WikiSkills Handbook/Collaboration Key Competencies
To determine how education and training can adequately prepare learners for life and jobs there is a need to determine which competences are relevant. Studies such as The future of learning: new ways to learn new skills for future jobs or the report The Future of learning: Preparing for Change by Redecker et.al (2011) conclude that personalisation, collaboration and informalisation (informal learning) will be at the core of learning in the future. The same direction, Lehttinen et.al. (1999)  point out a future scenario where personalisation, collaboration and long life learning will be the most important factors in the future.
Due to fast and constant changes in the labour market and economic framework transversal skills are becoming more important.
Foster long life learning involves provide a complete education, covering the basic knowledge and competences that are necessary in today’s society.
EU recommendation defines key competences as a combination of abilities, knowledge, attitudes, aptitudes and the willingness to learn. Key competences represent a multifunctional, transferable package that includes knowledge, skills and attitudes that all individuals need for personal fulfillment, inclusion and employment (European Commission, 2010).
Key competences, as a combination of these three areas mentioned are fundamental for everybody in a society based on knowledge. This competences add value in the labor market and in the field of social cohesion and active citizenship, by providing flexibility, adaptability, satisfaction and motivation
In VET (Vocational Education and Training) environments competences traditionally have been a main preeminent role. However current trends advocate for increase and modify competences and the way that are evaluated. In many cases competences have been evaluated through teachers observation. This tradition has its rows on the disconnection between competences and concrete learning objectives.
The recommendation of the Council on Key Competences for LLL (2006) the European Reference Framework (2006)  defined competences as a combination of knowledge; skills and attitudes appropriate to each context are fundamental for each individual in a knowledge-based society. They provided added value for the labour market, social cohesion and active citizenship by offering flexibility and adaptability, satisfaction and motivation. Key competences are those that all individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. Within this framework eight key competences are defined:
- Communication in the mother tongue: the ability to express and interpret concepts, thoughts, feelings, facts and opinions in both oral and written form.
- Communication in foreign languages: the ability of the main skill dimensions of communication in the mother tongue, mediation and intercultural understanding.
- Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology: the ability to develop and apply mathematical thinking in order to solve a range of problems in everyday situations. Use and application of knowledge and methodologies that explain the natural world.
- Digital competence: Critical use of information society technology and thus basic skills in information and communication technology (ICT).
- Learning to learn: the ability to pursue and organize one’s own learning in accordance with one’s needs.
- Social and civic competences: the ability to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life.
- Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship: the ability to turn ideas into action. It involves creativity, innovation and risk-taking, among others.
- Cultural awareness and expression: the ability to appreciate the importance of the creative expression of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media.
These competences include traditional ones, such as communication in the mother tongue, but the last 5 competences are considered transversal: digital competence, learning to learn, social and civic competence, initiative takings and entrepreneurship and cultural awareness and expression.
This framework is designed to be a reference tool for EU countries. Most of these countries are in a process to update their vocational education and training systems in order to achieve the educational objectives defined. European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) facilitates the accumulation and transfer of credits for learning outcomes from one qualifications system to another. One of the main goals is the transnational mobility, in order to achieve better comparability and compatibility among them. For example, within ECVET is possible to recognize, accumulate and transfer work-related skills and knowledge acquired during a stay in another country so that these experiences contribute to building up recognized vocational qualifications.
In the VET frame there are some technical components that facilitates the organization of the training methodology. VET content is organized on the basis of:
- Qualification design: this includes units of learning outcomes as a qualification component, consisting of a coherent set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that and be assessed and validated. There are several initiatives to assess learning outcomes, among which credit points are used as a tool to distribute numerically the importance of each unit in relation to the qualification.
- Accumulation process of learning outcomes: this process is based on the assessment, validation and recognition of learning outcomes. There are different tools that can facilitate this evaluation. Among others, in this project we highlight accreditation tools based on badges, which can help engage students in learning, and broaden the avenues for learners of all ages to acquire and demonstrate their skills as well as the recognition of soft competences that are not recognized by formal education. Moreover, assessment based on badges facilitate the transfer and recognition of competences between scenarios. A digital badge is a representation of an accomplishment, interest or affiliation that is visual, available online, and contains metadata including links that help explain the context, meaning, process and result of an activity (Gibson, 2013). Open Badges are closely related to ECVET framework, considering that a badge can serve to communicate learning across the peer, interest and learning contexts of one’s life. In the Wikinomics project, collaborative skills are closely related to Open Badges because OB can help to evidence, recognize and validate different skills and professional credentials, which are not normally recognized in a VET context or even in a professional framework.
Our approach emphasizes the importance of understanding that, within the key competences previously defined, collaboration strategies are essential. The development of these competences is completely coherent with ECVET framework. Both of them are based on a socio-constructivist approach in which learners are the core of the teaching and learning processes that take place beyond time and space limitations.
As a result of the WikiSkills analysis, a set of 10 competences have been identified which can be fostered by the adoption of the wiki culture. The link of this framework with the Key Competences for Lifelong Learning is noticeable, considering, for example, that the acquisition of key competences are closely related to the principles of equality and access for all. This is relevant in the 21st century where the context, especially economic, is restructuring constantly and the need of qualified staff in certain sectors is growing. Wikiskills training approach identifies a set of key competences that are promoted through the use of wiki environments in educational settings. .
These proposed wikiskills competences have been adapted within an ECVET framework with the aim of contribute to the development of team working methodologies, basically focused on:
- Digital competence
- Learning to learn
- Interpersonal, intercultural and social competences
- Civic competences
As held since 2005 with the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) in higher education, currently the majority of european countries are moving towards a convergence of credit for VET.
Qualifications in an ECVET system are described in terms of:
- Qualification design: learning outcomes, grouped into units, that might provide credits (and points) to create individual learning paths. In this sense, Wikinomics project is focused on the promotion of contents related to wiki and collaborative methodologies ;
- Accumulation of learning outcomes: assessment, validation and recognition of learning outcomes. Wikinomics project proposal for assessment and validation is associated with open badge initiative. Moreover, open badges can help to evidence, recognize and validate different skills and professional credentials. This approach allows to display recognition of the acquired competences as well as to identify criteria to evaluate the acquisition of key-competences developed through the use of free-culture and wiki methodologies ;
- Transfer process.
The table below identifies the key wiki competences and describes them in levels, with the aim of define 3 different qualification profiles for each competence. These levels of proficiency are “beginner”, “intermediate” and “expert”, and describe what a student should know, understand and is able to do to develop each competence. These qualification profiles can be applied to all VET professional families:
|Creativity and innovation||Is able to provide few or no new ideas to solve a problem, or provide non-viable ideas.
Is able to specify an application of the idea, but does not provide details for implementation.
|Is able to bring a few new ideas to solve a problem, not always from different perspectives and not always viable.
Is able to specify a few different applications of the idea and provides few details for its implementation.
|Is able to provide several new ideas, unconventional and from different perspectives, to solve a problem. Moreover the ideas are viable.
Is able to provide different applications of the idea to specific contexts, providing details to implement them.
|Critical thinking, problem solving, decision making||Is not able to offer an interpretation of the fundamental parts or situations of the problem.
Is not able to analyse the main issues related to the problem.
Is able to propose few solutions for the potential problems, conflict situations or dilemmas presented.
Is able to support the recommendations with very few or any argument or evidence.
|Is able to identify and summarize partially the problem, dilemma or situation.
Is able to explain partially the problem but not to identify by what and how problems are.
Is able to offer interpretations of some fundamental parts of the problems.
Is able to scan partially issues related to the problem,
Is able to present limited solutions to potential problems.
It also supports some recommendations arguments and offers some realistic and non superficial evidences
|Is able to identify ad summarize clearly the problems, dilemmas or situations and to explain in detail why and how problems are.
Is able to offer accurate interpretations, and to compile fundamental elements of the problems, situations or dilemmas.
Is able to do detailed analysis of the central concerns and the main argument of the problems, situations or dilemmas.
Is able to present solutions for potential problems.
Is able to present critical, clear and concise recommendations, based on solid arguments and to provide evidence for each solution.
|Learn to learn||Is able to be poorly aware of his skills and knowledge.
Is not able to manage and control the capabilities and knowledge.
Is not able to handle efficiently the resources and intellectual work techniques needed (search and selection of appropriate information, writing information, ...).
|Is able to has a low awareness of his own skills and knowledge.
Is able to manage and control poorly skills and knowledge.
Is able to manage some resources and intellectual techniques, although not always efficiently (search and selection of appropriate information, writing information, ...).
|Is able to be aware of his own skills and knowledge.
Is able to manage and control the skills and knowledge (store, transform information into knowledge, transfer of learning)
Is able to manage efficiently a set of resources and intellectual work techniques (search and selection of appropriate information, abstracts, maps, writing information, ...).
|Communication||Is able to express and interpret concepts, thoughts and feelings, facts and opinions in the mother tongue.
Is able to write clearly simple texts in a variety of communication settings
Is not able to apply complex spelling rules
|Is able to listen speak, read and write in a full range of contexts and cultures
Is able to argue the ideas, based on arguments not always evidenced
Is able to apply partially spelling rules
|Is able to listen, speak, read and write in different contexts.
Is able to use complex texts with specific or technical vocabulary, in a full range of contexts.
Is able to argue evidenced ideas based on arguments
Is able to fully apply spelling rules.
|Collaboration||Is able to have little or no positive interdependence (assumes its role and doesn’t respect others)
Is able to seek positive interactions with others, not always.
Is not able to assume always personal responsibility, and put his skills to the group
Is not able tot have many social skills
No muses to improve
|Is able to have positive interdependence (assuming its role, respects others)
Is able to try, but do not always get positive interactions with other
Is able to assume partially personal responsibility, putting their skills to the group
Is able to have social skills, but not always applied
Is able to think in a poorly or inadequate way how to improve
|Is able to have a high degree of positive interdependence (assuming its role, respects others)
Is able to try and establish positive interactions with other
Is able to assume personal responsibility, putting their skills to the group
Is able to have social skills and always applied (communicate well, solve conflicts, share,)
Reflect to improve individually and in the other group
|Information literacy||Is not able to recognize the information needs
Is not able to know how access, and / or evaluate and / or properly use information
Is not able to analyse and communicate the information found
Is not able to know how store information for subsequent recoveries
|Is able to recognize partially this own informational needs.
Is able to know how access, evaluate and use information in a basic way.
Is able to analyse know, work and communicate the information found in a basic way
Is able to store information for subsequent recoveries in a basic form
|Is able to recognize his own informational needs.
Is able to know how access, evaluate and use information appropriately
Is able to analyse, know, work and communicate the information found
Is able to store information for subsequent recoveries
|ICT literacy||Is not able to use ICT: only using computer as a word processor, email as a communication medium, using simple browsers, etc.||Is able to use different ICT resources: use the most basic resources and only some of the advanced (editing content for the web, social networking, advanced searches in databases, download and upload files to the network .. )||Is able to use in an intensive and advanced way ICT: using computer for different purposes (games, downloading files, search for information, etc..) and dominates different ICT devices
Is able to edit files in different formats
Is able to use collaborative tools (wikis, blogs, upload videos to YouTube or similar)
|Citizenship, local and global||Is not able to recognize digital society and culture and is not able to develop fully as a citizen
Is not able to be involved with different aspects of social, labour, cultural or political life through associations or institutions
Is not able manage correctly conflicts.
|Is able to recognize digital culture and society, its operations and its rules, but do not know not to use this knowledge to exercise his rights and duties
Is able to participate in one or several aspects of social, labour, cultural or political life through associations or institutions
Is able to manage strategies for conflict resolution
|Is able to recognize digital culture and society, its operations and its rules and how to use this knowledge to exercise his rights and duties
Is able to be involved in various aspects of social, labour, cultural or political life through associations or institutions or Internet
Is able to manage dialogue and negotiation strategies for resolve conflicts
|Personal and social responsibility||Is not able to be tolerant with people from other cultures, beliefs or ideas
Is not able to respect the rights of others or defend the positions of justice
|Is able to be tolerant and open-minded to some cultures, beliefs or ideas, but not all
Is able to respect the rights of others, provided they do not go in any way against him.
Is able to defend justice, if that does not harm this own interests
|Is able to be tolerant and open-minded to other cultures, beliefs or ideas
Is able to respect the rights of others
Is able to defend always justice and solidarity with the oppressed
Units of learning outcomes
One of the main components of the qualification in the ECVET framework is a unit of learning outcomes. It is defined as a consisting of a coherent set of knowledge
- specific knowledge or understanding requirements,
- skills and processes in the curriculum framework designed
- and attitudes, which can be assessed and validated with a number of associated ECVET points.
Moreover, learning outcomes are statements of what a learner knows, understands, and is able to do on completion of a learning process defined in terms of knowledge, skills, and competences. (CEDEFOP Europe). This distinction, called KSA model is directly related with Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive, affective and psychomotor and with Gagne categories, among others.
- Knowledge: references to specific knowledge or understanding requirements.
- Skills: abilities, skills and processes that curriculum frameworks are designed to develop in students and which are a focus for learning
- Attitudes, values, ethics: behaviours and attitudes that students exhibit in relation to each skill (Wikiskills)
A set of learning outcomes make up a study unit, and a collation of study units make a full qualification. To implement ECVET, it is necessary that qualifications are described using units of learning outcomes so as to be able to relate the outcomes of assessed or validated learning experiences in a common methodology.
Units of learning outcomes are designed in such a way that they can be completed independently. They are assessable considering the framework determined for the evaluation process.
|Unit of learning outcomes 1||Title|
|He/she is able to...|
|He/she knows/ is familiar with...||He/she can/test...||He/she is responsible for/supervises...|
In order to determine which of the 10 competences are the most significant for this project, researchers established collaboration as one of the main competences, which represent better the core aims of this study. In the next weeks, other competences such as learn how to learn.
This section aims to develop these two competences in a unit of learning outcomes, following the structure proposed by ECVET framework. In this sense, collaboration competence is developed in a matrix, divided into five sub-competences which constitute learning outcomes.
Positive interdependence, positive interactions, personal responsibility and social abilities. (Jonson and Jonson, 1999)
This proposal is conceived as a dynamic scheme, understanding that this is a general discussion that have to be adapted to different sectors. Ja que the incorporation and promotion of collaborative competence has a decisive influence in curricula, professors, trainers and stakeholders in general can see this as a dynamic framework guiding teaching and learning processes.
Collaboration definition : collaboration is carried out when there is reciprocity between a set of individuals aware of the difference and contrast between their views, and they are able to generate a process of knowledge construction to solve a common problem. It is a process in which each individual learns more than learns by itself.
|Beginner||Do not recognise work in diverse teams||Is able to have few or no positive interdependance (assumes his role but does not respect others')||Do not respect cultural differences and open-mindness to different ideas and values|
|Intermediate||Is familiar with work in diverse teams||Is able to have positive interdependance (assumes his role and respect others')||Usually respect cultural differences and open-mindness to different ideas and values|
|Expert||Has a good knowledge of effective work in diverse teams||Is able to have a high degree of positive interdependance (assumes his role and respect others')||Show predisposition for working with people with different ideas and values|
|Beginner||Do not recognise interactions with others||Is able to seek positive interactions with others, not always||Do not develop respectable and responsive attitudes toward others|
|Intermediate||Is familiar with interactions with others||Is able but not always get positive interactions with others||Usually develop respectable and responsive attitudes toward others|
|Expert||Has a good knowledge of effective interactions with others||Is able to establish positive interactions with others||Develop and promote respectable and responsive attitudes toward others|
|Beginner||Do not recognise the individual roles in a collaborative task||Is not able to assume always personal responsibility and put his skills to the common interest||Do not show predisposition to assume personal responsibility|
|Intermediate||Is familiar with the individual roles in a collaborative task||Is able to assume partially personal responsibility, putting his skills to the common interest||assume partially personal responsibility|
|Expert||Learn and recognize the individual roles in a collaborative task||Is able to assume always personal responsibility, putting his skills to the common interest||Develop personal responsibility and a sense of responsibility to the interest of the larger community|
|Beginner||Do not recognise social abilities such as communication, problem solving, negociation, or respect||Is not able to have many social skills||Do not show interest or willingness to improve social abilities|
|Intermediate||Is familiar with social abilities such as communication, problem solving, negociation, or respect||Is able to have social skills but not always applied||Usually has disposition to show social abilities|
|Expert||Learn and recognize social abilities such as communication, problem solving, negociation, or respect||Is able to show and apply social skills but not always applied||Develop and promote social abilities|
|Beginner||Do not recognise indicators or processes of self-reflection||Is not able to self-motivate to improve||Do not promote honesty in assessment to improve|
|Intermediate||Is familiar with indicators or processes of self-reflection||Is able to think poorly or in an inadequate way how to improve||Usually has disposition to improve|
|Expert||Learn and recognize indicators or processes of self-reflection||Is able to reflect how to improve individually and in the group||Develop and promote assessment and discussion to improve|
The objective of ECVET is to facilitate the transfer, recognition and accumulation of assessed learning outcomes of individuals who are aiming to achieve a qualification. This is possible because each unit is documented and the learning outcomes it contains can be assessed, and validated. Hence learners can:
- Progressively accumulate learning outcomes in view of achieving a qualification
- Obtain recognition for their learning outcomes achieved in other contexts without new assessment (i.e. units can be transferred).
Once a Unit is assessed, proving that a learner has achieved the learning outcomes established for that Unit, the learner acquires credit for this achievement. The credit achieved for each Unit can then be transferred. Hence once a Unit is assessed, validated, given credit for and recognized, these contribute to the accumulation of credits and can form a full qualification. Thus Units enable progressive achievement of qualifications through the recognition, transfer and accumulation of learning outcomes. The recognition of units also enables learners to obtain recognition of the learning outcomes achieved in different contacts without the need of re-assessment.)
To analyze deeply the real application of these statements, and as a result of a meeting with ECVET Belgium national contact from AEF(agence éducation formation) -which is the agency in charge of all European programme follow-up in education- the assessment approach of this project is going to be defined with realistic perspective, considering the complexity to assess soft competences in the ECVET scope.
The main assessment indicators have been developed in order to, considering the meeting with AEF (agence éducation formation), develop, in the future, a complete process of evaluation:
Creativity and innovation:
- Show originality
- Be able to develop original products ( giving details )
- Show flexibility and fluidity in brainstorming (viable ideas, varied )
Critical thinking, problem solving, decision making:
- Identify problems, interpret the elements that are part of the problems
- Analyze the arguments of the problem
- Suggest solutions to problems or conflicts
Learning to learn:
- Awareness of one's own abilities and knowledge.
- Manage capabilities (asks questions, provides possible answers , learn individually or in groups, known transform information into personal knowledge, apply new knowledge to other similar situations , poses achievable goals , desire to learn , accept the errors , shows perseverance in learning )
- Manage resources efficiently and intellectual work techniques ( solves problems , plan and organize activities and times, know and use a variety of sources of information)
- Expression argument and oral comprehension and written in the mother tongue
- Knowledge and application of spelling rules
- Text production with consistency and appropriateness to audience and context
- Positive interdependence (set group goals , divided responsibilities , mutual respect)
- Positive interactions (interacting with others through proactive support, entertainment and reinforcement of group members)
- Individual responsibility toward the task itself (putting skills at the service of a common goal)
- Social skills (communication, conflict resolution, negotiation, sharing leadership duties , respect for social and cultural differences, learn from each other)
- Self-reflection and individual group (to make decisions, adjust and improve)
- Understand the need for information (be aware that information is needed, what it will take and the type of information required)
- Know the available resources (Being able to identify what resources are available, where and how to access them)
- Finding information (resources and support)
- Understand the need to evaluate the results (authenticity, accuracy , timeliness , value and information bias)
- Working with the results and exploit (analyze and work with the information to provide research results correct and well presented , or to develop new knowledge and understanding)
- Having ethics and accountability in the use of information (using it responsibly, be culturally sensitive , respecting confidentiality and always acknowledge the work of others)
- Communicate and share results
- Manage what is found (namely store and manage information acquired)
- Using Your Computer
- Use of user programs
- Use and management of devices and digital work environments
- Using and Understanding own devices and ICT systems.
- Use of information seekers
- Representation and knowledge creation in various specific languages (textual, numerical, iconic, visual , graphic and audible) .
- Communication through current resources (e- mail, social networks ... )
- Collaborations : wikis, blogs, networks
Citizenship, Local and Global:
- Social Reality (knowledge of its operation and its history)
- Citizenship . Rights and duties. ( fundamentals and participation of democratic society)
- Coexistence. (Recognition of personal strategies for conflict resolution)
Personal and social responsibility:
- Show interest in and respect for others ,
- Be willing to Overcome stereotypes and prejudices ,
- Be open to compromise ,
- Be sensitive to Cultural Differences,
- Resistance to stereotyping and positive attitude towards intercultural communication.
- Redecker, C. Leis, M, Leendertse, M, Punie, Y, Gijsbers, G. Kirschner,P. A.,...Hoogveld, B. (2011). The Future of Learning: Preparing for Change. IPTS.
- Lehtinen, E. Hakkarainen, K. Lipponen, L., Rahikainen, M. and Muukkonen, H. (1999). Computer Supported Collaborative Learning: A review. The JHGI Giesbers Reports on Education (10)
- European Commission (2010). Educación y formación 2010. Grupo de trabajo B: competencias clave. Official Journal of the European Union, C117.
- Lettmayr, Ch.F. (2013) Trainers in continuing VET: emerging competence profile. Cedefop.
- 2006/962/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning [Official Journal L394]
- Gibson, D., Ostashewski, N., Flintoff, K., Grant, S., & Knight, E. (2013). Digital badges ineducation. Education and Information Technologies, 1-8
- Barajas, M., Frossard, F., Bondolfi, T., Devouard, F. (2012). Wikiskills project: Pedagogical framework fostering Wiki Uses