Workbook Canada - Citizenship Test
Section I: Questions about Canada
1. Who are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada?
The first inhabitants in Canada (The first people to live in Canada)
2. What are the three main groups of Aboriginal peoples?
First Nations, Inuit, Métis
3. From whom are the Métis descended?
Early French and English (fur) traders married First Nations women. The descendants of those intermarried couples are called the Métis people.
4. Which group of Aboriginal peoples make up more than half the population of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut?
Inuit (even though they also live in the NWT: Dene, Metis <- that is not the answer)
5. Why are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada working toward self-government?
They are trying to regain control over decisions that affect their lives
(The wrong answer was: To preserve their unique cultures and languages)
6. Which of the following statements about residential schools is NOT true?
The schools were welcomed by the Aboriginal people
7. Who have major responsibilities on First Nation reserves?
Band Chiefs and Councillors
1. Where did the first European settlers in Canada come from?
2. Why did the early explorers first come to Atlantic Canada?
To fish and trade with Aboriginal peoples
3. What three industries helped the early settlers build communities in the Atlantic region?
Farming, fishing, shipbuilding
4. Who were the United Empire Loyalists?
Settlers who came to Canada from the United States during the American Revolution, Loyal to Great Britain & the British Crown
5. When did settlers from France first establish communities on the St. Lawrence River?
6. Which trade spread across Canada, making it important to the economy for over 300 years?
7. What form of transportation did Aboriginal peoples and fur traders use to create trading networks in North America?
8. What important trade did the Hudson’s Bay Company control?
9. What did the government do to make immigration to Western Canada much easier?
Built a railway across the Prairies to the Pacific Coast
10. Who are the Acadians?
The descendants of French colonists who began settling in what are now the Maritime provinces in 1604 (also called Atlantic colonies)
Today, the term Acadia is used to refer to regions of North America that are historically
associated with the lands, descendants, and/or culture of the former French region.
It particularly refers to regions of The Maritimes with French roots, language, and culture,
primarily in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Magdalen Islands and Prince Edward Island, as well as in Maine.
It can also be used to refer to the Acadian diaspora in southern Louisiana,
a region also referred to as Acadiana.
In the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture in any of these regions.
People living in Acadia, and sometimes former residents and their descendants,
are called Acadians, also later known as Cajuns after resettlement in Louisiana.
In French: Acadie was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that
included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River
The actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to
lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels.
Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies which became
Canadian provinces and American states.
The population of Acadia included members of the Wabanaki Confederacy and
descendants of emigrants from France (i.e., Acadians). The two communities intermarried,
which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis.
The first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal.
11. Which of the following sentences best describes the War of 1812?
The USA invaded Canada and was defeated, which ensured that Canada would remain independent of the United States
12. Who was the first leader of a responsible government in Canada in 1849?
Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine
13. Who was Sir Sam Steele?
A great frontier hero, Mounted Policeman and soldier of the Queen
14. Which Act granted, for the first time in Canada, legislative assemblies elected by the people?
The Constitutional Act of 1791
The Constitutional Act was an act passed by the British Parliament in London, in 1791,
made the name Canada an official name, but more importantly
changed the structure of government by repealing the Québec Act of 1774*,
dividing the Province of Québec (Remanence of New France) into 2 colonies (2 Canadas - Upper /Lower):
A mostly French-catholic French speaking Lower Canada (today's Province of Québec) in the east,
and the mostly loyalist English speaking Upper Canada in the west (today's Province of Ontario),
granting each entity the chance to form its own representative government for the first time ever,
in its own preferred language and is considered
e.g. granting for the first time ever the chance to form legislative assemblies
elected by the people (for the people) (instead of ones solely appointed by the Queen),
making the very first step towards Canadian Confederation,
later realized in forming the Dominion of Canada in 1867.
Dominion of Canada in 1867 united (NS), (NB), (QC), (ON):
1. Province of Canada (consisting of Upper and Lower Canada, united in 1840
(formerly created by splitting The British Colony of Québec,
what remained of New France's French Canada, into the Upper & Lower Canadas)) splitting it back
into renamed Province of Ontario and the Province of Québec by the Act of Constitution, 1867),
2. New Brunswick and 3. Nova Scotia.
British North American colonies in 1700s were the Atlantic colonies
(also called Maritimes: Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick)
and the 2 Canadas (Upper /Lower) were known collectively as British North America in 1700s.
The first representative assembly was elected instead of appointed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1758.
Nova Scotia at the time was incorporating the territories of both nowadays Nova Scotia and today New Brunswick.
Then the elected representatives were elected in Prince Edward Island followed in 1773,
Québec Act of 1774*, one of the constitutional foundations of Canada:
The Québec Act restored French civil law, while maintaining British criminal law.
The British Parliament passed the Québec Act of 1774, allowing religious freedom for Catholics
and permitted them to hold public office, a practice not then allowed in Britain.
The Quebec Act, 1974 provided the people of Quebec their first Charter of Rights and
paved the way to later official recognition of the French language and French culture.
The act also allowed Canadiens to maintain French civil law and sanctioned freedom of religion,
allowing the Roman Catholic Church to remain, one of the first cases in history of
state-sanctioned freedom of religious practice.
In 1775, General George Washington decided to attempt an invasion of Canada by
the American Continental Army to wrest Quebec and the St. Lawrence River from the British.
The invasion failed when British reinforcements came down the St. Lawrence in May 1776
and the Battle of Trois-Rivières (Battle of 3 Rivers) turned into a disaster for the Americans.
Province of New Brunswick was originally a territory included in the area that made up Nova Scotia.
It was later separated and established as a province of New Brunswick in 1784.
Then the elected representatives were elected in New Brunswick in 1785,
and finally in Ontario and in Québec in 1791.
Those were the beginnings of the democracy in Canada.
Rigid colonial rules and seemingly slow progress toward full democracy sparked rebellions of 1837–1838
in Toronto and Monteral, were extinguished in blood.
After the rebellions, Lord Durham was asked to undertake a study and
prepare a report on the matter and to offer a solution for the British Parliament to assess.
Following Durham's report, the British government merged the two colonial provinces
into a Province of Canada with the Act of Union of 1840.
The two colonies remained distinct in administration, election, and law.
The Province of Canada was formed in 1840 uniting Upper and Lower Canada.
First to attain full responsible government was Nova Scotia in 1847/1848.
In 1848/1849 the governor of United Canada, Lord Elgin, introduced the system called responsible government.
In 1848, Baldwin and LaFontaine, allies and leaders of the Reformist party,
were asked by Lord Elgin to form an administration together under the new policy of responsible government.
The French language subsequently regained legal status in the Legislature.
In 1867, with the British North America Act, 1867, also called the Constitution Act, 1867,
the Dominion of Canada united Nova Scotia, New Brunswick with Province of Canada, but the
Province of Canada was split back to two provinces, this time under new names of Ontario and Québec.
Dominion of Canada become a self-governing dominion with two levels of government: federal & provincial.
It still lacked municipal /local level of government.
Expansion of the Dominion by Provinces /Territories
(Advice: Sort the table bellow by the column 'Year of joining the Confederation' )
|Sorted Geographically||Canadian Provinces||Year of joining the Confederation|
|01.||Newfoundland & Labrador||1949|
|02.||Prince Edward Island||1873|
|Sorted Geographically||Canadian Territories||Year of joining the Confederation|
1880 — Transfer of the Arctic Islands to N.W.T.
Expansion of the Dominion:
1867 — Ontario (ON), Québec, (QC), Nova Scotia (NS), New Brunswick (NB);
Québec is an Algonquin word for “narrow passage” or “strait”,
first used to describe the narrowing of the St. Lawrence River near what is now the City of Québec.
Then the fist fortified Fortress in the New world was named Québec.
Then part of the French Canada, that was a part of the New France, was called Québec.
Then nowadays Ontario and today's Québec and what remained of New France was called Québec.
The word "Canada" in 1600s was referred to the territory along the Saint Lawrence River,
then known as the Canada river, from Grosse Island in the east to a point between Quebec
and Three Rivers, Trois-Rivières,
although this territory had greatly expanded by 1600.
Word Canada came from word Huron-Iroquois word “kanata,” meaning “village” or “settlement, mid XVI century.
Then nothing, except for the capital city of Lower Canada
(land downstream from the St. Lawrence River) was called Québec,
Then Québec ceased to be a capital, by abolishing Lower Canada in favor of creation of
The Province of Canada, in reality just a new name for the old French Canada (Québec),
then only a small portion of what once was called Québec, was again renamed to Québec,
while mostly English speaking Loyalist settlers got the part of the territory
formerly called Upper Canada, nowadays Ontario.
(Like a dance, steps back - step forward - step on the side).
The earliest recording of the name Ontario was in 1641 where it was used to describe
a mass of land on the north shore of the easternmost part of the Great Lakes.
Word Ontario came from the Iroquois word which translates into “sparkling” water.
In 1759, the British aimed directly at the heart of New France.
General James Wolfe led British troops to the fortress of Québec (city).
Marquis Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, held the walled city of Québec
under Wolfe's siege for more than two months, exchanging cannon fire over the river,
but neither side could break the siege. Wolfe moved to force a battle,
the British troops crossed close to Cap-Rouge, west of the city and
successfully climbed the steep Cape Diamond undetected get into the Québec citadel.
Marquis Montcalm, did not use the protection of the fortress, 9 meter high city walls,
decided to lead troops in a bloody battle on the Plains of Abraham, an open terrain,
both leaders died in battle, but the British won. Marquis Montcalm lived 4h after being shoot,
realizing the battle is lost. As the main city and capital, fell in British hands,
it was just the matter of time when inner cities of Trois-Rivières and Montreal
will meet the same fate. Marquis Pierre de Rigaud, last Royal governor of New France,
surrendered Montreal, in 1760, after a lost battle, exactly one year after the fall of Québec.
Land called Québec become a British colony, The Province of Québec (today's Ontario, Québec, part of USA).
The British settlers had originally called the land that covered nowadays Québec, Ontario,
and part of the United States as Québec. It wasn't until the British enacted
the Constitutional Act in 1791 that Ontario would be known as the land upstream
from the St. Lawrence River, or Upper Canada, and Québec considered the
land downstream from the St. Lawrence River, known as Lower Canada.
1870 — Northwest Territories (NT);
(NT - aka N.W.T. - that at that time included territories of today Saskatchewan, Alberta, Yukon,
Nunavut and a part that has been redefined as a new Canadian Province of Manitoba and excluded from N.W.T.)
Prior to 1870, it was known as the North-Western Territory. The name has always been
just a description of the location of the territory.
1870 — Manitoba (MB) (the first province created from part of NWT, with this act of joining the Dominion of Canada); Name of the province came from the name of the Manitoba Lake, which is a derivation of the term that describes (the Great) Spirit and the strange sound of waves crashing against rocks near the narrows of the lake Manitoba in a term broadly translated as “the narrows of the Great Spirit”.
1871 — British Columbia (BC) (completing the idea from Atlantic, Arctic, to Pacific - Sea-to-Sea-to-Sea);
BC got it's name “Columbia”, after the Columbia River.
The central region was given the name of “New Caledonia” by explorer Simon Fraser.
To avoid confusion with Colombia in South America and the island of New Caledonia in the Pacific Ocean,
Queen Victoria named the area British Columbia when it became a colony in 1858.
1873 — Prince Edward Island (PE) (completing the joining of Maritime colonies /provinces to the Dominion); The province’s earliest documented name was given by the native Mi’kmaq, and meant “cradled in the waves”.
French /AcadiansIt later named it Saint-Jean island.
When it became British in 1763, it was renamed St. John’s Island.
In 1799 the English declared that the island would be renamed to Prince Edward Island
in honour of the Prince Edward, the Duke of Kent and Strathearn.
1880 — Transfer of the Arctic Islands to N.W.T.;
In 1882 Alberta was established as a provisional district of the Northwest Territories,
without a name, but got a name in 1905 when Alberta officially became a province,
after Queen Victoria’s fourth daughter, Princess Louise Caroline Alberta.
In 1896, Wilfrid Laurier became the first French Canadian to become Prime Minister of Canada.
1898 — Yukon was Yukon Territory (YT) (created from part of NWT, with this act of joining the Dominion of Canada),
From the “Great river" for the Yukon River in Inuit. It was named “Yukon Territory” in 1898,
but became just “Yukon” under the Yukon Act of 2003.
1905 — Alberta, Saskatchewan (AB), (SK) - created from part of NWT with this act of joining the Dominion of Canada);
Saskatchewan is the middle part of the Cree word describing “swift-flowing river”;
in a wide stroke translation it could be said it means Flow.
1949 — Newfoundland (& Labrador) (NL) (with the Act of Newfoundland & Labrador 1949,
by the British Parliament in London, UK), until then NL operated as an separate British entity /province /colony.
The province was officially renamed Newfoundland & Labrador in December 2001
when an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada.
King Henry VII of England referred to the land discovered by John Cabot in 1497 as the “New Found Launde.”
It’s likely that name Labrador came from an explorer in 1500,
in broad translation farmer, agriculturalist, landowner.
1999 — Nunavut (NU) (created from part of NT as it's subdivision, with this act of joining the Dominion of Canada).
Nunavut means “our land” in Inuit.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 removed a power of the British Parliament for Canada to legislate for Canada,
but Canada decided to allow the British Parliament to temporarily retain the power
to amend Canada's constitution, on request from the Parliament of Canada.
The British North America No.2 Act of 1949 was passed by the British Parliament,
giving the Parliament of Canada significant constitutional amending powers.
In 1982, with The Constitution Act of 1982,
the United Kingdom ended its involvement with further amendments to the Canadian constitution.
The procedure for amending the Constitution Act, 1982
thereon will no longer require parliamentary procedure requiring the monarch's Royal Assent
for enacting legislation /to make amendments in the Canadian constitution.
Canada's Constitution Act, 1982 was signed into law by Elizabeth II as Queen of Canada
on April 17, 1982 on Parliament Hill in Ottawa.
Queen Elizabeth's II constitutional powers over Canada were not affected by the Act,
Queen Elizabeth II remains Queen of Canada (monarch of Canada), as well Head of State of Canada.
By this Canada gained complete sovereignty as an independent country,
with it's Head of (responsible) government in Prime Minister,
elected by the people of Canada, usually every 4 years.
The patriation process saw the provinces granted influence in constitutional matters
and resulted in the constitution being amendable by Canada only and according to
the Canadian amending formula, with no role for the United Kingdom.
Hence, patriation is in literature usually associated with the establishment of full sovereignty'.
Canada ceased to be in law and in fact a colony of the United Kingdom
with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, 1931, which established the Crown of Canada
as a separate legal entity from the Crown of the United Kingdom.
The Royal Proclamation that Queen Elizabeth II of Canada signed at the ceremony in Ottawa
in recognition of Patriation even declared in the preamble:
“Whereas it is in accord with the status of Canada as an independent state
that Canadians be able to amend their Constitution in Canada in all respects.”
The Queen of Canada thus recognized that Canada had
already attained the status of independent state before 1982.
Since the Constitution Act, 1982 and the constitution's patriation, the term Dominion has fallen into disuse.
Not being fond of using the term "dominion" in French is one of the reasons why the federal government
avoided the use of the term "dominion" since 1982. Disuse, does not equates to any legal change.
A constitutional amendment would be required to change the name the Dominion of Canada to just Canada.
The Constitution Act, 1982 does not mention and therefore does not remove the title,
and a constitutional amendment is required to remove the title of Dominion from the name of the state.
The government decided to avoid the debate over a constitutional amendment required to remove the title since 1982,
in order to avoid dividing Canadians on an issue that would have no practical affect on lives of Canadians as it is now.
The government changed the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day to lighten the minds.
On paper, Canada legally still remained a dominion after 1982.
Presently, Canada is a constitutional monarchy with the hereditary head of state,
federal state and parliamentary democracy.
The Queen's role as monarch of Canada is separate from her role as the British monarch
or the monarch of any of the other Commonwealth realms.
Trivia bellow, about a related topic is a material not to appear on the test :
Related thought-provoking, kind of interesting topics and questions regards
duality of the Monarch; misunderstanding of the representatives of the Crown:
In a strictly literal sense, the Queen of Canada holds the legal title to 89% of Canada,
b/c 89% of Canada is the “Crown Lands”.
Canada inherited much of its legal tradition from the UK, that evolved for a long time without the concept of a
corporation. In the US, he government is a corporation, a legal person, allowed to own property, enter into contracts,
sue and be sued. In the Commonwealth Realm the government is not a a legal person.
The followed “legal formula” is that the office of Monarch owns all the government property,
the Crown enters into contracts, the Crown can sue or be sued, while the government acts on behalf of the Queen.
It is important to understand that even though the documents says Elizabeth Queen of Canada owns the land,
the land is not Elizabeth’s personal property.
It is owned by Elizabeth on behalf of the people of Canada.
In a practical sense 89% of Canada, being the “Crown Lands” is owned by the Canadian government.
Monarch's name is on the deed but she has no control over it.
The Crown of Canada owns Canadian public lands.
This legal entity is embodied in the Governor General and the Lieutenant Governors of each province.
This is understood a figurehead position, most of the power is held by the legislature.
In Canada there is the term "Crown Land" for public lands.
The Monarch in Right of Canada is the employer of all government officials and staff
(including the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, police officers, and parliamentarians),
the guardian of foster children (Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown land),
buildings and equipment (Crown held property), state owned companies (Crown corporations),
and the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright).
This is all in Monarch position as sovereign, and not as an individual;
all such property is held by the Crown in perpetuity, but
cannot be sold by the sovereign without the proper advice and consent of his or her ministers.
It is described as "belonging to the Queen in Right of Canada"
(in essence it "belongs" to the position of the Monarch, not the Queen herself personally).
In practice it is governed by Federal or Provincial /Territorial jurisdictions.
Crown land makes up about 89% of the land in Canada. (Crown Land - The Canadian Encyclopedia)
Federal crown lands are places like military bases and national parks.
Provincial crown lands are places like provincial parks and
provincial government buildings and historical sites.
The Crown in Right of Canada is a legal entity embodied in Governors and Lieutenants General
who are nominally the Queen's representatives, but are appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister.
They execute a limited ceremonial powers, even though legally, their powers are much wider
then the powers of the Monarch it-self, as a consequence of amendments to the Constitutionally Act of 1867:
I) When in 1892 the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, the highest court in the British Empire,
declared and ruled that in the case of The Liquidators of the Maritime Bank of Canada v The Receiver General of New
Brunswick, that the crown of the provinces was equal to, rather than subordinate, to the federal crown,
no longer would the Lieutenant Governors be agents of the federal government.
II) The second instance which changed Canada’s original vice-regal arrangements
was the Statute of Westminster of 1931
which in effect created a separate crown for the United Kingdom
and each of the six dominions of the Empire,
thus creating legislative equality between all seven parties.
This in effect, restricted the British government from advising the King or Crown in respect to Canadian matters.
Hence forth, the Monarch was only to accept advice from the Canadian Privy Council on Canadian issues.
The repercussions of these cases meant that the ‘crown’ in Canada was actually ‘divided’ into ten crowns;
a federal crown represented in Ottawa by the Governor General and nine provincial crowns represented
by the Lieutenant Governors, and the eleventh to be added when Newfoundland joined confederation in 1949.
The British Parliament carefully separated personal identity from the crown role of the Monarch.
Likewise when the Commonwealth Nations were given independence, the office was split again, once for each new nation.
So, legally and in practice The Queen of Canada is not a person, it's an office, that does not own all that land.
In practice, administration is done by the authority of the Prime Minister's office (or Premier's office)
through the Federal (or Provincial) bureaucracy.
Crown land legally belongs to the Canadian Crown read the Queen of Canada.
When the Crown sells Crown land, it requires the signature of one of her Canadian Ministers,
or their designate, instead of the Monarch's signature or her representatives (Governor General,
the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian Monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II,
office-holder appointed to represent the Monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm,
appointed by the Queen on the advice of her federal prime minister
and/or Lieutenant Governors, viceregal representative in a provincial jurisdiction of the Canadian Monarch
and the Head of State, Queen Elizabeth II, appointed by the Governor General
on the advice of the Prime Minister), to effect the conveyance.
There is a long-standing legal foundation in Canada which endows our vice-regals with wide-ranging and significant political powers. The legal groundwork of which appears throughout The British North America Act, 1867, The Letters Patent, 1947, The Constitution Act, 1982, as well as Commonwealth law and tradition which encompasses the Royal prerogatives. To date, none of the legal powers of Canada’s vice-regals have been repealed; instead they remain firmly entrenched in the country’s constitution. Moreover, due to several events since Confederation it can be said that these powers have not only remained but they have been further entrenched since 1867. It is imperative that Canada’s vice-regals are seen and act as independent figures, rather than as arm of the governing party. Canada’s vice-regals possess a set of powers which exist out side a statement outlining the sovereign’s rights (the Right to be Consulted, the Right to Encourage, and the Right to Warn).
The vice-regal offices were in the beginning created to protect the greater interests of unity while at the same time permit a greater autonomy and self-governance. Thus, the Lieutenant Governors were appointed by and expected to be agents of the Dominion government in Ottawa, while the Governor General was appointed by and expected to be an agent of the Imperial government in London. This arrangement, however, officially changed due to two separate events. The first occur red in 1892 when the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, the highest court in the British Empire, declared as ruled that in the case of The Liquidators of the Maritime Bank of Canada v The Receiver General of New Brunswick, that the crown of the provinces was equal to, rather than subordinate to the federal crown; no longer would the Lieutenant Governors be agents of the federal government.
The second instance which changed Canada’s original vice-regal arrangements
was the Statute of Westminster of 1931 which in effect created a separate crown for the United Kingdom
and each of the six dominions of the Empire, thus creating legislative equality between all seven parties.
This in effect, restricted the British government from advising the King or Crown in respect to Canadian matters.
Hence forth the Monarch was only to accept advice from the Canadian Privy Council on Canadian issues.
The repercussions of these two cases meant that the ‘crown’ in Canada was actually ‘divided’ into ten;
a federal Crown represented in Ottawa by the Governor General and nine provincial Crowns represented
by the Lieutenant Governor, the eleventh to be added when Newfoundland joined confederation in 1949.
It is understood that the broad sweeping powers granted to the vice-regals by the constitution have been
limited by convention. The remaining question is how far convention actually limits their use.
Emergency powers are properly known as the ‘Royal Prerogatives’ or ‘Reserve Powers’; and they include:
1.) The Prerogative to Dismiss and Appoint First Ministers (Federal and Provincial Prime Ministers)
2.) Refusal of the dissolution of parliament, and to
3.) Disallowing or Reserving legislation.
Essentially, should circumstances arise, to disallow or reserve legislation,
also to these eleven so-called ‘ceremonial’ vice-regals have:
4.) The Power to Dismiss their Premier or Prime Minister;
5.) Call for an Election;
6.) Offer the Government to an opposition party or coalition and even
7.) Veto Legislation.
All of which powers do not seem too ‘ceremonial’.
Yet, while it is true that the Royal Prerogatives are rarely used,
this does not preclude their future use, as in 1938,
the Supreme Court ruled “that even though a power has not been used for a long time,
it does not mean that it is no longer legal authority.”
This misconception is contributed by the fact that most people regard
the vice-regal offices as ceremonial and utterly powerless,
to the fault of successive generations of politicians,
of an educational system that has never given the institution due study,
and of past vice-regal incumbents themselves.
Popular belief is that Canada’s Governor General and Lieutenant Governors are not impotent,
but rather endowed with quite substantial legal powers.
While it is true, that for the most part these powers are exercised
upon the advice of the Prime Minister to conduct the daily business of government;
this is not always the case. It must not be forgotten that on occasion,
a vice-regal may reject the advice tendered by their first minister, and act alone.
As previously stated, Canada’s vice-regals retain six royal prerogatives:
the prerogative to dismiss and appoint first ministers,
to disallow or reserve legislation and
to refuse the dissolution of parliament.
Furthermore, the question of acting without advice is never one of legality, but instead,
a question of whether or not the occasion warrants the vice-regal to breach the standard convention
that the crown acts only upon the advice of its first minister.
The vice-regal is the country’s supreme decision maker.
In difficult situations it falls to them to protect the Constitution and Canadian parliamentary democracy.
The vice-regal must protect Canadians against first minister’s attempts at
“testing the limits of responsible government” and from first ministers who make statements such as,
“‘What’s the constitution among friends?’” when asked to justify extraordinary tactics.
It is because of the immense legal potential of the office that it is imperative that
Canada’s vice-regals are seen and act as independent figures, rather than as arm of the
governing party and its first minister. “The governor general, like a physician,
should first of all ‘do no harm.’
This is all very well, but it must not be interpreted to mean ‘do not do anything.’”
To return to the topic of Crown land:
It would probably be more accurate to understand the duality of
personal identity of the Monarch from the crown role of the Monarch
that the natural person of Monarch is owned by the Crown,
than to say that natural person of the Monarch owns the Crown and Crown Land.
Within Canada, Crown Land is a designated area belonging to the Queen in Right of Canada,
the equivalent of an entailed estate that passes with the monarchy and cannot be alienated from it;
thus, per constitutional convention, these lands cannot be unilaterally sold by the monarch,
instead passing on to the next king or queen unless the sovereign is advised otherwise by the ministers of the Crown.
Though the Canadian monarch owns all Crown Land in the country, paralleling the "division" of the Crown
amongst the federal and provincial governments, Crown Land is similarly divided
so that some lands within the province are administered by the provincial Crown,
whereas others are under the federal Crown.
About 89% of Canada's land area (8,886,356 km²) is Crown Land,
which may either be federal (41%) or provincial (48%); the remaining 11% is privately owned.
Most federal Crown land is in the Canadian territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon),
and is administered by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.
As the territories are not sovereign, they do not have a viceroy.
Only 4% of land in the provinces is federally controlled,
largely in the form of National Parks, Indian reserves, or Canadian Forces bases.
In contrast, provinces hold much of their territory as provincial Crown Land,
which may be held as Provincial Parks or wilderness.
Crown Land provides the country and the provinces with the majority of their profits from natural resources,
largely but not exclusively provincial, rented for logging and mineral exploration rights;
revenues flow to the relevant government and may constitute a major income stream, such as in Alberta.
Crown Land may also be rented by individuals wishing to build homes or cottages.
15. Who had played an important part in building the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)?
Chinese railroad workers
16. What is the “Head Tax”?
Race-based entry fee charged for Chinese entering Canada
17. Who is General Sir Arthur Currie?
Canada’s greatest soldier in the First World War.
18. Approximately how many Canadians served in the First World War?
More than 600,000
19. What was the Women’s Suffrage Movement?
The effort by women to achieve the right to vote
20. When is Remembrance Day celebrated?
The 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month every year
21. In the 1960s, Québec experienced an era of rapid change. What is this called?
The Quiet Revolution
22. Who are the Québecois?
People of Québec
1. What does Confederation mean?
Joining of provinces to make a new country
2. What is the Canadian Constitution?
A system of laws and conventions by which our country governs itself
3. What year was Confederation?
4. When did the British North America Act come into effect?
5. Why is the British North America Act important in Canadian history?
It made confederation official /legal
6. Which (3) three provinces first formed Confederation?
variation of a question: Which (4) four provinces first formed the Confederation?
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Province of Canada
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec
7. Which was the last province to join Canada?
Her Honor Honourable Governor General Adrienne Clarkson proclaimed an amendment to the Constitution,
Official name change of Newfoundland to Newfoundland and Labrador happened in 2001 A.D..
In 1949, when the province joined the confederation the official name was just Newfoundland.
Hence the answer: (just) Newfoundland.
Even though Nunavut is the newest, largest, and northernmost Territory of Canada
it is created /cut out of NWT by redefining it's borders, in 1999, it was a subdivision
of Northwest Territories - it is a Territory, it is NOT a Province.
For that reason Nunavut is not the right answer to this question.
Table: Expansion of the Dominion by Provinces /Territories
(Advice: Sort the table bellow by the column 'Year of joining the Confederation' )
|Sorted Geographically||Canadian Provinces||Year of joining the Confederation|
|01.||Newfoundland & Labrador||1949|
|02.||Prince Edward Island||1873|
|Sorted Geographically||Canadian Territories||Year of joining the Confederation|
1880 — Transfer of the Arctic Islands to N.W.T.
8. When is Canada Day and what does it celebrate?
We celebrate the anniversary of Confederation July 1st of each year
9. Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada?
Sir John A. Macdonald
FYI: Sir John Alexander Macdonald GCB KCMG PC PC QC
was the 1st Prime Minister of Canada
Styles and letters at the end of his name are NOT important for the test;
shortened name given above is just enough for the test
10. Why is the Constitution Act, 1982 important in Canadian history?
It allows Canada to change the Constitution without asking approval of the British Government
Quebec Refused to sign the agreement in 1982 for 2 reasons:
1.) With the new amending formula Quebec lost its veto power over future constitutional change.
Until then, Quebec or Ontario or a majority of Western or Maritime provinces
could prevent any constitutional changes they didn't agree with.
2.) Quebec wouldn't sign the Constitution Act, 1982 agreement was a clause in the Charter of Rights
which guaranteed minority language rights "where numbers warrant", annulling the Quebec's Bill 101,
so in essence it would continue to protect English language rights in Quebec, while at the same time
protecting French language rights in the rest of Canada only "where numbers warrant" ,
practically meant loosing French language rights in most of the Canadian Provinces.
The fact that the Constitution was patriated without the changes Quebec wanted
was seen as a serious betrayal by Quebeckers.
Rights and Responsibilities 
1. What part of the Constitution legally protects the basic rights and freedoms of all Canadians?
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
2. When did the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms become part of the Canadian Constitution?
3. Name two fundamental freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom to enter and leave Canada (mobility), educated in either official language
4. Name three legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Right to live and work anywhere in Canada, right to a fair trial, and right to protection against discrimination
5. List three ways in which you can protect the environment.
Compost and recycle, conserve energy and water, walk or join a car pool
6. Who has the right to apply for a Canadian passport?
7. What does equality under the law mean?
Being treated with equal dignity and respect and having equal rights to speak out and express ideas
8. Name six responsibilities of citizenship.
Vote, help others, care for our heritage and environment, obey Canada's laws, respect the rights of others,serve on a jury when called
9. Give an example of how you can show responsibility by participating in your community.
Start volunteering, join the community group such as environmental group
10. List four rights Canadian citizens have.
Right to be educated in either official language, vote, apply for a Canadian passport, enter and leave Canada freely
11. What will you promise when you take the Oath of Citizenship?
Pledge allegiance to the Queen, observe the laws of Canada and fulfill the duties of a Canadian citizen
1. What are the two official languages of Canada?
English and French
2. Give an example of where English and French have equal status in Canada.
Federal Courts and in all Federal Institutions
3. Where do most French-speaking Canadians live?
4. Which province has the most bilingual Canadians?
5. Which province is the only officially bilingual province?
1. What does the Canadian flag look like?
White with a red border on each end and a red maple leaf in the centre
2. What song is Canada’s national anthem?
3. Give the first two lines of Canada’s national anthem.
English: O Canada! Our home and native land! / True patriot love in all thy sons command.
French: Ô Canada! Terre de nos aïeux, / Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux!
4. Where does the name “Canada” come from?
It comes from the word Kanata which was originally used by 2 aboriginals to direct Jacques Cartier to the settlement of Stadacona (Québec City), the word means village or settlement, in the Huron Iroquois Language
From “kanata”, a First Nations word for village
5. Which animal is an official symbol of Canada?
Official symbol of Canada is a beaver
6. What is the tower in the centre of the Parliament buildings called?
7. What is the highest honor available for Canadians?
Trivia: Victoria Cross is given for actions under military command. It is awarded for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" to members of the British armed forces.
For most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy.
It is awarded in recognition of the most exceptional bravery displayed in the presence of the enemy,
although in rare instances the decoration has been given to mark other courageous acts.
The first recipients saw action in the Crimean War. The first award to a Canadian was in February 1857,
to Canadian lieutenant Alexander Roberts Dunn,
was awarded the VC for heroism during the charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaklava.
There have been 96 Canadians have been awarded Victoria Cross to date, last in 1945,
(Canadian-born or serving in the Canadian Army or with a close connection to Canada),
and 1,351 Victoria Crosses across Commonwealth countries (worldwide) awarded.
It may be awarded posthumously.
1. What is the approximate population of Canada?
About 36 million people (for up-to-date information, check Statistics Canada) Population estimate as of January 1, 2017 was: 36,503,097
2. What three oceans border on Canada?
Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific
3. What is the capital city of Canada?
4. Name all the provinces and territories and their capital cities.
|01.||Newfoundland & Labrador||St. John's|
|02.||Prince Edward Island||Charlottetown|
5. Name the five regions of Canada.
Atlantic, Central, Prairie, West Coast, North
6. Which region covers more than one-third of Canada?
7. In which region do more than half the people in Canada live?
8. One-third of all Canadians live in which province?
9. Where are the Canadian Rockies?
On the border between British Columbia and Alberta
10. Where are the Great Lakes?
Between Canada and the United States
11. Which mountain range is on the border between Alberta and British Columbia?
12. Where are the Parliament buildings located?
13. Which country borders Canada on the south?
United States of America
14. What are the Prairie provinces?
Alberta [AB] (Edmonton), Saskatchewan [SK] (Regina), Manitoba [MB] (Winnipeg)
15. Which province in Canada is the smallest in land size?
Prince Edward Island [PE]
16. What is a major river in Quebec?
St. Lawrence River
17. On what date did Nunavut become a territory?
(April 1st) 1999
~ FYI(except for 5 region model, others are not needed for the test; still, it's helpful to take a look this table):
National regions 
|All provinces and territories||Senate divisions||Seven-region model||Six-region model||Five-region model||Four-region model||Three-region model|
|British Columbia||Western Canada (24 seats)||British Columbia||West Coast||West Coast||Western Canada||Western Canada|
|Saskatchewan||Saskatchewan and Manitoba|
|Ontario||Ontario (24 seats)||Ontario||Ontario||Central Canada||Central Canada||Eastern Canada|
|Quebec||Quebec (24 seats)||Quebec||Quebec|
|New Brunswick||The Maritimes (24 seats)||Atlantic Canada||Atlantic Canada||Atlantic Canada||Atlantic Canada|
|Prince Edward Island|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||Newfoundland and Labrador (6 seats)|
|Yukon||The North (Territories) (3 seats)||Northern Canada||Northern Canada||Northern Canada||Northern Canada||Northern Canada|
Seats in the Senate are equally divided among four regions: Maritimes, Quebec, Ontario, and the West, with special status for Newfoundland and Labrador, and Northern Canada ('the North').
- Canadian regions.jpg
1. What are the (3) three main types of industries in Canada?
Natural resources, manufacturing and services
2. In what industry do most Canadians work?
(All kind of different types of) Services (~75% or more)
3. What country is Canada’s largest trading partner?
United States of America
4. Which region is known as the industrial and manufacturing heartland of Canada?
Central Canada (Ontario + Québec)
5. Which region of Canada is known for both its fertile agricultural land and valuable energy resources?
Prairie provinces (Canadian Prairies: MB, SK, AL)
Federal Government 
1. Who is Canada’s Head of State?
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
2. Who is the Queen’s representative in Canada?
Governor General of Canada
3. What is the name of the Governor General?
4. What do you call the Queen’s representative in the provinces?
5. What is Canada’s system of government called?
Parliamentary government or more correct
Federal State + Parliamentary Democracy + Constitutional Monarchy
5.1.) It is a FEDERAL state - since confederation - it's a system in which individual parts join together under the same banner /flag, e.g. symbol of the state /you could just say join together into a state, but not simply merge into 1 entity with no distinction from what they were before, but as states joined in a federation, multiple legal entities, that kept their Legislative Assemblies, (read: their own governments), etc, still had transferred certain rights, duties and responsibilities, jurisdictions to the highest level of government - the one that is made up of representatives of all of the joined parts, in the most representative way /meaning in the most representative numbers possible to the numbers of citizens they represent /e.g. representation should be reflected in numbers; a fair representation of the population in the Parliament. Example: smaller the population density of the given territory township or Provinces /Territories less seats in the Legislative Assembly (local, provincial, federal Legislative Assembly respectively).
5.2.) It is Parliamentary system of government meaning Canada has a Parliament to govern it-self (Federal Ministers (MPs), First minister (PM /Prime Minister, it is copied in each of it's parts /Provinces /Territories) e.g. House of Commons; Senate (the Upper House /Upper Chamber - abolished, not working or never in an existence on Provincial /Territorial level); Governor General), complex governing body and a formal place of meeting of a Legislative Assembly.
5.3.) It is a Democracy b/c citizens elect their representatives in a democratic way, casting a secret ballot with a vote, to government bodies (Legislative Assemblies, on federal level, and replicated in Provincial /Territorial levels, except Nunavut, b/c they are way to small so they incorporate all that and consensus /tribal traditions in a publicly held secret vote of the elected representatives, when selecting cabinet and the first Minister, also Territories have Commissioners instead of Governors, with slightly less wide scope of rights, but only slightly, there is a difference, hence the difference in the name to indicate the fact), instead of government being appointed by the Monarch, as it was in the very beginning; The Monarch granted Canada the right to govern it-self in such manner. There are still different clauses in legal documents that binds politicians to act in a certain manner through the Governor General actions, but since they do all by the books, there is no fear of those "emergency" measures, in legal books called: ‘Royal Prerogatives’ or ‘Reserve Powers’ ; to be ever enacted, so the role of 11, Monarch (read: Queens), direct representatives, the Governor General and any of the 10 Lieutenant Governors (collective name: vice-regals /all 11 of them equally are only the Monarch representatives, not any more a 2 tier system, the difference in a name only indicates the difference of jurisdictions - Federal Government or Provincial Governments) seems as ceremonial, even though, after all that transpired and has been amended and changed over the time in the legal frame, they ALL have more power over the Canadian government in the situation of emergency, should the situation require it, then the Monarch it-self. Emergency powers are properly known as the ‘Royal Prerogatives’ or ‘Reserve Powers’; and they include: 1.) The Prerogative to Dismiss and Appoint First Ministers (Federal and Provincial Prime Ministers); 2.) Refusal of the dissolution of parliament, and to 3.) Disallowing or Reserving legislation. Meaning, all of them could disallow or reserve legislation, if 'things go south', in their respective Legislative Assembly, also the Governor General and any of the 10 Lieutenant Governors have: 4.) The Power to Dismiss their Premier or Prime Minister; 5.) Call for an Election; 6.) Offer the Government to an opposition party or coalition and even, 7.) Veto Legislation. Even though these powers have not been in use for a long time, does not mean they are not binding by any means. Quite the contrary. So, it could only mean 1 thing: government has acted responsibly, and within a frame of good political conduct, therefor the sea was calm, the ride was easy /no ruff rides, no emergency rights to be enacted, all is great, do not rock the boot, especially for no reason. All in all, ‘Royal Prerogatives’ or ‘Reserve Powers’ so called emergency powers of the 11 vice-regals, not ceremonial at all, despite how it looks on the surface to a common person, all b/c Canada still formally is a Dominion, even though Government can change constitution without asking a Monarch, actually the British Parliament for the approval, in translation, Queen washed up her hands from us, but in a sense, Canada is not 100% trusted as an responsible /reasonable, all grown-up /adult country, so the beef-ed up role of the 11 vice-regals still stands, alive and kicking in the legislature /read 'books' (legal books /by law), all b/c of fears of secession of it's parts. In a sense it is not the worst legal "catch 22" when you get to understand it. Canada is stronger player united, in a sense even if the influence has been reduced, through the Commonwealth Realm both countries are strengthen by it - meaning alliance of any kind (be it a trade one or other) of stronger countries is always better then alliance of weaker, reduced entities /countries. There is a very strong reason of why things have been as they are. There are no missed points or misguided ones, especially from the stand point of the British, who claimed the land at the end of the colonial times - the strongest and the luckiest got to rule and make the rules.
5.4.) Canada is also a Constitutional Monarchy - since the forming of it, read: constitution (meaning making of, constituting, establishing, founding, forming, the creation, setting up, very begging of the legal framing as a country from it's humble beginnings of tribal settlements, over companies, colonial fortifications, colonial settlements, colonial territories /different, self standing legal entities referred to as just British colonies, then colonial provinces, to finally constitution as a Dominion of Canada) - a Monarch was and still is the Head of State, and is still, currently the Queen of Canada, Her Majesty Elizabeth II.
6. What are the three parts of Parliament?
The Queen; The House of Commons; The Senate (The Upper House /The Second House)
7. Explain how the levels of government are different.
In Canada we elect people to represent us at different levels: federal, provincial /territorial, municipal (local).
The Constitution grants different areas of responsibility to the federal Parliament and provincial Legislatures.
Under the Constitution, Parliament has the authority to govern the Territories, but in practice it has turned much of that authority over to the territorial governments.
Federal government takes major responsibility for matters that affect all of Canada; Provincial and territorial governments look after matters that affect all residents in the province; Municipal (or local ) governments are responsible for local matters.
8. What do you call a law before it is passed?
A bill (proposed legislation)
9. How are members of Parliament chosen?
Elected by Canadian citizens
(Each electoral district chooses one MP)
10. Who do members of Parliament represent?
A Member of parliament represents the voters in the respective Electoral District
Everyone who lives in his or her electoral district
11. How does a bill become law?
Approval by a majority in the House of Commons and Senate and finally the Governor General
Approval by a majority in the House of Commons
[Stages of Approval: 1.) 1st Reading, 2.) 2nd Reading, 3.) Committee, 4.) Report Stage, 5.) 3rd Reading)]
In the Second House read: Senate
(Same Stages of Approval (1-5) e.g. 1.) 1st Reading, 2.) 2nd Reading, 3.) Committee, 4.) Report Stage, 5.) 3rd Reading))
and by the Governor General
(Last Stages of Approval: Royal Assent)
12. What are the three levels of government in Canada?
Federal; Provincial /Territorial; Municipal (Local)
13. Name two responsibilities for each level of government.
Federal: National Defense, Citizenship (foreign policy) Provincial: Health care, Education (highways) Municipal: Snow removal, building codes, recycling (firefighting)
14. What is the government of all of Canada called?
Federal Elections 
1. How many electoral districts are there in Canada?
3 3 8
Number of Electoral districts, also called ridings or constituency dates is from the 2015 election.
2. In what electoral district do you live?
Etobicoke North, Ontario
Use this web tool to find the specifics: House of Commons Electoral District Listing & Web Search
~ FYI: Current members (333) List of all electoral districts in Canada, bellow (339) includes elected & resigned seats /represented ridings
|No.||Electoral Districts in Canada||Province / Territory|
|10||Aurora--Oak Ridges--Richmond Hill||Ontario|
|11||Avalon||Newfoundland & Labrador|
|18||Bay of Quinte||Ontario|
|28||Bonavista--Burin--Trinity||Newfoundland & Labrador|
|42||Burnaby North--Seymour||British Columbia|
|43||Burnaby South||British Columbia|
|46||Calgary Forest Lawn||Alberta|
|49||Calgary Nose Hill||Alberta|
|50||Calgary Rocky Ridge||Alberta|
|52||Calgary Signal Hill||Alberta|
|55||Cape Breton--Canso||Nova Scotia|
|56||Cardigan||Prince Edward Island|
|57||Cariboo--Prince George||British Columbia|
|59||Carlton Trail--Eagle Creek||Saskatchewan|
|60||Central Nova||Nova Scotia|
|61||Central Okanagan--Similkameen--Nicola||British Columbia|
|64||Charlottetown||Prince Edward Island|
|70||Cloverdale--Langley City||British Columbia|
|71||Coast of Bays--Central--Notre Dame||Newfoundland & Labrador|
|73||Coquitlam--Port Coquitlam||British Columbia|
|78||Dartmouth--Cole Harbour||Nova Scotia|
|83||Don Valley East||Ontario|
|84||Don Valley North||Ontario|
|85||Don Valley West||Ontario|
|93||Edmonton Mill Woods||Alberta|
|99||Egmont||Prince Edward Island|
|108||Fleetwood--Port Kells||British Columbia|
|110||Fort McMurray--Cold Lake||Alberta|
|112||Fundy Royal||New Brunswick|
|121||Halifax West||Nova Scotia|
|123||Hamilton East--Stoney Creek||Ontario|
|126||Hastings--Lennox and Addington||Ontario|
|130||Humber River--Black Creek||Ontario|
|136||Kelowna--Lake Country||British Columbia|
|140||Kingston and the Islands||Ontario|
|148||Labrador||Newfoundland & Labrador|
|159||Leeds--Grenville--Thousand Islands & Rideau Lakes||Ontario|
|162||London North Centre||Ontario|
|165||Long Range Mountains||Newfoundland & Labrador|
|171||Malpeque||Prince Edward Island|
|182||Miramichi--Grand Lake||New Brunswick|
|183||Mission--Matsqui--Fraser Canyon||British Columbia|
|194||Moose Jaw--Lake Centre--Lanigan||Saskatchewan|
|198||New Brunswick Southwest||New Brunswick|
|199||New Westminster--Burnaby||British Columbia|
|206||North Island--Powell River||British Columbia|
|207||North Okanagan--Shuswap||British Columbia|
|208||North Vancouver||British Columbia|
|210||Northwest Territories||Northwest Territories|
|232||Pitt Meadows--Maple Ridge||British Columbia|
|234||Port Moody--Coquitlam||British Columbia|
|238||Prince George--Peace River--Northern Rockies||British Columbia|
|242||Red Deer--Mountain View||Alberta|
|248||Richmond Centre||British Columbia|
|255||Saanich--Gulf Islands||British Columbia|
|257||Saint Boniface--Saint Vital||Manitoba|
|258||Saint John--Rothesay||New Brunswick|
|270||Sault Ste. Marie||Ontario|
|280||Sherwood Park--Fort Saskatchewan||Alberta|
|283||Skeena--Bulkley Valley||British Columbia|
|285||South Okanagan--West Kootenay||British Columbia|
|286||South Shore--St. Margarets||Nova Scotia|
|287||South Surrey--White Rock||British Columbia|
|291||St. John's East||Newfoundland & Labrador|
|292||St. John's South--Mount Pearl||Newfoundland & Labrador|
|293||Steveston--Richmond East||British Columbia|
|297||Surrey Centre||British Columbia|
|303||Thunder Bay--Rainy River||Ontario|
|304||Thunder Bay--Superior North||Ontario|
|312||Vancouver Centre||British Columbia|
|313||Vancouver East||British Columbia|
|314||Vancouver Granville||British Columbia|
|315||Vancouver Kingsway||British Columbia|
|316||Vancouver Quadra||British Columbia|
|317||Vancouver South||British Columbia|
|325||West Nova||Nova Scotia|
|326||West Vancouver--Sunshine Coast--Sea to Sky Country||British Columbia|
|324||Winnipeg South Centre||Manitoba|
^ List updated on: 2017.02.06
3. Who has the right to vote in federal elections?
A Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and on voters list
4. What three requirements must you meet in order to vote in a federal election?
Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and on the list of electors /voter list, list of voters
5. What is written on a federal election ballot?
The names of the candidates in your electoral district in alphabetical order from "A" to "Z"
6. What do you mark on a federal election ballot?
" X "
An “X” beside the candidate of your choice
7. How is the government formed after an election?
The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power. The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister.
8. How is the Prime Minister chosen?
The leader of the party with the most elected representatives becomes the Prime Minister
9. When does an election have to be held according to the Constitution?
On the 3rd Monday in October every 4 years following the most recent general election
10. Name all the federal political parties in the House of Commons and their leaders.
Liberal - Justin Trudeau; Conservative - Ronalee Chapchuk Ambrose /aka Rona Ambrose; NDP - Thomas Mulcair; Bloc Quebecois - Martine Ouellet; Green - Elizabeth May
11. Which party becomes the official opposition?
The party with the second most MPs
12. What is the role of the opposition parties?
To oppose or try to improve government proposals
13. Which party is the official opposition at the federal level?
Progresive Conservatives (PC)
For up-to-date information check the Official Opposition Page
14. Name the Prime Minister of Canada and his party.
Justin Trudeau - Liberal Party
For up-to-date information check the Prime Minister Page
15. Name your member of Parliament and the party he or she belongs to.
Kirsty Duncan Liberal (for Etobicoke North, Ontario)
Use this web tool to find the specifics: Members of the House of Commons Web Search Tool
~ FYI - Members of the House of Commons, elected in last election (includes current and resigned members):
|Name||Political Affiliation at Election||Constituency||Gender|
|Edward Fast||Conservative||Abbotsford, British Columbia||m|
|Romeo Saganash||New Democratic Party||Abitibi--Baie-James--Nunavik--Eeyou, Quebec||m|
|Christine Moore||New Democratic Party||Abitibi--Témiscamingue, Quebec||w|
|Serge Cormier||Liberal||Acadie--Bathurst, New Brunswick||w|
|Joly Mélanie||Liberal||Ahuntsic-Cartierville, Quebec||w|
|Mark Holland||Liberal||Ajax, Ontario||m|
|Angelo Iacono||Liberal||Alfred-Pellan, Quebec||m|
|Carol Hughes||New Democratic Party||Algoma--Manitoulin--Kapuskasing, Ontario||m|
|Stéphane Lauzon||Liberal||Argenteuil--La Petite-Nation, Quebec||w|
|Leona Alleslev||Liberal||Aurora--Oak Ridges--Richmond Hill, Ontario||w|
|Ken McDonald||Liberal||Avalon, Newfoundland and Labrador||m|
|Rémi Massé||Liberal||Avignon--La Mitis--Matane--Matapédia, Quebec|
|Richards Blake||Conservative||Banff--Airdrie, Alberta||m|
|John Brassard||Conservative||Barrie--Innisfil, Ontario||m|
|Alex Nuttall||Conservative||Barrie--Springwater--Oro-Medonte, Ontario|
|Kevin Sorenson||Conservative||Battle River--Crowfoot, Alberta||m|
|Gerry Ritz||Conservative||Battlefords--Lloydminster, Saskatchewan|
|Neil R. Ellis||Liberal||Bay of Quinte, Ontario||m|
|Nathaniel Erskine-Smith||Liberal||Beaches--East York, Ontario||m|
|Maxime Bernier||Conservative||Beauce, Quebec||m|
|Sylvie Boucher||Conservative||Beauport--Côte-de-Beaupré--Île d’Orléans--Charlevoix, Quebec||w|
|Alupa Clarke||Conservative||Beauport--Limoilou, Quebec||m|
|Dominic LeBlanc||Liberal||Beauséjour, New Brunswick||m|
|Louis Plamondon||Bloc Québécois||Bécancour--Nicolet--Saurel, Quebec||m|
|Steven Blaney||Conservative||Bellechasse--Les Etchemins--Lévis, Quebec||m|
|Matthew Dubé||New Democratic Party||Beloeil--Chambly, Quebec||m|
|Brosseau Ruth Ellen||New Democratic Party||Berthier--Maskinongé, Quebec||w|
|Judy Foote||Liberal||Bonavista--Burin--Trinity, Newfoundland & Labrador||w|
|Emmanuel Dubourg||Liberal||Bourassa, Quebec||m|
|Martin Shields||Conservative||Bow River, Alberta||m|
|Ramesh Sangha||Liberal||Brampton Centre, Ontario|
|Raj Grewal||Liberal||Brampton East, Ontario||m|
|Ruby Sahota||Liberal||Brampton North, Ontario||w|
|Sonia Sidhu||Liberal||Brampton South, Ontario||w|
|Kamal Khera||Liberal||Brampton West, Ontario|
|Larry Maguire||Conservative||Brandon--Souris, Manitoba||m|
|Phil McColeman||Conservative||Brantford--Brant, Ontario||m|
|Denis Paradis||Liberal||Brome--Missisquoi, Quebec||m|
|Alexandra Mendès||Liberal||Brossard--Saint-Lambert, Quebec||w|
|Larry Miller||Conservative||Bruce--Grey--Owen Sound, Ontario||m|
|Karina Gould||Liberal||Burlington, Ontario||w|
|Terry Beech||Liberal||Burnaby North--Seymour, British Columbia||m|
|Kennedy Stewart||New Democratic Party||Burnaby South, British Columbia|
|Kent Hehr||Liberal||Calgary Centre, Alberta||m|
|Len Webber||Conservative||Calgary Confederation, Alberta|
|Deepak Obhrai||Conservative||Calgary Forest Lawn, Alberta||m|
|Stephen Harper||Conservative||Calgary Heritage, Alberta||m|
|Jason Kenney||Conservative||Calgary Midnapore, Alberta||m|
|Michelle Rempel||Conservative||Calgary Nose Hill, Alberta|
|Pat Kelly||Conservative||Calgary Rocky Ridge, Alberta|
|Tom Kmiec||Conservative||Calgary Shepard, Alberta||m|
|Ron Liepert||Conservative||Calgary Signal Hill, Alberta||m|
|Darshan Singh Kang||Liberal||Calgary Skyview, Alberta|
|Bryan May||Liberal||Cambridge, Ontario||m|
|Cuzner, Rodger||Liberal||Cape Breton--Canso, Nova Scotia||m|
|MacAulay, Lawrence||Liberal||Cardigan, Prince Edward Island||m|
|Doherty, Todd||Conservative||Cariboo--Prince George, British Columbia||m|
|Poilievre, Pierre||Conservative||Carleton, Ontario||m|
|Block, Kelly||Conservative||Carlton Trail--Eagle Creek, Saskatchewan||w|
|Fraser, Sean||Liberal||Central Nova, Nova Scotia||m|
|Albas, Dan||Conservative||Central Okanagan--Similkameen--Nicola, British Columbia||m|
|Paul-Hus, Pierre||Conservative||Charlesbourg--Haute-Saint-Charles, Quebec||m|
|Eyolfson, Doug||Liberal||Charleswood--St. James--Assiniboia--Headingley, Manitoba||m|
|Casey, Sean||Liberal||Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island||m|
|Shanahan, Brenda||Liberal||Châteauguay--Lacolle, Quebec||w|
|Van Kesteren, Dave||Conservative||Chatham-Kent--Leamington, Ontario||m|
|Lemieux, Denis||Liberal||Chicoutimi--Le Fjord, Quebec||m|
|Strahl, Mark||Conservative||Chilliwack--Hope, British Columbia||m|
|Ashton, Niki||New Democratic Party||Churchill--Keewatinook Aski, Manitoba|
|Aldag, John||Liberal||Cloverdale--Langley City, British Columbia||m|
|Simms, Scott||Liberal||Coast of Bays--Central--Notre Dame, Newfoundland & Labrador||m|
|Bibeau, Marie-Claude||Liberal||Compton--Stanstead, Quebec||w|
|McKinnon, Ron||Liberal||Coquitlam--Port Coquitlam, British Columbia||m|
|Johns, Gord||New Democratic Party||Courtenay--Alberni, British Columbia||m|
|MacGregor, Alistair||New Democratic Party||Cowichan--Malahat--Langford, British Columbia||m|
|Casey, William D. (Bill)||Liberal||Cumberland--Colchester, Nova Scotia|
|Anderson, David||Conservative||Cypress Hills--Grasslands, Saskatchewan||m|
|Fisher, Darren||Liberal||Dartmouth--Cole Harbour, Nova Scotia|
|Sopuck, Robert||Conservative||Dauphin--Swan River--Neepawa, Manitoba||m|
|Dzerowicz, Julie||Liberal||Davenport, Ontario||w|
|Qualtrough, Carla||Liberal||Delta, British Columbia||w|
|Jolibois, Georgina||New Democratic Party||Desnethé--Missinippi--Churchill River, Saskatchewan||w|
|Ratansi, Yasmin||Liberal||Don Valley East, Ontario||w|
|Tan, Geng||Liberal||Don Valley North, Ontario|
|Oliphant, Robert||Liberal||Don Valley West, Ontario||m|
|Dhillon, Anju||Liberal||Dorval--Lachine--LaSalle, Quebec|
|Choquette, François||New Democratic Party||Drummond, Quebec||m|
|Tilson, David||Conservative||Dufferin--Caledon, Ontario||m|
|O'Toole, Erin||Conservative||Durham, Ontario|
|Boissonnault, Randy||Liberal||Edmonton Centre, Alberta||m|
|Diotte, Kerry||Conservative||Edmonton Griesbach, Alberta|
|Aboultaif, Ziad||Conservative||Edmonton Manning, Alberta|
|Sohi, Amarjeet||Liberal||Edmonton Mill Woods, Alberta|
|Jeneroux, Matt||Conservative||Edmonton Riverbend, Alberta||m|
|Duncan, Linda Francis||New Democratic Party||Edmonton Strathcona, Alberta||w|
|McCauley, Kelly||Conservative||Edmonton West, Alberta||w|
|Lake, Mike||Conservative||Edmonton--Wetaskiwin, Alberta|
|Mendicino, Marco||Liberal||Eglinton--Lawrence, Ontario||m|
|Morrissey, Robert||Liberal||Egmont, Prince Edward Island||m|
|Karen Vecchio||Conservative||Elgin--Middlesex--London, Ontario|
|Blaikie, Daniel||New Democratic Party||Elmwood--Transcona, Manitoba|
|Garrison, Randall||New Democratic Party||Esquimalt--Saanich--Sooke, British Columbia||m|
|Ramsey, Tracey||New Democratic Party||Essex, Ontario||w|
|Wrzesnewskyj, Borys||Liberal||Etobicoke Centre, Ontario||m|
|Duncan, Kirsty||Liberal||Etobicoke North, Ontario||w|
|Maloney, James||Liberal||Etobicoke--Lakeshore, Ontario|
|Sweet, David||Conservative||Flamborough--Glanbrook, Ontario|
|Hardie, Ken||Liberal||Fleetwood--Port Kells, British Columbia||m|
|Barlow, John||Conservative||Foothills, Alberta||m|
|Yurdiga, David||Conservative||Fort McMurray--Cold Lake, Alberta||m|
|DeCourcey, Matt||Liberal||Fredericton, New Brunswick||m|
|Lockhart, Alaina||Liberal||Fundy Royal, New Brunswick|
|Lebouthillier, Diane||Liberal||Gaspésie--Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec||w|
|MacKinnon, Steven||Liberal||Gatineau, Quebec||m|
|Drouin, Francis||Liberal||Glengarry--Prescott--Russell, Ontario||m|
|Warkentin, Chris||Conservative||Grande Prairie--Mackenzie, Alberta||m|
|Longfield, Lloyd||Liberal||Guelph, Ontario||m|
|Finley, Diane||Conservative||Haldimand--Norfolk, Ontario||w|
|Schmale, Jamie||Conservative||Haliburton--Kawartha Lakes--Brock, Ontario|
|Fillmore, Andy||Liberal||Halifax, Nova Scotia||m|
|Regan, Geoff||Liberal||Halifax West, Nova Scotia||m|
|Christopherson, David||New Democratic Party||Hamilton Centre, Ontario||m|
|Bratina, Bob||Liberal||Hamilton East--Stoney Creek, Ontario||m|
|Duvall, Scott||New Democratic Party||Hamilton Mountain, Ontario||m|
|Tassi, Filomena||Liberal||Hamilton West--Ancaster--Dundas, Ontario||w|
|Bossio, Mike||Liberal||Hastings--Lennox and Addington, Ontario||m|
|Marjolaine Boutin-Sweet||New Democratic Party||Hochelaga, Quebec||w|
|Pablo Rodriguez||Liberal||Honoré-Mercier, Quebec||m|
|Greg Fergus||Liberal||Hull--Aylmer, Quebec||m|
|Sgro, Judy||Liberal||Humber River--Black Creek, Ontario||w|
|Lobb, Ben||Conservative||Huron--Bruce, Ontario||m|
|Ste-Marie, Gabriel||Bloc Québécois||Joliette, Quebec||m|
|Karine Trudel||New Democratic Party||Jonquière, Quebec||w|
|Cathy McLeod||Conservative||Kamloops--Thompson--Cariboo, British Columbia||w|
|Karen McCrimmon||Liberal||Kanata--Carleton, Ontario||w|
|Fuhr, Stephen||Liberal||Kelowna--Lake Country, British Columbia||m|
|Nault, Robert Daniel||Liberal||Kenora, Ontario||m|
|Mihychuk, MaryAnn||Liberal||Kildonan--St. Paul, Manitoba||w|
|Brison, Scott||Liberal||Kings--Hants, Nova Scotia||m|
|Gerretsen, Mark||Liberal||Kingston and the Islands, Ontario||m|
|Schulte, Deborah||Liberal||King--Vaughan, Ontario||w|
|Saini, Raj||Liberal||Kitchener Centre, Ontario|
|Tabbara, Marwan||Liberal||Kitchener South--Hespeler, Ontario|
|Albrecht, Harold||Conservative||Kitchener--Conestoga, Ontario||m|
|Stetski, Wayne||New Democratic Party||Kootenay--Columbia, British Columbia||m|
|Beaulieu, Mario||Bloc Québécois||La Pointe-de-l'Île, Quebec|
|Poissant, Jean-Claude||Liberal||La Prairie, Quebec||m|
|Jones, Yvonne||Liberal||Labrador, Newfoundland and Labrador||w|
|Lebel, Denis||Conservative||Lac-Saint-Jean, Quebec||m|
|Scarpaleggia, Francis||Liberal||Lac-Saint-Louis, Quebec||m|
|Stubbs, Shannon||Conservative||Lakeland, Alberta||w|
|Shipley, Bev||Conservative||Lambton--Kent--Middlesex, Ontario|
|Reid, Scott||Conservative||Lanark--Frontenac--Kingston, Ontario||m|
|Warawa, Mark||Conservative||Langley--Aldergrove, British Columbia||m|
|Lametti, David||Liberal||LaSalle--Émard--Verdun, Quebec||m|
|Graham, David||Liberal||Laurentides--Labelle, Quebec|
|Laverdière, Hélène||New Democratic Party||Laurier--Sainte-Marie, Quebec||w|
|El-Khoury, Fayçal||Liberal||ExaLaval--Les Îles, Quebecmple|
|Brown, Gordon||Conservative||Leeds--Grenville--Thousand Islands & Rideau Lakes, Ontario||m|
|Harder, Rachael||Conservative||Lethbridge, Alberta||w|
|Gourde, Jacques||Conservative||Lévis--Lotbinière, Quebec||m|
|Fragiskatos, Peter||Liberal||London North Centre, Ontario||m|
|Kate Young||Liberal||London West, Ontario||w|
|Mathyssen, Irene||New Democratic Party||London--Fanshawe, Ontario||w|
|Hutchings, Gudie||Liberal||Long Range Mountains, Newfoundland & Labrador|
|Romanado, Sherry||Liberal||Longueuil--Charles-LeMoyne, Quebec||w|
|Nantel, Pierre||New Democratic Party||Longueuil--Saint-Hubert, Quebec||m|
|Lightbound, Joël||Liberal||Louis-Hébert, Quebec||m|
|Gérard Deltell||Conservative||Louis-Saint-Laurent, Quebec|
|René Arseneault||Liberal||Madawaska--Restigouche, New Brunswick|
|Wayne Easter||Liberal||Malpeque, Prince Edward Island|
|Gill, Marilène||Bloc Québécois||Manicouagan, Quebec||w|
|Robillard, Yves||Liberal||Marc-Aurèle-Fortin, Quebec||m|
|Philpott, Jane||Liberal||Markham--Stouffville, Ontario||w|
|John McCallum||Liberal||Markham--Thornhill, Ontario||m|
|Bob Saroya||Conservative||Markham--Unionville, Ontario||m|
|Jim Hillyer||Conservative||Medicine Hat--Cardston--Warner, Alberta||m|
|Motz, Glen||Conservative||Medicine Hat--Cardston--Warner, Alberta|
|Berthold, Luc||Conservative||Mégantic--L'Érable, Quebec||m|
|Raitt, Lisa||Conservative||Milton, Ontario||w|
|Simon Marcil||Bloc Québécois||Mirabel, Quebec|
|Pat Finnigan||Liberal||Miramichi--Grand Lake, New Brunswick|
|Jati Sidhu||Liberal||Mission--Matsqui--Fraser Canyon, British Columbia|
|Omar Alghabra||Liberal||Mississauga Centre, Ontario||m|
|Peter Fonseca||Liberal||Mississauga East--Cooksville, Ontario||m|
|Iqra Khalid||Liberal||Mississauga--Erin Mills, Ontario||w|
|Sven Spengemann||Liberal||Mississauga--Lakeshore, Ontario||m|
|Navdeep Singh Bains||Liberal||Mississauga--Malton, Ontario|
|Gagan Sikand||Liberal||Mississauga--Streetsville, Ontario|
|Ginette Petitpas Taylor||Liberal||Moncton--Riverview--Dieppe, New Brunswick|
|Michel Picard||Liberal||Montarville, Quebec||m|
|Luc Thériault||Bloc Québécois||Montcalm, Quebec||m|
|Généreux, Bernard||Conservative||Montmagny--L'Islet--Kamouraska--Rivière-du-Loup, Quebec|
|Lukiwski, Tom||Conservative||Moose Jaw--Lake Centre--Lanigan, Saskatchewan||m|
|Housefather, Anthony||Liberal||Mount Royal, Quebec||m|
|Malcolmson, Sheila||New Democratic Party||Nanaimo--Ladysmith, British Columbia||w|
|Arya, Chandra||Liberal||Nepean, Ontario|
|Ludwig, Karen||Liberal||New Brunswick Southwest, New Brunswick|
|Julian, Peter||New Democratic Party||New Westminster--Burnaby, British Columbia||m|
|Peterson, Kyle||Liberal||Newmarket--Aurora, Ontario|
|Badawey, Vance||Liberal||Niagara Centre, Ontario||m|
|Nicholson, Rob||Conservative||Niagara Falls, Ontario||m|
|Allison, Dean||Conservative||Niagara West, Ontario||m|
|Serré, Marc G.||Liberal||Nickel Belt, Ontario|
|Anthony Rota||Liberal||Nipissing--Timiskaming, Ontario||m|
|Rachel Blaney||New Democratic Party||North Island--Powell River, British Columbia|
|Mel Arnold||Conservative||North Okanagan--Shuswap, British Columbia|
|Wilkinson, Jonathan||Liberal||North Vancouver, British Columbia||m|
|Rudd, Kim||Liberal||Northumberland--Peterborough South, Ontario|
|McLeod, Michael||Liberal||Northwest Territories, Northwest Territories||m|
|Garneau, Marc||Liberal||Notre-Dame-de-Grâce--Westmount, Quebec|
|Tootoo, Hunter||Liberal||Nunavut, Nunavut|
|Oliver, John||Liberal||Oakville, Ontario||m|
|Damoff, Pam||Liberal||Oakville North--Burlington, Ontario||w|
|Leslie, Andrew||Liberal||Orléans, Ontario|
|Carie, Colin||Conservative||Oshawa, Ontario|
|McKenna, Catherine||Liberal||Ottawa Centre, Ontario||w|
|McGuinty, David||Liberal||Ottawa South, Ontario||m|
|Vandenbeld, Anita||Liberal||Ottawa West--Nepean, Ontario||w|
|Bélanger, Mauril||Liberal||Ottawa--Vanier, Ontario|
|Mulcair, Thomas J.||New Democratic Party||Outremont, Quebec||m|
|MacKenzie, Dave||Conservative||Oxford, Ontario||m|
|Trudeau, Justin||Liberal||Papineau, Quebec||m|
|Virani, Arif||Liberal||Parkdale--High Park, Ontario|
|Clement, Tony||Conservative||Parry Sound--Muskoka, Ontario||m|
|Viersen, Arnold||Conservative||Peace River--Westlock, Alberta||m|
|Nater, John||Conservative||Perth--Wellington, Ontario||m|
|Monsef, Maryam||Liberal||Peterborough--Kawartha, Ontario|
|O'Connell, Jennifer||Liberal||Pickering--Uxbridge, Ontario||w|
|Barsalou-Duval, Xavier||Bloc Québécois||Pierre-Boucher--Les Patriotes--Verchères, Quebec||m|
|Baylis, Frank||Liberal||Pierrefonds--Dollard, Quebec||m|
|Ruimy, Dan||Liberal||Pitt Meadows--Maple Ridge, British Columbia||m|
|Amos, William||Liberal||Pontiac, Quebec||m|
|Donnelly, Fin||New Democratic Party||Port Moody--Coquitlam, British Columbia||m|
|Bergen, Candice||Conservative||Portage--Lisgar, Manitoba|
|Godin, Joël||Conservative||Portneuf--Jacques-Cartier, Quebec||m|
|Hoback, Randy||Conservative||Prince Albert, Saskatchewan||m|
|Bob Zimmer||Conservative||Prince George--Peace River--Northern Rockies, British Columbia||m|
|Ted Falk||Conservative||Provencher, Manitoba||m|
|Jean-Yves Duclos||Liberal||Québec, Quebec|
|Blaine Calkins||Conservative||Red Deer--Lacombe, Alberta|
|Dreeshen, Earl||Conservative||Red Deer--Mountain View, Alberta|
|Weir, Erin||New Democratic Party||Regina--Lewvan, Saskatchewan|
|Scheer, Andrew||Conservative||Regina--Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan||m|
|Goodale, Ralph||Liberal||Regina--Wascana, Saskatchewan||m|
|Gallant, Cheryl||Conservative||Renfrew--Nipissing--Pembroke, Ontario|
|Pauzé, Monique||Bloc Québécois||Repentigny, Quebec||w|
|Wong, Alice||Conservative||Richmond Centre, British Columbia||w|
|Jowhari, Majid||Liberal||Richmond Hill, Ontario|
|Rayes, Alain||Conservative||Richmond--Arthabaska, Quebec|
|Caron, Guy||New Democratic Party||Rimouski-Neigette--Témiscouata--Les Basques, Quebec||m|
|Lapointe, Linda||Liberal||Rivière-des-Mille-Îles, Quebec||w|
|Fortin, Rhéal||Bloc Québécois||Rivière-du-Nord, Quebec|
|Boulerice, Alexandre||New Democratic Party||Rosemont--La Petite-Patrie, Quebec|
|May, Elizabeth||Green Party||Saanich--Gulf Islands, British Columbia||w|
|Samson, Darrell||Liberal||Sackville--Preston--Chezzetcook, Nova Scotia|
|Vandal, Daniel||Liberal||Saint Boniface--Saint Vital, Manitoba|
|Long, Wayne||Liberal||Saint John--Rothesay, New Brunswick||m|
|Sansoucy, Brigitte||New Democratic Party||Saint-Hyacinthe--Bagot, Quebec||w|
|Rioux, Jean R.||Liberal||Saint-Jean, Quebec|
|Dion, Stéphane||Liberal||Saint-Laurent, Quebec||m|
|Di Iorio, Nicola||Liberal||Saint-Léonard--Saint-Michel, Quebec||m|
|Champagne, François-Philippe||Liberal||Saint-Maurice--Champlain, Quebec|
|Quach, Anne Minh-Thu||New Democratic Party||Salaberry--Suroît, Quebec|
|Gladu, Marilyn||Conservative||Sarnia--Lambton, Ontario||w|
|Benson, Sheri||New Democratic Party||Saskatoon West, Saskatchewan||w|
|Waugh, Kevin||Conservative||Saskatoon--Grasswood, Saskatchewan||m|
|Brad Trost||Conservative||Saskatoon--University, Saskatchewan||m|
|Terry Sheehan||Liberal||Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario||m|
|Zahid, Salma||Liberal||Scarborough Centre, Ontario||w|
|Chen, Shaun||Liberal||Scarborough North, Ontario||m|
|Blair, Bill||Liberal||Scarborough Southwest, Ontario||m|
|Chan, Arnold||Liberal||Scarborough--Agincourt, Ontario||m|
|McKay, John||Liberal||Scarborough--Guildwood, Ontario||m|
|Anandasangaree, Gary||Liberal||Scarborough--Rouge Park, Ontario|
|Bezan, James||Conservative||Selkirk--Interlake--Eastman, Manitoba||m|
|Breton, Pierre||Liberal||Shefford, Quebec||m|
|Dusseault, Pierre-Luc||New Democratic Party||Sherbrooke, Quebec||m|
|Genuis, Garnett||Conservative||Sherwood Park--Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta|
|Stanton, Bruce||Conservative||Simcoe North, Ontario||m|
|Leitch, K. Kellie||Conservative||Simcoe--Grey, Ontario||w|
|Cullen, Nathan||New Democratic Party||Skeena--Bulkley Valley, British Columbia||m|
|Kitchen, Robert Gordon||Conservative||Souris--Moose Mountain, Saskatchewan||m|
|Cannings, Richard||New Democratic Party||South Okanagan--West Kootenay, British Columbia||m|
|Jordan, Bernadette||Liberal||South Shore--St. Margarets, Nova Scotia||w|
|Watts, Dianne||Conservative||South Surrey--White Rock, British Columbia||w|
|Vaughan, Adam||Liberal||Spadina--Fort York, Ontario||m|
|Cooper, Michael||Conservative||St. Albert--Edmonton, Alberta||m|
|Bittle, Chris||Liberal||St. Catharines, Ontario||m|
|Whalen, Nick||Liberal||St. John's East, Newfoundland & Labrador||m|
|O'Regan, Seamus||Liberal||St. John's South--Mount Pearl, Newfoundland & Labrador|
|Peschisolido, Joe||Liberal||Steveston--Richmond East, British Columbia||m|
|Lauzon, Guy||Conservative||Stormont--Dundas--South Glengarry, Ontario||m|
|Ambrose, Rona||Conservative||Sturgeon River--Parkland, Alberta||w|
|Lefebvre, Paul||Liberal||Sudbury, Ontario||m|
|Sarai, Randeep||Liberal||Surrey Centre, British Columbia|
|Dhaliwal, Sukh||Liberal||Surrey--Newton, British Columbia|
|Eyking, Mark||Liberal||Sydney--Victoria, Nova Scotia||m|
|Boudrias, Michel||Bloc Québécois||Terrebonne, Quebec||m|
|Ayoub, Ramez||Liberal||Thérèse-De Blainville, Quebec||m|
|Kent, Peter||Conservative||Thornhill, Ontario||m|
|Rusnak, Don||Liberal||Thunder Bay--Rainy River, Ontario||m|
|Hajdu, Patricia||Liberal||Thunder Bay--Superior North, Ontario||w|
|Angus, Charlie||New Democratic Party||Timmins--James Bay, Ontario||m|
|Harvey, Thomas J.||Liberal||Tobique--Mactaquac, New Brunswick||m|
|Morneau, Bill||Liberal||Toronto Centre, Ontario||m|
|Dabrusin, Julie||Liberal||Toronto--Danforth, Ontario||w|
|Bennett, Carolyn||Liberal||Toronto--St. Paul's, Ontario||w|
|Aubin, Robert||New Democratic Party||Trois-Rivières, Quebec||m|
|Freeland, Chrystia||Liberal||University--Rosedale, Ontario|
|Fry, Hedy||Liberal||Vancouver Centre, British Columbia|
|Kwan, Jenny Wai Ching||New Democratic Party||Vancouver East, British Columbia|
|Wilson-Raybould, Jody||Liberal||Vancouver Granville, British Columbia||w|
|Davies, Don||New Democratic Party||Vancouver Kingsway, British Columbia||m|
|Murray, Joyce||Liberal||Vancouver Quadra, British Columbia||w|
|Sajjan, Harjit Singh||Liberal||Vancouver South, British Columbia|
|Schiefke, Peter||Liberal||Vaudreuil--Soulanges, Quebec||m|
|Sorbara, Francesco||Liberal||Vaughan--Woodbridge, Ontario||m|
|Rankin, Murray||New Democratic Party||Victoria, British Columbia||m|
|Miller, Marc||Liberal||Ville-Marie--Le Sud-Ouest--Île-des-Soeurs, Quebec||m|
|Nassif, Eva||Liberal||Vimy, Quebec||w|
|Chagger, Bardish||Liberal||Waterloo, Ontario|
|Michael D. Chong||Conservative||Wellington--Halton Hills, Ontario||m|
|Colin Fraser||Liberal||West Nova, Nova Scotia||m|
|Pamela Goldsmith-Jones||Liberal||West Vancouver--Sunshine Coast--Sea to Sky Country, British Columbia||w|
|Celina Caesar-Chavannes||Liberal||Whitby, Ontario||w|
|Ali Ehsassi||Liberal||Willowdale, Ontario|
|Brian Masse||New Democratic Party||Windsor West, Ontario||m|
|Cheryl Hardcastle||New Democratic Party||Windsor--Tecumseh, Ontario||w|
|Robert-Falcon Ouellette||Liberal||Winnipeg Centre, Manitoba||m|
|Kevin Lamoureux||Liberal||Winnipeg North, Manitoba||m|
|Terry Duguid||Liberal||Winnipeg South, Manitoba||m|
|James Gordon Carr||Liberal||Winnipeg South Centre, Manitoba||m|
|Jim Eglinski||Conservative||Yellowhead, Alberta||m|
|Michael Levitt||Liberal||York Centre, Ontario||m|
|Ahmed Hussen||Liberal||York South--Weston, Ontario||m|
|Peter Van Loan||Conservative||York--Simcoe, Ontario||m|
|Cathay Wagantall||Conservative||Yorkton--Melville, Saskatchewan||w|
|Larry Bagnell||Liberal||Yukon, Yukon||m|
^ List updated on: 2017.02.06
16. What is a voter information card?
A form that tells you when and where to vote
17. Who has the right to run as a candidate in federal elections?
Any Canadian citizen at least 18+ years of age old
18. Who do Canadians vote for in a federal election?
A candidate they want to represent them in Parliament
19. What do political parties do?
Share ideas about how government should work
20. Which federal political party is in power?
Liberal Party (for up-to-date information check either the Canadian Parliament Page or Prime Minister of Canada) wiki page
21. How are senators chosen?
They are chosen by the Prime Minister (and appointed by the Governor General)
22. What should you do if you do not receive a voter information card telling you when and where to vote?
Call Elections Canada or visit their website
23. After a federal election, which party forms the new government?
The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power
Section II. Questions about your region 
(answers depend on test-taker's location)
1. What is the capital city of the province or territory in which you live?
For the Province of Ontario the answer is: Toronto
Pick one from the list of all given bellow:
Region Province/Territory Capital City
1.1. Atlantic region
Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) St. John’s Prince Edward Island (PE) Charlottetown Nova Scotia (NS) Halifax New Brunswick (NB) Fredericton
1.2. Central Canada region
(FYI: The Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River basin; but also part of The Canadian Shield (region), that is also called the Laurentian Plateau or Bouclier Canadien)
Quebec (QC) Québec City Ontario (ON) Toronto
1.3. Prairie Provinces
(FYI: that are also part of The Planes, but also part of the The Canadian Shield (Laurentian Plateau or Bouclier Canadien) region (that include northern portions of Manitoba /Saskatchewan), because the Prairie Provinces region is named after the prairies in Alberta and Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but the physical geography is diverse consisting of portions of the Canadian Shiel and the Canadian Interior Plains and the Cordillera (Cordillera is a Spanish word for mountain range)).
Manitoba (MB) Winnipeg Saskatchewan (SK) Regina Alberta (AB) Edmonton
1.4. West Coast
(FYI: Pacific Canada /Part of The Cordillera Region portion of British Columbia)
British Columbia (BC) Victoria
(FYI: Polar /Arctic region; but also part of the The Canadian Shield region (Parts of Northwest Territories, Parts of Nunavut), but also called the Laurentian Plateau or Bouclier Canadien; Parts of The Cordillera region portion of Yukon)
Nunavut (NU) Iqaluit Northwest Territories (NT) Yellowknife Yukon Territory (YT) Whitehorse
2. List three natural resources important to your region’s economy today.
In Ontario: it's mining metalic and non-metalic minerals and structural materials; extracting oil /gas /coal; forestry
3. Who is your city Councillor, Alderperson, Reeve or Regional Councillor?
Brampton, ON, Ward 1: Grant Gibson
(In principle, just name 1 of representative, for your ward)
~FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test, a possible list for municipalities: Example: Brampton, ON
|No. Ward in Brampton, ON, 2014||Name of the representative||Gender|
|Ward 1||Grant Gibson, Elaine Moore||m, w|
|Ward 2||Doug Whillans, Michael Palleschi||m, m|
|Ward 3||Martin Medeiros, Jeff Bowman||m, m|
|Ward 4||Martin Medeiros, Jeff Bowman||m, m|
|Ward 5||Grant Gibson, Elaine Moore||m, w|
|Ward 6||Doug Whillans, Darren Whitehead||m, m|
|Ward 7||Pat Fortini, Gael Miles||m, w|
|Ward 8||Pat Fortini, Gael Miles||m, w|
|Ward 9||John Sprovieri, Gurpreet Dhillon||m, m|
|Ward 10||John Sprovieri, Gurpreet Dhillon||m, m|
^Source: Brampton City-Hall Councilors
Regional Councillors in Brampton (2017-)
|No.||Name of the representative||Ward No.||Gender|
|1||Elaine Moore||1, 5||w|
|2||Michael Palleschi||2, 6||m|
|3||Martin Medeiros||3, 4||m|
|4||Gael Miles||7, 8||w|
|5||John Sprovieri||9, 10||m|
4. What is the name of your Mayor?
Brampton (since 2014-): Linda Jeffrey
Mississauga (since 2014-): Bonnie Crombie
Toronto (since 2014-): John Tory
5. What is the name of your provincial representative (member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), Member of the Provincial Parliament (MPP), Member of the National Assembly (MLA) or member of the House of Assembly (MHA))?
Jagmeet Singh, MPP (Bramalea—Gore—Malton)
Elected Provincial /Territory representatives in the Legislatures have these titles:
~ MPPs in ON, at the Provincial Parliament called Parliament of Ontario or The Legislative Assembly of Ontario;
~ MLAs in BC, AB, SK, MB, NB, NS, NU, NT, YT,
at The Legislative Assemblies at any of the Parliaments of BC, AB, SK, MB, NB, NS, NU, NT, YT;
~ MHAs in NL, at The NL House of Assembly, at The General Assembly of Newfoundland & Labrador;
~ MNAs in QC, at The National Assembly, that is the Lower House today, part of The Legislature of Québec.
FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test:
- The Legislature of Quebec, the Parliament of Quebec, has 2 parts:
The QC National Assembly and a Lieutenant-Governor of QC Member of the National Assembly of Quebec, also referred to as Legislators are called MNA (125 elected members in 2017). (in 1968, The Upper House, also called The Legislative Council of Quebec, has been abolished)
- The General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Parliament of NL has 2 parts:
The Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly and a Lieutenant-Governor of Newfoundland. Member of Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly are called MHA (40 elected members in 2017). Since Confederation 1949, the appointed Legislative Council has not been activated. Newfoundland Legislature is made up of the House of Assembly from elected members only.
- The General Assembly of Nova Scotia, also called The Nova Scotia Legislature, the Parliament of NS, has 2 parts:
The Nova Scotia House of Assembly and a Lieutenant Governor. Member of Nova Scotia House of Assembly are called MLA, unlike in NL (51 elected members in 2017). Nova Scotia's greatest contribution to Canadian democracy was the movement for Responsible Government (1836-1847), meaning no upper chamber, no communal representation, from very early on.
- The New Brunswick Legislature has 2 parts:
The Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick and a Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick. Members of the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick are called MLAs (51 elected members in 2017). Legislative Council ~ upper chamber /house was abolished in 1891.
- The General Assembly of Prince Edward Island or the Provincial Parliament has 2 parts:
The Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island and a Lieutenant-Governor (27 elected members only in 2017; since 1996 no more “assembly man”).
- The Legislature of Saskatchewan has 2 parts:
The Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan and a Lieutenant-Governor of SK. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan are called MLA (61 elected members in 2017). In September 2013 the Legislature established the position of Usher of the Black Rod. Their role is functionally similar to the one for the Senate of Canada. Rick Mantey was the first person to hold the office. The current Usher of the Black Rod, as of 2014, is Ben Walsh. The Black Rod was made by Scott Olson Goldsmith of Regina.
- The Legislature of Manitoba has 2 parts:
The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and the Lieutenant Governor of MB. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba are called MLA (57 elected members in 2017; elected members only; No more appointed legislative council and an appointed executive council and communal representation side by side elected legislative assembly from the early beginnings in 1871. Upper chamber was abolished in 1876.
- The Legislature of Alberta has 2 parts:
The Legislative Assembly of Alberta and a Lieutenant-Governor of AB. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta are called MLA (87 elected members in 2017; elected members only since first formed).
- The Legislature of British Columbia has 2 parts /also called The Parliament of British Columbia:
The Legislative Assembly of BC and a Lieutenant-Governor of BC. Member of the Legislative Assembly of BC are called MLA (85 elected members in 2017).
- The Legislature of Ontario has 2 parts /also called The Ontario Provincial Parliament:
The Legislative Assembly of Ontario and a Lieutenant-Governor of ON. Members of the Legislative Assembly Ontario, also referred as Members of the Assembly, are called Member of the Provincial Parliament are called MPP (107 elected members in 2017). Parliament of Ontario since 1867. ‘Member of Provincial Parliament’ and the initialism MPP were formally adopted by the Legislature on April 7, 1938. Members of the Assembly (MAs in ON) refer to themselves as ‘Members of the Provincial Parliament’ (MPPs) as opposed to ‘Members of the Legislative Assembly’ (MLAs) as in other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. Ontario is the only Canadian provincial legislative assembly to employ this designation.
Members of Canadian Provincial and Territorial Assemblies employ the titles
|Members of||Shortened||Province /Territory|
|Member of the Provincial Parliament or||(MPP)||in (ON) Ontario since 1938; also MAs /Members of the Assembly|
|Member of the National Assembly or||(MNA)||in (QC) Quebec|
|Member of the House of Assembly or||(MHA)||in (NL) Newfoundland & Labrador|
|Member of the Legislative Assembly or||(MLA)||in BC, AB, SK, MB, NB, NS, NU, NT, YT|
FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test:
As Territories in Canada, all 3 Territories have fewer rights than the provinces:
- Northwest Territories
The Legislature of Northwest Territories has 2 parts: The Legislative Assembly of Northwest Territories and a Commissioner of Northwest Territories. The Commissioner is federally appointed; Commissioner’s role in Legislature is similar to a Lieutenant Governor of a province. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Northwest Territories are called MLA (18 elected members in 2017)
The Commissioner of the NWT is the chief executive and is appointed by the Governor-in-Council of Canada on the recommendation of the federal Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development. The Commissioner had full governmental powers until 1980 when the territories were given greater self-government. The Legislative Assembly then began electing a cabinet and Government Leader, later known as the Premier. Since 1985 the Commissioner no longer chairs meetings of the Executive Council (or cabinet), and the federal government has instructed commissioners to behave almost like a provincial Lieutenant Governor. In the 1980s, The Commissioner of the NWT transferred the last of his authorities over Assembly matters to the Legislative Assembly of Northwest Territories.
The Deputy Commissioner of Northwest Territories holds a seat in the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, for 3 years, and is second to the Commissioner in the hierarchy of Northwest Territories Government, nowadays largely a ceremonial role. Just FYI: The position of the Deputy Commissioner of the Northwest Territories was created in 1921, and is appointed by the Governor-in-Council of Canada (standing in for the Queen-in-Council), on the advice from a Prime Ministers (PMs) cabinet, after consultations with a Committee of the 'Privy Council' (formally: The Queen's Privy Council for Canada /personal consultants to the monarch of Canada on state and constitutional affairs), composed of (mostly) elected, but sometimes former MPs (Members of Parliament), Senators or lately, other prominent Canadians, appointed for life by the Governor General as directed by the Prime Minister of Canada of the day).
Giving The Sovereign and Governor General advice on how to exercise the Royal Prerogative via Orders in Council (order given by Governor-in-Council of Canada (standing in for the Queen-in-Council), that are automatically subject to judicial review) rests with by the Cabinet, as the task of a committee of the (Queen’s) Privy Council. Committee of the (Queen’s) Privy Council is the body /integral part of the (Queen’s) Privy Council made out of Cabinet Ministers, formally referred to as the Ministers of the Crown, drawn from and responsible to the House of Commons in the Parliament or Senators (read: responsible to and members of the Legislative Assembly formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government). The President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada customarily serves as a member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada and cabinet ministers receive assistance in the performance of their duties from the (Queen’s) Privy Council Office, headed by the Clerk of the Privy Council. When Governor General is exercising the executive authority of the Governor-in-Council of Canada (standing in for the Queen-in-Council), on behalf of the Sovereign, where the Queen's powers and functions are delegated to the Governor, decisions are, almost always, the formal approval to decisions made by the cabinet, a subcommittee of the privy or executive council that includes the senior ministers of the Crown and often meets without the Queen or her local representative present. While the Cabinet specifically deals with the regular, day-to-day functions of the Crown-in-Council, occasions of wider national importance—such as the proclamation of a new Canadian sovereign following a demise of the Crown or conferring on royal marriages—will be attended to by more senior officials in the (Queen’s) Privy Council, such as the prime minister, the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, and other senior statesmen; while all Privy Councillors are invited to such meetings in theory, in practice the composition of the gathering is determined by the Prime Minister of the day. The quorum for the (Queen’s) Privy Council meetings is four. The Constitution Act, 1867, outlines that persons are to be summoned and appointed for life to the Queen's Privy Council by the Governor General, though convention dictates that this be done on the advice of the sitting prime minister. As its function is to provide the vehicle for advising the Crown, the members of the (Queen’s) Privy Council are predominantly all living current and former Ministers of the Crown. In addition, the Chief Justices of Canada and former Governors General are appointed. From time to time, the leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition and heads of other opposition parties will be appointed to the (Queen’s) Privy Council, either as an honour or to facilitate the distribution of sensitive information under the Security of Information Act, and, similarly, it is required by law that those on the Security Intelligence Review Committee be made Privy Councillors, if they are not already. To date, only Prime Minister Paul Martin advised that Parliamentary Secretaries be admitted to the (Queen’s) Privy Council. The use of (Queen’s) Privy Council for Canada appointments today is purely an honour, briefly ended under Lester Pearson, though the traditional style The Right Honourable, The Honourable, and the post-nominal letters PC standing for Privy Counsellor, remained in use, limited to the Prime Minister, Chief Justices. In In 1992,2002, 2006, 2007 the appointed Governor General at the time appointed prominent Canadians as Privy Counsellors to the (Queen’s) Privy Council, on the advice /recommendation of Prime Minister of the day. (Queen’s) Privy Council for Canada is formally required to meet to give its consent to or reject the Royal engagement /Royal marriage if the union could result in offspring /children that would impact /have been considered legitimate heirs to the succession of to the Canadian throne, thus reaffirming (when consenting) or setting up potential break (when rejecting) in the unified link to the Crown of the Commonwealth realm (read: Canada), in contradiction to the conventional "treaty" laid out in the preamble to the 1931 Statute of Westminster.
~FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test:
Nunavut is a territorial subdivision of the Northwest Territories. The Legislature of Nunavut has 2 parts: The Legislative Assembly of Nunavut and a Commissioner of Nunavut. The Commissioner's role is similar to a Lieutenant Governor of a Province.
Members of the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut are called MLAs (19 elected members in 2017). Candidates run as individuals, with no political party affiliations or platform. A Premier, cabinet Ministers and the Speaker are selected from the elected MLAs in a publicly held, secret ballot election, by MLAs under the title of ’Nunavut Leadership Forum’. The Commissioner, on the recommendation of the Legislative Assembly, formally appoints the Premier and the Cabinet (Ministers) of the Nunavut. There is no fixed number of cabinet seats, but only a minority of MLAs can be appointed to the Cabinet, e.g.the Commissioner of Nunavut is not permitted to appoint a more then 50% of the MLAs to the Cabinet in order to keep the accountability of the cabinet and the territorial Prime Minister in order to upkeep the “responsible government” principles, meaning for example, from 19 MLAs in 2017, no more than 9 MLAs could have been appointed to the cabinet, only less. Consensus government is a system that blends the principles of parliamentary democracy with the Aboriginal values of maximum cooperation, effective use of leadership resources and common accountability. Nunavut has its own own Supreme Court. Deputy Commissioner of Nunavut was added in 2005, is second to the Commissioner in the hierarchy of Nunavut Government, nowadays largely a ceremonial role.
~ FYI ~ Just as a reference /not for the test:
- Yukon Territories
The Legislature of Yukon has 2 parts: The Legislative Assembly of Yukon and a Commissioner of Yukon. The Commissioner is federally appointed; Commissioner’s role in Legislature is similar to a Lieutenant Governor of a province. Member of the Legislative Assembly of Yukon are called MLA (18 elected members in 2017) Yukon government cabinet is appointed by the majority party of the Legislative Assembly, has 5 members (in 20017). Yukon government caucus members make up the Premier's tea /cabinet.
There are parties involved and political platforms included in the general elections. Yukon was a separate district of Northwest Territories from 1895. Yukon, with capital Dawson was a separate territory from 1898. Yukon Territories capital, from 1952, is Whitehorse.
By passing the Yukon Act, The Parliament of Canada established The Office of Commissioner in Yukon to preside /govern over it. The position of Chief Executive Officer and Commissioner of Yukon Territory was created to bring order in 1898 and prepare for Yukon to become its own territory separate from the Northwest Territories. Under the Act of Yukon from in 1898, the Government of Canada appointed 6 members of the Legislative Council, as well as the Commissioner to govern Yukon. In 1900, the administrative authority and legislative power stayed with the appointed Commissioner, even though the Legislative Council became an elected body. In 1920s, the positions of Commissioner of Yukon were abolished and their duties and responsibilities were assigned to the Gold Commissioner of Yukon. In the 1930s, the responsibilities of the the Gold Commissioner's position where assigned to the Comptroller, then changed to Controller, the now Chief Executive Officer of Yukon. In the second half of the XX century, the title of Commissioner was reinstated in order to help out Yukon's Chief Executive Officer in fulfilling his duties, responsibility and lighting his workload. By the 1980s the Commissioner’s involvement in day to day activities of the NT government diminished, but Commissioner’s role legally changed only in 2003 with amendments to the Yukon Act, framing Commissioner’s role more like to the role of a Lieutenant Governor of a province. From the turn of the century, the federal government appointed Commissioners from the senior ranks of the civil service in Ottawa. These people usually were deputy ministers of a department which had some involvement in the North. The deputy ministers carried out their Commissioner's duties along with their own departmental responsibilities.
6. What is the name of the premier of your province or territory?
Alberta - Rachel Notley - NDP
~ FYI: Pick One line from the table bellow:
|PROVINCE||PREMIER / TENURE||PARTY AFFILIATION||GENDER|
|Alberta||Rachel Notley (May 24, 2015 - )||NDP||w|
|British Columbia||Christy Clark (Mar 14, 2011 - )||Liberal||w|
|Manitoba||Brian Pallister (May 3, 2016)||P.C.||m|
|New Brunswick||Brian Gallant (Oct 7, 2014 - )||Liberal||m|
|Newfoundland & Labrador||Dwight Ball (Dec 14, 2015 - )||Liberal||m|
|Northwest Territories||Bob McLeod (Oct 27, 2011 - )||N/A*||m|
|Nova Scotia||Stephen McNeil (Oct 22, 2013 - )||Liberal||m|
|Nunavut||Peter Taptuna (Nov 19, 2013 - )||N/A*||m|
|Ontario||Kathleen Wynne (Feb 11, 2013 - )||Liberal||w|
|Prince Edward Island||Wade MacLauchlan (Feb 23, 2015 - )||Liberal||m|
|Quebec||Philippe Couillard (Apr. 23, 2014 - )||Liberal||m|
|Saskatchewan||Brad Wall (Nov 21, 2007 - )||Saskatchewan||m|
|Yukon||Darrell Pasloski (Jun 11, 2011 - )||Yukon||m|
7. Which political party is in power in your province or territory?
Ontario - Kathleen Wynne - Liberal
PROVINCE PREMIER / TENURE PARTY
Alberta: Rachel Notley (2015) NDP
British Columbia: Christy Clark (2011) Liberal
Manitoba: Brian Pallister (2016) P.C.
New Brunswick: Brian Gallant (2014) Liberal
Newfoundland: Dwight Ball (2015) Liberal
Northwest Territories: Bob McLeod (2011) N/A*
Nova Scotia: Stephen McNeil (2013) Liberal
Nunavut: Peter Taptuna (2013) N/A*
Ontario: Kathleen Wynne (2013) Liberal
Prince Edward Island: Wade MacLauchlan (2015) Liberal
Quebec: Philippe Couillard (2014) Liberal
Saskatchewan: Brad Wall (2007) Saskatchewan
Yukon: Darrell Pasloski (2011) Yukon
8. What is the name of the leader of the opposition in province of Ontario?
~FYI: The Leader of the Opposition in Ontario is usually leader of the largest party in the Ontario legislature which is NOT the government. The current official opposition is formed by the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party;
Patrick Brown is the current Leader of the Opposition in Province of Ontario (since May 2015-).
9. What is the name of your Lieutenant Governor or Commissioner?
Her Honour the Honourable Elizabeth Dowdeswell, OC, OOnt is the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.
Province The Honourable Lieutenant Governor
(AB) Alberta: Lois Mitchell Since 2015
(BC) British Columbia: Judith Guichon Since 2012
(MB) Manitoba: Janice Filmon Since 2015
(NB) New Brunswick: Jocelyne Roy-Vienneau Since 2014
(NL) Newfoundland and Labrador: Frank Fagan Since 2013
(NS) Nova Scotia: John James Grant Since 2012
(ON) Ontario: Elizabeth Dowdeswell Since 2014
(PE) Prince Edward Island: Frank Lewis Since 2011
(QC) Quebec: J. Michel Doyon Since 2015
(SK) Saskatchewan: Vaughn Solomon Schofield Since 2012
Territory The Honourable Commissioner Since
(NU) Nunavut: Nellie Kusugak 2015
(NT) Northwest Territories: George Tuccaro 2010
(YT) Yukon: Doug Phillips 2010
10. What is the name of the Commissioner, who represents the federal government in your territory?
For Nunavut The Honourable Nellie Taptaqut Kusugak
The Commissioner for Territory of Nunavut (NU) is the Honourable Nellie T. Kusugak since 2015
The Commissioner for Northwest Territories (NT) is the Honourable George Tuccaro since 2010
The Commissioner for Yukon Territory (YT) is the Honourable Doug Phillips since 2010
~FYI: Ontario is a province and not a territory, therefor it does not have a commissioner who represents the federal government, but have Lieutenant Governor, Her Honour the Honourable Elizabeth Dowdeswell.
Questions about a specific region - individual province /territory (2017 answers)
1. For applicants living in N&L:
1.1. What is the capital city of Newfoundland & Labrador?
St. John's (2017)
2. For applicants living in NS:
2.1. Which political party is in power in Nova Scotia?
2.2. What is the capital City of Nova Scotia?
3. For applicants living in PE:
3.1. What is the capital City of Prince Edward Island?
3.2. What is the name of the Premier of Prince Edward Island?
The Honourable H. Wade MacLauchlan (2017)
4. For applicants living in NB:
4.1. Which political party is in power in New Brunswick?
4.2. What is the capital city of New Brunswick?
5. For applicants living in QC:
5.1. What is the name of the Premier of Quebec?
Premier Philippe Couillard (2017)
5.2. Which political party is in power in Quebec?
Parti Libéral (2017)
5.3. What is the capital City of the Québec?
6. For applicants living in ON:
6.1. What is the capital city of Ontario?
6.2. Which political party is in power in Ontario?
What is the name of the party in power?
Liberal Party (2017)
6.3. What is the name of the Premier of Ontario?
Premier Katelyn Wynne, MPP (2017)
6.4. What is the name of the Official opposition party /her Majesty's opposition party in Ontario?
Patrick Brown, MPP (PC) (2017)
6.5. What are the names of the opposition party leaders?
Andrea Horwat, MPP (NDP), Patrick Brown, MPP (PC) (2017)
6.6. What are the names of the opposition parties in your province?
New Democratic Party (NDP), Progresive Conservatives (PC)
6.7. Name 2-3 Members of the Legislative Assembly of you for your town /city
(and the political parties respectively).
Mayor Bonnie Crombie (Lib); Councillors: Sue McFadden, Ron Starr, John Kovac (2017)
Selected from the list of Councillors(for Mississauga residents applicants):
Jim Tovey, Karen Ras, Chris Fonseca, John Kovac, Carrolyn Parrish, Ron Starr,
Nando Iannicca, Matt Mahoney, Pat Saito, Sue McFadden, George Carlson
6.9. What is the name of the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario?
Hon. Elizabeth Dowdeswell (2017)
(Reminder: The name of the 29th Governor General of Canada is Julie Payette (In Ottawa, since October 2, 2017))
6.10. Name the member of Parliament for your electoral district
Variation to the question: Name the MP for your town /city, and the parties they belong to, respectively).
(for Mississauga residents applicants) (2017)
Example1: Iqra Khalid, MP (for Mississauga - Erin Mills, (Lib)) (2017)
1. Mississauga Centre - Omar Alghabra, MP, Liberal (2017)
2. Mississauga — Erin Mills - Iqra Khalid, MP, Liberal (2017)
3. Mississauga — Malton - Hon. Navdeep Bains, MP, Liberal (2017)
4. Mississauga — Streetsville — Gagan Sikand, MP, Liberal (2017)
5. Mississauga East — Cooksville — Peter Fonseca, MP Liberal (2017)
6. Mississauga — Lakeshore - Sven Spengemann MP, Liberal (2017)
Mississauga — Lakeshore = Mississauga South?
6.11. What is the name of your provincial electoral district?
(for Mississauga residents applicants)
Example1: Mississauga — Streetsville provincial electoral districts
Example2: Mississauga — Erindale provincial electoral district
Provincial electoral districts
1. Bramalea — Gore — Malton provincial electoral district
2. Mississauga — Brampton South provincial electoral district
3. Mississauga East — Cooksville provincial electoral district
4. Mississauga — Erindale provincial electoral district
5. Mississauga South provincial electoral district
6. Mississauga — Streetsville provincial electoral districts
6.12. 'What is the name of your federal electoral distirct?
(for Mississauga residents applicants)
Example1: Mississauga — Streetsville federal electoral districts
Example2: Mississauga — Erin Mills federal electoral districts
Federal electoral districts
1. Mississauga Centre federal electoral districts
2. Mississauga East - Cooksville federal electoral districts
3. Mississauga - Erin Mills federal electoral districts
4. Mississauga South federal electoral districts or Mississauga Lakeshore?
5. Mississauga - Malton federal electoral districts
6. Mississauga - Streetsville federal electoral districts
6.13. What is the name of the Mayor of your town /city?
Example: Mississauga (for Mississauga residents applicants)
Mayor Bonnie Crombie (Liberal) (2017)
6.14. Name your municipal Councilor /Variation to the question: Name 3 municipal Councilors:
Example1: (for Mississauga residents applicants)
Councillor Sue McFadden (2017)
Councillors: Ron Starr, John Kovac, Sue McFadden (2017)
Mississauga Wards and Councillors list 2017:
Ward 1 - Councillor Jim Tovey
Ward 2 - Councillor Karen Ras
Ward 3 - Councillor Chris Fonseca
Ward 4 - Councillor John Kovac
Ward 5 - Councillor Carrolyn Parrish
Ward 6 - Councillor Ron Starr
Ward 7 - Councillor Nando Iannicca
Ward 8 - Councillor Matt Mahoney
Ward 9 - Councillor Pat Saito
Ward 10 - Councillor Sue McFadden
Ward 11 - Councillor George Carlson
7. For applicants living in MB:
7.1. What is the capital city of Manitoba?
8. For applicants living in SK:
8.1. Which political party is in power in Saskatchewan?
Saskatchewan Party (2017)
8.2. What is the name of the leader of the (Official) Opposition in Saskatchewan?
(Cam Broten was up until 2016, but the up-to-date answer is:)
Trent Wotherspoon, NDP
8.3. What is the capital city of Saskatchewan?
9. For applicants living in AB:
9.1. What is the capital city of Alberta?
10. For applicants living in BC:
10.1. Name the federal electoral districts in Richmond, British Columbia.
Richmond has two federal electoral districts: Richmond Centre and Steveston-Richmond East
10.2. Name three city Councillors for Richmond, British Columbia.
Alexa Loo, Bill McNulty, Carol Day (2017)
Alexa Loo, Bill McNulty, Carol Day, Chak Au, Derek Dang,
Harold Steves, Ken Johnston, Linda McPhail, Malcolm Brodie
|Bill McNulty||Richmond First||Councillor|
|Carol Day||Rite Richmond||Councillor|
|Chak Au||Richmond Community Coalition||Councillor|
|Derek Dang||Richmond First||Councillor|
|Ken Johnston||Richmond Community Coalition||Councillor|
|Linda McPhail||Richmond First||Councillor|
10.3. What is the name of the Mayor of Richmond, British Columbia?
Mayor Malcolm Brodie (2017)
10.4. Name the Members of the Legislative Assembly for Richmond, British Columbia and the parties they belong to (Richmond Centre, Richmond East and Richmond-Steveston respectively).
(name 3 provincial MLAs for your town /city)
10.5. Which political party is in power in British Columbia?
Liberal Party (2017)
Premier, Hon. Christy Clark, MLA
10.6. What is the name of the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia?
Judith Guichon (2017)
10.7. Name the members of Parliament for Richmond, British Columbia and the parties they belong to respectively.
|Name||Electoral district||Province||Affiliate Party|
|Peschisolido, Joe||Steveston — Richmond East||British Columbia||Liberal|
|Wong, Alice (Hon.)||Richmond Centre||British Columbia||Conservative|
10.8. What is the capital city of British Columbia?
1. For applicants living in YT:
1.1. What is the name of the Premier of Yukon?
Silver Sandy (Liberal) (2017)
1.2. Which political party is in power in Yukon Territory?
Yukon Party (2017)
1.3. What is the capital city of Yukon Territory?
2. For applicants living in NT:
2.1. What is the name of the Premier of the Northwest Territories?
Premier Bob McLeod (2017)
2.2. Which political party is in power in the Northwest Territories?
Governed by consensus
2.3. What is the capital City of the Northwest Territories?
2.4. What is the name of your Mayor /or your Reeve?
2.5. What is the name of your local representative Councilor(s) /Elder(s)?
2.6. What is the name of your Territorial Commissioner?
3. For applicants living in NU:
3.1. Which political party is in power in Nunavut?
Governed by consensus
N/A*, Independent /no party affiliations
3.2. What is the name of the leader of the Opposition in Nunavut?
(Don Morin, Joe Handley, None, Eva Aariak - IN 2017 NONE OF THEM)
Peter Taptuna (2017)
3.3. What is the capital City of the Nunavut?
3.4. What is the name of the leader of the Premier in Nunavut?
Peter Taptuna (Independent /NO PARTY AFFILIATIONS) (2017)
R E P E T I T I ON -- E S T -- M A T E R -- S T U D I O R U M 
Repeating is the mother of (all) studies / Repeat and Learn abstract:
Section I. Questions about Canada
1. Who are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada? * The first people to live in Canada
2. What are the three main groups of Aboriginal peoples? * First Nations, Métis, Inuit
3. From whom are the Métis descended? * The descendants of marriages between early French and English traders and First Nations women
4. Which group of Aboriginal peoples make up more than half of the population in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut? * Inuit
5. Why are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada working towards self-government? * They are trying to regain control over decisions that affect their lives
6. Which of the following statements about residential schools is NOT true? * The schools were welcomed by the Aboriginal people
7. Who have major responsibilities on First Nation reserves? * Band chiefs and Councillors
1. Where did the first European settlers in Canada come from? * France
2. Why did early explorers first come to Atlantic Canada? * To fish and trade with Aboriginal peoples
3. What three industries helped early settlers build communities in the Atlantic region? * Farming, fishing, shipbuilding
4. Who were the United Empire Loyalists? * Settlers who came to Canada from the United States during the American Revolution
5. When did settlers from France first establish communities on the St. Lawrence River? * Early 1600s
6. Which trade spread across Canada making it important to the economy for over 300 years? * Fur trade
7. What form of transportation did Aboriginal peoples and fur traders use to create trading networks in North America? * Waterways
8. What important trade did the Hudson Bay Company control? * Fur
9. What did the government do to make immigration to western Canada much easier? * Built a railway across the Prairies to the Pacific Coast
10. Who are the Acadians? * The descendants of French colonists who began settling in what are now the Maritime provinces in 1604
11. Which of the following sentences best describes the War of 1812? * The USA invaded Canada and was defeated, which ensured that Canada would remain independent of the United States
12. Who was the first leader of a responsible government in Canada in 1849? * Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine
13. Who was Sir Sam Steele? * A great frontier hero, Mounted Policeman and soldier of the Queen
14. Which Act granted, for the first time in Canada, legislative assemblies elected by the people? * The Constitution Act of 1791
15. Who had played an important part in building the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)? * Chinese railroad workers
16. What is the “Head Tax”? * Race-based entry fee charged for Chinese entering Canada
17. Who is General Sir Arthur Currie? * Canada’s greatest soldier in the First World War
18. Approximately how many Canadians served in the First World War? * More than 600,000
19. What was the Women’s Suffrage Movement? * The effort by women to achieve the right to vote
20. When is Remembrance Day celebrated? * November 11th
21. In the 1960s, Quebec experienced an era of rapid change. What is this called? * The Quiet Revolution
22. Who are the Quebecois? * People of Quebec
1. What does Confederation mean? * Joining of provinces to make a new country
2. What is the Canadian Constitution? * A system of laws and conventions by which our country governs itself
3. What year was Confederation? * 1867
4. When did the British North America Act come into effect? * 1867
5. Why is the British North America Act important in Canadian history? * It made confederation legal
6. Which four provinces first formed the Confederation? * Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec
7. Which was the last province to join Canada? * Newfoundland
8. When is Canada Day and what does it celebrate? * We celebrate the anniversary of Confederation July 1st of each year
9. Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada? * Sir John A. Macdonald
10. Why is the Constitution Act of 1982 important in Canadian history? * It allows Canada to change the Constitution without asking approval of the British Government
Rights and Responsibilities
1. What part of the Constitution legally protects the basic rights and freedoms of all Canadians? * The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
2. When did the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms become part of the Canadian Constitution? * 1982
3. Name two fundamental freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. * Freedom of religion and freedom of speech
4. Name three legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. * Right to live and work anywhere in Canada, right to a fair trial and right to protection against discrimination
5. List three ways in which you can protect the environment. * Compost and recycle, conserve energy and water, walk or join a car pool
6. Who has the right to apply for a Canadian passport? * Canadian citizens
7. What does equality under the law mean? * Being treated with equal dignity and respect, having equal rights to speak out and express ideas
8. Name six responsibilities of citizenship. * Vote, help others, care for our heritage and environment, obey Canada’s laws, respect the rights of others, eliminate injustice
9. Give an example of how you can show responsibility by participating in your community. * Join a community group
10. List four rights Canadian citizens have. * Right to be educated in either official language, vote, apply for a Canadian passport, enter and leave Canada freely
11. What will you promise when you take the Oath of Citizenship? * Pledge allegiance to the Queen, observe the laws of Canada and fulfill the duties of a Canadian
1. What are the two official languages of Canada? * English and French
2. Give an example of where English and French have equal status in Canada. * In the Parliament of Canada
3. Where do most French-speaking Canadians live? * Quebec
4. Which province has the most bilingual Canadians? * Quebec
5. Which province is the only officially bilingual province? * New Brunswick
1. What does the Canadian flag look like? * White with a red border on each end and a red maple leaf in the centre
2. What song is Canada’s national anthem? * O Canada
3. What are the first two lines of Canada’s national anthem? * O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command
4. Where does the name “Canada” come from? * From “kanata”, a First Nations word for village
5. Which animal is an official symbol of Canada? * The beaver
6. What is the tower in the centre of the Parliament buildings called? * Peace Tower
7. How many Canadians have been awarded the Victoria Cross (V.C.), the highest honour available to Canadians? * 96
1. What is the population of Canada? * About 36 million (in 2017)
2. What three oceans border Canada? * Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific
3. What is the capital city of Canada? * Ottawa
4. Name all the provinces and territories and their capital cites. * Newfoundland (St. John’s), Nova Scotia (Halifax), New Brunswick (Fredericton), Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown), Ontario (Toronto), Quebec (Quebec City), Alberta (Edmonton), Saskatchewan (Regina), Manitoba (Winnipeg), British Columbia (Victoria), Yukon Territory (Whitehorse), Northwest Territories (Yellowknife), Nunavut (Iqaluit)
5. Name the five regions of Canada * Atlantic, Central, Prairie, West Coast, North
6. Which region covers more than one-third of Canada? * Northern Canada
7. In which region do more than half of the people in Canada live? * Central Canada
8. One third of all Canadians live in which province? * Ontario
9. Where are the Canadian Rockies? * On the border between British Columbia and Alberta
10. Where are the Great Lakes? * Between Canada and the United States
11. Which mountain range is on the border between Alberta and British Columbia? * Rocky Mountains
12. Where are the Parliament Buildings located? * Ottawa
13. Which country borders Canada on the south? * United States of America
14. What are the Prairie provinces and their capital cities? * Alberta (Edmonton), Saskatchewan (Regina), Manitoba (Winnipeg)
15. Which province in Canada is the smallest in land size? * Prince Edward Island
16. What is a major river in Quebec? * St. Lawrence River
17. On what date did Nunavut become a territory? * April 1st, 1999
1. What are the three main types of industry in Canada? * Natural resources, manufacturing, services
2. In what industry do most Canadians work? * Service
3. What country is Canada’s largest trading partner? * United States of America
4. Which region is known as the industrial and manufacturing heartland of Canada? * Central Canada
5. Which region of Canada is known for both its fertile agricultural land and valuable energy resources? * Prairie provinces
1. Who is Canada’s Head of State? * Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (2017)
2. Who is the Queen’s representative in Canada? * Governor General of Canada
3. What is the name of the Governor General? * Julie Payette (2018)
4. What do you call the Queen’s representative in the provinces? * Lieutenant-Governor
5. What is Canada’s system of government called? * Parliamentary government
6. What are the three parts of Parliament? * The Queen, the House of Commons, the Senate
7. Explain how the levels of government are different. * Federal government takes major responsibility for matters that affect all of Canada Provincial and territorial governments look after matters that affect all residents in the province Municipal (or local) governments are responsible for local matters
8. What do you call a law before it is passed? * A Bill
9. How are Members of Parliament chosen? * Elected by Canadian citizens
10. Who do Members of Parliament represent? * Everyone who lives in his or her electoral district
11. How does a bill become a law? * Approval by a majority in the House of Commons and Senate and finally the Governor General
12. What are the three levels of government in Canada? * Federal, Provincial/Territorial, Municipal /Local
13. Name two responsibilities of each level of government. * Federal government: national defense, foreign policy Provincial governments: education, highways Municipal governments: firefighting, snow removal
14. What is the government of all of Canada called? * Federal
1. How many electoral districts are there in Canada? * 338
2. In what electoral district do you live? * Find your electoral district at Elections Canada Online or Electoral Finder
3. Who has the right to vote in federal elections? * A Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and be on the list of electors /read: voter list, list of voters
4. What three requirements must you meet in order to vote in a federal election? * Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and on the list of electors
5. What is written on a federal election ballot? * The names of the candidates in your electoral district in alphabetical order from “A” to “Z”
6. What do you mark on a federal election ballot? * An “X” beside the candidate of your choice
7. How is the government formed after a federal election? * The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister
8. How is the Prime Minister chosen? * The leader of the party with the most elected representatives becomes the Prime Minister
9. When does an election have to be held according to the Constitution? * Within 5 years of the last election
10. Name all the federal political parties in the House of Commons and their leaders * Conservative (Ambrose), NDP (Mulcair), Liberal (Trudeau), Bloc Quebecois (Fortin), Green (May) (2017)
11. Which party becomes the * Official Opposition? * The party with the second most MPs
12. What is the role of the * Opposition parties? * To oppose or try to improve government proposals
13. Which party is the Official Opposition at the federal level? * The Conservative Party (2017)
14. Name of the Prime Minister of Canada and his party? * Justin Trudeau (Liberal Party) (2017)
15. Name your member of Parliament and the party he or she belongs to /affiliates. * Search your Member of Parliament by postal code
16. What is a voter information card? * A form that tells you when and where to vote
17. Who has the right to run as a candidate in federal elections? * Any Canadian citizen who is at least 18 years old
18. Whom do Canadians vote for in a federal election? * A candidate they want to represent them in Parliament
19. What do political parties do? * Share ideas about how government should work
20. Which federal political party is in power? * Liberal Party (2017)
21. How are Senators chosen? * Chosen by the Prime Minister
22. What should you do if you do not receive a voter information card telling you when and where to vote? * Call Elections Canada or visit their website
23. After a federal election, which party forms the new government? * The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power
Section II. Questions about your region 
This example section gives answers for Victoria, British Columbia.
By inserting your Province /Territory name and finding out the answer
to the same type of questions for your Province /Territory
you can easily adapt /tailor this section
1. What is the capital city of British Columbia? * Victoria
2. List three natural resources important to British Columbia’s economy today? * Natural resources are: Forests, water, fish (Industries would be: Forestry, fishing, mining)
3. What are the names of the city Councillors of your municipality? * Find the names of Greater Victoria Councillors
4. What is the name of the mayor of your municipality? * Find the name of Greater Victoria’s
5. What is the name of your provincial representative (MLA)? * Find your MLA through MLA Finder
6. What is the name of the Premier of British Columbia? * Premier Christy Clark (2017)
7. Which political party is in power in British Columbia? * Liberal Party (2017)
8. What is the name of the leader of the Opposition party in British Columbia? * John Horgan (2017)
9. What is the name of the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia? * Judith Guichon (2017)