Wildlife Gardening/Taxon/Apocynum cannabinum

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Flower and leaves.

Apocynum cannabinum also known as Indian hemp or dogbane an herbaceous plant widely distributed across North America. It can be found from southern Canada south through the continental United States, especially in coarse, moist soils. It serves as a host plant to hummingbird moths and provides nectar for many other insects.

All parts of the plant are poisonous and can cause cardiac arrest if ingested. It is also toxic to dogs and livestock.

Nomenclature[edit]

Apocynum cannabinum (dogbane, amy root, hemp dogbane, prairie dogbane, Indian hemp, rheumatism root, or wild cotton).


Apocynum album, A. angustifolium, A. arenarium, A. bebbianum, A. bolanderi, A. breweri, A. canadense, A. carolinii, A. cervinum, A. cinereum, A. cordigerum, A. cuspidatum, A. densiflorum, A. dictyotum, A. dimidiatum, A. estellinum, A. farwellii, A. greeneanum, A. hypericifolium, A. isophyllum, A. ithacense, A. laurinum, A. littorale, A. longifolium, A. macounii, A. missouriense, A. myrianthum, A. nemorale, A. neogeum, A. nevadense, A. oblongum, A. oliganthum, A. palustre, A. piscatorium, A. platyphyllum, A. procerum, A. pubescens, A. purpureum, A. salignum, A. sibiricum, A. subuligerum, A. suksdorfii, A. thermale, A. tomentulosum, A. venetum, Cynopaema cannabinum, Cynopaema hypericifolium, Forsteronia pavonii,

Description[edit]

Apocynum cannabinum grows up to Template:Cvt tall. The stems are reddish and contain a milky latex capable of causing skin blisters. The leaves are opposite, simple broad lanceolate, Template:Cvt long and Template:Cvt broad, entire, and smooth on top with white hairs on the underside. It flowers from July to August, has large sepals, and a five-lobed white corolla. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by moths and butterflies.[1]

Gallery[edit]

Identification[edit]

See dedicated page: Identification

The monarch is closely related to several similar-looking butterfly species whose ranges abut or overlap with its own. It also has a Müllerian mimic, the viceroy, whose similar toxicity and coloration discourages predators from hunting either species.

Taxa similar to monarchs
Similar caterpillar Similar chrysalis Similar adult Distinctions
Danaus erippus, or southern monarch. Caterpillar pictured.
D. erippus chrysalis.
D. erippus adult.

Brief note on connection between taxon and article taxon, caterpillar distinctions, chrysalis distinctions, adult distinctions.

Encourage[edit]

Discourage[edit]

Antagonistic arthropod taxa[edit]

Antagonistic arthropods of monarchs
Taxon Behavior Food Reproduction Safety Water Notes
Harmonia axyridis, the Asian ladybeetle. Color variations pictured.

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Detrimental for this purpose

Little to no effect

The Asian ladybeetle will eat very young caterpillars as both larvae and adults.[2] Information on native range or any other factor that might influence monarchs' likelihood of attracting this species to a garden.

Hymenoptera, the order including wasps. Vespula maculifrons, or the eastern yellowjacket pictured.

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Detrimental for this purpose

Little to no effect

A variety of wasps will prey upon caterpillars.[3] Information on native range or any other factor that might influence monarchs' likelihood of attracting this species to a garden.

Tenodera sinensis, the Chinese mantis. Male pictured.

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Detrimental for this purpose

Little to no effect

Preys upon caterpillars and avoids being poisoned by not eating its prey's digestive tract and the processed milkweed material it contains.[4] Information on native range or any other factor that might influence monarchs' likelihood of attracting this species to a garden.

Utilize[edit]

For taxa whose presence in the garden is enouraged without being harmed by article taxon use tables like above but from the pov of the attracted taxon

Beneficiary lepidopterans of Indian hemp
Taxon Behavior Food Reproduction Safety Water Notes
Cycnia tenera, or dogbane tiger moth. Adult pictured.

Little to no effect

Beneficial for this purpose

Beneficial for this purpose

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Caterpillar host plant.[citation needed] Information on native range, cultivation requirements, bloom time and any other criteria that might lead a gardener to select this species over the others.

Danaus plexippus, or monarch. Adult male pictured.

Little to no effect

Beneficial for this purpose

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Nectar source.[5] Information on native range, cultivation requirements, bloom time and any other criteria that might lead a gardener to select this species over the others.

Hemaris diffinis, the snowberry clearwing. Adult pictured.

Little to no effect

Beneficial for this purpose

Beneficial for this purpose

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Caterpillar host plant.[citation needed] Information on native range, cultivation requirements, bloom time and any other criteria that might lead a gardener to select this species over the others.

Hemaris thysbe, the hummingbird clearwing. Adult pictured.

Little to no effect

Beneficial for this purpose

Beneficial for this purpose

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Caterpillar host plant.[citation needed] Information on native range, cultivation requirements, bloom time and any other criteria that might lead a gardener to select this species over the others.

Marmara apocynella. Adult pictured.

Little to no effect

Beneficial for this purpose

Beneficial for this purpose

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Caterpillar host plant.[citation needed] Information on native range, cultivation requirements, bloom time and any other criteria that might lead a gardener to select this species over the others.

Melanchra picta, or zebra caterpillar. Caterpillar pictured.

Little to no effect

Beneficial for this purpose

Beneficial for this purpose

Little to no effect

Little to no effect

Caterpillar host plant.[citation needed] Information on native range, cultivation requirements, bloom time and any other criteria that might lead a gardener to select this species over the others.

References[edit]

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  2. Koch, R. L.; W. D. Hutchison; R. C. Venette; G. E. Heimpel (October 2003). "Susceptibility of immature monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae), to predation by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)". Biological Control 28 (2): 265–270. doi:10.1016/S1049-9644(03)00102-6. 
  3. Zalucki, Myron P.; Malcolm, Stephen B.; Paine, Timothy D.; Hanlon, Christopher C.; Brower, Lincoln P.; Clarke, Anthony R. (2001). "It's the first bites that count: Survival of first-instar monarchs on milkweeds". Austral Ecology 26 (5): 547–555. doi:10.1046/j.1442-9993.2001.01132.x. 
  4. Rafter, Jamie; Anurag Agruwal; Evan Preisser (2013). "Chinese mantids gut caterpillars: avoidance of prey defense?". Ecological Entomology 38 (1): 78–82. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2012.01408.x. 
  5. Iftner, David C.; Shuey, John A. and Calhoun, John C. (1992). Butterflies and Skippers of Ohio. College of Biological Sciences and The Ohio State University. ISBN 0-86727-107-8







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