Instructional Technology/Instructional Design
Instructional design is the systematic process of designing, developing, evaluating and managing the entire instructional process to ensure effective and efficient learning. It is based on what we know about instructional and learning theories, systems design, information systems and management (Morrison, Kemp & Ross, 2001). The basic elements of instructional design include:
- Analyze learner and organization needs
- Determine instructional goals and objective
- Construct a method for evaluating learner achievement
- Design and select instructional strategies
- Implement the training
- Evaluate the training
Origins of Instructional Design 
Instructional design practices and procedures can be traced back to World War II. During the war, a number of psychologists and educators were called on to conduct research and provide training for the military. After the war, many of these individuals continued to work in the field (Reiser & Dempsy, 2002).----
Instructional Design Models 
Instructional design models help describe the process of how to conduct the various steps of instructional design. They also help us visualize the process and communication with other instructional designers and clients involved in a project. Almost all models of instructional design contain the core elements of analysis, design, develop, implement, and evaluate. This is referred to as the ADDIE model and helps ensure congruence between all phases of instruction. It is often depicted in a step-wise fashion, although it does not necessarily work that way in all cases. Several models for instructional design are described below:
The ADDIE instructional design model is possibly the best-known instructional design model by Christopher Pappas
The ADDIE model refers to Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. Furthermore, provides a step-by-step process that helps instructional designers plan and create training programs with a framework in order to make sure that their instructional products are effective and that their processes are as efficient as they can possibly be.
Analyze In the analysis phase, the instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are established, and the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified. Below are some of the questions that are addressed during the analysis phase:
- Who is the audience and what are their characteristics?
- Did we identify the new behavioral outcome?
- What types of learning constraints exist?
- What are the delivery options?
- What are the online pedagogical considerations?
- What is the timeline for project completion?
Design The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning, and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing, and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the project's goals. Specific means each element of the instructional design plan needs to be executed with attention to details. These are the steps used for the design phase:
- Documentation of the project's instructional, visual, and technical design strategy
- Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, psychomotor).
- Create storyboards
- Design the user interface and user experience
- Prototype creation
- Apply visual design (graphic design)
Development The development phase is where the developers create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase. Programmers work to develop and/or integrate technologies. Testers perform debugging procedures. The project is reviewed and revised according to any feedback given.
- List activities that will help the students learn the task.
- Select the delivery method such as tapes, handouts, etc.
- Review existing material so that we do not reinvent the wheel.
- Develop the instructional courseware.
- Synthesize the courseware into a viable training program.
- Validate the instruction to ensure it accomplishes all goals and objectives.
Implement During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators' training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners includes training them on new tools (software or hardware), and student registration. This is also the phase where the project manager ensures that the books, hands on equipment, tools, CD-ROMs, and software are in place, and that the learning application or Web site is functional.
Evaluation The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain-specific, criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users.
- Review and evaluate each phase (analyze, design, develop, implement) to ensure it is accomplishing what it is supposed to.
- Perform external evaluations (e.g. observe that the learner on the job can actually perform the tasks that were trained).
- Revise training system to make it better.
References http://www.dennistester.com/addie.htm http://www.intulogy.com/addie/ http://www.ptrain.com/products/instdes.htm http://elearning.menhaj.com/methodology.aspx http://ed.isu.edu/addie/index.html
The Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model by Christopher Pappas.
The Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model is based on a reductionist model of breaking instruction down into smaller components. Instruction is specifically targeted on the skills and knowledge to be taught and supplies the appropriate conditions for the learning of these outcomes. Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model is divided into ten sections.
- What is the goal of the instruction?
- What will the learners be able to perform after they complete the training program?
- What are the skills that they will be involved to achieve in the desirable goal?
Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics
- What are the skills that the learners will bring to the learning task?
- How will we translate the needs and goals into specific and detailed objectives?
Criterion-Referenced Test Items
- What are the necessary prerequisites for learning new skills?
- How will we check the results of the apprentice learning during the process of the training and at the same time, provide these results to him/her?
- What are the instructional activities that we will follow in order to achieve the terminal objectives (exhibition of information, practice, feedback, testing)?
- What type of instructional materials we will use (printed, media, both)?
- What data should we revise to improve the instructional materials?
- How will we make instructions as effective as possible for a larger number of learners?
- How will we revise the instruction after the formative evaluation?
- What were the difficulties for the learners and who will revise them?
- Was the system effective as a whole?
- Did the instruction work?
- Did we achieve the desired results?
http://www.umich.edu/%7Eed626/Dick_Carey/dc.html www.sjsu.edu/depts/it/itcdpdf/isddickncarey.pdf http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/history_isd/carey.html http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/InstructionalDesign.htm Dick, W. & Cary, L. (1990), The Systematic Design of Instruction, Third Edition, Harper Collins Briggs, L. J., Gustafson, K. L. & Tellman, M. H., Eds. (1991), Instructional Design: Principles and Applications, Second Edition, Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Edmonds, G. S., Branch, R. C., & Mukherjee, P. (1994), A Conceptual Framework for Comparing Instructional Design Models, Educational Research and Technology, 42(2), pp. 55-72. Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J. & Wagner, W. W. (1992). Principles of Instructional Design (4th ed.), Holt, Reihhart, and Winston Inc.
Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & Kemp, J. (2001). Designing effective instruction. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. Instructional design and technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
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