From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Tundra[edit]


the artic penguin[edit]

penguins are dangers torpedo shaped like birds, even though there flightless they're still of the bird species. Hypothermia Frostbite

These penguins , who often live in an igloo, like in the northern region's, when you think of a penguin you think of a black and white avalanche bird but they actually come in many different colors and come in a variety of sizes

Antarctic, adelie penguin (js) 56

Artic Wolf[edit]

Generally considered one among many Artic inhabitants, the Artic Wolfs, (Canis Lupus Arctos), thriving survival skills produce an phenomenal predator. They often live in an igloo. They sometimes eat Narwhals.

One on top of many features are its distinguishing white fur, occasionally streaked with grey or black. They have glassy black eyes which are capable of seeing both in front, sideways and even backwards if in a specific angle. During the winter, it is known that the Artic Wolf grows thick layers of fur for extra protection against the harsh conditions of the Tundra. Most hydrated wolves should have moist noises and their coaly black lips should be smothered in saliva.

Found naturally in packs, these sociable animals roam their territories which the Alpha male marks with urine and their own scent. Artic wolves are rarely noticed alone, for they are such animals whom thrive in company. These mammals hunt in packs, but theories have suggested only the lower ranking wolves (Omegas) hunt only during successful seasons when prey swarms the snowy biomes. The whole pack combines when food in scarce in the harsher seasons. Their diet is mainly Muskox, Artic hares, Caribou and berries when prey is out of range. But their food mostly depends on what is trackable or weak enough to bring down. Generally the size of the pack will depend on the amount of food which is available to them.

Canis lupus laying in
Arctic Wolf in her natural habitat during summer

[1] Due to the snow capped distribution, Arctic Wolves have evolved scillitantly into their memorable title, mainly because of their remarkable skills to survive in the snowy biomes of Alaska and Greenland. Arctic Wolves territory involve a snowy substrate layering the rocks and mountains. Icy caves provide a formidable shelter during blistering snow storms. Even though considered harmful and lethal, hail storms along side snow comes as a source of water if weather abruptly becomes reasonably humid. It can be either damp snow or a stiffening water. Despite the wary side of the Tundra, the bad side blisters the environment and causes the loss of many precious creature; especially wolves. Food is more than likely scarce as so water.



The narwhal is the unicorn of the sea, a pale-coloured porpoise found in Arctic coastal waters and rivers. These legendary animals have two teeth. The ivory tusk tooth grows right through the narwhal's upper lip. Scientists are not certain of the tusk's purpose, but some believe it is prominent in mating rituals, perhaps used to impress females or to battle rival suitors. Females sometimes grow a small tusk of their own, but it does not become as prominent as the male's.


Narwhals eat squid, fish and shrimp.


Narwhal population estimates indicate around 45,000-50,000 individuals.


Narwhals are mostly commonly found in Atlantic and Russian waters of the Arctic. They have been known to travel around Greenland to eastern Russia.


Narwhals generally move slowly, but are known to be remarkably quick when chased by predators. They prefer to stay near the surface of the ocean, but can dive up to 5,000 feet. Narwhals are migratory and move closer to the shore in the summer, while moving out to sea and living under packed ice in the winter months.

Most narwhals travel in pods of 10-100 individuals and sometimes in much larger groups. They communicate with various sounds like squeals, trills and clicks. The males often cross tusks in a behaviour known as ‘tusking’. This may be a form of duelling, friendly contact or cleaning the tooth.


Mating Season: March to May. Gestation: Up to 16 months. Litter Size: 1 calf. Females give birth every 3 years or so and can nurse their calves for over a year. Calves tend to be brown with no spots.


Narwhals are mostly hunted by polar bears and orcas. Native Inuit people are also allowed to hunt this whale legally for their long tusks and their skin, an important source of vitamin C in the traditional Arctic diet.

In addition, the narwhal’s habitat is threatened by the effects of climate change and pollution. Their small population size, limited range, and reliance on Arctic fish that are also being affected by climate-induced available food changes, make them extremely vulnerable. One recent study concluded that the narwhal might be even more sensitive to the impacts of climate change than the polar bear.


Narwhals are related to bottle-nose dolphins, belugas, harbour porpoises, and orcas. Like some other porpoises, they travel in groups and feed on fish, shrimp, squid, and other aquatic fare. They are often sighted swimming in groups of 15 to 20, but gatherings of hundreds—or even several thousand—narwhals have been reported. Sometimes these groups become trapped by shifting pack ice and fall victim to Inuit hunters, polar bears, or walruses.

Snowy caribou[edit]

as summer approaches caribou herds head north in one of the worlds great large animals migrations. they may travel more than 600 miles [965 kilometers] along well trod on animal routes. At the end of their journey, they spend the summer feeding on these rich grounds, an adult caribou can eat 12 pounds of food each day in there normal lifestyle.

during migration time herds of cows [female caribou] leave several weeks before the males, who follow the yearling calves from the previous birthing season.

caribou have large hooves that are useful tools in life. they are a mammal creature that don't hurt humans [hopefully]. they do not eat meat that means they are herbivores so they eat grass and leaves. there average life span in the tundra is about 15 years. there size is 4 to 5 feet at the shoulder. there weight is 240 to 700 pounds there group name is a herd. they are a endangered animal which means they are rare animal

snowy caribou

Leopard seals[edit]

Leopard seals are well known in the tundra. They are well known to people by their black spotted coat, though the leopard seal is known for its coat, it has not been commercially hunted for it skin like its fur. This seal is called sea leopard and its resemblance is more than skin deep. The pattern is similar to the familiar big cat though the coat is grey spotted coat. Thy can gain lengths of 11 meters long.

Antarctic, Leopard Seal (js) 32


The leopard seal use their powerful jaws and long teeth to eat krill, smaller seals, fish and squid. They may also come up beneath sea birds resting on the water surface and snatch them in their jaws. Their diet are very similar to others.



Avalanches usually occur during heavy snow storms . Avalanches are fast moving snow running down a slope. Avalanches also called snow slide or snow slip are made of snow flakes that don't bind together properly creating a weak layer of snow .

This picture is of an avalanch

essential kit[edit]

You must take a transceiver. This enables you to be found when lost or buried . you also need to wrap up warm.


according to UAC 90% of avalanche deaths are caused by the weight of someone in a group or pair.

avalanche beacon\avalanche probe[edit]

A avalanche beacon is an active radio beacon works at 457 KHz and are used for finding people or equipment buried under snow.

Surviving in the tundra[edit]


What is frostbite?[edit]

Frostbite is where your fingers, toes, feet (the most common places to get frostbite),nose, ears or even cheeks are exposed to temperatures of below freezing point for long periods of time, causing injury to the body.

What happens when you get frostbite?[edit]

Your blood carries your oxygen all over your body. When a part of your body is then exposed to the extremely cold temperatures it causes your blood vessels to narrow. To keep yourself alive, your blood and oxygen go to all vital organs in your body (e.g. the brain, heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs). The lack of oxygen/blood to the exposed part of body results in damage to the cells and vessels. But don't worry, because it is very uncommon in the UK.

The symptoms of frostbite-[edit]

If the exposed part of the body is stinging, burning, painful, throbbing or going numb, you may have frostbite so tell an adult immediately to make sure it is treated.

Basic treatment for frostbite:[edit]

-Shelter from the cold

-Let the area where the frostbite is dry naturally

-Put on dry clothes

-DON'T touch the affected area

-Avoid walking if you have frostbitten feet

-Wrap the affected area in a blanket

-Protect from re-freezing

-Make sure you are hydrated. If not drink plenty water

-Remove jewelry from affected area

If you have bad 2nd degree frostbite, go to a hospital. For 3rd and 4th degree frostbite go to hospital immediately.

The different degrees of frostbite:[edit]

When you get frostbite it comes in different degrees. The worse the frostbite is, the higher the degree.

1st degree frostbite- Skin becomes white/red. Starts to feel hard, numb and stiff. Can usually recover from it.

2nd degree frostbite- Skin becomes red/blue. Feels frozen and hard. Usually starts to swell. Can get blisters.

3rd degree frostbite- Skin becomes white/blue/blotchy. Can get blisters with blood inside. Over a week black thick scab will appear. Skin will be hard and cold.

4th degree frostbite- Tissue, muscle, tendons and bone are damaged. Skin will become dark red and then turn black.

The most likely people to get frostbite are:[edit]


-People who work in the cold


-Climbers that climb in cold conditions

Snowy mountains

How can I prevent myself from getting frostbite?[edit]

-Get out of the cold

-If you are outside wear suitable clothing (mittens are actually better than gloves)

-Keep your neck, head and face covered when you are going out when windy

-Keep your body as dry as you can

-Wear waterproofs

-Wear multiple layers of clothing

-Make sure you wear a warm pair of boots

-Drink lots of water


Symptoms of hypothermia[edit]


  • Shivering, exhaustion
  • Fumbling hands, confusion
  • Memory loss, slurred speech
  • Drowsiness


  • Bright red, cold skin
  • Very low energy


  • Body temperature drops below 95°F(35°C)
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Numb hands or feet (Like you would get when you have frostbite)
  • Shallow breathing
  • Pale, cold skin
  • Slowed breathing or heart rate
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Back,eye or joint pain
  • Muscle aches

Who is most likely to get hypothermia?[edit]

Very old or very young, chronically ill: especially people who have heart or blood flow problems, malnourished, overly tired, People who take a certain prescription of medicines, under the influence of alcohol or drugs, hunters, hikers, homeless, people who are out in extreme coldness for an extended time, fallen in cold water.

How it's caused?[edit]

Hypothermia is caused when your body loses more heat than it produces it. The most common cause of hypothermia is exposure to cold water, cold weather or cold places.

Just like this area of Tundra.

The Tundra Biome.

specific conditions leading to hypothermia include:

  • Wearing clothes that aren't warm enough for weather conditions
  • Staying out in the cold too long
  • Unable to get out if cold clothes or move to a warm, dry location
  • Accidental falls in to water
  • Inadequate heating in the home, especially for the older people and infants
  • Air conditioning that is too cold

How To Build An Igloo[edit]

Step 1. look for a gentle slope in the terrain, building it this way saves valuable time and energy (avoid free-standing mounds).

Step 2. Then you need to prepare your ice by digging a long trench. Make it as deep as you want your ice blocks to be. Position the snow from the trench on to one side of the trench and cut the snow into blocks.

Step 3. Dig an entrance to your trench. If you're working on a slope, dig a horizontal trench into the slope about two foot wide. If not, dig on a slope that is about ten degrees steep. be careful not to hit dirt.

Step 4. Did down to the sleeping platforms,dig as far down as possible and make sure is higher than the entrance.

Step 5. Level the top of the dugout igloo walls if necessary. If the top of the snow is sloped, level it out in stages.

Step 6. Temporarily block the entrance trench with snow blocks. Curve some snow blocks over the top to create the entrance hall. Doing it this way will reduce the risk of the entrance tunnel collapsing.

Step 7. Lay out the first ring of blocks. Because it's a circle, you must fill in the triangular gaps between the blocks with snow.

Step 8. Repeat step 7 on top. Don't forget to stagger the blocks like bricks.

Step 9. keep stacking the blocks. Use smaller blocks the higher you go.

Step 10. The 'cap hole' block must be inserted. cut the cap hole should be a bit larger than the hole that is on the top of the igloo. If you can, try and have more than one person lift it onto the top of the igloo.

Step 11. Cut an entranceway in the trench. Do not merely remove the blocks and make sure to slice an arch into your blocks which will create a strong structure.

Step 12. Finish the interior walls by smoothing the dome as much as possible. carve longitude grooves inside to prevent melted snow falling on you and prevent you getting hyperthermia.

Step 13. Build interior rooms (optional)

Step 14. Partially block the entrance to prevent snow falling in the entrance trench. don't block it completely or you will be suffocated.

Final product

Beware of narwhales, (a type of sea animal) they may attack if close to water.


[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

See Ref [12] for Manor Fields class guidance: [12]

  1. wiki commons
  2. Wikibooks
  5. Google Images
  6. Wikibooks
  7. Wiki How
  11. wikimedia commons