Workbook Canada - Citizenship Test

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Section I: Questions about Canada[edit]

Practice Citizenship Test Canada

Aboriginal Peoples[edit]

1. Who are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada?

  The first inhabitants in Canada (The first people to live in Canada)


2. What are the three main groups of Aboriginal peoples?

  First Nations, Inuit, Métis


3. From whom are the Métis descended?

  Early French and English (fur) traders married First Nations women. 
  The descendants of those intermarried couples are called the Métis people. 


4. Which group of Aboriginal peoples make up more than half the population of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut?

  Inuit   (even though they also live in the NWT: Dene, Metis <- that is not the answer)


5. Why are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada working toward self-government?

  They are trying to regain control over decisions that affect their lives
  (The wrong answer was: To preserve their unique cultures and languages)


6. Which of the following statements about residential schools is NOT true?

  The schools were welcomed by the Aboriginal people


7. Who have major responsibilities on First Nation reserves?

  Band Chiefs and Councillors

History [edit]

1. Where did the first European settlers in Canada come from?

  France


2. Why did the early explorers first come to Atlantic Canada?

  To fish and trade with Aboriginal peoples


3. What three industries helped the early settlers build communities in the Atlantic region?

  Farming, fishing, shipbuilding


4. Who were the United Empire Loyalists?

  Settlers who came to Canada from the United States during the American Revolution, 
  Loyal to Great Britain & the British Crown 


5. When did settlers from France first establish communities on the St. Lawrence River?

  Early 1600s 


6. Which trade spread across Canada, making it important to the economy for over 300 years?

  Fur trade


7. What form of transportation did Aboriginal peoples and fur traders use to create trading networks in North America?

  Waterways


8. What important trade did the Hudson’s Bay Company control?

  Fur trade


9. What did the government do to make immigration to Western Canada much easier?

  Built a railway across the Prairies to the Pacific Coast


10. Who are the Acadians?

  The descendants of French colonists 
  who began settling in what are now the Maritime provinces in 1604 
  (also called Atlantic colonies)


Trivia:

Today, the term Acadia is used to refer to regions of North America that are historically

associated with the lands, descendants, and/or culture of the former French region.

It particularly refers to regions of The Maritimes with French roots, language, and culture,

primarily in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Magdalen Islands and Prince Edward Island, as well as in Maine.

It can also be used to refer to the Acadian diaspora in southern Louisiana,

a region also referred to as Acadiana.

In the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture in any of these regions.


People living in Acadia, and sometimes former residents and their descendants,

are called Acadians, also later known as Cajuns after resettlement in Louisiana.


In French: Acadie was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that

included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River


The actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to

lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels.

Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies which became

Canadian provinces and American states.


The population of Acadia included members of the Wabanaki Confederacy and

descendants of emigrants from France (i.e., Acadians). The two communities intermarried,

which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis.

The first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal.


11. Which of the following sentences best describes the War of 1812?

  The USA invaded Canada and was defeated, 
  which ensured that Canada would remain independent of the United States


12. Who was the first leader of a responsible government in Canada in 1849?

  Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine


13. Who was Sir Sam Steele?

  A great frontier hero, Mounted Policeman and soldier of the Queen


14. Which Act granted, for the first time in Canada, legislative assemblies elected by the people?

  The Constitution Act of 1791


Trivia:

The Constitutional Act was an act passed by the British Parliament in London, in 1791,

made the name Canada an official name, but more importantly

changed the structure of government by repealing the Québec Act of 1774*,

dividing the Province of Québec (Remanence of New France) into 2 colonies (2 Canadas - Upper /Lower):

A mostly french-catholic French speaking Lower Canada (today's Province of Québec) in the east,

and the mostly loyalist English speaking Upper Canada in the west (today's Province of Ontario),

granting each entity the chance to form its own representative government for the first time ever,

in its own preferred language and is considered


e.g. granting for the first time ever the chance to form legislative assemblies

elected by the people (for the people) (instead of ones solely appointed by the Queen),

making the very first step towards Canadian Confederation,

later realized in forming the Dominion of Canada in 1867.


Dominion of Canada in 1867 united (NS), (NB), (QC), (ON):


1. Province of Canada (consisting of Upper and Lower Canada, united in 1840

(formerly created by splitting The British Colony of Québec,

what remained of New France's French Canada, into the Upper & Lower Canadas)) splitting it back

into renamed Province of Ontario and the Province of Québec by the Act of Constitution, 1867),


2. New Brunswick and 3. Nova Scotia.



British North American colonies in 1700s were the Atlantic colonies

(also called Maritimes: Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick)

and the 2 Canadas (Upper /Lower) were known collectively as British North America in 1700s.


The first representative assembly was elected instead of appointed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1758.

Nova Scotia at the time was incorporating the territories of both nowadays Nova Scotia and today New Brunswick.

Then the elected representatives were elected in Prince Edward Island followed in 1773,

Québec Act of 1774*, one of the constitutional foundations of Canada:


The Québec Act restored French civil law, while maintaining British criminal law.

The British Parliament passed the Québec Act of 1774, allowing religious freedom for Catholics

and permitted them to hold public office, a practice not then allowed in Britain.


The Quebec Act, 1974 provided the people of Quebec their first Charter of Rights and

paved the way to later official recognition of the French language and French culture.

The act also allowed Canadiens to maintain French civil law and sanctioned freedom of religion,

allowing the Roman Catholic Church to remain, one of the first cases in history of

state-sanctioned freedom of religious practice.

In 1775, General George Washington decided to attempt an invasion of Canada by

the American Continental Army to wrest Quebec and the St. Lawrence River from the British.

The invasion failed when British reinforcements came down the St. Lawrence in May 1776

and the Battle of Trois-Rivières (Battle of 3 Rivers) turned into a disaster for the Americans.


Province of New Brunswick was originally a territory included in the area that made up Nova Scotia.

It was later separated and established as a province of New Brunswick in 1784.


Then the elected representatives were elected in New Brunswick in 1785,

and finally in Ontario and in Québec in 1791.

Those were the beginnings of the democracy in Canada.


Rigid colonial rules and seemingly slow progress toward full democracy sparked rebellions of 1837–1838

in Toronto and Monteral, were extinguished in blood.

After the rebellions, Lord Durham was asked to undertake a study and

prepare a report on the matter and to offer a solution for the British Parliament to assess.

Following Durham's report, the British government merged the two colonial provinces

into a Province of Canada with the Act of Union of 1840.

The two colonies remained distinct in administration, election, and law.

The Province of Canada was formed in 1840 uniting Upper and Lower Canada.

First to attain full responsible government was Nova Scotia in 1847/1848.

In 1848/1849 the governor of United Canada, Lord Elgin, introduced the system called responsible government.

In 1848, Baldwin and LaFontaine, allies and leaders of the Reformist party,

were asked by Lord Elgin to form an administration together under the new policy of responsible government.

The French language subsequently regained legal status in the Legislature.


In 1867, with the British North America Act, 1867, also called the Constitution Act, 1867,

the Dominion of Canada united Nova Scotia, New Brunswick with Province of Canada, but the

Province of Canada was split back to two provinces, this time under new names of Ontario and Québec.

Dominion of Canada become a self-governing dominion with two levels of government: federal & provincial.

It still lacked municipal /local level of government.


Expansion of the Dominion by Provinces /Territories

(Advice: Sort the table bellow by the column 'Year of joining the Confederation' )

Sorted Geographically Canadian Provinces Year of joining the Confederation
___________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________________
01. Newfoundland & Labrador 1949
02. Prince Edward Island 1873
03. Nova Scotia 1867
04. New Brunswick 1867
05. Quebec 1867
06. Ontario 1867
07. Manitoba 1870
08. Saskatchewan 1905
09. Alberta 1905
10. British Columbia 1871


Sorted Geographically Canadian Territories Year of joining the Confederation
___________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________________
01. Yukon Territory 1898
02. Northwest Territories 1870
03. Nunavut 1999


1880 — Transfer of the Arctic Islands to N.W.T.


Expansion of the Dominion:

1867Ontario (ON), Québec, (QC), Nova Scotia (NS), New Brunswick (NB);


Québec is an Algonquin word for “narrow passage” or “strait”,

first used to describe the narrowing of the St. Lawrence River near what is now the City of Québec.

Then the fist fortified Fortress in the New world was named Québec.

Then part of the French Canada, that was a part of the New France, was called Québec.

Then nowadays Ontario and todays Québec and what remained of New France was called Québec.

The word "Canada" in 1600s was referred to the territory along the Saint Lawrence River,

then known as the Canada river, from Grosse Island in the east to a point between Quebec

and Three Rivers, Trois-Rivières,

although this territory had greatly expanded by 1600.

Word Canada came from word Huron-Iroquois word “kanata,” meaning “village” or “settlement, mid XVI century.

Then nothing, except for the capital city of Lower Canada

(land downstream from the St. Lawrence River) was called Québec,

Then Québec ceased to be a capital, by abolishing Lower Canada in favor of creation of

The Province of Canada, in reality just a new name for the old French Canada (Québec),

then only a small portion of what once was called Québec, was again renamed to Québec,

while mostly English speaking Loyalist settlers got the part of the territory

formerly called Upper Canada, nowadays Ontario.

(Like a dance, steps back - step forward - step on the side).


The earliest recording of the name Ontario was in 1641 where it was used to describe

a mass of land on the north shore of the easternmost part of the Great Lakes.

Word Ontario came from the Iroquois word which translates into “sparkling” water.


In 1759, the British aimed directly at the heart of New France.

General James Wolfe led British troops to the fortress of Québec (city).

Marquis Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, held the walled city of Québec

under Wolfe's siege for more than two months, exchanging cannon fire over the river,

but neither side could break the siege. Wolfe moved to force a battle,

the British troops crossed close to Cap-Rouge, west of the city and

successfully climbed the steep Cape Diamond undetected get into the Québec citadel.

Marquis Montcalm, did not use the protection of the fortress, 9 meter high city walls,

decided to lead troops in a bloody battle on the the Plains of Abraham, an open terrain,

both leaders died in battle, but the British won. Marquis Montcalm lived 4h after being shoot,

realizing the battle is lost. As the main city and capital, fell in British hands,

it was just the matter of time when inner cities of Trois-Rivières and Montreal

will meet the same fate. Marquis Pierre de Rigaud, last Royal governor of New France,

surrendered Montreal, in 1760, after a lost battle, exactly one year after the fall of Québec.

Land called Québec become a British colony, The Province of Québec (todays Ontario, Québec, part of USA).


The British settlers had originally called the land that covered nowadays Québec, Ontario,

and part of the United States as Québec. It wasn’t until the British enacted

the Constitutional Act in 1791 that Ontario would be known as the land upstream

from the St. Lawrence River, or Upper Canada, and Québec considered the

land downstream from the St. Lawrence River, known as Lower Canada.


1870Northwest Territories (NT);

(NT - aka N.W.T. - that at that time included territories of today Saskatchewan, Alberta, Yukon,

Nunavut and a part that has been redefined as a new Canadian Province of Manitoba and excluded from N.W.T.)

Prior to 1870, it was known as the North-Western Territory. The name has always been

just a description of the location of the territory.


1870Manitoba (MB) (the first province created from part of NWT, with this act of joining the Dominion of Canada); Name of the province came from the name of the Manitoba Lake, which is a derivation of the term that describes (the Great) Spirit and the strange sound of waves crashing against rocks near the narrows of the lake Manitoba in a term broadly translated as “the narrows of the Great Spirit”.


1871British Columbia (BC) (completing the idea from Atlantic, Arctic, to Pacific - Sea-to-Sea-to-Sea);

BC got it's name “Columbia”, after the Columbia River.

The central region was given the name of “New Caledonia” by explorer Simon Fraser.

To avoid confusion with Colombia in South America and the island of New Caledonia in the Pacific Ocean,

Queen Victoria named the area British Columbia when it became a colony in 1858.


1873Prince Edward Island (PE) (completing the joining of Maritime colonies /provinces to the Dominion); The province’s earliest documented name was given by the native Mi’kmaq, and meant “cradled in the waves”.

French /AcadiansIt later named it Saint-Jean island.

When it became British in 1763, it was renamed St. John’s Island.

In 1799 the English declared that the island would be renamed to Prince Edward Island

in honour of the Prince Edward, the Duke of Kent and Strathearn.


1880 — Transfer of the Arctic Islands to N.W.T.;


In 1882 Alberta was established as a provisional district of the Northwest Territories,

without a name, but got a name in 1905 when Alberta officially became a province,

after Queen Victoria’s fourth daughter, Princess Louise Caroline Alberta.


In 1896, Wilfrid Laurier became the first French Canadian to become Prime Minister of Canada.


1898Yukon was Yukon Territory (YT) (created from part of NWT, with this act of joining the Dominion of Canada),

From the “Great river" for the Yukon River in Inuit. It was named “Yukon Territory” in 1898,

but became just “Yukon” under the Yukon Act of 2003.


1905Alberta, Saskatchewan (AB), (SK) - created from part of NWT with this act of joining the Dominion of Canada);

Saskatchewan is the middle part of the Cree word describing “swift-flowing river”;

in a wide stroke translation it could be said it means Flow.


1949Newfoundland (& Labrador) (NL) (with the Act of Newfoundland & Labrador 1949,

by the British Parliament in London, UK), until then NL operated as an separate British entity /province /colony.

The province was officially renamed Newfoundland & Labrador in December 2001

when an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada.

King Henry VII of England referred to the land discovered by John Cabot in 1497 as the “New Found Launde.”

It’s likely that name Labrador came from an explorer in 1500,

in broad translation farmer, agriculturalist, landowner.


1999Nunavut (NU) (created from part of NT as it's subdivision, with this act of joining the Dominion of Canada).

Nunavut means “our land” in Inuit.


The Statute of Westminster 1931 removed a power of the British Parliament for Canada to legislate for Canada,

but Canada decided to allow the British Parliament to temporarily retain the power

to amend Canada's constitution, on request from the Parliament of Canada.


The British North America No.2 Act of 1949 was passed by the British Parliament,

giving the Parliament of Canada significant constitutional amending powers.



In 1982, with the The Constitution Act of 1982,

the United Kingdom ended its involvement with further amendments to the Canadian constitution.

The procedure for amending the Constitution Act, 1982

thereon will no longer require parliamentary procedure requiring the monarch's Royal Assent

for enacting legislation /to make amendments in the Canadian constitution.


Canada's Constitution Act, 1982 was signed into law by Elizabeth II as Queen of Canada

on April 17, 1982 on Parliament Hill in Ottawa.


Queen Elizabeth's II constitutional powers over Canada were not affected by the Act,

Queen Elizabeth II remains Queen of Canada (monarch of Canada), as well Head of State of Canada.

By this Canada gained complete sovereignty as an independent country,

with it's Head of (responsible) government in Prime Minister,

elected by the people of Canada, usually every 4 years.


The patriation process saw the provinces granted influence in constitutional matters

and resulted in the constitution being amendable by Canada only and according to

the Canadian amending formula, with no role for the United Kingdom.

Hence, patriation is in literature usually associated with the establishment of full sovereignty'.


Canada ceased to be in law and in fact a colony of the United Kingdom

with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, 1931, which established the Crown of Canada

as a separate legal entity from the Crown of the United Kingdom.


The Royal Proclamation that Queen Elizabeth II of Canada signed at the ceremony in Ottawa

in recognition of Patriation even declared in the preamble:

“Whereas it is in accord with the status of Canada as an independent state

that Canadians be able to amend their Constitution in Canada in all respects.”


The Queen of Canada thus recognized that Canada had

already attained the status of independent state before 1982.


Since the Constitution Act, 1982 and the constitution's patriation, the term Dominion has fallen into disuse.

Not being fond of using the term "dominion" in French is one of the reasons why the federal government

avoided the use of the term "dominion" since 1982. Disuse, does not equates to any legal change.

A constitutional amendment would be required to change the name the Dominion of Canada to just Canada.

The Constitution Act, 1982 does not mention and therefore does not remove the title,

and a constitutional amendment is required to remove the title of Dominion from the name of the state.

The government decided to avoid the debate over a constitutional amendment required to remove the title since 1982,

in order to avoid dividing Canadians on an issue that would have no practical affect on lives of Canadians as it is now.

The government changed the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day to lighten the minds.

On paper, Canada legally still remained a dominion after 1982.

Presently, Canada is a constitutional monarchy with the hereditary head of state,

federal state and parliamentary democracy.


The Queen's role as monarch of Canada is separate from her role as the British monarch

or the monarch of any of the other Commonwealth realms.



Trivia bellow, about a related topic is a material not to appear on the test :

Related thought-provoking, kind of interesting topics and questions regards

duality of the Monarch; misunderstanding of the representatives of the Crown:


In a strictly literal sense, the Queen of Canada holds the legal title to 89% of Canada,

b/c 89% of Canada is the “Crown Lands”.


Canada inherited much of its legal tradition from the UK, that evolved for a long time without the concept of a

corporation. In the US, he government is a corporation, a legal person, allowed to own property, enter into contracts,

sue and be sued. In the Commonwealth Realm the government is not a a legal person.

The followed “legal formula” is that the office of Monarch owns all the government property,

the Crown enters into contracts, the Crown can sue or be sued, while the government acts on behalf of the Queen.


It is important to understand that even though the documents says Elizabeth Queen of Canada owns the land,

the land is not Elizabeth’s personal property.

It is owned by Elizabeth on behalf of the people of Canada.


In a practical sense 89% of Canada, being the “Crown Lands” is owned by the Canadian government.

Monarch's name is on the deed but she has no control over it.


The Crown of Canada owns Canadian public lands.

This legal entity is embodied in the Governor General and the Lieutenant Governors of each province.


This is understood a figurehead position, most of the power is held by the legislature.


In Canada there is the term "Crown Land" for public lands.


The Monarch in Right of Canada is the employer of all government officials and staff

(including the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, police officers, and parliamentarians),

the guardian of foster children (Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown land),

buildings and equipment (Crown held property), state owned companies (Crown corporations),

and the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright).


This is all in Monarch position as sovereign, and not as an individual;

all such property is held by the Crown in perpetuity, but

cannot be sold by the sovereign without the proper advice and consent of his or her ministers.


It is described as "belonging to the Queen in Right of Canada"

(in essence it "belongs" to the position of the Monarch, not the Queen herself personally).

In practice it is governed by Federal or Provincial /Territorial jurisdictions.


Crown land makes up about 89% of the land in Canada. (Crown Land - The Canadian Encyclopedia)


Federal crown lands are places like military bases and national parks.

Provincial crown lands are places like provincial parks and

provincial government buildings and historical sites.


The Crown in Right of Canada is a legal entity embodied in Governors and Lieutenants General

who are nominally the Queen's representatives, but are appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister.


They execute a limited ceremonial powers, even though legally, their powers are much wider

then the powers of the Monarch it-self, as a consequence of amendments to the Constitutionally Act of 1867:


I) When in 1892 the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, the highest court in the British Empire,

declared and ruled that in the case of The Liquidators of the Maritime Bank of Canada v The Receiver General of New

Brunswick, that the crown of the provinces was equal to, rather than subordinate, to the federal crown,

no longer would the Lieutenant Governors be agents of the federal government.


II) The second instance which changed Canada’s original vice-regal arrangements

was the Statute of Westminster of 1931

which in effect created a separate crown for the United Kingdom

and each of the six dominions of the Empire,

thus creating legislative equality between all seven parties.

This in effect, restricted the British government from advising the King or Crown in respect to Canadian matters.

Hence forth, the Monarch was only to accept advice from the Canadian Privy Council on Canadian issues.


The repercussions of these cases meant that the ‘crown’ in Canada was actually ‘divided’ into ten crowns;

a federal crown represented in Ottawa by the Governor General and nine provincial crowns represented

by the Lieutenant Governors, and the eleventh to be added when Newfoundland joined confederation in 1949.


The British Parliament carefully separated personal identity from the crown role of the Monarch.

Likewise when the Commonwealth Nations were given independence, the office was split again, once for each new nation.

So, legally and in practice The Queen of Canada is not a person, it's an office, that does not own all that land.


In practice, administration is done by the authority of the Prime Minister's office (or Premier's office)

through the Federal (or Provincial) bureaucracy.


Crown land legally belongs to the Canadian Crown read the Queen of Canada.

When the Crown sells Crown land, it requires the signature of one of her Canadian Ministers,

or their designate, instead of the Monarch's signature or her representatives (Governor General,

the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian Monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II,

office-holder appointed to represent the Monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm,

appointed by the Queen on the advice of her federal prime minister

and/or Lieutenant Governors, viceregal representative in a provincial jurisdiction of the Canadian Monarch

and the Head of State, Queen Elizabeth II, appointed by the Governor General

on the advice of the Prime Minister), to effect the conveyance.


There is a long-standing legal foundation in Canada which endows our vice-regals with wide-ranging and significant political powers. The legal groundwork of which appears throughout The British North America Act, 1867, The Letters Patent, 1947, The Constitution Act, 1982, as well as Commonwealth law and tradition which encompasses the Royal prerogatives. To date, none of the legal powers of Canada’s vice-regals have been repealed; instead they remain firmly entrenched in the country’s constitution. Moreover, due to several events since Confederation it can be said that these powers have not only remained but they have been further entrenched since 1867. It is imperative that Canada’s vice-regals are seen and act as independent figures, rather than as arm of the governing party. Canada’s vice-regals possess a set of powers which exist out side a statement outlining the sovereign’s rights (the Right to be Consulted, the Right to Encourage, and the Right to Warn).


The vice-regal offices were in the beginning created to protect the greater interests of unity while at the same time permit a greater autonomy and self-governance. Thus, the Lieutenant Governors were appointed by and expected to be agents of the Dominion government in Ottawa, while the Governor General was appointed by and expected to be an agent of the Imperial government in London. This arrangement, however, officially changed due to two separate events. The first occur red in 1892 when the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, the highest court in the British Empire, declared as ruled that in the case of The Liquidators of the Maritime Bank of Canada v The Receiver General of New Brunswick, that the crown of the provinces was equal to, rather than subordinate to the federal crown; no longer would the Lieutenant Governors be agents of the federal government.


The second instance which changed Canada’s original vice-regal arrangements

was the Statute of Westminster of 1931 which in effect created a separate crown for the United Kingdom

and each of the six dominions of the Empire, thus creating legislative equality between all seven parties.


This in effect, restricted the British government from advising the King or Crown in respect to Canadian matters.

Hence forth the Monarch was only to accept advice from the Canadian Privy Council on Canadian issues.


The repercussions of these two cases meant that the ‘crown’ in Canada was actually ‘divided’ into ten;

a federal Crown represented in Ottawa by the Governor General and nine provincial Crowns represented

by the Lieutenant Governor, the eleventh to be added when Newfoundland joined confederation in 1949.


It is understood that the broad sweeping powers granted to the vice-regals by the constitution have been

limited by convention. The remaining question is how far convention actually limits their use.


Emergency powers are properly known as the ‘Royal Prerogatives’ or ‘Reserve Powers’; and they include:

1.) The Prerogative to Dismiss and Appoint First Ministers (Federal and Provincial Prime Ministers)

2.) Refusal of the dissolution of parliament, and to

3.) Disallowing or Reserving legislation.


Essentially, should circumstances arise, to disallow or reserve legislation,

also to these eleven so-called ‘ceremonial’ vice-regals have:

4.) The Power to Dismiss their Premier or Prime Minister;

5.) Call for an Election;

6.) Offer the Government to an opposition party or coalition and even

7.) Veto Legislation.


All of which powers do not seem too ‘ceremonial’.


Yet, while it is true that the Royal Prerogatives are rarely used,

this does not preclude their future use, as in 1938,

the Supreme Court ruled “that even though a power has not been used for a long time,

it does not mean that it is no longer legal authority.”


This misconception is contributed by the fact that most people regard

the vice-regal offices as ceremonial and utterly powerless,

to the fault of successive generations of politicians,

of an educational system that has never given the institution due study,

and of past vice-regal incumbents themselves.


Popular belief is that Canada’s Governor General and Lieutenant Governors are not impotent,

but rather endowed with quite substantial legal powers.


While it is true, that for the most part these powers are exercised

upon the advice of the Prime Minister to conduct the daily business of government;

this is not always the case. It must not be forgotten that on occasion,

a vice-regal may reject the advice tendered by their first minister, and act alone.


As previously stated, Canada’s vice-regals retain six royal prerogatives:

the prerogative to dismiss and appoint first ministers,

to disallow or reserve legislation and

to refuse the dissolution of parliament.


Furthermore, the question of acting without advice is never one of legality, but instead,

a question of whether or not the occasion warrants the vice-regal to breach the standard convention

that the crown acts only upon the advice of its first minister.


The vice-regal is the country’s supreme decision maker.

In difficult situations it falls to them to protect the Constitution and Canadian parliamentary democracy.

The vice-regal must protect Canadians against first minister’s attempts at

“testing the limits of responsible government” and from first ministers who make statements such as,

“‘What’s the constitution among friends?’” when asked to justify extraordinary tactics.


It is because of the immense legal potential of the office that it is imperative that

Canada’s vice-regals are seen and act as independent figures, rather than as arm of the

governing party and its first minister. “The governor general, like a physician,

should first of all ‘do no harm.’

This is all very well, but it must not be interpreted to mean ‘do not do anything.’”


To return to the topic of Crown land:

It would probably be more accurate to understand the duality of

personal identity of the Monarch from the crown role of the Monarch

that the natural person of Monarch is owned by the Crown,

than to say that natural person of the Monarch owns the Crown and Crown Land.


Within Canada, Crown Land is a designated area belonging to the Queen in Right of Canada,

the equivalent of an entailed estate that passes with the monarchy and cannot be alienated from it;

thus, per constitutional convention, these lands cannot be unilaterally sold by the monarch,

instead passing on to the next king or queen unless the sovereign is advised otherwise by the ministers of the Crown.

Though the Canadian monarch owns all Crown Land in the country, paralleling the "division" of the Crown

amongst the federal and provincial governments, Crown Land is similarly divided

so that some lands within the province are administered by the provincial Crown,

whereas others are under the federal Crown.


About 89% of Canada's land area (8,886,356 km²) is Crown Land,

which may either be federal (41%) or provincial (48%); the remaining 11% is privately owned.


Most federal Crown land is in the Canadian territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon),

and is administered by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.

As the territories are not sovereign, they do not have a viceroy.


Only 4% of land in the provinces is federally controlled,

largely in the form of National Parks, Indian reserves, or Canadian Forces bases.


In contrast, provinces hold much of their territory as provincial Crown Land,

which may be held as Provincial Parks or wilderness.


Crown Land provides the country and the provinces with the majority of their profits from natural resources,

largely but not exclusively provincial, rented for logging and mineral exploration rights;

revenues flow to the relevant government and may constitute a major income stream, such as in Alberta.

Crown Land may also be rented by individuals wishing to build homes or cottages.



15. Who had played an important part in building the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)?

  Chinese railroad workers


16. What is the “Head Tax”?

  Race-based entry fee charged for Chinese entering Canada


17. Who is General Sir Arthur Currie?

  Canada’s greatest soldier in the First World War.


18. Approximately how many Canadians served in the First World War?

  More than 600,000 


19. What was the Women’s Suffrage Movement?

  The effort by women to achieve the right to vote


20. When is Remembrance Day celebrated?

  November 11th
  The 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month every year 


21. In the 1960s, Québec experienced an era of rapid change. What is this called?

  The Quiet Revolution 


22. Who are the Québecois?

  People of Québec

Confederation/Government [edit]

1. What does Confederation mean?

  Joining of provinces to make a new country


2. What is the Canadian Constitution?

  A system of laws and conventions by which our country governs itself 


3. What year was Confederation?

  1867


4. When did the British North America Act come into effect?

  1867


5. Why is the British North America Act important in Canadian history?

  It made confederation official /legal


6. Which (3) three provinces first formed Confederation?

variation of a question: Which (4) four provinces first formed the Confederation?

  Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Province of Canada
  Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec


7. Which was the last province to join Canada?

  Newfoundland (1949) 


Her Honor Honourable Governor General Adrienne Clarkson proclaimed an amendment to the Constitution,

Official name change of Newfoundland to Newfoundland and Labrador happened in 2001 A.D..

In 1949, when the province joined the confederation the official name was just Newfoundland.

Hence the answer: (just) Newfoundland.


Even though Nunavut is the newest, largest, and northernmost Territory of Canada

it is created /cut out of NWT by redefining it's borders, in 1999, it was a subdivision

of Northwest Territories - it is a Territory, it is NOT a Province.

For that reason Nunavut is not the right answer to this question.


Table: Expansion of the Dominion by Provinces /Territories

(Advice: Sort the table bellow by the column 'Year of joining the Confederation' )

Sorted Geographically Canadian Provinces Year of joining the Confederation
___________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________________
01. Newfoundland & Labrador 1949
02. Prince Edward Island 1873
03. Nova Scotia 1867
04. New Brunswick 1867
05. Quebec 1867
06. Ontario 1867
07. Manitoba 1870
08. Saskatchewan 1905
09. Alberta 1905
10. British Columbia 1871


Sorted Geographically Canadian Territories Year of joining the Confederation
___________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________________
01. Yukon Territory 1898
02. Northwest Territories 1870
03. Nunavut 1999


1880 — Transfer of the Arctic Islands to N.W.T.


8. When is Canada Day and what does it celebrate?

  We celebrate the anniversary of Confederation July 1st of each year 


9. Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada?

  Sir John A. Macdonald 


FYI: Sir John Alexander Macdonald GCB KCMG PC PC QC

was the 1st Prime Minister of Canada


Styles and letters at the end of his name are NOT important for the test;

shortened name given above is just enough for the test


10. Why is the Constitution Act, 1982 important in Canadian history?

   It allows Canada to change the Constitution without asking approval of the British Government


Trivia:

Quebec Refused to sign the agreement in 1982 for 2 reasons:

1.) With the new amending formula Quebec lost its veto power over future constitutional change.

Until then, Quebec or Ontario or a majority of Western or Maritime provinces

could prevent any constitutional changes they didn't agree with.


2.) Quebec wouldn't sign the Constitution Act, 1982 agreement was a clause in the Charter of Rights

which guaranteed minority language rights "where numbers warrant", annulling the Quebec's Bill 101,

so in essence it would continue to protect English language rights in Quebec, while at the same time

protecting French language rights in the rest of Canada only "where numbers warrant" ,

practically meant loosing French language rights in most of the Canadian Provinces.


The fact that the Constitution was patriated without the changes Quebec wanted

was seen as a serious betrayal by Quebeckers.


Patriation of the Constitution

Rights and Responsibilities [edit]

1. What part of the Constitution legally protects the basic rights and freedoms of all Canadians?

  The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms


2. When did the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms become part of the Canadian Constitution?

  1982


3. Name two fundamental freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

  Freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom to enter and leave Canada (mobility), 
  educated in either official language


4. Name three legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

  Right to live and work anywhere in Canada, right to a fair trial, 
  and right to protection against discrimination


5. List three ways in which you can protect the environment.

  Compost and recycle, conserve energy and water, walk or join a car pool


6. Who has the right to apply for a Canadian passport?

  Canadian citizens


7. What does equality under the law mean?

  Being treated with equal dignity and respect and 
  having equal rights to speak out and express ideas


8. Name six responsibilities of citizenship.

  Vote, help others, care for our heritage and environment, obey Canada's laws, 
  respect the rights of others,serve on a jury when called


9. Give an example of how you can show responsibility by participating in your community.

  Start volunteering, join the community group such as environmental group


10. List four rights Canadian citizens have.

   Right to be educated in either official language, vote, 
   apply for a Canadian passport, enter and leave Canada freely


11. What will you promise when you take the Oath of Citizenship?

   Pledge allegiance to the Queen, observe the laws of Canada 
   and fulfill the duties of a Canadian citizen

Languages [edit]

1. What are the two official languages of Canada?

  English and French


2. Give an example of where English and French have equal status in Canada.

  Federal Courts and in all Federal Institutions


3. Where do most French-speaking Canadians live?

  Quebec


4. Which province has the most bilingual Canadians?

  Quebec


5. Which province is the only officially bilingual province?

  New Brunswick

Symbols [edit]

1. What does the Canadian flag look like?

  White with a red border on each end and a red maple leaf in the centre


2. What song is Canada’s national anthem?

  O Canada


3. Give the first two lines of Canada’s national anthem.

  English: O Canada! Our home and native land! 
  / True patriot love in all thy sons command.
  French: Ô Canada! Terre de nos aïeux, 
  / Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux!


4. Where does the name “Canada” come from?

  It comes from the word Kanata which was originally used by 
  2 aboriginals to direct Jacques Cartier to the settlement of Stadacona (Québec City), 
  the word means village or settlement, in the Huron Iroquois Language
  From “kanata”, a First Nations word for village


5. Which animal is an official symbol of Canada?

  Official symbol of Canada is a beaver


6. What is the tower in the centre of the Parliament buildings called?

  Peace Tower


7. What is the highest honor available for Canadians?

  Victoria Cross 


Trivia: Victoria Cross is given for actions under military command. It is awarded for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" to members of the British armed forces.

For most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy.

It is awarded in recognition of the most exceptional bravery displayed in the presence of the enemy,

although in rare instances the decoration has been given to mark other courageous acts.


The first recipients saw action in the Crimean War. The first award to a Canadian was in February 1857,

to Canadian lieutenant Alexander Roberts Dunn,

was awarded the VC for heroism during the charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaklava.


There have been 99 Canadians have been awarded Victoria Cross to date, last in 1945,

(Canadian-born or serving in the Canadian Army or with a close connection to Canada),

and 1,351 Victoria Crosses across Commonwealth countries (worldwide) awarded.

It may be awarded posthumously.

Geography [edit]

1. What is the approximate population of Canada?

  About 36 million people (for up-to-date information, check Statistics Canada) 
  
  Population estimate as of January 1, 2017 was: 36,503,097 


2. What three oceans border on Canada?

  Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific


3. What is the capital city of Canada?

  Ottawa


4. Name all the provinces and territories and their capital cities.


No. Canadian Provinces Capitals
___ _______________________________________ _____________
01. Newfoundland & Labrador St. John's
02. Prince Edward Island Charlottetown
03. Nova Scotia Halifax
04. New Brunswick Fredericton
05. Quebec Quebec City
06. Ontario Toronto
07. Manitoba Winnipeg
08. Saskatchewan Regina
09. Alberta Edmonton
10. British Columbia Victoria


No. Canadian Territories Capitals
___ _______________________________________ _____________
01. Yukon Territory Whitehorse
02. Northwest Territories Yellowknife
03. Nunavut Iqaluit


5. Name the five regions of Canada.

  Atlantic, Central, Prairie, West Coast, North


6. Which region covers more than one-third of Canada?

  Northern Canada


7. In which region do more than half the people in Canada live?

  Central Canada

8. One-third of all Canadians live in which province?

  Ontario


9. Where are the Canadian Rockies?

  On the border between British Columbia and Alberta


10. Where are the Great Lakes?

  Between Canada and the United States


11. Which mountain range is on the border between Alberta and British Columbia?

  Rocky Mountains


12. Where are the Parliament buildings located?

  Ottawa


13. Which country borders Canada on the south?

  United States of America


14. What are the Prairie provinces?

  Alberta [AB] (Edmonton), Saskatchewan [SK] (Regina), Manitoba [MB] (Winnipeg)


15. Which province in Canada is the smallest in land size?

  Prince Edward Island [PE]


16. What is a major river in Quebec?

  St. Lawrence River


17. On what date did Nunavut become a territory?

  (April 1st) 1999


~ FYI(except for 5 region model, others are not needed for the test; still, it's helpful to take a look this table):

National regions [edit]

Although these regions have no official status or defined boundaries the Provinces and territories are sometimes informally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east):

All provinces and territories Senate divisions Seven-region model[1] Six-region model Five-region model[2] Four-region model Three-region model
British Columbia Western Canada (24 seats) British Columbia West Coast West Coast Western Canada Western Canada
Alberta Alberta Prairies Prairies
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan and Manitoba
Manitoba
Ontario Ontario (24 seats) Ontario Ontario Central Canada Central Canada Eastern Canada
Quebec Quebec (24 seats) Quebec Quebec
New Brunswick The Maritimes (24 seats) Atlantic Canada Atlantic Canada Atlantic Canada Atlantic Canada
Prince Edward Island
Nova Scotia
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (6 seats)
Yukon The North (Territories) (3 seats) Northern Canada Northern Canada Northern Canada Northern Canada Northern Canada
Northwest Territories
Nunavut

Seats in the Senate are equally divided among four regions: Maritimes, Quebec, Ontario, and the West, with special status for Newfoundland and Labrador, and Northern Canada ('the North').



Economy [edit]

1. What are the (3) three main types of industries in Canada?

  Natural resources, manufacturing and services


2. In what industry do most Canadians work?

  (All kind of different types of) Services  (~75% or more)


3. What country is Canada’s largest trading partner?

  United States of America


4. Which region is known as the industrial and manufacturing heartland of Canada?

  Central Canada (Ontario + Québec)


5. Which region of Canada is known for both its fertile agricultural land and valuable energy resources?

  Prairie provinces (Canadian Prairies: MA, SK, AL)

Federal Government [edit]

1. Who is Canada’s Head of State?

  Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II


2. Who is the Queen’s representative in Canada?

  Governor General of Canada


3. What is the name of the Governor General?

  David L. Johnston
  
  The Right Honourable David Lloyd Johnston, C.C., C.M.M., C.O.M., C.D., A.B., LL.B., D.D.
  For up-to-date information, see here
  OR here


4. What do you call the Queen’s representative in the provinces?

  Lieutenant-Governor


5. What is Canada’s system of government called?

  Parliamentary government or more correct
  Federal State + Parliamentary Democracy + Constitutional Monarchy
  Check Discover Canada pdf,
  Discover Canada epub
  Discover Canada MP3

5.1.) It is a FEDERAL state - since confederation - it's a system in which individual parts join together under the same banner /flag, e.g. symbol of the state /you could just say join together into a state, but not simply merge into 1 entity with no distinction from what they were before, but as states joined in a federation, multiple legal entities, that kept their Legislative Assemblies, (read: their own governments), etc, still had transferred certain rights, duties and responsibilities, jurisdictions to the highest level of government - the one that is made up of representatives of all of the joined parts, in the most representative way /meaning in the most representative numbers possible to the numbers of citizens they represent /e.g. representation should be reflected in numbers; a fair representation of the population in the Parliament. Example: smaller the population density of the given territory township or Provinces /Territories less seats in the Legislative Assembly (local, provincial, federal Legislative Assembly respectively).

5.2.) It is Parliamentary system of government meaning Canada has a Parliament to govern it-self (Federal Ministers (MPs), First minister (PM /Prime Minister, it is copied in each of it's parts /Provinces /Territories) e.g. House of Commons; Senate (the Upper House /Upper Chamber - abolished, not working or never in an existence on Provincial /Territorial level); Governor General), complex governing body and a formal place of meeting of a Legislative Assembly.

5.3.) It is a Democracy b/c citizens elect their representatives in a democratic way, casting a secret ballot with a vote, to government bodies (Legislative Assemblies, on federal level, and replicated in Provincial /Territorial levels, except Nunavut, b/c they are way to small so they incorporate all that and consensus /tribal traditions in a publicly held secret vote of the elected representatives, when selecting cabinet and the first Minister, also Territories have Commissioners instead of Governors, with slightly less wide scope of rights, but only slightly, there is a difference, hence the difference in the name to indicate the fact), instead of government being appointed by the Monarch, as it was in the very beginning; The Monarch granted Canada the right to govern it-self in such manner. There are still different clauses in legal documents that binds politicians to act in a certain manner through the Governor General actions, but since they do all by the books, there is no fear of those "emergency" measures, in legal books called: ‘Royal Prerogatives’ or ‘Reserve Powers’ ; to be ever enacted, so the role of 11, Monarch (read: Queens), direct representatives, the Governor General and any of the 10 Lieutenant Governors (collective name: vice-regals /all 11 of them equally are only the Monarch representatives, not any more a 2 tier system, the difference in a name only indicates the diffrence of jurisdictions - Federal Government or Provincial Governments) seems as ceremonial, even though, after all that transpired and has been amended and changed over the time in the legal frame, they ALL have more power over the Canadian government in the situation of emergency, should the situation require it, then the Monarch it-self. Emergency powers are properly known as the ‘Royal Prerogatives’ or ‘Reserve Powers’; and they include: 1.) The Prerogative to Dismiss and Appoint First Ministers (Federal and Provincial Prime Ministers); 2.) Refusal of the dissolution of parliament, and to 3.) Disallowing or Reserving legislation. Meaning, all of them could disallow or reserve legislation, if 'things go south', in their respective Legislative Assembly, also the Governor General and any of the 10 Lieutenant Governors have: 4.) The Power to Dismiss their Premier or Prime Minister; 5.) Call for an Election; 6.) Offer the Government to an opposition party or coalition and even, 7.) Veto Legislation. Even though these powers have not been in use for a long time, does not mean they are not binding by any means. Quite the contrary. So, it could only mean 1 thing: government has acted responsibly, and within a frame of good political conduct, therefor the sea was calm, the ride was easy /no ruff rides, no emergency rights to be enacted, all is great, do not rock the boot, especially for no reason. All in all, ‘Royal Prerogatives’ or ‘Reserve Powers’ so called emergency powers of the 11 vice-regals, not ceremonial at all, despite how it looks on the surface to a common person, all b/c Canada still formally is a Dominion, even though Government can change constitution without asking a Monarch, actually the British Parliament for the approval, in translation, Queen washed up her hands from us, but in a sense, Canada is not 100% trusted as an responsible /reasonable, all grown-up /adult country, so the beef-ed up role of the 11 vice-regals still stands, alive and kicking in the legislature /read 'books' (legal books /by law), all b/c of fears of secession of it's parts. In a sense it is not the worst legal "catch 22" when you get to understand it. Canada is stronger player united, in a sense even if the influence has been reduced, through the Commonwealth Realm both countries are strengthen by it - meaning alliance of any kind (be it a trade one or other) of stronger countries is always better then alliance of weaker, reduced entities /countries. There is a very strong reason of why things have been as they are. There are no missed points or misguided ones, especially from the stand point of the British, who claimed the land at the end of the colonial times - the strongest and the luckiest got to rule and make the rules.

5.4.) Canada is also a Constitutional Monarchy - since the forming of it, read: constitution (meaning making of, constituting, establishing, founding, forming, the creation, setting up, very begging of the legal framing as a country from it's humble beginnings of tribal settlements, over companies, colonial fortifications, colonial settlements, colonial territories /different, self standing legal entities referred to as just British colonies, then colonial provinces, to finally constitution as a Dominion of Canada) - a Monarch was and still is the Head of State, and is still, currently the Queen of Canada, Her Majesty Elizabeth II.


6. What are the three parts of Parliament?

  The Queen; The House of Commons; The Senate (The Upper House /The Second House)


7. Explain how the levels of government are different.

  In Canada we elect people to represent us at different levels: 
  federal, provincial /territorial, municipal (local). 
  The Constitution grants different areas of responsibility to 
  the federal Parliament and provincial Legislatures. 
  Under the Constitution, Parliament has the authority to govern the Territories, 
  but in practice it has turned much of that authority over to the territorial governments.  
  Federal government takes major responsibility for matters that affect all of Canada; 
  
  Provincial and territorial governments look after matters that affect all residents in the province; 
  
  Municipal (or local ) governments are responsible for local matters.


8. What do you call a law before it is passed?

  A bill (proposed legislation) 


9. How are members of Parliament chosen?

  Elected by Canadian citizens
  (Each electoral district chooses one MP)
  

10. Who do members of Parliament represent?

  A Member of parliament represents the voters in the respective 
  Electoral District 
  Everyone who lives in his or her electoral district


11. How does a bill become law?

  Approval by a majority in the House of Commons and Senate and finally the Governor General
  Approval by a majority in the House of Commons 

[Stages of Approval: 1.) 1st Reading, 2.) 2nd Reading, 3.) Committee, 4.) Report Stage, 5.) 3rd Reading)]

 In the Second House read: Senate 

(Same Stages of Approval (1-5) e.g. 1.) 1st Reading, 2.) 2nd Reading, 3.) Committee, 4.) Report Stage, 5.) 3rd Reading))

 and by the Governor General 

(Last Stages of Approval: Royal Assent)


12. What are the three levels of government in Canada?

  Federal; Provincial /Territorial; Municipal (Local)


13. Name two responsibilities for each level of government.

  Federal:       National Defense, Citizenship (foreign policy)
  Provincial:    Health care, Education (highways)
  Municipal:     Snow removal, building codes, recycling (firefighting)

14. What is the government of all of Canada called?

  Federal Government

Federal Elections [edit]

1. How many electoral districts are there in Canada?

  3 3 8  

Number of Electoral districts, also called ridings or constituency dates is from the 2015 election.


2. In what electoral district do you live?

Example:

  Etobicoke North, Ontario 


Use this web tool to find the specifics: House of Commons Electoral District Listing & Web Search


~ FYI: Current members (333) List of all electoral districts in Canada, bellow (339) includes elected & resigned seats /represented ridings

No. Electoral Districts in Canada Province / Territory
1 Abbotsford British Columbia
2 Abitibi--Baie-James--Nunavik--Eeyou Quebec
3 Abitibi--Témiscamingue Quebec
4 Acadie--Bathurst New Brunswick
5 Ahuntsic-Cartierville Quebec
6 Ajax Ontario
7 Alfred-Pellan Quebec
8 Algoma--Manitoulin--Kapuskasing Ontario
9 Argenteuil--La Petite-Nation Quebec
10 Aurora--Oak Ridges--Richmond Hill Ontario
11 Avalon Newfoundland & Labrador
12 Avignon--La Mitis--Matane--Matapédia Quebec
13 Banff--Airdrie Alberta
14 Barrie--Innisfil Ontario
15 Barrie--Springwater--Oro-Medonte Ontario
16 Battle River--Crowfoot Alberta
17 Battlefords--Lloydminster Saskatchewan
18 Bay of Quinte Ontario
19 Beaches--East York Ontario
20 Beauce Quebec
21 Beauport--Côte-de-Beaupré--Île d’Orléans--Charlevoix Quebec
22 Beauport--Limoilou Quebec
23 Beauséjour New Brunswick
24 Bécancour--Nicolet--Saurel Quebec
25 Bellechasse--Les Etchemins--Lévis Quebec
26 Beloeil--Chambly Quebec
27 Berthier--Maskinongé Quebec
28 Bonavista--Burin--Trinity Newfoundland & Labrador
29 Bourassa Quebec
30 Bow River Alberta
31 Brampton Centre Ontario
32 Brampton East Ontario
33 Brampton North Ontario
34 Brampton South Ontario
35 Brampton West Ontario
36 Brandon--Souris Manitoba
37 Brantford--Brant Ontario
38 Brome--Missisquoi Quebec
39 Brossard--Saint-Lambert Quebec
40 Bruce--Grey--Owen Sound Ontario
41 Burlington Ontario
42 Burnaby North--Seymour British Columbia
43 Burnaby South British Columbia
44 Calgary Centre Alberta
45 Calgary Confederation Alberta
46 Calgary Forest Lawn Alberta
47 Calgary Heritage Alberta
48 Calgary Midnapore Alberta
49 Calgary Nose Hill Alberta
50 Calgary Rocky Ridge Alberta
51 Calgary Shepard Alberta
52 Calgary Signal Hill Alberta
53 Calgary Skyview Alberta
54 Cambridge Ontario
55 Cape Breton--Canso Nova Scotia
56 Cardigan Prince Edward Island
57 Cariboo--Prince George British Columbia
58 Carleton Ontario
59 Carlton Trail--Eagle Creek Saskatchewan
60 Central Nova Nova Scotia
61 Central Okanagan--Similkameen--Nicola British Columbia
62 Charlesbourg--Haute-Saint-Charles Quebec
63 Charleswood--St. James--Assiniboia--Headingley Manitoba
64 Charlottetown Prince Edward Island
65 Châteauguay--Lacolle Quebec
66 Chatham-Kent--Leamington Ontario
67 Chicoutimi--Le Fjord Quebec
68 Chilliwack--Hope British Columbia
69 Churchill--Keewatinook Aski Manitoba
70 Cloverdale--Langley City British Columbia
71 Coast of Bays--Central--Notre Dame Newfoundland & Labrador
72 Compton--Stanstead Quebec
73 Coquitlam--Port Coquitlam British Columbia
74 Courtenay--Alberni British Columbia
75 Cowichan--Malahat--Langford British Columbia
76 Cumberland--Colchester Nova Scotia
77 Cypress Hills--Grasslands Saskatchewan
78 Dartmouth--Cole Harbour Nova Scotia
79 Dauphin--Swan River--Neepawa Manitoba
80 Davenport Ontario
81 Delta British Columbia
82 Desnethé--Missinippi--Churchill River Saskatchewan
83 Don Valley East Ontario
84 Don Valley North Ontario
85 Don Valley West Ontario
86 Dorval--Lachine--LaSalle Quebec
87 Drummond Quebec
88 Dufferin--Caledon Ontario
89 Durham Ontario
90 Edmonton Centre Alberta
91 Edmonton Griesbach Alberta
92 Edmonton Manning Alberta
93 Edmonton Mill Woods Alberta
94 Edmonton Riverbend Alberta
95 Edmonton Strathcona Alberta
96 Edmonton West Alberta
97 Edmonton--Wetaskiwin Alberta
98 Eglinton--Lawrence Ontario
99 Egmont Prince Edward Island
100 Elgin--Middlesex--London Ontario
101 Elmwood--Transcona Manitoba
102 Esquimalt--Saanich--Sooke British Columbia
103 Essex Ontario
104 Etobicoke Centre Ontario
105 Etobicoke North Ontario
106 Etobicoke--Lakeshore Ontario
107 Flamborough--Glanbrook Ontario
108 Fleetwood--Port Kells British Columbia
109 Foothills Alberta
110 Fort McMurray--Cold Lake Alberta
111 Fredericton New Brunswick
112 Fundy Royal New Brunswick
113 Gaspésie--Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine Quebec
114 Gatineau Quebec
115 Glengarry--Prescott--Russell Ontario
116 Grande Prairie--Mackenzie Alberta
117 Guelph Ontario
118 Haldimand--Norfolk Ontario
119 Haliburton--Kawartha Lakes--Brock Ontario
120 Halifax Nova Scotia
121 Halifax West Nova Scotia
122 Hamilton Centre Ontario
123 Hamilton East--Stoney Creek Ontario
124 Hamilton Mountain Ontario
125 Hamilton West--Ancaster--Dundas Ontario
126 Hastings--Lennox and Addington Ontario
127 Hochelaga Quebec
128 Honoré-Mercier Quebec
129 Hull--Aylmer Quebec
130 Humber River--Black Creek Ontario
131 Huron--Bruce Ontario
132 Joliette Quebec
133 Jonquière Quebec
134 Kamloops--Thompson--Cariboo British Columbia
135 Kanata--Carleton Ontario
136 Kelowna--Lake Country British Columbia
137 Kenora Ontario
138 Kildonan--St. Paul Manitoba
139 Kings--Hants Nova Scotia
140 Kingston and the Islands Ontario
141 King--Vaughan Ontario
142 Kitchener Centre Ontario
143 Kitchener South--Hespeler Ontario
144 Kitchener--Conestoga Ontario
145 Kootenay--Columbia British Columbia
146 La Pointe-de-l'Île Quebec
147 La Prairie Quebec
148 Labrador Newfoundland & Labrador
149 Lac-Saint-Jean Quebec
150 Lac-Saint-Louis Quebec
151 Lakeland Alberta
152 Lambton--Kent--Middlesex Ontario
153 Lanark--Frontenac--Kingston Ontario
154 Langley--Aldergrove British Columbia
155 LaSalle--Émard--Verdun Quebec
156 Laurentides--Labelle Quebec
157 Laurier--Sainte-Marie Quebec
158 ExaLaval--Les Îles Quebecmple
159 Leeds--Grenville--Thousand Islands & Rideau Lakes Ontario
160 Lethbridge Alberta
161 Lévis--Lotbinière Quebec
162 London North Centre Ontario
163 London West Ontario
164 London--Fanshawe Ontario
165 Long Range Mountains Newfoundland & Labrador
166 Longueuil--Charles-LeMoyne Quebec
167 Longueuil--Saint-Hubert Quebec
168 Louis--Hébert Quebec
169 Louis-Saint-Laurent Quebec
170 Madawaska--Restigouche New Brunswick
171 Malpeque Prince Edward Island
172 Manicouagan Quebec
173 Marc-Aurèle-Fortin Quebec
174 Markham--Stouffville Ontario
175 Markham--Thornhill Ontario
176 Markham--Unionville Ontario
177 Medicine Hat--Cardston--Warner Alberta
178 Medicine Hat--Cardston--Warner Alberta
179 Mégantic--L'Érable Quebec
180 Milton Ontario
181 Mirabel Quebec
182 Miramichi--Grand Lake New Brunswick
183 Mission--Matsqui--Fraser Canyon British Columbia
184 Mississauga Centre Ontario
185 Mississauga East--Cooksville Ontario
186 Mississauga--Erin Mills Ontario
187 Mississauga--Lakeshore Ontario
188 Mississauga--Malton Ontario
189 Mississauga--Streetsville Ontario
190 Moncton--Riverview--Dieppe New Brunswick
191 Montarville Quebec
192 Montcalm Quebec
193 Montmagny--L'Islet--Kamouraska--Rivière-du-Loup Quebec
194 Moose Jaw--Lake Centre--Lanigan Saskatchewan
195 Mount Royal Quebec
196 Nanaimo--Ladysmith British Columbia
197 Nepean Ontario
198 New Brunswick Southwest New Brunswick
199 New Westminster--Burnaby British Columbia
200 Newmarket--Aurora Ontario
201 Niagara Centre Ontario
202 Niagara Falls Ontario
203 Niagara West Ontario
204 Nickel Belt Ontario
205 Nipissing--Timiskaming Ontario
206 North Island--Powell River British Columbia
207 North Okanagan--Shuswap British Columbia
208 North Vancouver British Columbia
209 Northumberland--Peterborough South Ontario
210 Northwest Territories Northwest Territories
211 Notre-Dame-de-Grâce--Westmount Quebec
212 Nunavut Nunavut
213 Oakville Ontario
214 Oakville North--Burlington Ontario
215 Orléans Ontario
216 Oshawa Ontario
217 Ottawa Centre Ontario
218 Ottawa South Ontario
219 Ottawa West--Nepean Ontario
220 Ottawa--Vanier Ontario
221 Outremont Quebec
222 Oxford Ontario
223 Papineau Quebec
224 Parkdale--High Park Ontario
225 Parry Sound--Muskoka Ontario
226 Peace River--Westlock Alberta
227 Perth--Wellington Ontario
228 Peterborough--Kawartha Ontario
229 Pickering--Uxbridge Ontario
230 Pierre-Boucher--Les Patriotes--Verchères Quebec
231 Pierrefonds--Dollard Quebec
232 Pitt Meadows--Maple Ridge British Columbia
233 Pontiac Quebec
234 Port Moody--Coquitlam British Columbia
235 Portage--Lisgar Manitoba
236 Portneuf--Jacques-Cartier Quebec
237 Prince Albert Saskatchewan
238 Prince George--Peace River--Northern Rockies British Columbia
239 Provencher Manitoba
240 Québec Quebec
241 Red Deer--Lacombe Alberta
242 Red Deer--Mountain View Alberta
243 Regina--Lewvan Saskatchewan
244 Regina--Qu'Appelle Saskatchewan
245 Regina--Wascana Saskatchewan
246 Renfrew--Nipissing--Pembroke Ontario
247 Repentigny Quebec
248 Richmond Centre British Columbia
249 Richmond Hill Ontario
250 Richmond--Arthabaska Quebec
251 Rimouski-Neigette--Témiscouata--Les Basques Quebec
252 Rivière-des-Mille-Îles Quebec
253 Rivière-du-Nord Quebec
254 Rosemont--La Petite-Patrie Quebec
255 Saanich--Gulf Islands British Columbia
256 Sackville--Preston--Chezzetcook Nova Scotia
257 Saint Boniface--Saint Vital Manitoba
258 Saint John--Rothesay New Brunswick
259 Saint-Hyacinthe--Bagot Quebec
260 Saint--Jean Quebec
261 Saint--Laurent Quebec
262 Saint--Léonard--Saint-Michel Quebec
263 Saint-Maurice--Champlain Quebec
264 Salaberry--Suroît Quebec
265 Sarnia--Lambton Ontario
266 Saskatoon West Saskatchewan
267 Saskatoon--Grasswood Saskatchewan
268 Saskatoon--University Saskatchewan
270 Sault Ste. Marie Ontario
271 Scarborough Centre Ontario
272 Scarborough North Ontario
273 Scarborough Southwest Ontario
274 Scarborough--Agincourt Ontario
275 Scarborough--Guildwood Ontario
276 Scarborough--Rouge Park Ontario
277 Selkirk--Interlake--Eastman Manitoba
278 Shefford Quebec
279 Sherbrooke Quebec
280 Sherwood Park--Fort Saskatchewan Alberta
281 Simcoe North Ontario
282 Simcoe--Grey Ontario
283 Skeena--Bulkley Valley British Columbia
284 Souris--Moose Mountain Saskatchewan
285 South Okanagan--West Kootenay British Columbia
286 South Shore--St. Margarets Nova Scotia
287 South Surrey--White Rock British Columbia
288 Spadina--Fort York Ontario
289 St. Albert--Edmonton Alberta
290 St. Catharines Ontario
291 St. John's East Newfoundland & Labrador
292 St. John's South--Mount Pearl Newfoundland & Labrador
293 Steveston--Richmond East British Columbia
294 Stormont--Dundas--South Glengarry Ontario
295 Sturgeon River--Parkland Alberta
296 Sudbury Ontario
297 Surrey Centre British Columbia
298 Surrey--Newton British Columbia
299 Sydney--Victoria Nova Scotia
300 Terrebonne Quebec
301 Thérèse-De Blainville Quebec
302 Thornhill Ontario
303 Thunder Bay--Rainy River Ontario
304 Thunder Bay--Superior North Ontario
305 Timmins--James Bay Ontario
306 Tobique--Mactaquac New Brunswick
307 Toronto Centre Ontario
308 Toronto--Danforth Ontario
309 Toronto--St. Paul's Ontario
310 Trois-Rivières Quebec
311 University--Rosedale Ontario
312 Vancouver Centre British Columbia
313 Vancouver East British Columbia
314 Vancouver Granville British Columbia
315 Vancouver Kingsway British Columbia
316 Vancouver Quadra British Columbia
317 Vancouver South British Columbia
318 Vaudreuil--Soulanges Quebec
319 Vaughan--Woodbridge Ontario
320 Victoria British Columbia
321 Ville-Marie--Le Sud-Ouest--Île-des-Soeurs Quebec
322 Vimy Quebec
323 Waterloo Ontario
324 Wellington--Halton Hills Ontario
325 West Nova Nova Scotia
326 West Vancouver--Sunshine Coast--Sea to Sky Country British Columbia
327 Whitby Ontario
328 Willowdale Ontario
329 Windsor West Ontario
330 Windsor--Tecumseh Ontario
331 Winnipeg Centre Manitoba
332 Winnipeg North Manitoba
333 Winnipeg South Manitoba
324 Winnipeg South Centre Manitoba
335 Yellowhead Alberta
335 York Centre Ontario
336 York South--Weston Ontario
337 York--Simcoe Ontario
338 Yorkton--Melville Saskatchewan
339 Yukon Yukon

^ List updated on: 2017.02.06



3. Who has the right to vote in federal elections?

  A Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and on voters list


4. What three requirements must you meet in order to vote in a federal election?

  Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and on the list of electors /voter list, list of voters


5. What is written on a federal election ballot?

  The names of the candidates in your electoral district in alphabetical order from "A" to "Z"


6. What do you mark on a federal election ballot?

  " X "
  An “X” beside the candidate of your choice 


7. How is the government formed after an election?

  The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power. 
  The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister.


8. How is the Prime Minister chosen?

  The leader of the party with the most elected representatives becomes the Prime Minister


9. When does an election have to be held according to the Constitution?

  On the 3rd Monday in October every 4 years following the most recent general election


10. Name all the federal political parties in the House of Commons and their leaders.

   Liberal - Justin Trudeau; Conservative - Ronalee Chapchuk Ambrose /aka Rona Ambrose; 
   NDP - Thomas Mulcair; Bloc Quebecois - Martine Ouellet; Green - Elizabeth May 


11. Which party becomes the official opposition?

   The party with the second most MPs


12. What is the role of the opposition parties?

   To oppose or try to improve government proposals


13. Which party is the official opposition at the federal level?

   Progresive Conservatives (PC)
   For up-to-date information check the Official Opposition Page


14. Name the Prime Minister of Canada and his party.

   Justin Trudeau - Liberal Party 
   For up-to-date information check the Prime Minister Page


15. Name your member of Parliament and the party he or she belongs to.

Example:

  Kirsty Duncan    Liberal         (for Etobicoke North, Ontario) 


   Use this web tool to find the specifics: Members of the House of Commons Web Search Tool

~ FYI - Members of the House of Commons, elected in last election (includes current and resigned members):

Name Political Affiliation at Election Constituency Gender
Edward Fast Conservative Abbotsford, British Columbia m
Romeo Saganash New Democratic Party Abitibi--Baie-James--Nunavik--Eeyou, Quebec m
Christine Moore New Democratic Party Abitibi--Témiscamingue, Quebec w
Serge Cormier Liberal Acadie--Bathurst, New Brunswick w
Joly Mélanie Liberal Ahuntsic-Cartierville, Quebec w
Mark Holland Liberal Ajax, Ontario m
Angelo Iacono Liberal Alfred-Pellan, Quebec m
Carol Hughes New Democratic Party Algoma--Manitoulin--Kapuskasing, Ontario m
Stéphane Lauzon Liberal Argenteuil--La Petite-Nation, Quebec w
Leona Alleslev Liberal Aurora--Oak Ridges--Richmond Hill, Ontario w
Ken McDonald Liberal Avalon, Newfoundland and Labrador m
Rémi Massé Liberal Avignon--La Mitis--Matane--Matapédia, Quebec
Richards Blake Conservative Banff--Airdrie, Alberta m
John Brassard Conservative Barrie--Innisfil, Ontario m
Alex Nuttall Conservative Barrie--Springwater--Oro-Medonte, Ontario
Kevin Sorenson Conservative Battle River--Crowfoot, Alberta m
Gerry Ritz Conservative Battlefords--Lloydminster, Saskatchewan
Neil R. Ellis Liberal Bay of Quinte, Ontario m
Nathaniel Erskine-Smith Liberal Beaches--East York, Ontario m
Maxime Bernier Conservative Beauce, Quebec m
Sylvie Boucher Conservative Beauport--Côte-de-Beaupré--Île d’Orléans--Charlevoix, Quebec w
Alupa Clarke Conservative Beauport--Limoilou, Quebec m
Dominic LeBlanc Liberal Beauséjour, New Brunswick m
Louis Plamondon Bloc Québécois Bécancour--Nicolet--Saurel, Quebec m
Steven Blaney Conservative Bellechasse--Les Etchemins--Lévis, Quebec m
Matthew Dubé New Democratic Party Beloeil--Chambly, Quebec m
Brosseau Ruth Ellen New Democratic Party Berthier--Maskinongé, Quebec w
Judy Foote Liberal Bonavista--Burin--Trinity, Newfoundland & Labrador w
Emmanuel Dubourg Liberal Bourassa, Quebec m
Martin Shields Conservative Bow River, Alberta m
Ramesh Sangha Liberal Brampton Centre, Ontario
Raj Grewal Liberal Brampton East, Ontario m
Ruby Sahota Liberal Brampton North, Ontario w
Sonia Sidhu Liberal Brampton South, Ontario w
Kamal Khera Liberal Brampton West, Ontario
Larry Maguire Conservative Brandon--Souris, Manitoba m
Phil McColeman Conservative Brantford--Brant, Ontario m
Denis Paradis Liberal Brome--Missisquoi, Quebec m
Alexandra Mendès Liberal Brossard--Saint-Lambert, Quebec w
Larry Miller Conservative Bruce--Grey--Owen Sound, Ontario m
Karina Gould Liberal Burlington, Ontario w
Terry Beech Liberal Burnaby North--Seymour, British Columbia m
Kennedy Stewart New Democratic Party Burnaby South, British Columbia
Kent Hehr Liberal Calgary Centre, Alberta m
Len Webber Conservative Calgary Confederation, Alberta
Deepak Obhrai Conservative Calgary Forest Lawn, Alberta m
Stephen Harper Conservative Calgary Heritage, Alberta m
Jason Kenney Conservative Calgary Midnapore, Alberta m
Michelle Rempel Conservative Calgary Nose Hill, Alberta
Pat Kelly Conservative Calgary Rocky Ridge, Alberta
Tom Kmiec Conservative Calgary Shepard, Alberta m
Ron Liepert Conservative Calgary Signal Hill, Alberta m
Darshan Singh Kang Liberal Calgary Skyview, Alberta
Bryan May Liberal Cambridge, Ontario m
Cuzner, Rodger Liberal Cape Breton--Canso, Nova Scotia m
MacAulay, Lawrence Liberal Cardigan, Prince Edward Island m
Doherty, Todd Conservative Cariboo--Prince George, British Columbia m
Poilievre, Pierre Conservative Carleton, Ontario m
Block, Kelly Conservative Carlton Trail--Eagle Creek, Saskatchewan w
Fraser, Sean Liberal Central Nova, Nova Scotia m
Albas, Dan Conservative Central Okanagan--Similkameen--Nicola, British Columbia m
Paul-Hus, Pierre Conservative Charlesbourg--Haute-Saint-Charles, Quebec m
Eyolfson, Doug Liberal Charleswood--St. James--Assiniboia--Headingley, Manitoba m
Casey, Sean Liberal Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island m
Shanahan, Brenda Liberal Châteauguay--Lacolle, Quebec w
Van Kesteren, Dave Conservative Chatham-Kent--Leamington, Ontario m
Lemieux, Denis Liberal Chicoutimi--Le Fjord, Quebec m
Strahl, Mark Conservative Chilliwack--Hope, British Columbia m
Ashton, Niki New Democratic Party Churchill--Keewatinook Aski, Manitoba
Aldag, John Liberal Cloverdale--Langley City, British Columbia m
Simms, Scott Liberal Coast of Bays--Central--Notre Dame, Newfoundland & Labrador m
Bibeau, Marie-Claude Liberal Compton--Stanstead, Quebec w
McKinnon, Ron Liberal Coquitlam--Port Coquitlam, British Columbia m
Johns, Gord New Democratic Party Courtenay--Alberni, British Columbia m
MacGregor, Alistair New Democratic Party Cowichan--Malahat--Langford, British Columbia m
Casey, William D. (Bill) Liberal Cumberland--Colchester, Nova Scotia
Anderson, David Conservative Cypress Hills--Grasslands, Saskatchewan m
Fisher, Darren Liberal Dartmouth--Cole Harbour, Nova Scotia
Sopuck, Robert Conservative Dauphin--Swan River--Neepawa, Manitoba m
Dzerowicz, Julie Liberal Davenport, Ontario w
Qualtrough, Carla Liberal Delta, British Columbia w
Jolibois, Georgina New Democratic Party Desnethé--Missinippi--Churchill River, Saskatchewan w
Ratansi, Yasmin Liberal Don Valley East, Ontario w
Tan, Geng Liberal Don Valley North, Ontario
Oliphant, Robert Liberal Don Valley West, Ontario m
Dhillon, Anju Liberal Dorval--Lachine--LaSalle, Quebec
Choquette, François New Democratic Party Drummond, Quebec m
Tilson, David Conservative Dufferin--Caledon, Ontario m
O'Toole, Erin Conservative Durham, Ontario
Boissonnault, Randy Liberal Edmonton Centre, Alberta m
Diotte, Kerry Conservative Edmonton Griesbach, Alberta
Aboultaif, Ziad Conservative Edmonton Manning, Alberta
Sohi, Amarjeet Liberal Edmonton Mill Woods, Alberta
Jeneroux, Matt Conservative Edmonton Riverbend, Alberta m
Duncan, Linda Francis New Democratic Party Edmonton Strathcona, Alberta w
McCauley, Kelly Conservative Edmonton West, Alberta w
Lake, Mike Conservative Edmonton--Wetaskiwin, Alberta
Mendicino, Marco Liberal Eglinton--Lawrence, Ontario m
Morrissey, Robert Liberal Egmont, Prince Edward Island m
Karen Vecchio Conservative Elgin--Middlesex--London, Ontario
Blaikie, Daniel New Democratic Party Elmwood--Transcona, Manitoba
Garrison, Randall New Democratic Party Esquimalt--Saanich--Sooke, British Columbia m
Ramsey, Tracey New Democratic Party Essex, Ontario w
Wrzesnewskyj, Borys Liberal Etobicoke Centre, Ontario m
Duncan, Kirsty Liberal Etobicoke North, Ontario w
Maloney, James Liberal Etobicoke--Lakeshore, Ontario
Sweet, David Conservative Flamborough--Glanbrook, Ontario
Hardie, Ken Liberal Fleetwood--Port Kells, British Columbia m
Barlow, John Conservative Foothills, Alberta m
Yurdiga, David Conservative Fort McMurray--Cold Lake, Alberta m
DeCourcey, Matt Liberal Fredericton, New Brunswick m
Lockhart, Alaina Liberal Fundy Royal, New Brunswick
Lebouthillier, Diane Liberal Gaspésie--Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec w
MacKinnon, Steven Liberal Gatineau, Quebec m
Drouin, Francis Liberal Glengarry--Prescott--Russell, Ontario m
Warkentin, Chris Conservative Grande Prairie--Mackenzie, Alberta m
Longfield, Lloyd Liberal Guelph, Ontario m
Finley, Diane Conservative Haldimand--Norfolk, Ontario w
Schmale, Jamie Conservative Haliburton--Kawartha Lakes--Brock, Ontario
Fillmore, Andy Liberal Halifax, Nova Scotia m
Regan, Geoff Liberal Halifax West, Nova Scotia m
Christopherson, David New Democratic Party Hamilton Centre, Ontario m
Bratina, Bob Liberal Hamilton East--Stoney Creek, Ontario m
Duvall, Scott New Democratic Party Hamilton Mountain, Ontario m
Tassi, Filomena Liberal Hamilton West--Ancaster--Dundas, Ontario w
Bossio, Mike Liberal Hastings--Lennox and Addington, Ontario m
Marjolaine Boutin-Sweet New Democratic Party Hochelaga, Quebec w
Pablo Rodriguez Liberal Honoré-Mercier, Quebec m
Greg Fergus Liberal Hull--Aylmer, Quebec m
Sgro, Judy Liberal Humber River--Black Creek, Ontario w
Lobb, Ben Conservative Huron--Bruce, Ontario m
Ste-Marie, Gabriel Bloc Québécois Joliette, Quebec m
Karine Trudel New Democratic Party Jonquière, Quebec w
Cathy McLeod Conservative Kamloops--Thompson--Cariboo, British Columbia w
Karen McCrimmon Liberal Kanata--Carleton, Ontario w
Fuhr, Stephen Liberal Kelowna--Lake Country, British Columbia m
Nault, Robert Daniel Liberal Kenora, Ontario m
Mihychuk, MaryAnn Liberal Kildonan--St. Paul, Manitoba w
Brison, Scott Liberal Kings--Hants, Nova Scotia m
Gerretsen, Mark Liberal Kingston and the Islands, Ontario m
Schulte, Deborah Liberal King--Vaughan, Ontario w
Saini, Raj Liberal Kitchener Centre, Ontario
Tabbara, Marwan Liberal Kitchener South--Hespeler, Ontario
Albrecht, Harold Conservative Kitchener--Conestoga, Ontario m
Stetski, Wayne New Democratic Party Kootenay--Columbia, British Columbia m
Beaulieu, Mario Bloc Québécois La Pointe-de-l'Île, Quebec
Poissant, Jean-Claude Liberal La Prairie, Quebec m
Jones, Yvonne Liberal Labrador, Newfoundland and Labrador w
Lebel, Denis Conservative Lac-Saint-Jean, Quebec m
Scarpaleggia, Francis Liberal Lac-Saint-Louis, Quebec m
Stubbs, Shannon Conservative Lakeland, Alberta w
Shipley, Bev Conservative Lambton--Kent--Middlesex, Ontario
Reid, Scott Conservative Lanark--Frontenac--Kingston, Ontario m
Warawa, Mark Conservative Langley--Aldergrove, British Columbia m
Lametti, David Liberal LaSalle--Émard--Verdun, Quebec m
Graham, David Liberal Laurentides--Labelle, Quebec
Laverdière, Hélène New Democratic Party Laurier--Sainte-Marie, Quebec w
El-Khoury, Fayçal Liberal ExaLaval--Les Îles, Quebecmple
Brown, Gordon Conservative Leeds--Grenville--Thousand Islands & Rideau Lakes, Ontario m
Harder, Rachael Conservative Lethbridge, Alberta w
Gourde, Jacques Conservative Lévis--Lotbinière, Quebec m
Fragiskatos, Peter Liberal London North Centre, Ontario m
Kate Young Liberal London West, Ontario w
Mathyssen, Irene New Democratic Party London--Fanshawe, Ontario w
Hutchings, Gudie Liberal Long Range Mountains, Newfoundland & Labrador
Romanado, Sherry Liberal Longueuil--Charles-LeMoyne, Quebec w
Nantel, Pierre New Democratic Party Longueuil--Saint-Hubert, Quebec m
Lightbound, Joël Liberal Louis-Hébert, Quebec m
Gérard Deltell Conservative Louis-Saint-Laurent, Quebec
René Arseneault Liberal Madawaska--Restigouche, New Brunswick
Wayne Easter Liberal Malpeque, Prince Edward Island
Gill, Marilène Bloc Québécois Manicouagan, Quebec w
Robillard, Yves Liberal Marc-Aurèle-Fortin, Quebec m
Philpott, Jane Liberal Markham--Stouffville, Ontario w
John McCallum Liberal Markham--Thornhill, Ontario m
Bob Saroya Conservative Markham--Unionville, Ontario m
Jim Hillyer Conservative Medicine Hat--Cardston--Warner, Alberta m
Motz, Glen Conservative Medicine Hat--Cardston--Warner, Alberta
Berthold, Luc Conservative Mégantic--L'Érable, Quebec m
Raitt, Lisa Conservative Milton, Ontario w
Simon Marcil Bloc Québécois Mirabel, Quebec
Pat Finnigan Liberal Miramichi--Grand Lake, New Brunswick
Jati Sidhu Liberal Mission--Matsqui--Fraser Canyon, British Columbia
Omar Alghabra Liberal Mississauga Centre, Ontario m
Peter Fonseca Liberal Mississauga East--Cooksville, Ontario m
Iqra Khalid Liberal Mississauga--Erin Mills, Ontario w
Sven Spengemann Liberal Mississauga--Lakeshore, Ontario m
Navdeep Singh Bains Liberal Mississauga--Malton, Ontario
Gagan Sikand Liberal Mississauga--Streetsville, Ontario
Ginette Petitpas Taylor Liberal Moncton--Riverview--Dieppe, New Brunswick
Michel Picard Liberal Montarville, Quebec m
Luc Thériault Bloc Québécois Montcalm, Quebec m
Généreux, Bernard Conservative Montmagny--L'Islet--Kamouraska--Rivière-du-Loup, Quebec
Lukiwski, Tom Conservative Moose Jaw--Lake Centre--Lanigan, Saskatchewan m
Housefather, Anthony Liberal Mount Royal, Quebec m
Malcolmson, Sheila New Democratic Party Nanaimo--Ladysmith, British Columbia w
Arya, Chandra Liberal Nepean, Ontario
Ludwig, Karen Liberal New Brunswick Southwest, New Brunswick
Julian, Peter New Democratic Party New Westminster--Burnaby, British Columbia m
Peterson, Kyle Liberal Newmarket--Aurora, Ontario
Badawey, Vance Liberal Niagara Centre, Ontario m
Nicholson, Rob Conservative Niagara Falls, Ontario m
Allison, Dean Conservative Niagara West, Ontario m
Serré, Marc G. Liberal Nickel Belt, Ontario
Anthony Rota Liberal Nipissing--Timiskaming, Ontario m
Rachel Blaney New Democratic Party North Island--Powell River, British Columbia
Mel Arnold Conservative North Okanagan--Shuswap, British Columbia
Wilkinson, Jonathan Liberal North Vancouver, British Columbia m
Rudd, Kim Liberal Northumberland--Peterborough South, Ontario
McLeod, Michael Liberal Northwest Territories, Northwest Territories m
Garneau, Marc Liberal Notre-Dame-de-Grâce--Westmount, Quebec
Tootoo, Hunter Liberal Nunavut, Nunavut
Oliver, John Liberal Oakville, Ontario m
Damoff, Pam Liberal Oakville North--Burlington, Ontario w
Leslie, Andrew Liberal Orléans, Ontario
Carie, Colin Conservative Oshawa, Ontario
McKenna, Catherine Liberal Ottawa Centre, Ontario w
McGuinty, David Liberal Ottawa South, Ontario m
Vandenbeld, Anita Liberal Ottawa West--Nepean, Ontario w
Bélanger, Mauril Liberal Ottawa--Vanier, Ontario
Mulcair, Thomas J. New Democratic Party Outremont, Quebec m
MacKenzie, Dave Conservative Oxford, Ontario m
Trudeau, Justin Liberal Papineau, Quebec m
Virani, Arif Liberal Parkdale--High Park, Ontario
Clement, Tony Conservative Parry Sound--Muskoka, Ontario m
Viersen, Arnold Conservative Peace River--Westlock, Alberta m
Nater, John Conservative Perth--Wellington, Ontario m
Monsef, Maryam Liberal Peterborough--Kawartha, Ontario
O'Connell, Jennifer Liberal Pickering--Uxbridge, Ontario w
Barsalou-Duval, Xavier Bloc Québécois Pierre-Boucher--Les Patriotes--Verchères, Quebec m
Baylis, Frank Liberal Pierrefonds--Dollard, Quebec m
Ruimy, Dan Liberal Pitt Meadows--Maple Ridge, British Columbia m
Amos, William Liberal Pontiac, Quebec m
Donnelly, Fin New Democratic Party Port Moody--Coquitlam, British Columbia m
Bergen, Candice Conservative Portage--Lisgar, Manitoba
Godin, Joël Conservative Portneuf--Jacques-Cartier, Quebec m
Hoback, Randy Conservative Prince Albert, Saskatchewan m
Bob Zimmer Conservative Prince George--Peace River--Northern Rockies, British Columbia m
Ted Falk Conservative Provencher, Manitoba m
Jean-Yves Duclos Liberal Québec, Quebec
Blaine Calkins Conservative Red Deer--Lacombe, Alberta
Dreeshen, Earl Conservative Red Deer--Mountain View, Alberta
Weir, Erin New Democratic Party Regina--Lewvan, Saskatchewan
Scheer, Andrew Conservative Regina--Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan m
Goodale, Ralph Liberal Regina--Wascana, Saskatchewan m
Gallant, Cheryl Conservative Renfrew--Nipissing--Pembroke, Ontario
Pauzé, Monique Bloc Québécois Repentigny, Quebec w
Wong, Alice Conservative Richmond Centre, British Columbia w
Jowhari, Majid Liberal Richmond Hill, Ontario
Rayes, Alain Conservative Richmond--Arthabaska, Quebec
Caron, Guy New Democratic Party Rimouski-Neigette--Témiscouata--Les Basques, Quebec m
Lapointe, Linda Liberal Rivière-des-Mille-Îles, Quebec w
Fortin, Rhéal Bloc Québécois Rivière-du-Nord, Quebec
Boulerice, Alexandre New Democratic Party Rosemont--La Petite-Patrie, Quebec
May, Elizabeth Green Party Saanich--Gulf Islands, British Columbia w
Samson, Darrell Liberal Sackville--Preston--Chezzetcook, Nova Scotia
Vandal, Daniel Liberal Saint Boniface--Saint Vital, Manitoba
Long, Wayne Liberal Saint John--Rothesay, New Brunswick m
Sansoucy, Brigitte New Democratic Party Saint-Hyacinthe--Bagot, Quebec w
Rioux, Jean R. Liberal Saint-Jean, Quebec
Dion, Stéphane Liberal Saint-Laurent, Quebec m
Di Iorio, Nicola Liberal Saint-Léonard--Saint-Michel, Quebec m
Champagne, François-Philippe Liberal Saint-Maurice--Champlain, Quebec
Quach, Anne Minh-Thu New Democratic Party Salaberry--Suroît, Quebec
Gladu, Marilyn Conservative Sarnia--Lambton, Ontario w
Benson, Sheri New Democratic Party Saskatoon West, Saskatchewan w
Waugh, Kevin Conservative Saskatoon--Grasswood, Saskatchewan m
Brad Trost Conservative Saskatoon--University, Saskatchewan m
Terry Sheehan Liberal Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario m
Zahid, Salma Liberal Scarborough Centre, Ontario w
Chen, Shaun Liberal Scarborough North, Ontario m
Blair, Bill Liberal Scarborough Southwest, Ontario m
Chan, Arnold Liberal Scarborough--Agincourt, Ontario m
McKay, John Liberal Scarborough--Guildwood, Ontario m
Anandasangaree, Gary Liberal Scarborough--Rouge Park, Ontario
Bezan, James Conservative Selkirk--Interlake--Eastman, Manitoba m
Breton, Pierre Liberal Shefford, Quebec m
Dusseault, Pierre-Luc New Democratic Party Sherbrooke, Quebec m
Genuis, Garnett Conservative Sherwood Park--Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta
Stanton, Bruce Conservative Simcoe North, Ontario m
Leitch, K. Kellie Conservative Simcoe--Grey, Ontario w
Cullen, Nathan New Democratic Party Skeena--Bulkley Valley, British Columbia m
Kitchen, Robert Gordon Conservative Souris--Moose Mountain, Saskatchewan m
Cannings, Richard New Democratic Party South Okanagan--West Kootenay, British Columbia m
Jordan, Bernadette Liberal South Shore--St. Margarets, Nova Scotia w
Watts, Dianne Conservative South Surrey--White Rock, British Columbia w
Vaughan, Adam Liberal Spadina--Fort York, Ontario m
Cooper, Michael Conservative St. Albert--Edmonton, Alberta m
Bittle, Chris Liberal St. Catharines, Ontario m
Whalen, Nick Liberal St. John's East, Newfoundland & Labrador m
O'Regan, Seamus Liberal St. John's South--Mount Pearl, Newfoundland & Labrador
Peschisolido, Joe Liberal Steveston--Richmond East, British Columbia m
Lauzon, Guy Conservative Stormont--Dundas--South Glengarry, Ontario m
Ambrose, Rona Conservative Sturgeon River--Parkland, Alberta w
Lefebvre, Paul Liberal Sudbury, Ontario m
Sarai, Randeep Liberal Surrey Centre, British Columbia
Dhaliwal, Sukh Liberal Surrey--Newton, British Columbia
Eyking, Mark Liberal Sydney--Victoria, Nova Scotia m
Boudrias, Michel Bloc Québécois Terrebonne, Quebec m
Ayoub, Ramez Liberal Thérèse-De Blainville, Quebec m
Kent, Peter Conservative Thornhill, Ontario m
Rusnak, Don Liberal Thunder Bay--Rainy River, Ontario m
Hajdu, Patricia Liberal Thunder Bay--Superior North, Ontario w
Angus, Charlie New Democratic Party Timmins--James Bay, Ontario m
Harvey, Thomas J. Liberal Tobique--Mactaquac, New Brunswick m
Morneau, Bill Liberal Toronto Centre, Ontario m
Dabrusin, Julie Liberal Toronto--Danforth, Ontario w
Bennett, Carolyn Liberal Toronto--St. Paul's, Ontario w
Aubin, Robert New Democratic Party Trois-Rivières, Quebec m
Freeland, Chrystia Liberal University--Rosedale, Ontario
Fry, Hedy Liberal Vancouver Centre, British Columbia
Kwan, Jenny Wai Ching New Democratic Party Vancouver East, British Columbia
Wilson-Raybould, Jody Liberal Vancouver Granville, British Columbia w
Davies, Don New Democratic Party Vancouver Kingsway, British Columbia m
Murray, Joyce Liberal Vancouver Quadra, British Columbia w
Sajjan, Harjit Singh Liberal Vancouver South, British Columbia
Schiefke, Peter Liberal Vaudreuil--Soulanges, Quebec m
Sorbara, Francesco Liberal Vaughan--Woodbridge, Ontario m
Rankin, Murray New Democratic Party Victoria, British Columbia m
Miller, Marc Liberal Ville-Marie--Le Sud-Ouest--Île-des-Soeurs, Quebec m
Nassif, Eva Liberal Vimy, Quebec w
Chagger, Bardish Liberal Waterloo, Ontario
Michael D. Chong Conservative Wellington--Halton Hills, Ontario m
Colin Fraser Liberal West Nova, Nova Scotia m
Pamela Goldsmith-Jones Liberal West Vancouver--Sunshine Coast--Sea to Sky Country, British Columbia w
Celina Caesar-Chavannes Liberal Whitby, Ontario w
Ali Ehsassi Liberal Willowdale, Ontario
Brian Masse New Democratic Party Windsor West, Ontario m
Cheryl Hardcastle New Democratic Party Windsor--Tecumseh, Ontario w
Robert-Falcon Ouellette Liberal Winnipeg Centre, Manitoba m
Kevin Lamoureux Liberal Winnipeg North, Manitoba m
Terry Duguid Liberal Winnipeg South, Manitoba m
James Gordon Carr Liberal Winnipeg South Centre, Manitoba m
Jim Eglinski Conservative Yellowhead, Alberta m
Michael Levitt Liberal York Centre, Ontario m
Ahmed Hussen Liberal York South--Weston, Ontario m
Peter Van Loan Conservative York--Simcoe, Ontario m
Cathay Wagantall Conservative Yorkton--Melville, Saskatchewan w
Larry Bagnell Liberal Yukon, Yukon m

^ List updated on: 2017.02.06


16. What is a voter information card?

   A form that tells you when and where to vote


17. Who has the right to run as a candidate in federal elections?

   Any Canadian citizen at least 18+ years of age old


18. Who do Canadians vote for in a federal election?

   A candidate they want to represent them in Parliament


19. What do political parties do?

   Share ideas about how government should work


20. Which federal political party is in power?

   Liberal Party (for up-to-date information check either the Canadian Parliament Page 
   or Prime Minister of Canada) wiki page


21. How are senators chosen?

   They are chosen by the Prime Minister (and appointed by the Governor General)


22. What should you do if you do not receive a voter information card telling you when and where to vote?

   Call Elections Canada or visit their website


23. After a federal election, which party forms the new government?

   The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power

Section II. Questions about your region [edit]

(answers depend on test-taker's location)


1. What is the capital city of the province or territory in which you live?

Example:

  For the Province of Ontario the answer is: Toronto


Pick one from the list of all given bellow:

Region Province/Territory Capital City

1.1. Atlantic region

    	Newfoundland and Labrador 	(NL)  	    St. John’s
    	Prince Edward Island     	(PE)     	Charlottetown
    	Nova Scotia		      		(NS)		Halifax
    	New Brunswick	      		(NB)		Fredericton


1.2. Central Canada region

(FYI: The Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River basin; but also part of the The Canadian Shield (region), that is also called the Laurentian Plateau or Bouclier Canadien)

    	Quebec		      			(QC)		Québec City
    	Ontario		      			(ON)		Toronto


1.3. Prairie Provinces

(FYI: that are also part of The Planes, but also part of the The Canadian Shield (Laurentian Plateau or Bouclier Canadien) region (that include northern portions of Manitoba /Saskatchewan), because the Prairie Provinces region is named after the prairies in Alberta and Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but the physical geography is diverse consisting of portions of the Canadian Shiel and the Canadian Interior Plains and the Cordillera (Cordillera is a Spanish word for mountain range)).

        Manitoba		      		(MB)		Winnipeg
   	Saskatchewan	      			(SK)		Regina
    	Alberta		      			(AB)		Edmonton


1.4. West Coast

(FYI: Pacific Canada /Part of The Cordillera Region portion of British Columbia)


    British Columbia                       (BC)            Victoria


1.5. North

(FYI: Polar /Arctic region; but also part of the The Canadian Shield region (Parts of Northwest Territories, Parts of Nunavut), but also called the Laurentian Plateau or Bouclier Canadien; Parts of The Cordillera region portion of Yukon)

        Nunavut		     	 	            (NU)		Iqaluit
    	Northwest Territories 	 	        (NT)		Yellowknife
    	Yukon Territory	      		        (YT)		Whitehorse



2. List three natural resources important to your region’s economy today.

Example:

  In Ontario: it's mining metalic and non-metalic minerals and structural materials; 
  extracting oil /gas /coal; forestry
  


3. Who is your city Councillor, Alderperson, Reeve or Regional Councillor?

Example:

  Brampton, ON, Ward 1: Grant Gibson

(In principle, just name 1 of representative, for your ward)


~FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test, a possible list for municipalities: Example: Brampton, ON

No. Ward in Brampton, ON, 2014 Name of the representative Gender
Ward 1 Grant Gibson, Elaine Moore m, w
Ward 2 Doug Whillans, Michael Palleschi m, m
Ward 3 Martin Medeiros, Jeff Bowman m, m
Ward 4 Martin Medeiros, Jeff Bowman m, m
Ward 5 Grant Gibson, Elaine Moore m, w
Ward 6 Doug Whillans, Darren Whitehead m, m
Ward 7 Pat Fortini, Gael Miles m, w
Ward 8 Pat Fortini, Gael Miles m, w
Ward 9 John Sprovieri, Gurpreet Dhillon m, m
Ward 10 John Sprovieri, Gurpreet Dhillon m, m

^Source: Brampton City-Hall Councilors

Regional Councillors in Brampton (2017-)

No. Name of the representative Ward No. Gender
1 Elaine Moore 1, 5 w
2 Michael Palleschi 2, 6 m
3 Martin Medeiros 3, 4 m
4 Gael Miles 7, 8 w
5 John Sprovieri 9, 10 m


4. What is the name of your Mayor?

Example:

  Brampton    (since 2014-):       Linda Jeffrey

Example:

  Mississauga (since 2014-):       Bonnie Crombie

Example:

  Toronto     (since 2014-):       John Tory


5. What is the name of your provincial representative (member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), Member of the Provincial Parliament (MPP), Member of the National Assembly (MLA) or member of the House of Assembly (MHA))?


Example:

  Jagmeet Singh, MPP (Bramalea—Gore—Malton)


Elected Provincial /Territory representatives in the Legislatures have these titles:


~ MPPs in ON, at the Provincial Parliament called Parliament of Ontario or The Legislative Assembly of Ontario;


~ MLAs in BC, AB, SK, MB, NB, NS, NU, NT, YT,

at The Legislative Assemblies at any of the Parliaments of BC, AB, SK, MB, NB, NS, NU, NT, YT;


~ MHAs in NL, at The NL House of Assembly, at The General Assembly of Newfoundland & Labrador;


~ MNAs in QC, at The National Assembly, that is the Lower House today, part of The Legislature of Québec.


FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test:

  • The Legislature of Quebec, the Parliament of Quebec, has 2 parts:

The QC National Assembly and a Lieutenant-Governor of QC Member of the National Assembly of Quebec, also referred to as Legislators are called MNA (125 elected members in 2017). (in 1968, The Upper House, also called The Legislative Council of Quebec, has been abolished)

  • The General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Parliament of NL has 2 parts:

The Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly and a Lieutenant-Governor of Newfoundland. Member of Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly are called MHA (40 elected members in 2017). Since Confederation 1949, the appointed Legislative Council has not been activated. Newfoundland Legislature is made up of the House of Assembly from elected members only.

  • The General Assembly of Nova Scotia, also called The Nova Scotia Legislature, the Parliament of NS, has 2 parts:

The Nova Scotia House of Assembly and a Lieutenant Governor. Member of Nova Scotia House of Assembly are called MLA, unlike in NL (51 elected members in 2017). Nova Scotia's greatest contribution to Canadian democracy was the movement for Responsible Government (1836-1847), meaning no upper chamber, no communal representation, from very early on.

  • The New Brunswick Legislature has 2 parts:

The Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick and a Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick. Members of the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick are called MLAs (51 elected members in 2017). Legislative Council ~ upper chamber /house was abolished in 1891.

  • The General Assembly of Prince Edward Island or the Provincial Parliament has 2 parts:

The Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island and a Lieutenant-Governor (27 elected members only in 2017; since 1996 no more “assembly man”).

  • The Legislature of Saskatchewan has 2 parts:

The Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan and a Lieutenant-Governor of SK. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan are called MLA (61 elected members in 2017). In September 2013 the Legislature established the position of Usher of the Black Rod. Their role is functionally similar to the one for the Senate of Canada. Rick Mantey was the first person to hold the office. The current Usher of the Black Rod, as of 2014, is Ben Walsh. The Black Rod was made by Scott Olson Goldsmith of Regina.

  • The Legislature of Manitoba has 2 parts:

The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and the Lieutenant Governor of MB. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba are called MLA (57 elected members in 2017; elected members only; No more appointed legislative council and an appointed executive council and communal representation side by side elected legislative assembly from the early beginnings in 1871. Upper chamber was abolished in 1876.

  • The Legislature of Alberta has 2 parts:

The Legislative Assembly of Alberta and a Lieutenant-Governor of AB. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta are called MLA (87 elected members in 2017; elected members only since first formed).

  • The Legislature of British Columbia has 2 parts /also called The Parliament of British Columbia:

The Legislative Assembly of BC and a Lieutenant-Governor of BC. Member of the Legislative Assembly of BC are called MLA (85 elected members in 2017).

  • The Legislature of Ontario has 2 parts /also called The Ontario Provincial Parliament:

The Legislative Assembly of Ontario and a Lieutenant-Governor of ON. Members of the Legislative Assembly Ontario, also referred as Members of the Assembly, are called Member of the Provincial Parliament are called MPP (107 elected members in 2017). Parliament of Ontario since 1867. ‘Member of Provincial Parliament’ and the initialism MPP were formally adopted by the Legislature on April 7, 1938. Members of the Assembly (MAs in ON) refer to themselves as ‘Members of the Provincial Parliament’ (MPPs) as opposed to ‘Members of the Legislative Assembly’ (MLAs) as in other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. Ontario is the only Canadian provincial legislative assembly to employ this designation.


Members of Canadian Provincial and Territorial Assemblies employ the titles

Members of Shortened Province /Territory
Member of the Provincial Parliament or (MPP) in (ON) Ontario since 1938; also MAs /Members of the Assembly
Member of the National Assembly or (MNA) in (QC) Quebec
Member of the House of Assembly or (MHA) in (NL) Newfoundland & Labrador
Member of the Legislative Assembly or (MLA) in BC, AB, SK, MB, NB, NS, NU, NT, YT


FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test:

As Territories in Canada, all 3 Territories have fewer rights than the provinces:

  • Northwest Territories

The Legislature of Northwest Territories has 2 parts: The Legislative Assembly of Northwest Territories and a Commissioner of Northwest Territories. The Commissioner is federally appointed; Commissioner’s role in Legislature is similar to a Lieutenant Governor of a province. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Northwest Territories are called MLA (18 elected members in 2017)

The Commissioner of the NWT is the chief executive and is appointed by the Governor-in-Council of Canada on the recommendation of the federal Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development. The Commissioner had full governmental powers until 1980 when the territories were given greater self-government. The Legislative Assembly then began electing a cabinet and Government Leader, later known as the Premier. Since 1985 the Commissioner no longer chairs meetings of the Executive Council (or cabinet), and the federal government has instructed commissioners to behave almost like a provincial Lieutenant Governor. In the 1980s, The Commissioner of the NWT transferred the last of his authorities over Assembly matters to the Legislative Assembly of Northwest Territories.

The Deputy Commissioner of Northwest Territories holds a seat in the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, for 3 years, and is second to the Commissioner in the hierarchy of Northwest Territories Government, nowadays largely a ceremonial role. Just FYI: The position of the Deputy Commissioner of the Northwest Territories was created in 1921, and is appointed by the Governor-in-Council of Canada (standing in for the Queen-in-Council), on the advice from a Prime Ministers (PMs) cabinet, after consultations with a Committee of the 'Privy Council' (formally: The Queen's Privy Council for Canada /personal consultants to the monarch of Canada on state and constitutional affairs), composed of (mostly) elected, but sometimes former MPs (Members of Parliament), Senators or lately, other prominent Canadians, appointed for life by the Governor General as directed by the Prime Minister of Canada of the day).

Giving The Sovereign and Governor General advice on how to exercise the Royal Prerogative via Orders in Council (order given by Governor-in-Council of Canada (standing in for the Queen-in-Council), that are automatically subject to judicial review) rests with by the Cabinet, as the task of a committee of the (Queen’s) Privy Council. Committee of the (Queen’s) Privy Council is the body /integral part of the (Queen’s) Privy Council made out of Cabinet Ministers, formally referred to as the Ministers of the Crown, drawn from and responsible to the House of Commons in the Parliament or Senators (read: responsible to and members of the Legislative Assembly formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government). The President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada customarily serves as a member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada and cabinet ministers receive assistance in the performance of their duties from the (Queen’s) Privy Council Office, headed by the Clerk of the Privy Council. When Governor General is exercising the executive authority of the Governor-in-Council of Canada (standing in for the Queen-in-Council), on behalf of the Sovereign, where the Queen's powers and functions are delegated to the Governor, decisions are, almost always, the formal approval to decisions made by the cabinet, a subcommittee of the privy or executive council that includes the senior ministers of the Crown and often meets without the Queen or her local representative present. While the Cabinet specifically deals with the regular, day-to-day functions of the Crown-in-Council, occasions of wider national importance—such as the proclamation of a new Canadian sovereign following a demise of the Crown or conferring on royal marriages—will be attended to by more senior officials in the (Queen’s) Privy Council, such as the prime minister, the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, and other senior statesmen; while all Privy Councillors are invited to such meetings in theory, in practice the composition of the gathering is determined by the Prime Minister of the day. The quorum for the (Queen’s) Privy Council meetings is four. The Constitution Act, 1867, outlines that persons are to be summoned and appointed for life to the Queen's Privy Council by the Governor General, though convention dictates that this be done on the advice of the sitting prime minister. As its function is to provide the vehicle for advising the Crown, the members of the (Queen’s) Privy Council are predominantly all living current and former Ministers of the Crown. In addition, the Chief Justices of Canada and former Governors General are appointed. From time to time, the leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition and heads of other opposition parties will be appointed to the (Queen’s) Privy Council, either as an honour or to facilitate the distribution of sensitive information under the Security of Information Act, and, similarly, it is required by law that those on the Security Intelligence Review Committee be made Privy Councillors, if they are not already. To date, only Prime Minister Paul Martin advised that Parliamentary Secretaries be admitted to the (Queen’s) Privy Council. The use of (Queen’s) Privy Council for Canada appointments today is purely an honour, briefly ended under Lester Pearson, though the traditional style The Right Honourable, The Honourable, and the post-nominal letters PC standing for Privy Counsellor, remained in use, limited to the Prime Minister, Chief Justices. In In 1992,2002, 2006, 2007 the appointed Governor General at the time appointed prominent Canadians as Privy Counsellors to the (Queen’s) Privy Council, on the advice /recommendation of Prime Minister of the day. (Queen’s) Privy Council for Canada is formally required to meet to give its consent to or reject the Royal engagement /Royal marriage if the union could result in offspring /children that would impact /have been considered legitimate heirs to the succession of to the Canadian throne, thus reaffirming (when consenting) or setting up potential break (when rejecting) in the unified link to the Crown of the Commonwealth realm (read: Canada), in contradiction to the conventional "treaty" laid out in the preamble to the 1931 Statute of Westminster.

~FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test:

  • Nunavut

Nunavut is a territorial subdivision of the Northwest Territories. The Legislature of Nunavut has 2 parts: The Legislative Assembly of Nunavut and a Commissioner of Nunavut. The Commissioner's role is similar to a Lieutenant Governor of a Province.

Members of the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut are called MLAs (19 elected members in 2017). Candidates run as individuals, with no political party affiliations or platform. A Premier, cabinet Ministers and the Speaker are selected from the elected MLAs in a publicly held, secret ballot election, by MLAs under the title of ’Nunavut Leadership Forum’. The Commissioner, on the recommendation of the Legislative Assembly, formally appoints the Premier and the Cabinet (Ministers) of the Nunavut. There is no fixed number of cabinet seats, but only a minority of MLAs can be appointed to the Cabinet, e.g.the Commissioner of Nunavut is not permitted to appoint a more then 50% of the MLAs to the Cabinet in order to keep the accountability of the cabinet and the territorial Prime Minister in order to upkeep the “responsible government” principles, meaning for example, from 19 MLAs in 2017, no more than 9 MLAs could have been appointed to the cabinet, only less. Consensus government is a system that blends the principles of parliamentary democracy with the Aboriginal values of maximum cooperation, effective use of leadership resources and common accountability. Nunavut has its own own Supreme Court. Deputy Commissioner of Nunavut was added in 2005, is second to the Commissioner in the hierarchy of Nunavut Government, nowadays largely a ceremonial role.

~ FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test:

  • Yukon Territories

The Legislature of Yukon has 2 parts: The Legislative Assembly of Yukon and a Commissioner of Yukon. The Commissioner is federally appointed; Commissioner’s role in Legislature is similar to a Lieutenant Governor of a province. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Yukon are called MLA (18 elected members in 2017) Yukon government cabinet is appointed by the majority party of the Legislative Assembly, has 5 members (in 20017). Yukon government caucus members make up the Premier's tea /cabinet.

There are parties involved and political platforms included in the general elections. Yukon was a separate district of Northwest Territories from 1895. Yukon, with capital Dawson was a separate territory from 1898. Yukon Territories capital, from 1952, is Whitehorse.

By passing the Yukon Act, The Parliament of Canada established The Office of Commissioner in Yukon to preside /govern over it. The position of Chief Executive Officer and Commissioner of Yukon Territory was created to bring order in 1898 and prepare for Yukon to become its own territory separate from the Northwest Territories. Under the Act of Yukon from in 1898, the Government of Canada appointed 6 members of the Legislative Council, as well as the Commissioner to govern Yukon. In 1900, the administrative authority and legislative power stayed with the appointed Commissioner, even though the Legislative Council became an elected body. In 1920s, the positions of Commissioner of Yukon were abolished and their duties and responsibilities were assigned to the Gold Commissioner of Yukon. In the 1930s, the responsibilities of the the Gold Commissioner's position where assigned to the Comptroller, then changed to Controller, the now Chief Executive Officer of Yukon. In the second half of the XX century, the title of Commissioner was reinstated in order to help out Yukon's Chief Executive Officer in fulfilling his duties, responsibility and lighting his workload. By the 1980s the Commissioner’s involvement in day to day activities of the NT government diminished, but Commissioner’s role legally changed only in 2003 with amendments to the Yukon Act, framing Commissioner’s role more like to the role of a Lieutenant Governor of a province. From the turn of the century, the federal government appointed Commissioners from the senior ranks of the civil service in Ottawa. These people usually were deputy ministers of a department which had some involvement in the North. The deputy ministers carried out their Commissioner's duties along with their own departmental responsibilities.


6. What is the name of the premier of your province or territory?

Example:

  Alberta - Rachel Notley - NDP


~ FYI: Pick One line from the table bellow:

PROVINCE PREMIER / TENURE PARTY AFFILIATION GENDER
Alberta Rachel Notley (May 24, 2015 - ) NDP w
British Columbia Christy Clark (Mar 14, 2011 - ) Liberal w
Manitoba Brian Pallister (May 3, 2016) P.C. m
New Brunswick Brian Gallant (Oct 7, 2014 - ) Liberal m
Newfoundland & Labrador Dwight Ball (Dec 14, 2015 - ) Liberal m
Northwest Territories Bob McLeod (Oct 27, 2011 - ) N/A* m
Nova Scotia Stephen McNeil (Oct 22, 2013 - ) Liberal m
Nunavut Peter Taptuna (Nov 19, 2013 - ) N/A* m
Ontario Kathleen Wynne (Feb 11, 2013 - ) Liberal w
Prince Edward Island Wade MacLauchlan (Feb 23, 2015 - ) Liberal m
Quebec Philippe Couillard (Apr. 23, 2014 - ) Liberal m
Saskatchewan Brad Wall (Nov 21, 2007 - ) Saskatchewan m
Yukon Darrell Pasloski (Jun 11, 2011 - ) Yukon m


7. Which political party is in power in your province or territory?

Example:

  Ontario - Kathleen Wynne - Liberal


PROVINCE PREMIER / TENURE PARTY


Alberta: Rachel Notley (2015) NDP

British Columbia: Christy Clark (2011) Liberal

Manitoba: Brian Pallister (2016) P.C.

New Brunswick: Brian Gallant (2014) Liberal

Newfoundland: Dwight Ball (2015) Liberal

Northwest Territories: Bob McLeod (2011) N/A*

Nova Scotia: Stephen McNeil (2013) Liberal

Nunavut: Peter Taptuna (2013) N/A*

Ontario: Kathleen Wynne (2013) Liberal

Prince Edward Island: Wade MacLauchlan (2015) Liberal

Quebec: Philippe Couillard (2014) Liberal

Saskatchewan: Brad Wall (2007) Saskatchewan

Yukon: Darrell Pasloski (2011) Yukon


8. What is the name of the leader of the opposition in province of Ontario?

~FYI: The Leader of the Opposition in Ontario is usually leader of the largest party in the Ontario legislature which is NOT the government. The current official opposition is formed by the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party;


Example:

  Patrick Brown is the current Leader of the Opposition in Province of Ontario (since May 2015-).


9. What is the name of your Lieutenant Governor or Commissioner?

Example:

  Her Honour the Honourable Elizabeth Dowdeswell, OC, OOnt is the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.


Province The Honourable Lieutenant Governor


(AB) Alberta: Lois Mitchell Since 2015

(BC) British Columbia: Judith Guichon Since 2012

(MB) Manitoba: Janice Filmon Since 2015

(NB) New Brunswick: Jocelyne Roy-Vienneau Since 2014

(NL) Newfoundland and Labrador: Frank Fagan Since 2013

(NS) Nova Scotia: John James Grant Since 2012

(ON) Ontario: Elizabeth Dowdeswell Since 2014

(PE) Prince Edward Island: Frank Lewis Since 2011

(QC) Quebec: J. Michel Doyon Since 2015

(SK) Saskatchewan: Vaughn Solomon Schofield Since 2012


Territory The Honourable Commissioner Since


(NU) Nunavut: Nellie Kusugak 2015

(NT) Northwest Territories: George Tuccaro 2010

(YT) Yukon: Doug Phillips 2010



10. What is the name of the Commissioner, who represents the federal government in your territory?

Example:

  For Nunavut The Honourable Nellie Taptaqut Kusugak


~FYI:

The Commissioner for Territory of Nunavut (NU) is the Honourable Nellie T. Kusugak since 2015

The Commissioner for Northwest Territories (NT) is the Honourable George Tuccaro since 2010

The Commissioner for Yukon Territory (YT) is the Honourable Doug Phillips since 2010


~FYI: Ontario is a province and not a territory, therefor it does not have a commissioner who represents the federal government, but have Lieutenant Governor, Her Honour the Honourable Elizabeth Dowdeswell.


Questions about a specific region - individual province /territory (2017 answers)[edit]

1. For applicants living in N&L:

1.1. What is the capital city of Newfoundland & Labrador?

  St. John's (2017) 


2. For applicants living in NS:

2.1. Which political party is in power in Nova Scotia?

  Liberal (2017) 


2.2. What is the capital City of Nova Scotia?

  Halifax 


3. For applicants living in PE:

3.1. What is the capital City of Prince Edward Island?

  Charlottetown


3.2. What is the name of the Premier of Prince Edward Island?

  The Honourable H. Wade MacLauchlan (2017)


4. For applicants living in NB:

4.1. Which political party is in power in New Brunswick?

  Liberals (2017)


4.2. What is the capital city of New Brunswick?

  Fredericton 


5. For applicants living in QC:

5.1. What is the name of the Premier of Quebec?

  Premier Philippe Couillard (2017) 


5.2. Which political party is in power in Quebec?

  Parti Libéral (2017) 


5.3. What is the capital City of the Québec?

  Québec City


6. For applicants living in ON:

6.1. What is the capital city of Ontario?

  Toronto   


6.2. Which political party is in power in Ontario?

What is the name of the party in power?

  Liberal Party (2017) 


6.3. What is the name of the Premier of Ontario?

  Premier Katelyn Wynne, MPP (2017) 


6.4. What is the name of the Official opposition party /her Majesty's opposition party in Ontario?

  Patrick Brown, MPP (PC) (2017)


6.5. What are the names of the opposition party leaders?

  Andrea Horwat, MPP (NDP), Patrick Brown, MPP (PC) (2017)


6.6. What are the names of the opposition parties in your province?

  New Democratic Party (NDP), Progresive Conservatives (PC)


6.7. Name 2-3 Members of the Legislative Assembly of you for your town /city

(and the political parties respectively).

Example:

  Mayor Bonnie Crombie (Lib); Councillors: Sue McFadden, Ron Starr, John Kovac (2017)


Selected from the list of Councillors(for Mississauga residents applicants):

Jim Tovey, Karen Ras, Chris Fonseca, John Kovac, Carrolyn Parrish, Ron Starr,

Nando Iannicca, Matt Mahoney, Pat Saito, Sue McFadden, George Carlson


6.9. What is the name of the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario?

  Hon. Elizabeth Dowdeswell (2017) 
  

(Just to remind, name of the Governor General, in Ottawa is David L. Johnston (2017))


6.10. Name the member of Parliament for your electoral district

Variation to the question: Name the MP for your town /city, and the parties they belong to, respectively).


(for Mississauga residents applicants) (2017)

  Example1: Iqra Khalid, MP (for Mississauga - Erin Mills, (Lib)) (2017)

Example2:

  1. Mississauga Centre - Omar Alghabra, MP, Liberal (2017)
  2. Mississauga — Erin Mills - Iqra Khalid, MP, Liberal (2017)
  3. Mississauga — Malton - Hon. Navdeep  Bains, MP, Liberal (2017)
  4. Mississauga — StreetsvilleGagan Sikand, MP, Liberal (2017) 
  5. Mississauga East —  CooksvillePeter Fonseca, MP Liberal (2017)       
  6. Mississauga — Lakeshore - Sven Spengemann MP, Liberal (2017)


Mississauga — Lakeshore = Mississauga South?


Current Members of Parliament


6.11. What is the name of your provincial electoral district?

(for Mississauga residents applicants)

  Example1: Mississauga — Streetsville provincial electoral districts
  Example2: Mississauga — Erindale provincial electoral district


Provincial electoral districts

1. Bramalea — Gore — Malton provincial electoral district

2. Mississauga — Brampton South provincial electoral district

3. Mississauga East — Cooksville provincial electoral district

4. Mississauga — Erindale provincial electoral district

5. Mississauga South provincial electoral district

6. Mississauga — Streetsville provincial electoral districts


6.12. 'What is the name of your federal electoral distirct?

(for Mississauga residents applicants)

  Example1: Mississauga — Streetsville federal electoral districts
  Example2: Mississauga — Erin Mills federal electoral districts


Federal electoral districts

1. Mississauga Centre federal electoral districts

2. Mississauga East - Cooksville federal electoral districts

3. Mississauga - Erin Mills federal electoral districts

4. Mississauga South federal electoral districts or Mississauga Lakeshore?

5. Mississauga - Malton federal electoral districts

6. Mississauga - Streetsville federal electoral districts


6.13. What is the name of the Mayor of your town /city?

Example: Mississauga (for Mississauga residents applicants)

  Mayor Bonnie Crombie (Liberal) (2017)


6.14. Name your municipal Councilor /Variation to the question: Name 3 municipal Councilors:

Example1: (for Mississauga residents applicants)

  Councillor Sue McFadden (2017)

variation

  Councillors: Ron Starr, John Kovac, Sue McFadden (2017)


Mississauga Wards and Councillors list 2017:

Ward 1 - Councillor Jim Tovey

Ward 2 - Councillor Karen Ras

Ward 3 - Councillor Chris Fonseca

Ward 4 - Councillor John Kovac

Ward 5 - Councillor Carrolyn Parrish

Ward 6 - Councillor Ron Starr

Ward 7 - Councillor Nando Iannicca

Ward 8 - Councillor Matt Mahoney

Ward 9 - Councillor Pat Saito

Ward 10 - Councillor Sue McFadden

Ward 11 - Councillor George Carlson



7. For applicants living in MB:

7.1. What is the capital city of Manitoba?

  Winnipeg 



8. For applicants living in SK:

8.1. Which political party is in power in Saskatchewan?

  Saskatchewan Party (2017)


8.2. What is the name of the leader of the (Official) Opposition in Saskatchewan?

(Cam Broten was up until 2016, but the up-to-date answer is:)

  Trent Wotherspoon, NDP


8.3. What is the capital city of Saskatchewan?

  Regina



9. For applicants living in AB:

9.1. What is the capital city of Alberta?

  Edmonton 



10. For applicants living in BC:

10.1. Name the federal electoral districts in Richmond, British Columbia.

  Richmond has two federal electoral districts: Richmond Centre and Steveston-Richmond East 


10.2. Name three city Councillors for Richmond, British Columbia.

  Alexa Loo, Bill McNulty, Carol Day (2017)


Alexa Loo, Bill McNulty, Carol Day, Chak Au, Derek Dang,

Harold Steves, Ken Johnston, Linda McPhail, Malcolm Brodie

Name Political Afiliation Role
____________________ ______________________________ ____________
Alexa Loo Independent Councillor
Bill McNulty Richmond First Councillor
Carol Day Rite Richmond Councillor
Chak Au Richmond Community Coalition Councillor
Derek Dang Richmond First Councillor
Harold Steves Independent Councillor
Ken Johnston Richmond Community Coalition Councillor
Linda McPhail Richmond First Councillor
Malcolm Brodie Independent Mayor

Canada's Federal Electoral Districts


10.3. What is the name of the Mayor of Richmond, British Columbia?

  Mayor Malcolm Brodie (2017)


10.4. Name the Members of the Legislative Assembly for Richmond, British Columbia and the parties they belong to (Richmond Centre, Richmond East and Richmond-Steveston respectively).

(name 3 provincial MLAs for your town /city)


10.5. Which political party is in power in British Columbia?

  Liberal Party (2017)   

Premier, Hon. Christy Clark, MLA


10.6. What is the name of the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia?

  Judith Guichon (2017) 


10.7. Name the members of Parliament for Richmond, British Columbia and the parties they belong to respectively.

Name Electoral district Province Affiliate Party
_____________________ ____________________________ ____________________ ______________
Peschisolido, Joe Steveston — Richmond East British Columbia Liberal
Wong, Alice (Hon.) Richmond Centre British Columbia Conservative


10.8. What is the capital city of British Columbia?

  Victoria 


1. For applicants living in YT:

1.1. What is the name of the Premier of Yukon?

   Silver Sandy (Liberal) (2017)


1.2. Which political party is in power in Yukon Territory?

  Yukon Party (2017)


1.3. What is the capital city of Yukon Territory?

  Whitehorse


2. For applicants living in NT:

2.1. What is the name of the Premier of the Northwest Territories?

  Premier Bob McLeod (2017) 


2.2. Which political party is in power in the Northwest Territories?

  Governed by consensus

2.3. What is the capital City of the Northwest Territories?

  Yellowknife

2.4. What is the name of your Mayor /or your Reeve?

2.5. What is the name of your local representative Councilor(s) /Elder(s)?

2.6. What is the name of your Territorial Commissioner?


3. For applicants living in NU:

3.1. Which political party is in power in Nunavut?

  Governed by consensus
  N/A*, Independent /no party affiliations


3.2. What is the name of the leader of the Opposition in Nunavut?

  (Don Morin, Joe Handley, None, Eva Aariak - IN 2017 NONE OF THEM)
  Peter Taptuna (2017)

3.3. What is the capital City of the Nunavut?

  Iqaluit 


3.4. What is the name of the leader of the Premier in Nunavut?

  Peter Taptuna (Independent /NO PARTY AFFILIATIONS) (2017)


.

R E P E T I T I ON -- E S T -- M A T E R -- S T U D I O R U M [edit]

Repeating is the mother of (all) studies / Repeat and Learn abstract:


Section I. Questions about Canada[edit]

Aboriginal Peoples

1. Who are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada?
 * The first people to live in Canada 
2. What are the three main groups of Aboriginal peoples?
 * First Nations, Métis, Inuit 
3. From whom are the Métis descended?
 * The descendants of marriages between early French and English traders and First Nations women 
4. Which group of Aboriginal peoples make up more than half of the population in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut?
 * Inuit
5. Why are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada working towards self-government?
 * They are trying to regain control over decisions that affect their lives 
6. Which of the following statements about residential schools is NOT true?
 * The schools were welcomed by the Aboriginal people 
7. Who have major responsibilities on First Nation reserves? 
 * Band chiefs and Councillors


History

1. Where did the first European settlers in Canada come from? 
 * France 
2. Why did early explorers first come to Atlantic Canada?
 * To fish and trade with Aboriginal peoples 
3. What three industries helped early settlers build communities in the Atlantic region?
 * Farming, fishing, shipbuilding 
4. Who were the United Empire Loyalists?
 * Settlers who came to Canada from the United States during the American Revolution 
5. When did settlers from France first establish communities on the St. Lawrence River?
 * Early 1600s 
6. Which trade spread across Canada making it important to the economy for over 300 years?
 * Fur trade 
7. What form of transportation did Aboriginal peoples and fur traders use to create trading networks in North America?
 * Waterways 
8. What important trade did the Hudson Bay Company control?
 * Fur 
9. What did the government do to make immigration to western Canada much easier?
 * Built a railway across the Prairies to the Pacific Coast 
10. Who are the Acadians?
  * The descendants of French colonists who began settling in what are now the Maritime provinces in 1604 
11. Which of the following sentences best describes the War of 1812?
  * The USA invaded Canada and was defeated, 
    which ensured that Canada would remain independent of the United States 
12. Who was the first leader of a responsible government in Canada in 1849?
  * Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine 
13. Who was Sir Sam Steele?
  * A great frontier hero, Mounted Policeman and soldier of the Queen 
14. Which Act granted, for the first time in Canada, legislative assemblies elected by the people?
  * The Constitution Act of 1791 
15. Who had played an important part in building the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)?
  * Chinese railroad workers   
16. What is the “Head Tax”?
  * Race-based entry fee charged for Chinese entering Canada 
17. Who is General Sir Arthur Currie?
  * Canada’s greatest soldier in the First World War 
18. Approximately how many Canadians served in the First World War?
  * More than 600,000 
19. What was the Women’s Suffrage Movement? 
  * The effort by women to achieve the right to vote    
20. When is Remembrance Day celebrated? 
  * November 11th 
21. In the 1960s, Quebec experienced an era of rapid change. What is this called? 
  * The Quiet Revolution 
22. Who are the Quebecois?
  * People of Quebec 


Confederation/Government

1. What does Confederation mean?
 * Joining of provinces to make a new country 
2. What is the Canadian Constitution?
 * A system of laws and conventions by which our country governs itself 
3. What year was Confederation?
 * 1867 
4. When did the British North America Act come into effect?
 * 1867 
5. Why is the British North America Act important in Canadian history?
 * It made confederation legal 
6. Which four provinces first formed the Confederation?
 * Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec
7. Which was the last province to join Canada?
 * Newfoundland 
8. When is Canada Day and what does it celebrate?
 * We celebrate the anniversary of Confederation July 1st of each year 
9. Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada?
 * Sir John A. Macdonald
10. Why is the Constitution Act of 1982 important in Canadian history?
  * It allows Canada to change the Constitution without asking approval of the British Government


Rights and Responsibilities

1. What part of the Constitution legally protects the basic rights and freedoms of all Canadians?
 * The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
2. When did the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms become part of the Canadian Constitution?
 * 1982 
3. Name two fundamental freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
 * Freedom of religion and freedom of speech 
4. Name three legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
 * Right to live and work anywhere in Canada, 
   right to a fair trial and right to protection against discrimination
5. List three ways in which you can protect the environment.
 * Compost and recycle, conserve energy and water, walk or join a car pool 
6. Who has the right to apply for a Canadian passport?
 * Canadian citizens 
7. What does equality under the law mean?
 * Being treated with equal dignity and respect, having equal rights to speak out and express ideas 
8. Name six responsibilities of citizenship.
 * Vote, help others, care for our heritage and environment, obey Canada’s laws, 
   respect the rights of others, eliminate injustice 
9. Give an example of how you can show responsibility by participating in your community.
 * Join a community group 
10. List four rights Canadian citizens have.
  * Right to be educated in either official language, vote, 
    apply for a Canadian passport, enter and leave Canada freely 
11. What will you promise when you take the Oath of Citizenship?
  * Pledge allegiance to the Queen, observe the laws of Canada and fulfill the duties of a Canadian 


Languages

1. What are the two official languages of Canada?
 * English and French
2. Give an example of where English and French have equal status in Canada.
 * In the Parliament of Canada
3. Where do most French-speaking Canadians live?
 * Quebec
4. Which province has the most bilingual Canadians?
 * Quebec
5. Which province is the only officially bilingual province?
 * New Brunswick 


Symbols

1. What does the Canadian flag look like?
 * White with a red border on each end and a red maple leaf in the centre
2. What song is Canada’s national anthem?
 * O Canada
3. What are the first two lines of Canada’s national anthem?
 * O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command
4. Where does the name “Canada” come from?
 * From “kanata”, a First Nations word for village
5. Which animal is an official symbol of Canada?
 * The beaver
6. What is the tower in the centre of the Parliament buildings called?
 * Peace Tower
7. How many Canadians have been awarded the Victoria Cross (V.C.), the highest honour available to Canadians?
 * 96


Geography

1. What is the population of Canada?
 * About 36 million (in 2017)
2. What three oceans border Canada? 
 * Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific
3. What is the capital city of Canada?
 * Ottawa 
4. Name all the provinces and territories and their capital cites.
 * Newfoundland (St. John’s), Nova Scotia (Halifax), New Brunswick (Fredericton), 
   Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown), Ontario (Toronto), Quebec (Quebec City), 
   Alberta (Edmonton), Saskatchewan (Regina), Manitoba (Winnipeg), 
   British Columbia (Victoria), Yukon Territory (Whitehorse), 
   Northwest Territories (Yellowknife), Nunavut (Iqaluit)
5. Name the five regions of Canada
 * Atlantic, Central, Prairie, West Coast, North
6. Which region covers more than one-third of Canada?
 * Northern Canada
7. In which region do more than half of the people in Canada live?
 * Central Canada
8. One third of all Canadians live in which province?
 * Ontario
9. Where are the Canadian Rockies?
 * On the border between British Columbia and Alberta 
10. Where are the Great Lakes?
  * Between Canada and the United States
11. Which mountain range is on the border between Alberta and British Columbia?
  * Rocky Mountains
12. Where are the Parliament Buildings located?
  * Ottawa
13. Which country borders Canada on the south?
  * United States of America
14. What are the Prairie provinces and their capital cities?
  * Alberta (Edmonton), Saskatchewan (Regina), Manitoba (Winnipeg)
15. Which province in Canada is the smallest in land size?
  * Prince Edward Island 
16. What is a major river in Quebec?
  * St. Lawrence River 
17. On what date did Nunavut become a territory?
  * April 1st, 1999 


Economy

1. What are the three main types of industry in Canada?
 * Natural resources, manufacturing, services
2. In what industry do most Canadians work?
 * Service 
3. What country is Canada’s largest trading partner?
 * United States of America 
4. Which region is known as the industrial and manufacturing heartland of Canada?
 * Central Canada
5. Which region of Canada is known for both its fertile agricultural land and valuable energy resources?
 * Prairie provinces


Federal Government

1. Who is Canada’s Head of State?
 * Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (2017)
2. Who is the Queen’s representative in Canada?
 * Governor General of Canada 
3. What is the name of the Governor General?
 * David Johnston (2017)
4. What do you call the Queen’s representative in the provinces?
 * Lieutenant-Governor
5. What is Canada’s system of government called?
 * Parliamentary government
6. What are the three parts of Parliament?
 * The Queen, the House of Commons, the Senate 
7. Explain how the levels of government are different.
 * Federal government takes major responsibility for matters that affect all of Canada 
   Provincial and territorial governments look after matters that affect all residents in the province
   Municipal (or local) governments are responsible for local matters
8. What do you call a law before it is passed?
 * A Bill
9. How are Members of Parliament chosen?
 * Elected by Canadian citizens
10. Who do Members of Parliament represent?
  * Everyone who lives in his or her electoral district
11. How does a bill become a law?
  * Approval by a majority in the House of Commons and Senate and finally the Governor General
12. What are the three levels of government in Canada?
  * Federal, Provincial/Territorial, Municipal /Local
13. Name two responsibilities of each level of government.
  * Federal government: national defense, foreign policy 
    Provincial governments: education, highways
    Municipal governments: firefighting, snow removal
14. What is the government of all of Canada called?
  * Federal


Federal Elections

1. How many electoral districts are there in Canada?
 * 338
2. In what electoral district do you live?
 * Find your electoral district at Elections Canada Online or Electoral Finder 
3. Who has the right to vote in federal elections?
 * A Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and be on the list of electors /read: voter list, list of voters
4. What three requirements must you meet in order to vote in a federal election?
 * Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and on the list of electors 
5. What is written on a federal election ballot?
 * The names of the candidates in your electoral district in alphabetical order from “A” to “Z” 
6. What do you mark on a federal election ballot?
 * An “X” beside the candidate of your choice 
7. How is the government formed after a federal election?
 * The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power 
   The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister 
8. How is the Prime Minister chosen?
 * The leader of the party with the most elected representatives becomes the Prime Minister 
9. When does an election have to be held according to the Constitution?
 * Within 5 years of the last election 
10. Name all the federal political parties in the House of Commons and their leaders
  * Conservative (Ambrose), NDP (Mulcair), Liberal (Trudeau), Bloc Quebecois (Fortin), Green (May) (2017)
11. Which party becomes the * Official Opposition?
  * The party with the second most MPs
12. What is the role of the * Opposition parties?
  * To oppose or try to improve government proposals
13. Which party is the Official Opposition at the federal level?
  * The Conservative Party (2017)
14. Name of the Prime Minister of Canada and his party?
  * Justin Trudeau (Liberal Party) (2017)  
15. Name your member of Parliament and the party he or she belongs to /affiliates.
  * Search your Member of Parliament by postal code      
16. What is a voter information card?
  * A form that tells you when and where to vote  
17. Who has the right to run as a candidate in federal elections?
  * Any Canadian citizen who is at least 18 years old
18. Whom do Canadians vote for in a federal election?
  * A candidate they want to represent them in Parliament
19. What do political parties do?
  * Share ideas about how government should work
20. Which federal political party is in power?
  * Liberal Party (2017)
21. How are Senators chosen?
  * Chosen by the Prime Minister
22. What should you do if you do not receive a voter information card telling you when and where to vote?
  * Call Elections Canada or visit their website
23. After a federal election, which party forms the new government?
  * The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power

Section II. Questions about your region [edit]

This example section gives answers for Victoria, British Columbia.

By inserting your Province /Territory name and finding out the answer

to the same type of questions for your Province /Territory

you can easily adapt /tailor this section


1. What is the capital city of British Columbia?
 * Victoria
2. List three natural resources important to British Columbia’s economy today?
 * Natural resources are: Forests, water, fish 
   (Industries would be: Forestry, fishing, mining)
3. What are the names of the city Councillors of your municipality?
 * Find the names of Greater Victoria Councillors 
4. What is the name of the mayor of your municipality?
 * Find the name of Greater Victoria’s 
5. What is the name of your provincial representative (MLA)?
 * Find your MLA through MLA Finder 
6. What is the name of the Premier of British Columbia?
 * Premier Christy Clark (2017)
7. Which political party is in power in British Columbia?
 * Liberal Party (2017) 
8. What is the name of the leader of the Opposition party in British Columbia?
 * John Horgan (2017)
9. What is the name of the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia?
 * Judith Guichon (2017)

.

  1. Used, for example, by EKOS Research polling, Harris-Decima polling.
  2. by Citizenship and Immigration Canada Discover Canada