Conlang/Appendix/CXS

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Appendix
CXS

Appendix
Word list
 

CXS, or Conlang X-SAMPA, is an encoding of the International Phonetic Alphabet into 7-bit ASCII. CXS is a slightly modifed form of X-SAMPA, an encoding proposed in 1995 by a British phonetician, John C. Wells; the modifications have been devised by and for the members of the CONLANG mailing list — whose name gave rise to the word conlang used in this book, and thus indirectly to all the other uses of prefix con- in the Conworld series of wikibooks.

Sounds[edit]

Click on the name of a sound in these tables to hear the sound. If a sound isn't available here, its name is shown in red. If the sound files don't play on your computer, see w:Wikipedia:Media help.

You may notice that many of the red links have long names. A design priority for the CXS encoding is to give the shortest names to the most commonly encoded sounds — which means that the most unusual sounds, most likely not to have sound files available here, are also most likely to have longer names.

Consonant sounds[edit]

In the table of pulmonic consonants, for each place and manner of articulation (column and row), there may be an unvoiced consonant and a voiced consonant. Unvoiced consonants appear on the left side of that cell in the table, voiced consonants on the right.

Consonants (pulmonic)
Place of articulation → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical (none)
Manner of articulation ↓ Bi­la­bial La­bio-
den­tal
Den­tal Al­veo­lar Post-
al­veo­lar
Re­tro-
flex
Pa­la­tal Ve­lar Uvu­lar Pha­ryn-
geal
Epi-
glot­tal
Glot­tal
Nasal     m     F     n       n`     J     N     N\  
Plosive p  b p_d  b_d t  d t`  d`   c  J\ k  g q  G\   >\ ?  
Fricative p\  B   f  v T  D s  z S  Z s`  z`   C  j\ x  G X R X\ ?\ H\ <\ h  h\
Approx­imant         B_o     P       r\     r\`     j       M\      
Trill       B\       r   r`r)         R\         >\:  
Tap or Flap         v_X_+         v_X     4       r`            >\_X  
Lateral Fricative  K  K\ K`       L_0_r           L\_0_r              
Lateral Approx­imant     l       l`     L       L\    
Lateral Flap         l\     l\`         L_X           L\_X    

Alternative notation v\ can be used for P (the labiodental approximant).

Coarticulated
W Voiceless labialized velar approximant
w Voiced labialized velar approximant
H Voiced labialized palatal approximant
s\ Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
z\ Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
x\ Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative
Affricates and double articulation
ts voiceless alveolar affricate
dz voiced alveolar affricate
tS voiceless postalveolar affricate
dZ voiced postalveolar affricate
ts\ voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
dz\ voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
tK voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
kp voiceless labial-velar plosive
gb voiced labial-velar plosive
Nm labial-velar nasal stop

The joining of the two sounds in an affricate or double articulation can be notated explicitly by following the second with a right paren, as in /tS)/.

Consonants (non-pulmonic)
Clicks Implosives Ejectives
O\ Bilabial b_< Bilabial _> For example:
|\ Laminal alveolar ("dental") d_< Alveolar p_> Bilabial
!\ Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") J\_< Palatal t_> Alveolar
=\ Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") g_< Velar k_> Velar
|\|\ Lateral coronal ("lateral") G\_< Uvular s_> Alveolar fricative

Vowel sounds[edit]

At each point in the chart, the vowel to the left of the "•" is unrounded, the vowel to the right is rounded. The symbols for the mid central and near-open central vowels do not distinguish between rounded and unrounded forms.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.png
i • y
i\ • u\
M • u
I • Y
I\ • U\
• U
e • 2
@\ • 8
7 • o
E • 9
3 • 3\
V • O
& •
a • &\
A • Q
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Diacritics and suprasegmentals[edit]

A diacritic is a modifier added to a sound symbol to either alter or more specifically describe the sound. In CXS, all diacritics are suffixes after the symbol. All but four of the CXS diacritics are sequences of two or more characters starting with underscore (the other four being the single-character diacritics ~ = ; and `).

A suprasegmental is a symbol that describes a feature of language sound above the level of consonants and vowels, such as prosody, tone, length, or stress.

Syllabicity diacritics
= Syllabic _^ Non-syllabic
Consonant-release diacritics
_h Aspirated _} No audible release
_n Nasal release _l Lateral release
Phonation diacritics
_0 Voiceless _v Voiced
_t Breathy voiced _k Creaky voiced
Articulation diacritics
_d Dental _N Linguolabial
_a Apical _m Laminal
_+ Advanced _- Retracted
_" Centralized _x Mid-centralized
_r Raised _o Lowered
Co-articulation diacritics
_O More rounded _c Less rounded
_w Labialized or labio-velarized ; Palatalized
_G Velarized _?\ Pharyngealized
_e Velarized or pharyngealized
_A Advanced tongue root _q Retracted tongue root
~ Nasalized
` Retroflex (consonants), rhotacized (vowels)

Some conlangers use _j for palatalization instead of ;.

Length, stress, and rhythm
' Primary stress (symbol goes
before stressed syllable)
, Secondary stress (symbol goes
before stressed syllable)
: Long (long vowel or
geminate consonant)
:\ Half-long
_X Extra-short
. Syllable break -\ Linking (absence of a break)
Intonation (prosody)
| Minor (foot) break || Major (intonation) break
<R> Global rise <F> Global fall
Tone diacritics and tone letters
_T Extra high tone ^ Upstep
_H High tone _R Rising tone
_M Mid
_L Low tone _F Falling tone
_B Extra low / bottom ! Downstep

Some conlangers use " for primary stress and % for secondary stress, instead of ' and ,.

Data tables[edit]

Here are tables of detailed data on CXS symbols and other notations, arranged alphabetically by CXS coding. The tables include translations of each notation to IPA; descriptions of the notations' meanings, with links to associated Wikipedia articles; and examples of words using the notations.

For high-level explanations, and charts arranged by how the sounds are pronounced, see the next section.

Sounds[edit]

These sequences represent sounds. All CXS sequences starting with a letter or digit are here.

CXS X-SAMPA
(if different)
IPA IPA web markup
(using only ASCII)
Description
(linked to Wikipedia article, if any)
Examples
a   a a open front unrounded vowel French dame [dam], Spanish padre ['paD4e]
A   ɑ &#x251; open back unrounded vowel English father ['fA:D@(r\)] (RP and Gen.American)
b   b b voiced bilabial plosive English bed [bEd], French bon [bO~]
b_d   b&#x32A; voiced labiodental plosive  
b_<   ɓ &#x253; voiced bilabial implosive Sindhi ɓarʊ [b_<arU]
B   β &#x3B2; voiced bilabial fricative Spanish lavar [la'Ba4]
B\   ʙ &#x299; bilabial trill Reminiscent of shivering ("brrr")
B_o   β̞ &#x3B2;&#x31E; bilabial approximant Spanish lava ['lB_oa]
c   c c voiceless palatal plosive Hungarian latyak ['lQcQk]
C   ç &#xE7; voiceless palatal fricative German ich [IC], English human ['Cjum@n] (broad transcription uses [hj-])
d   d d voiced alveolar plosive English dig [dIg], French doigt [dwa]
dz)   d͡z
or ʣ
d&#x361;z
  or &#x2A3;
voiced alveolar affricate  
dz\)   d͡ʑ
or ʥ
d&#x361;&#x291;
  or &#x2A5;
voiced alveolo-palatal affricate  
dZ)   d͡ʒ
or ʤ
d&#x361;&#x292;
  or &#x2A4;
voiced postalveolar affricate English jest [dZ)est]<
d`   ɖ &#x256; voiced retroflex plosive Swedish hord [hu:d`]
d_<   ɗ &#x257; voiced alveolar implosive Sindhi ɗarʊ [d_<arU]
D   ð &#xF0; voiced dental fricative English then [DEn]
e   e e close-mid front unrounded vowel French ses [se], English met [met] (Australian and New Zealand English)
E   ɛ &#x25B; open-mid front unrounded vowel French même [mEm], English met [mEt] (RP and Gen.American)
f   f f voiceless labiodental fricative English five [faIv], French femme [fam]
F   ɱ &#x271; labiodental nasal English emphasis ['EFf@sIs] (spoken quickly, otherwise uses [Emf-])
g   ɡ &#x261; voiced velar plosive English game [geIm], French longue [lO~g]
gb)   g͡b g&#x361;b voiced labial-velar plosive  
g_<   ɠ &#x260; voiced velar implosive Sindhi ɠƏro [g_<@ro]
G   ɣ &#x263; voiced velar fricative Greek γωνίa [Go'nia], Danish vælge ['vElG@]
G\   ɢ &#x262; voiced uvular plosive Inuktitut nirivvik [niG\ivvik]
G\_<   ʛ &#x29B; voiced uvular implosive Mam ʛa [G\_<a]
h   h h voiceless glottal fricative English house [haUs]
h\   ɦ &#x266; voiced glottal fricative Czech hrad [h\rat]
H   ɥ &#x265; labial-palatal approximant French huit [Hit]
H\   ʜ &#x29C; voiceless epiglottal fricative Agul [mEH\]
i   i i close front unrounded vowel English be [bi:], French oui [wi], Spanish si [si]
i\ (or 1) 1 Ɨ &#x187; close central unrounded vowel Welsh tu [ti\], American English rose's ['r\oUzi\z]
I   ɪ &#x26A; near-close near-front unrounded vowel English kit [kIt]
I\   ɪ¨ &#x26A;&#xA8; Near-close central unrounded vowel Polish ryba [rI\bA]
j   j j palatal approximant English yes [jEs], French yeux [j2]
j\   ʝ &#x29D; voiced palatal fricative Greek γειά [j\a]
J   ɲ &#x272; palatal nasal Spanish año ['aJo], English canyon ['k&J@n] (broad transcription uses [-nj-])
J\   ɟ &#x25F; voiced palatal plosive Hungarian egy [EJ\]
J\_<   ʄ &#x284; voiced palatal implosive Sindhi ʄaro [J\_<aro]
k   k k voiceless velar plosive English scat [sk&t], Spanish carro ['kar:o]
kp)   k͡p k&#x361;p voiceless labial-velar plosive  
k_>   k&#x2BC; velar ejective plosive  
K   ɬ &#x26C; voiceless alveolar lateral fricative Welsh llaw [KaU]
K`   ɬ̢ &#x26C;&#x322; voiceless retroflex lateral fricative  
K\   ɮ &#x26E; voiced alveolar lateral fricative Mongolian долоо [tOK\O:]
l   l l alveolar lateral approximant English lay [leI], French mal [mal]
l`   ɭ &#x26D; retroflex lateral approximant Svealand Swedish sorl [so:l`]
l\   ɺ &#x27A; alveolar lateral flap Japanese phoneme /r/
l\`   ɺ̢ &#x27A;&#x322; retroflex lateral flap Pashto دنوړ [l\`und]
L   ʎ &#x28E; palatal lateral approximant Italian famiglia [fa'miLa], Castilian llamar [La'mar], English million ['mIL@n] (broad transcription uses [-lj-])
L\   ʟ &#x29F; velar lateral approximant  
L_0_r   ʎ̥˔ &#x28E;&#x325;&#x2D4; voiceless palatal lateral fricative Hadza [cL_0_ra?a]
L\_0_r   ʟ̝̊ &#x29F;&#x31D;&#x30A; voiceless velar lateral fricative  
L_X   ʎ̯ &#x28E;&#x32F; palatal lateral flap  
L\_X   ʟ̆ &#x29F;&#x306; velar lateral flap  
m   m m bilabial nasal English mouse [maUs], French homme [Om]
M   ɯ &#x26F; close back unrounded vowel Korean (eu)
M\   ɰ &#x270; velar approximant Spanish fuego ['fweM\o]
n   n n alveolar nasal English nap [n&p], French non [nO~]
n`   ɳ &#x273; retroflex nasal Swedish hörn [h2:n`]
N   ŋ &#x14B; velar nasal English thing [TIN]
Nm)   ŋ͡m &#x14B;&#x361;m labial-velar nasal stop
N\   ɴ &#x274; uvular nasal Japanese san [saN\]
o   o o close-mid back rounded vowel French gros [gRo]
O   ɔ &#x254; open-mid back rounded vowel British English thought [TO:t], American English off [O:f]
O\   ʘ &#x298; bilabial click  
p   p p voiceless bilabial plosive English speak [spik], French pose [poz], Spanish perro ['per:o]
p\   ɸ &#x278; voiceless bilabial fricative Japanese fuku [p\M_0kM]
p_d   p&#x32A; voiceless labiodental plosive Greek σάπφειρος ['sap_dfiro_os]
p_>   p&#x2BC; bilabial ejective plosive  
P (or v\)   ʋ &#x28B; labiodental approximant Dutch west [PEst]/[v\Est], allophone of English phoneme /r\/
q   q q voiceless uvular plosive Arabic qasbah ['qQs_Gba]
Q   ɒ &#x252; open back rounded vowel British English lot [lQt]
r   r r alveolar trill Spanish perro ['per:o]
r`   ɽ &#x27D; retroflex flap American English hurting ['h3`r`IN]
r`r)   ɽ͡r &#x27D;&#x361;r retroflex trill  
r\   ɹ &#x279; alveolar approximant English red [r\Ed]
r\`   ɻ &#x27B; retroflex approximant Malayalam വഴി ['v6r\`i]
R   ʁ &#x281; voiced uvular fricative German rein [RaIn]
R\   ʀ &#x280; uvular trill French roi [R\wa]
s   s s voiceless alveolar fricative English seem [si:m], French session [se'sjO~]
s`   ʂ &#x282; voiceless retroflex fricative Swedish mars [mas`]
s\   ɕ &#x255; voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative Polish swierszcz [s\v;ers`ts`]
s_>   s&#x2BC; alveolar ejective fricative  
S   ʃ &#x283; voiceless postalveolar fricative English ship [SIp]
t   t t voiceless alveolar plosive English stew [stju:], French raté [Ra'te], Spanish tuyo ['tujo]
ts)   t͡s
or ʦ
t&#x361;s
  or &#x2A6;
voiceless alveolar affricate Japanese tsunami [ts)Mnam;i]
ts\)   t͡ɕ
or ʨ
t&#x361;&#x255;
  or &#x2A8;
voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate  
tK)   t͡ɬ t&#x361;&#x26C; voiceless alveolar lateral affricate Nahuatl Nahuatl ['na:.watK)]
tS)   t͡ʃ
or ʧ
t&#x361;&#x283;
  or &#x2A7;
voiceless postalveolar affricate English chat [tS)&t]
t`   ʈ &#x288; voiceless retroflex plosive Swedish mört [m2t`]
t_>   p&#x2BC; alveolar ejective plosive  
T   θ &#x3B8; voiceless dental fricative English thin [TIn]
u   u u close back rounded vowel English boom [bu:m], Spanish su [su]
u\ } ʉ &#x289; close central rounded vowel Swedish sju [{x\u\:]; AuE/NZE boot [bu\:t]
U   ʊ &#x28A; near-close near-back rounded vowel English foot [fUt]
U\   ʊ¨ &#x28A;&#xA8; Near-close central rounded vowel  
v   v v voiced labiodental fricative English vest [vEst], French voix [vwa]
v\ (or P)   see P
v_X   v&#x306; labiodental flap Sika v̆oːtɛr [v_Xo:tEr]
v_X_+   v̟̆ v&#x31F;&#x306; bilabial flap  
V   ʌ &#x28C; open-mid back unrounded vowel RP English strut [str\Vt]
w   w w labial-velar approximant English west [wEst], French oui [wi]
W   ʍ &#x28D; voiceless labial-velar fricative Scots when [WEn]
x   x x voiceless velar fricative Scots loch [lQx]; German Loch, Dach; Spanish caja, gestión
x\   ɧ &#x267; voiceless palatal-velar fricative Swedish sjal [x\A:l]
X   χ &#x3C7; voiceless uvular fricative Klallam sχaʔqʷaʔ [sXa?q_wa?]
X\   ħ &#x127; voiceless pharyngeal fricative Arabic <ح>ha’ [X\A:]
y   y y close front rounded vowel French tu [ty] German über ['y:b6]
Y   ʏ &#x28F; near-close near-front rounded vowel German hübsch [hYpS]
z   z z voiced alveolar fricative English zoo [zu:], French azote [a'zOt]
z`   ʐ &#x290; voiced retroflex fricative Mandarin Chinese rang [z`aN]
z\   ʑ &#x291; voiced alveolo-palatal fricative Polish zrebak ['z\rEbak]
Z   ʒ &#x292; voiced postalveolar fricative English vision ['vIZ@n]
1 (or i\) 1 (only) see i\
2   ø &#xF8; close-mid front rounded vowel Danish købe ['k2:b@], French deux [d2]
3   ɜ &#x25C; open-mid central unrounded vowel English nurse [n3:s] (RP) or [n3`s] (Gen.Am.)
3\   ɞ &#x25E; open-mid central rounded vowel Irish tomhail [t3\:l;]
4   ɾ &#x27E; alveolar flap Spanish pero ['pe4o], American English better ['bE4@`]
5   ɫ &#x26B; velarized alveolar lateral approximant; also see _e English milk [mI5k]
6   ɐ &#x250; near-open central vowel German besser ['bEs6], Australian English mud [m6d]
7   ɤ &#x264; close-mid back unrounded vowel Estonian kõik [k7ik], Vietnamese mo [m7_M]
8   ɵ &#x275; close-mid central rounded vowel Swedish buss [b8s]
9   œ &#x153; open-mid front rounded vowel French neuf [n9f], Danish drømme [dR9m@]
!\   ! ! postalveolar click  
& { æ &#xE6; near-open front unrounded vowel English trap [tr\&p]
&\ & ɶ &#x276; open front rounded vowel Swedish skörd [x\&\d`]
<\   ʢ &#x2A2; voiced epiglottal fricative  
=\   ǂ &#x1C2; palatal click  
>\   ʡ &#x2A1; epiglottal plosive  
>\:   Я &#x42F; epiglottal trill  
>\_X   ʡ̯ &#x2A1;&#x32F; epiglottal flap  
?   ʔ &#x294; glottal stop Danish stød [sd2?], Cockney English bottle ['bQ?l]
?\   ʕ &#x295; voiced pharyngeal fricative Arabic ع (`ayn) [?\Ajn]
@   Ə &#x18F; schwa English arena [@'r\i:n@]
@\   ɘ &#x258; close-mid central unrounded vowel Paici kɘ̄ɾɘ [k@\_M4@\_M]
|\   ǀ &#x1C0; dental click  
|\|\   ǁ &#x1C1; alveolar lateral click  

Diacritics and suprasegmentals[edit]

These notations represent diacritics and other information (suprasegmentals). They are ordered by primary character — which is often the first character in the sequence, but is the second character if the sequence begins with an underscore (such as _F) or is an angle-bracketed letter (such as <F>). Letters are listed first, then digits, then non-alphanumerics.

CXS X-SAMPA
(if different)
IPA IPA web markup
(using only ASCII)
Description
(linked to Wikipedia article, if any)
Examples
_a    ̺ &#x33A; apical  
_A    ̘ &#x318; advanced tongue root  
_B    ̏ (or ˩) &#x30F; (or &#x2E9;) extra low tone  
_B_L   ˩˧ &#x2E9&#x2E7; low rising tone  
_c    ̜ &#x31C; less rounded  
_d    ̪ &#x32A; dental  
_e    ̴ &#x334; velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5  
<F>   &#x2198; global fall  
_F    ̂ &#x302; falling tone  
_G   ˠ &#x2E0; velarized  
_h   ʰ &#x2B0; aspirated  
_H    ́ (or ˦) &#x301; (or &#x2E6;) high tone  
_H_T   ˧˥ &#x2E7;&#x2E5; high rising tone  
_j (or ;)   see ;
_k    ̰ &#x330; creaky voice  
_l   ˡ &#x2E1; lateral release  
_L    ̀ (or ˨) &#x300; (or &#x2E8;) low tone  
_m    ̻ &#x33B; laminal  
_M    ̄ (or ˧) &#x304; (or &#x2E7;) mid tone  
_n   &#x207F; nasal release  
_N    ̼ &#x33C; linguolabial  
_o    ̞ &#x31E; lowered  
_O    ̹ &#x339; more rounded  
_q    ̙ &#x319; retracted tongue root  
<R>   &#x2197; global rise  
_r   ̝ &#x31D; raised  
_R   ˇ &#x2C7; rising tone  
_R_F   ˧˥˧ &#x2E7;&#x2E5;&#x2E7; rising falling tone  
_t    ̤ &#x324; breathy voice  
_T    ̋ (or ˥) &#x30B; (or &#x2E5;) extra high tone  
_v    ̭ &#x32D; voiced  
_w   ʷ &#x2B7; labialized  
_x    ̽ &#x33D; mid-centralized  
_X    ̆ &#x306; extra-short  
_0    ̥ &#x325; voiceless  
_\   ˆ &#x2C6; falling tone  
!   &#x2193; downstep  
" (or ') " (only) see '
_"    ̈ &#x308; centralized  
% (or ,) % (only) see ,
' (or ") " ˈ &#x2C8; primary stress  
*       undefined escape character, SAMPA's "conjunctor"  
_+    ̟ &#x31F; advanced  
, (or %) % ˌ &#x2CC; secondary stress  
-       separator  
-\   &#x203F; linking mark  
_-    ̠ &#x320; retracted  
.   . . syllable break  
/       indeterminacy in French vowels  
:   ː &#x2D0; long  
:\   ˑ &#x2D1; half long Estonian differentiates three vowel lengths
; (or _j) ' (or _j) ʲ &#x2B2; palatalized  
<       begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA)  
_<       implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives)  
= (or _=)    ̩ &#x329; syllabic  
>       end nonsegmental notation  
_>   ʼ &#x2BC; ejective  
_?\   ˤ &#x2E4; pharyngealized  
^   &#x2191; upstep  
_^    ̯ &#x32F; non-syllabic  
`   ˞ &#x2DE; rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t` for an example)  
|   | &#x7C; minor (foot) group  
||   &#x2016; major (intonation) group  
_}    ̚ &#x31A; no audible release  
~ (or _~)    ̃ &#x303; nasalization  

Comparison between CXS and IPA[edit]

IPA symbols that are ordinary lower-case letters are the same in CXS as in the IPA, and vice versa.

CXS uses a following backslash as an escape character to create a new symbol. Often the new symbol is similar to the old in some way or other, as with the velar nasal N and uvular nasal N\, but sometimes they have nothing to do with each other, as with the open-mid back rounded vowel O versus the bilabial click O\.

IPA consonant symbols that are ordinary (small) upper-case letters are named in CXS by adding a backslash to the IPA symbol. IPA vowel symbols of this type (ordinary upper-case letters) are the same in CXS as in the IPA (no backslash added).

Consonants[edit]

Consonants (pulmonic)
Place of articulation → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical (none)
Manner of articulation ↓ Bi­la­bial La­bio-
den­tal
Den­tal Al­veo­lar Post-
al­veo­lar
Re­tro-
flex
Pa­la­tal Ve­lar Uvu­lar Pha­ryn-
geal
Epi-
glot­tal
Glot­tal
Nasal     m
      m
    F
      ɱ
    n
     n
      n`
     ɳ
    J
     ɲ
    N
     ŋ
    N\
   ɴ
 
Plosive p  b
p  b
p_d  b_d
  
t  d
t  d
t`  d`
ʈ  ɖ
  c  J\
c  ɟ
k  g
k  ɡ
q  G\
q  ɢ  
  >\
ʡ
?
ʔ
 
Fricative p\  B  
ɸ  β
f  v
f  v
T  D
θ  ð
s  z
s  z
S  Z
ʃ  ʒ
s`  z`
ʂ  ʐ
  C  j\
ç  ʝ
x  G
x  ɣ
X
χ
R
ʁ
X\
ħ
?\
ʕ
H\
ʜ
<\
ʢ
h  h\
h  ɦ  
Approx­imant         B_o
    β̞
    P
    ʋ
      r\
    ɹ
    r\`
    ɻ
    j
    j
      M\
      ɰ
     
Trill       B\
    ʙ
      r
    r
  r`r)
    ɽ͡r
        R\
  ʀ
        >\:
    Я
 
Tap or Flap         v_X_+
     v̟̆
        v_X
     
    4
    ɾ
      r`
    ɽ
           >\_X
    ʡ̯
 
Lateral Fricative  K  K\
ɬ  ɮ
K`      
ɬ̢     
L_0_r          
ʎ̥˔      
L\_0_r          
ʟ̝̊    
   
Lateral Approx­imant     l
    l
      l`
    ɭ
    L
      ʎ
      L\
    ʟ
   
Lateral Flap         l\
    ɺ
    l\`
    ɺ̢
         L_X
      ʎ̯
          L\_X
    ʟ̆
   

Alternative notation v\ can be used for P (the labiodental approximant).

Coarticulated
W
ʍ
Voiceless labialized velar approximant
w
w
Voiced labialized velar approximant
H
ɥ
Voiced labialized palatal approximant
s\
ɕ
Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
z\
ʑ
Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
x\
ɧ
Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative
Affricates and double articulation
ts
t͡s
voiceless alveolar affricate
dz
d͡z
voiced alveolar affricate
tS
t͡ʃ
voiceless postalveolar affricate
dZ
d͡ʒ
voiced postalveolar affricate
ts\
t͡ɕ
voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
dz\
d͡ʑ
voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
tK
t͡ɬ
voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
kp
k͡p
voiceless labial-velar plosive
gb
ɡ͡b
voiced labial-velar plosive
Nm
ŋ͡m
labial-velar nasal stop

The joining of the two sounds in an affricate or double articulation can be notated explicitly by following the second with a right paren, as in /tS)/.

Consonants (non-pulmonic)
Clicks Implosives Ejectives
O\
ʘ
Bilabial b_<
ɓ
Bilabial _>
ʼ   
For example:
|\
ǀ
Laminal alveolar ("dental") d_<
ɗ
Alveolar p_>
Bilabial
!\
!
Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") J\_<
ʄ
Palatal t_>
Alveolar
=\
ǂ
Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") g_<
ɠ
Velar k_>
Velar
|\|\
ǁ
Lateral coronal ("lateral") G\_<
ʛ
Uvular s_>
Alveolar fricative

Vowels[edit]

At each point in the chart, the vowel to the left of the "•" is unrounded, the vowel to the right is rounded. The symbols for the mid central and near-open central vowels do not distinguish between rounded and unrounded forms.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.png
i • y
i    y
i\ • u\
Ɨ     ʉ
M • u
ɯ   u
I • Y
ɪ   ʏ
I\ • U\
ɪ¨    ʊ¨
• U
   ʊ
e • 2
e   ø
@\ • 8
 ɘ     ɵ
7 • o
ɤ   o
E • 9
 ɛ   œ
3 • 3\
ɜ    ɞ
V • O
ʌ   ɔ
& •
æ  
a • &\
a    ɶ
A • Q
ɑ   ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Diacritics and suprasegmentals[edit]

Syllabicity diacritics
=
 ̩
Syllabic _^
 ̯
Non-syllabic
Consonant-release diacritics
_h
 ʰ
Aspirated _}
 ̚
No audible release
_n
 ⁿ
Nasal release _l
 ˡ
Lateral release
Phonation diacritics
_0
 ̥
Voiceless _v
 ̭
Voiced
_t
 ̤
Breathy voiced _k
 ̰
Creaky voiced
Articulation diacritics
_d
 ̪
Dental _N
 ̼
Linguolabial
_a
 ̺
Apical _m
 ̻
Laminal
_+
 ̟
Advanced _-
 ̠
Retracted
_"
 ̈
Centralized _x
 ̽
Mid-centralized
_r
 ̝
Raised _o
 ̞
Lowered
Co-articulation diacritics
_O
 ̹
More rounded _c
 ̜
Less rounded
_w
 ʷ
Labialized or labio-velarized ;
 ʲ
Palatalized
_G
 ˠ
Velarized _?\
 ˤ
Pharyngealized
_e
 ̴
Velarized or pharyngealized
_A
 ̘
Advanced tongue root _q
 ̙
Retracted tongue root
~
 ̃
Nasalized
`
 ˞
Retroflex (consonants), rhotacized (vowels)

Some conlangers use _j for palatalization instead of ;.

Length, stress, and rhythm
'
 ˈ
Primary stress (symbol goes
before stressed syllable)
,
 ˌ
Secondary stress (symbol goes
before stressed syllable)
:
 ː
Long (long vowel or
geminate consonant)
:\
 ˑ
Half-long
_X
 ̆
Extra-short
.
 .
Syllable break -\
 ‿
Linking (absence of a break)
Intonation (prosody)
|
 |
Minor (foot) break ||
 ‖
Major (intonation) break
<R>
 ↗
Global rise <F>
 ↘
Global fall
Tone diacritics and tone letters
_T
 ̋ (or ˥)
Extra high tone ^
 ↑
Upstep
_H
 ́ (or ˦)
High tone _R
 ˇ
Rising tone
_M
 ̄ (or ˧)
Mid tone
_L
 ̀ (or ˨)
Low tone _F
 ̂
Falling tone
_B
 ̏ (or ˩)
Extra low / bottom !
 ↓
Downstep

Some conlangers use " for primary stress and % for secondary stress, instead of ' and ,.


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