
  • seku - sekuent ((to) follow – following)
  • mori - morient ((to) die – dying)

These are pronounced with the stress on the -ant or the -ent.

The endings -i, -e -o or -a can be added to these forms with their usual meanings:

  • brulanti okulesburning eyes
  • amanti femaa loving woman
  • amantaa lover (female)
  • amantoa lover (male)
  • amantea lover (male or female)

The passive participle is formed by adding -t to the simple stem.

  • brula – brulat ((to) burn – burnt)
  • rupte – ruptet ((to) break – broken)
  • seku - sekut ((to) follow – followed)
  • mori - morit ((to) die – dead)


Notice that li kaptate in the title of lesson 4 literally means the captured (person), i.e. the captive.


EXERCISE • Hound Lesson 5 • Participles

Complete the following sentences by translating the English word in brackets.

  1. Li (dead) homo proximeskad sur (galopping) kavale.
  2. Me vud voli (interesting) libre.
  3. Me ama men (loving) amikes.
  4. Li (burnt) kadavre did lia in li agre.
  5. Li (standing) stones es tre oldi.
  6. Que ha plasa les sub (shining) lume?
  7. Prega por li (departed people).
  8. Li (captive) did fuga sur (unsaddled) kavale.
  9. Vu deved lerna bonim (learned) lektione.
  10. Bonim (told) rakontes interesa me.
SOLUTION • Novial/Hound Lesson 5 • Participles
  1. Li morit homo proximeskad sur galopanti kavale.
  2. Me vud voli interesanti libre.
  3. Me ama men amanti amikes.
  4. Li brulat cadavre did lia in li agre.
  5. Li steanti stones es tre oldi.
  6. Que ha plasa les sub lumanti lume?
  7. Prega por li departates.
  8. Li kaptate did fuga sur non-sadlat kavale.
  9. Vu deved lerna bonim lernat lektione.
  10. Bonim rakontat rakontes interesa me.

Conjunctions from Prepositions plus KE[edit]

Several conjunctions are formed by placing the simple conjunction ke (that) after a preposition:

  • after keafter which
  • durant kewhile
  • pro kebecause, on account of the fact that
  • til keuntil

The Reciprocal Pronoun MUTU[edit]

The phrase one another, each other is translated with the pronoun mutu. Adding the adjectival ending -al forms the adjective mutual (mutual).

  • li amantes ama mututhe lovers love one another
  • les rakonta rakontes a mututhey tell stories to each other
  • les tima mututhey fear each other

or

  • les tima mutualimthey fear each other (mutually)

Anaphoric Adjectives[edit]

As we have seen in Lesson 1 adjectives are made into corresponding nouns with the endings -e, -a, -o and -u. However, if an adjective is used alone referring to a noun just mentioned (anaphorically) it retains the -i ending and if plural an -s is added to the -i. For example:

  • tri ek li homes, li maxim kurajosis o forsan li maxim ebris - three of the men, the bravest or perhaps the drunkest
  • un ek les morid e li du altris esed ruptet homes - one of them died and the two others were broken men

The Prefix DES-[edit]

The prefix des- forms the direct opposite of the root word.

  • felisi – desfelisi (happy – unhappy)
  • honorabli – deshonorabli (honourable – dishonourable)
  • espera – desespera ((to) hope – (to) despair)

The Adjectival Suffix -OSI[edit]

The suffix -osi forms adjectives which mean having or possessing, especially in great quantity.

  • otie – otiosi (leisure – idle, unoccupied)
  • timo – timosi (fear – fearful)
  • kuraje – kurajosi (courage – courageous, brave)

The General Suffix -ET-[edit]

The suffix -et- forms diminutives:

  • kastele – kastelete (castle – chateau, small castle)
  • plora – ploreta (weep – whimper)
  • drinka – drinketa ((to) drink – (to) sip)

It also forms terms of affection:

  • patro – patreto (father – daddy)
  • matra – matreta (mother – mummy)


EXERCISE • Hound Lesson 5 • Word Derivation

Use endings and affixes to convert the following Novial root words to the English words indicated.

  1. lume - bright, light
  2. nome - nickname
  3. interesa - to disinterest
  4. skume - foamy, frothy
  5. tima - to worry
  6. spatie - spacious
  7. salta - to hop
  8. klefa - to unlock
  9. stone - stony
  10. ebri - tipsy, a little drunk
  11. vakui - vacuous
  12. foli - crank
  13. vivo - lively, sprightly
  14. sadla - to unsaddle
  15. morda - to nibble
SOLUTION • Novial/Hound Lesson 5 • Word Derivation
  1. lumosi
  2. nomete
  3. desinteresa
  4. skumosi
  5. timeta
  6. spatiosi
  7. salteta
  8. desklefa
  9. stonosi
  10. ebreti
  11. vakuosi
  12. folete
  13. vivosi
  14. dessadla
  15. mordeta


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Novial home - Pronunciation Guide

Contents - Lesson 1 - Lesson 2 - Lesson 3 - Lesson 4 - Lesson 5 - Lesson 6 - Lesson 7

Prefixes - Suffixes