French › Level two lessons › Food and drink · La nourriture

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Dialogue [edit]

Grammar · -ger verbs [edit]

-ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing. The most common -ger verb is manger.

For manger and all other regular -ger verbs, the stem change is the addition of an e after the g. This only applies in the nous form. In this case, the change is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be present if the e were not included.

Formation[edit]

manger Listen /mɑ̃ʒe/, [mɑ̃ː.ˈʒe](mah(n)zhay) to eat
je mange /mɑ̃ʒ/ (mah(n)zh) I eat
tu manges /mɑ̃ʒ/ (mah(n)zh) you eat
il mange /mɑ̃ʒ/ (mah(n)zh) he eats
nous mangeons /mɑ̃.ʒɔ̃/ (mah(n)zhoh(n)) we eat
vous mangez /mɑ̃.ʒe/ (mah(n)zhay) you eat
ils mangent /mɑ̃ʒ/ (mah(n)zh) they eat
mangé /mɑ̃.ʒe/ (mah(n)zhay) eaten

Other -ger verbs[edit]

changer About this sound /ʃɑ̃.ʒe/ to change
exiger About this sound /ɛɡ.zi.ʒe/ to require
nager About this sound /na.ʒe/ to swim
soulager About this sound /sulaʒe/ to relieve
voyager About this sound /vwa.ja.ʒe/ to travel

Examples[edit]

Nous mangeons dans une heure. We eat in an hour.
C’est le soir qui soulage les esprits. It’s the evening which soothes the spirits.

Vocabulary · Common foods [edit]

la banane About this sound /ba.nan/ banana
la pomme About this sound /pɔm/ apple Je vais m'étendre dans la prairie, sous un pommier aux pommes vertes et dures. I'll lie down in the meadow, under a tree with green and hard apples.
la viande About this sound /vjɑ̃d/ meat
le poulet About this sound /pu.lɛ/ chicken Je vais faire du poulet rôti. I'm going to make roasted chicken.
le bœuf About this sound /bœf/ beef
le poisson (frais, salé, mariné, sec, frit, grillé) About this sound /pwa.sɔ̃/ (fresh, salted, pickled, dried, fried, grilled) fish
le bonbon About this sound [[Media:Fr-bonbon.ogg|]] candy Je vous ai apporté des bonbons. I brought you some candy.

Grammar · To drink · Boire[edit]

The verb boire, meaning to drink, is irregularly conjugated (it is not a regular -re verb).

Formation[edit]

boire Listen /bwaʁ/ (bwahr) to drink
je bois /bwɑ/ (bwah) I drink
tu bois /bwɑ/ (bwah) you drink
il boit /bwɑ/ (bwah) he drinks
nous buvons /by.vɔ̃/ (bew-voh(n)) we drink
vous buvez /by.ve/ (bew-vay) you drink
ils boivent /bwav/ (bwahv) they drink
bu /by/ (bu) (bew) drunk

Vocabulary · Drinks · Les boissons[edit]

la bière About this sound /bjɛr/ beer
le café About this sound /ka.fe/ coffee Je vais boire une tasse de café. I'll drink a cup of coffee.
le chocolat (chaud) About this sound /ʃɔ.kɔ.la/ hot chocolate Quand j’ai froid, je bois un chocolat chaud. When I'm cold, I drink a hot chocolate.
le coca About this sound /kɔ.ka/ Coke, soda Nous avons bu un coca dans ce bar après le travail. We drank a Coke in the bar after work.
la limonade About this sound /li.mɔ.nad/ lemonade, lemon soda La limonade est rafraîchissante en été. Lemonade is refreshing in the summer.
l'eau (f) About this sound /o/ water Je vais boire un verre d’eau fraîche. I'm going to drink a cool glass of water.
le jus (d'orange, de pomme, de raisin, de tomate) About this sound /ʒy/ (orange, apple, grape, tomato) juice Garçon, deux jus de pomme, s’il vous plaît ! Waiter, two apple juice, please!
le thé (vert, noir, rouge) About this sound /te/ (green, black, red) tea Mon frère n'aime pas le thé noir. Il boit toujours du thé vert. My brother does not like black tea. He always drinks green tea.
le vin (blanc, rosé, rouge) About this sound /vɛ̃/ (white, rosé, red) wine As-tu bu ?
J'ai bu deux verres de vin.
Have you been drinking?
I have drunk two glasses of wine.

Grammar · The partitive article [edit]

The partitive article de indicates, among other things, the word some. As learned earlier, de and le contract (combine) into du, as de and les contract into des. Also, instead of du or de la, de l' is used in front of vowels.

When speaking about food, the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le, la, les) is used at other times, and the indefinite article (un, une) in yet another set of situations. In general de refers to a part of food (a piece of pie) whereas the definite article (le) refers to a food in general (I like pie (in general)). The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food (I would like a (whole) pie).

When speaking about preferences, use the definite article:

J'aime la glace. I like ice cream.
Nous préférons le steak. We prefer steak.
Vous aimez les frites. You like French fries.

When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article.

Definite article (specific/whole items)
J'ai mangé la tarte. I ate the (whole) pie.
Indefinite article (known quantity)
J'ai mangé une tarte. I ate a pie.
Partitive article (unknown quantity)
J'ai mangé de la tarte. I ate some pie.

In the negative construction, certain rules apply. Un or une changes to de in a negative construction, meaning, in this context, any. Similarly, du, de la, or des change to de in negative constructions.

Nous avons mangé une tarte. We ate a pie.
Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. We did not eat a pie.
We did not eat any pie.
Nous avons mangé de la tarte. We ate some pie.
Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. We did not eat some pie.
We did not eat any pie.

Grammar · Some of it · En[edit]

To say some of it without specifying the exact object, the pronoun en can be used. Additionally, en can mean of it when it is not specified. For instance, instead of saying J'ai besoin d'argent, if the idea of money has already been raised, it can be stated as J'en ai besoin. This is because en replaces du, de la or des when the noun is not specifically mentioned in the sentence.

Like with me, te and other pronouns, en (meaning some) comes before the verb.

Tu joues du piano? Non, je n'en joue pas. Do you play piano? No, I don't play it.
Vous prenez du poisson? Oui, j'en prends. Are you having fish? Yes, I'm having some.
Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui, nous en avons commandé. Did you order some water? Yes, we ordered some.

Vocabulary · Cooking [edit]

Grammar · To put · Mettre[edit]

Formation[edit]

mettre Listen /mɛtʁ/ (mehtr) to put
je mets Listen /mɛ/ (meh) I put
tu mets Listen /mɛ/ (meh) you put
il met /mɛ/ (meh) he puts
nous mettons /mɛ.tɔ̃/ (meh-toh(n)) we put
vous mettez /mɛ.te/ (meh-tay) you put
ils mettent /mɛt/ (meht) they put
mis /mi/ (mee) put

Supplementary vocabulary · Derived words [edit]

admettre About this sound /admɛtʁ/ to admit, to accept On va admettre Georges dans la compagnie. We'll admit George in the company.
commettre About this sound /kɔ.mɛtʁ/ to commit, to entrust Il a commis un crime. He committed a crime.
compromettre About this sound /kɔ̃.pʁɔ.mɛtʁ/ to compromise, to jeopardize Il n'a pas compromis sa dignité. He did not compromise his dignity.
démettre About this sound /de.mɛtʁ/ to dismiss, to discharge Il a été démis de ses fonctions de préfet. He was dismissed from his position as prefect.
se démettre to resign Il s’est démis de sa charge. He resigned from his office.
émettre About this sound /e.mɛtʁ/ to emit, to express, to issue Le gouvernement émit du papier-monnaie. The government issued paper money.
omettre About this sound /ɔ.mɛtʁ/ to omit Il a omis une formalité nécessaire. He omitted a necessary formality.
permettre About this sound /pɛʁ.mɛtʁ/ to allow Vous me permettrez de le faire? Will you allow me to do that?
promettre About this sound /pʁɔ.mɛtʁ/ to promise, to be promising, to be hopeful
réadmettre About this sound /ʁeadmɛtʁ/ to readmit
remettre About this sound /ʁə.mɛtʁ/ to put back, to replace
soumettre About this sound /su.mɛtʁ/ to submit Je soumets cette proposition à votre agrément. I submit this proposal for your approval.
transmettre About this sound /tʁɑ̃s.mɛtʁ/ to transmit Le télégraphe a transmis cette dépêche. The telegraph sent this dispatch.

Supplementary vocabulary · Related expressions [edit]

mettre à jour About this sound /mɛ.tʁ‿a ʒuʁ/ to update
mettre au jour to bring to light, to uncover Les autorités policières ont mis au jour des opérations illégales.
Les archéologues travaillent à mettre au jour les vestiges d'un oppidum.
The police have uncovered illegal operations.
Archaeologists work to uncover the remains of an oppidum.
mettre au monde About this sound /mɛt.ʁ‿o mɔ̃d/ to give birth
mettre à profit About this sound /mɛt.ʁ‿a pʁɔ.fi/ to benefit, to gain C’est un homme qui met tout à profit. This is a man who benefits from everything.
mettre de côté About this sound /mɛtʁ də ko.te/ to put aside, to save (money, etc.) C'est un homme d'une grande économie et qui met tous les ans quelque chose de côté. This is a man of great economy who saves something every year.
mettre en cause to suspect; to accuse, blame
mettre en marche About this sound /mɛ.tʁ‿ɑ̃ maʁʃ/ to start
mettre en œuvre About this sound /mɛ.tʁ‿ɑ̃.n‿œvʁ/ to implement, to carry out On mets du bois en œuvre. We put wood to work.
mettre en place to put in place, to set up
mettre en route About this sound /mɛ.tʁ‿ɑ̃ ʁut/ to start
mettre fin (à) to put an end (to) Il a mis fin au contrat. He terminated the contract.
mettre l'accent sur to highlight
mettre la main à la pâte to pitch in
mettre le couvert to set the table
remettre en route About this sound /ʁǝ.mɛ.tʁ‿ɑ̃ rut/ to resume
se mettre à to start (to do something) , to take up Elles s'est mis à sortir les weekends. The girls started going out on weekends.
se mettre à table About this sound /sə mɛ.tʁ‿a tabl/ to sit down to eat
se mettre d'accord About this sound /sə mɛtʁ d‿a.kɔʁ/ to settle on, to agree

Supplementary examples [edit]

C’est un fait que je n’admets pas. It's a fact that I do not accept.
Je vous en ai commis le soin. I entrusted the care of it to you.
J’ai commis cela à vos soins. I committed that to your care.
Cette compagnie de chemin de fer a émis un grand nombre d’obligations. This railway company has issued a large number of bonds.
C’est un homme qui promet toujours et qui ne tient rien. This is a man who always promises and does nothing.

Supplementary usage notes · Mettre [edit]

Supplementary usage notes · Remettre [edit]

Supplementary vocabulary · Fruits and vegetables [edit]

les fruits (fruits)
la banane About this sound /ba.nan/ banana
la cerise About this sound /s(ə)ʁiz/ cherry
le citron About this sound /sit.ʁɔ̃/ lemon
la fraise About this sound /fʁɛz/ strawberry
l'orange (f) About this sound /ɔ.ʁɑ̃ʒ/ orange Il a pressé l’orange afin d’en extraire du jus. He squeezed the orange to extract juice from it.
la pomme About this sound /pɔm/ apple
le raisin About this sound /ʁɛ.zɛ̃/ grape Quentin cueille des raisins. Quentin's picking the grapes.
le pamplemousse About this sound /pɑ̃pləmus/ grapefruit
les légumes (vegetables)
la carotte About this sound /ka.ʁɔt/ carrot
les épinards (m) About this sound /epinaʁ/ spinach
l'oignon (m) About this sound /ɔɲɔ̃/ onion
les petits pois (m) About this sound /pə.ti pwa/ peas
la pomme de terre About this sound /pɔm də tɛʁ/ potato Faites cuire des pommes de terre à l'eau salée. Cook potatoes in salted water.
la tomate About this sound /tɔ.mat/ tomato
les asperges (f) About this sound /as.pɛʁʒ/ asparagus Je vais semer des asperges. I'm going to plant asparagus.
les haricots (m) About this sound /a.ʁi.ko/ beans

Supplementary vocabulary · Meat and seafood [edit]

la viande (meat)
l'agneau (m) About this sound /a.ɲo/ lamb
la dinde About this sound /dɛ̃d/ turkey
le jambon About this sound /ʒɑ̃.bɔ̃/ ham
le porc About this sound /pɔʁ/ pork
le poulet About this sound /pu.lɛ/ chicken
le bœuf About this sound /bœf/ beef
la saucisse About this sound /so.sis/ sausage
les fruits de mer (m) (shellfish, seafood)
la coquille Saint-Jacques About this sound /kɔ.kij sɛ̃ jak/ scallop
le crabe About this sound /kʁab/ crab
le poisson (fish)
les anchois (m) About this sound /ɑ̃.ʃwa/ anchovies
le saumon About this sound /somõ/ salmon
l'anguille (f) About this sound /ɑ̃.ɡij/ eel

Supplementary vocabulary · Dessert · Le dessert[edit]

le bonbon About this sound /bɔ̃.bɔ̃/ candy Je vous ai apporté des bonbons. I brought you some candy.
le chocolat About this sound /ʃɔ.kɔ.la/ chocolate
le gâteau (au chocolat, au fromage, de pommes de terre) About this sound /ɡa.tɔ/ cake
la glace (à la vanille, au citron, au chocolat) About this sound /ɡlas/ (vanilla, orange, chocolate) ice cream La glace est un met très apprécié en été. Ice cream is a dish popular in summer.
la mousse About this sound /mus/ mousse J’adore les mousses au chocolat avec des biscuits. I love chocolate mousse with crackers.
la tarte (aux cerises, aux abricots, aux pommes, aux fraises) About this sound /taʁt/ (cherry, apricot, apple, strawberry) pie Noémie apprécie la tarte aux myrtilles et la tarte aux pommes. Noémie likes blueberry pie and apple pie.

Supplementary vocabulary · Other foods [edit]

le croissant About this sound /kʁwasɑ̃/ crescent roll
les frites (f) About this sound /fʁit/ French fries
la crêpe About this sound /kʁɛp/ pancake
la mayonnaise About this sound /ma.jɔ.nɛz/ mayonnaise
la moutarde About this sound /mu.taʁd/ mustard
le pain About this sound /pɛ̃/ bread
la pâtisserie About this sound /pɑ.ti.sʁi/ pastry Regardez les belles pâtisseries dans la vitrine. Look at the beautiful pastries in the window.
le poivre About this sound /pwavʁ/ pepper
le riz About this sound /ʁi/ rice Adèle cultive du riz. Adele grows rice.
le sel About this sound /sɛl/ salt
le sucre About this sound /sykʁ/ sugar
la confiture About this sound /kɔ̃.fi.tyʁ/ jam
les produits laitiers (dairy products)
le beurre About this sound /bœʁ/ butter
le fromage About this sound /fʁɔ.maʒ/ cheese
le lait About this sound /lɛ/ milk
le yaourt About this sound /ja.uʁt/ yogurt

Text [edit]

Exercises [edit]