Instructional Technology/Instructional Design/ADDIE
--ADDIE is an instructional model for teaching the Instructional Design process. The acronym corresponds with the five stages of instructional development: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Each step of the model has an outcome that feeds information to the following steps.
- Assessment should occur at the beginning of a project. During this stage, the instructional designer should consider optimals and actuals. According to Allison Rossett, an expert on training needs assessment, actuals are what the current performance is and optimals are what should be happening, the desired performance. Once these are determined, it should be determined whether or not instruction is needed to fill the gap. If instruction is needed, the instructional designer should continue the process. If instruction is not needed, a Human Performance Technologist should be consulted.
- Design happens after the assessment phase. This is where the objectives, assessment approach, exercises and content is specified.
- Development is the phase in which the work takes place. User manuals/materials are created as well as instructor materials. The actual course is developed, whether it is an instructor led course, web-based course, or computer based training.
- Implementation is the actual rollout of what was designed and developed. Providing the actual instruction/course to the learners.
- Evaluation should be conducted throughout the phases in the form of formative evaluation. As formative evaluation is conducted, revisions are made to the instruction/design. Summative evaluation occurs at the end. Summative evaluation looks at the actual outcomes of the instruction, did the learners learn what they needed to know.
Advantages of Using ADDIE
Promotes effective learning
Effective in training
Criticisms of ADDIE
There are drawbacks to any large system or model and ADDIE is not different. ADDIE has been criticized for being:
Too time-consuming to implement
Introducing a Rapid Prototyping Phase in ADDIE
For best results, the development process for CD-ROM or Web-based training programs should use a modified ADDIE model, which borrows from the most valuable aspects of the systemic approach. Specifically, a rapid prototype phase is inserted after, or as an extension of, the design phase. A rapid prototype is simply a quickly assembled module that can be tested with the student audience early in the ISD process. The evaluation typically looks at things like how well the learners responded to the creative metaphor, how effective the learning activities are, and how well the program performs on the chosen technology platform. Based on the feedback, the design can be revised and another prototype developed. This iterative process continues until there is agreement and confidence in the prototype.
In this process, only after the prototype is completed is additional development work done. However, this work often moves more quickly after a rapid prototype than in the traditional ADDIE model. Instructional designers and writers are able to proceed more efficiently since they know exactly what the program will look like and what it will be capable of doing. Additionally, with all of the major technical issues resolved, final programming becomes a simple matter of assembly of media components.