CCNA certification is a cornerstone of many IT careers. This book is a comprehensive study guide for the CCNA Intro, CCNA ICND and CCNA Certification exams. Its target audience is a high school student, a first year community college or any adult wanting to understand networking better.
About This Book
This book is a free, living book on CCNA Certification that keeps up with the changes in the technology and certification. As a result, it's written as an in-progress WikiBooks collaboration. Anyone is free to add material or fix mistakes. To edit a page simply click the "edit this page" tab at the top. If you find that any of the material is unclear, please click the "discussion" tab at the top of the page and leave a note on that page indicating what is unclear.
You should be aware that, while this book's contributors will attempt to ensure the accuracy of all facts, there may be mistakes present.
About the Material
The CCNA certification test can be taken in one of two ways:
- You can take the CCNA INTRO Exam (640-822) and the CCNA ICND (640-816)
- You can take the combined CCNA Exam (640-801)
- The new combined CCNA Exam is the 640-802 and reduces WAN topics in favor of wireless technology.
The CCNA INTRO Exam tests for a shallow understanding of a broad range of basic networking concepts. The CCNA ICND Exam tests for a deeper knowledge of particular areas of networking. The combined CCNA tests all the material covered in the INTRO and ICND Exams. (For information about the exam and your options, see Appendix A.)
The contents of this book are split into two sections (INTRO and ICND) so those who are taking the individual tests can study for them separately. For those who are taking the combined CCNA Exam, study both sections fully.
CCNA Exam Topics
The posted exam topics for all of CCNA certification exams are guidelines. Cisco makes the effort to keep the exam questions within the confines of the stated exam objectives.
ICND1 Exam Topics
Below isted is the exam topics for the ICND1 exam,Although Cisco’s posted exam topics are not numbered, Cisco Press numbers the exam topics for easier reference. The exam topics are as listed on the Cisco website (www.cisco.com/go/ccna). If Cisco does happen to add exam topics at a later date, go to www.ciscopress.com and download additional information about those newly added topics.
ICND1 Exam Topics
|Describe the operation of data networks|
|1||Describe the purpose and functions of various network devices|
|2||Select the components required to meet a given network specification|
|3||Use the OSI and TCP/IP models and their associated protocols to explain how data flows in a network|
|4||Describe common networking applications including web applications|
|5||Describe the purpose and basic operation of the protocol in the OSI and TCP model|
|6||Describe the impact of applications (Voice oer IP and Video over IP) on a network|
|7||Interpret network diagrams|
|8||Determine the path between two host across a network|
|9||Describe the components required for network and Internet communications|
|10||Identify and correct common network problems at Layers 1,2,3 and 7 using a layered model approach|
|11||Differentiate between LAN/WAN operation and features|
|Implement a small switched network|
|12||Select the appropriate media, cable, ports, and connectors to connect switches to other network devices and hosts|
|13||Explain the technology and media access control method for Ethernet technologies|
|14||Explain the network segmentation and basic traffic management concepts|
|15||Explain the operation of Cisco switches and basic switching concepts|
|16||Perform, Save, and verify initial switch configuration tasks including remote access management|
|17||Verify network status and switch operation using basic utilities (including ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, and IP config) show and Debug commands|
|18||Implement and verify basic security for a switch (port security, deactivate ports)|
|19||Identify, prescribe, and resolve common switched network media issues, configuration issues, auto negotiation, and switch hardware failures|
|Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP services to meet network requirements for a small branch office|
|20||Describe the need and role of addressing in a network|
|21||Create and apply an addressing scheme to a network|
|22||Assign and verify valid IP addresses to hosts, servers, and networking devices in a LAN environment|
|23||Explain the basic uses and operation of NAT in a small network connecting to one ISP|
|24||Describe and verify DNS operation|
|25||Describe the operation and benefits of using private and public IP addressing|
|26||Enable NAT for a small network with a single ISP and connection using SDM and verify operation using CLI and ping|
|27||Configure, verify, and troubleshoot DHCP and DNS operation on a router (including CLI/SDM)|
|28||Implement static and dynamic addressing services for hosts ina LAN environment|
|29||Identify and correct IP addressing issues|
|30||Describe basic routing concepts (including packet forwarding, router lookup process)|
|31||Describe the operation of Cisco routers (including router bootup process, POST, and router components)|
|32||Select the appropriate media, cables, ports, and connectors to connect routers to other network devices and hosts|
|33||Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RIPv2|
|34||Access and utilize the router CLI to set basic parameters|
|35||Connect, configure, and verify operation status of a device interface|
|36||Verify device configuration and network connectivity using ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, or other utilities|
|37||Perform and verify routing configuration tasks for a static or default route given specific routing requirements|
|38||Manage IOS configuration files (including save, edit, upgrade, and restore)|
|39||Manage Cisco IOS|
|40||Implement password and physical security|
|41||Verify network status and router operation using utilities (including ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, and ipconfig), show and debug commands|
|42||Describe standards associated with wireless media (including IEEE, WiFi, Alliance, and ITU/FCC)|
|43||Identify and describe the purpose od the components in a small wireless network. (including SSID, BSS, and ESS)|
|44||Identify the basic parameters to configure on a wireless network to ensure that devices connect to the correct access point|
|45||Compare and contrast wireless security features and capabilities of WPA security (including open, WEP, and WPA-1/2)|
|46||Identify common issues with implementing wireless networks|
|Identify security threats to a network and describe general methods to migrate those threats|
|47||Explain today's increasing network security threats and the need to implement a comprehensive security policy to mitigate the treaths|
|48||Explain general methods to mitigate common security threats to network devices, hosts, and applications|
|49||Describe the functions of common security appliances and applications|
|50||Describe security recommended practices including initial steps to secure network devices|
|Implement and verify WAN links|
|51||Describe different methods for connecting to a WAN|
|52||Configure and verify a basic WAN serial connection|
ICND2 Exam Topics
|Configure, Verify and Troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch communications|
|101||Describe enhanced switching technologies (including VTP,RSTP, VLAN, PVSTP, and 802.1q)|
|102||Describe how VLANs create logically separate networks and the need for routing between them|
|103||Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VLANs|
|104||Configure, verify, and troubleshoot trunking on Cisco switches|
|105||Configure, verify, and troubleshoot interVLAN routing|
|106||COnfigure, verify, and troubleshoot VTP|
|107||Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RSTP operation|
|108||Interpret the output of various show and debug commands to verify the operation status of a Cisco switched network|
|109||Implement basic switch security (including port security, unassigned ports, trunk access, etc)|
|Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP services to meet network requirements in a medium-sized enterprise branch office network|
|110||Calculate and apply a VLSM IP addressing design to a network|
|111||Determine the appropriate classless addressing scheme using VLSM and summarization to satisfy addressing requirements in a LAN/WAN environment|
|112||Describe the technological requirement for running IPv6 (including protocols, Dual stack, tunneling, etc)|
|113||Describe IPv6 address|
|114||Identify and correct common problems associated with IP addressing and host configurations|
|Configure and trouble shoot basic operation and routing on Cisco devices|
|115||Compare and contrast methods of routing and routing protocols|
|116||Configure, verify, and troubleshoot OSPF|
|117||Configure, verify and troubleshoot EIGRP|
|118||Verify configuration and connectivity using ping, traceroute, and telnet or SSH|
|119||Troubleshoot routing implementation issues|
|120||Verify router hardware and software operating using show and debug commands|
|121||Implement basic router security|
|Implement, verify, and troubleshoot NAT and ACLs in a medium-size enterprise branch office network|
|122||Describe the purpose and type of access control lists|
|123||Configure and apply access control lists based on network filtering requirements|
|124||Configure and apply an access control list to limit telnet and SSH access to the router|
|125||Verify and monitor ACL's in a network environment|
|126||Troubleshoot ACL implementation issues|
|127||Explain the basic operation of NAT|
|128||Configure Network Address Translate for a given network requirements using CLI|
|129||Troubleshoot NAT implementation issues|
|Implementation and verify WAN links|
|130||Configure and verify frame relay on Cisco routers|
|131||Troubleshoot WAN implementation issues|
|132||Describe VPN technology (including importance, benefits, role, impact, and components)|
|133||Configure and verify the PPP connection between Cisco routers|
Perspectives on Networking
Ethernet networks use cards inside each computers. These cards have unique numeric addresses. Ethernet cables connect PCs to ethernet hubs,Hubs on the other hand repeats every signal received out on all its available ports. Cabling is typically run in a star configuration.
The following are Basic Terminology in the Networking world
- Client/Server Networking: The term client/server refers to a model utilizing networked client and server computers and application software. Web, FTP, email, DNS and many other database applications are client-server systems.
- Peer-to-Peer Networking: Peer to peer networks share responsibility for processing data among all of the connected devices. Peer-to-peer networking (also known simply as peer networking) differs from client-server networking in several respects.
- Network Name: A network name is a string that computing devices use to identify a specific computer network. Network names are typically different from names of individual computers or the addresses computers use to identify each other.
- Network Performance Measured: The performance or "speed" of a computer network is normally measured in units of bits per second (bps). This quantity can represent either an actual data rate or a theoretical limit to available network bandwidth. The related units of Kbps, Mbps, Gbps represent increasingly larger multiples of bps.
- WWW: The term "WWW" refers to the open development phase of the Internet in the 1990s. The WWW comprises a global network of Web sites accessible on the Internet.
- URL: URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) identify by name Web servers and individual Web pages stored on those servers, anywhere on the Internet.
- URI: A URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) names both local and remote Internet resources similar to URLs.