Mirad/Grammar

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Contents

Spelling[edit]

The author of Unilingua, Agapoff, uses a double quote to signal capitalization and thus dispenses with all majuscules. In this Mirad textbook, however, majuscules (upper case graphemes) are used and capitalization adheres to the American English model.
In this book, the mostly Cyrillic single-grapheme characters used by Agapoff for yodified vowels are replaced with the following system:
Pre-yodified vowels, that is, those preceded by a y-glide sound, take an acute accent:
plain vowelpre-yodified vowel
aá (ya)
eé (ye)
ií (yi)
oó (yo)
uú (yu)
Post-yodified vowels, that is, those followed by a y-glide sound, take a grave accent:
plain vowelpost-yodified vowel
aà (ay)
eè (ey)
iì (iy)
oò (oy)
uù (uy)
Circum-yodified vowels, that is those that are both preceded and followed by a y-glide sound, take a circumflex accent:
plain vowelcircum-yodified vowel
aâ (yay)
eê (yey)
iî (yiy)
oô (yoy)
uû (yuy)
A pre-yodified vowel always begins a new vowel syllabic nucleus, whereas a post-yodified vowel ends a vowel syllabic nucleus.
Upper-case vowels take the yodifying accents just as the lower-case values do (thus Á, È, Ô, etc.

Punctuation[edit]

The punctuation marks in Mirad are the same as in English. For example, a question mark (?) is used at the end of a sentence or sentence fragement to signal an interrogation.

Nouns[edit]

Structure[edit]

All nouns in their base form end in a consonant. This distinguishes them from adjectives and conjugated verbs, which end in a vowel.

Pluralization[edit]

Nouns are made plural by adding the suffix -i.
singularplural
tob mantobi men
dat frienddati friends
car instrumentcari instruments

Femininization[edit]

Although nouns do not have inherent gender, the feminine or female-related counterpart of a noun can be formed by post-yodifying the ordinal (inner) vowel, that is, by adding the grave accent ` to the vowel. If the vowel is already pre-yodified (with an acute accent), then the acute accent is replaced with a circumflex (^) (circum-yodification) to show that it is both pre-yodified and post-yodified.


male-relatedfemale-related
tad fathertàd mother
tob mantòb woman
tóáv socktóâv stocking
epet bullepèt cow

Case Tagging[edit]

Nouns can take the following case endings, which are shortcuts for prepositional phrases:
case endingcategorybasecased form
-agenetive/possessive/relative/ablative [origin]tob mantoba of the man, human (adj.), man's, from the man
-ulocative/dative [destination]tam housetamu to the house, (at) home, for the house
comitive [accompaniment]at I, meatà with me
instrumental [means]és workésè through / by / via work
privative ["without"]tec meaningtecò without meaning, senseless


Examples of the genetive/possessive case:
Meira zem ce gra ama. = The earth's core is very hot.
Ata ted tome íbà. = My father lives far away.
Ed et te dad ifana? = Do you know the language of love?


Examples of the locative/dative case:
Pu tamu! = Go home!
Ít peé tamu. = She is staying at home / in the house / home.
At teaco et uda moju. = I'll see you this evening. (= at this evening)
Buu dén atu! = Give the book to me!
Ev ud ce atu? = Is this for me?


Examples of the comitive case:
Upu atà! = Come with me!
Ud ca ekpan tija tujà. = This was a life-and-death struggle.
At ubeé uda ébdren ifanà. = I am sending you this letter with love.


Examples of the instrumental case:
Et vege nacikcer anà esè. = You can get rich only through work.
It aksa koenè ván. = He succeded by hiding the truth.
Ágpar pa Parisè. = The train went through Paris.


Examples of the privative case:
Et vò vege akser nacò. = You cannot succeed without money.
Tij ifanò vò naze ser. = Life without love is not worth living.
Od et su atò? = What would you do without me.

Pronouns[edit]

Forms[edit]

All animate pronouns (those referring to people) end in t in their base form, while all inanimate pronouns (those referring to things) end in d in their base form. Pronouns can be singular or plural. All plural pronouns take the plural suffix i.
animateanimate
singularplural
ot? who?, whom?oti? who all?
at I, meati we, us
et youeti* you (pl.), you all
it he, him, that personiti they, these persons
ìt she, herìti they (fem.)
ut this person, heuti those persons, they
ót nobody, no oneóti none
át everyone, everybody, each personáti all
ót another, someone elseéti others
ít such a personíti such people
ét whoever, anyoneóti any
út someone, somebodyúti certain people
oát not a single person, nobody, no one 
get the same persongeti the same ones
oget someone elseogeti others
gat another onegati several
singularplural
od whatodi what things
ad that (relative), the oneadi the things that
id thatidi those things
ud thisudi these things
ód nothingódi nothing
ád everything, eachádi all things
ód something else, anotherédi other things
íd such a thingídi such things
éd whatever, anythingédi any
úd somethingúdi some things, certain things
oád not a single thing, nothingoádi none
ged the same thinggedi the same things
oged something elseogedi other things
gad another onegadi several things


    • Note: Agapoff prefers ait, eit, iit for ati, eti, and iti.

Inflection[edit]

All pronouns can take cases, just as nouns do:
genetive/possessive ("of")
ablative ("from")
adjectival
dative ("to/in/on/at")
locative
comitive ("with")instrumental ("by/through/via")privative ("without")
ata my, of me, from meatu to meatà with meatè by meatò without me
eta your, of you, from youetu to youetà with youetè by youetò without you
ita his, of him, from himitu to himità with youitè by himitò without him
ìta her, of her, from herìtu to herìtà with herìtè by herìtò without her
atia our, of us, from usatiu to usatià with usatiè by usatiò without us
ota whose?, of whom?, from whom?otu to whomotà with whomotè by whomotò without whom
áta everyone'sátu to everyoneátà with everyoneátè by everyoneátò without everyone
oda which, of what, from whatodu to which, at which, in whichodà with what?odè by what?, how?odò? without what?
ida that, of that, from that, thoseidu to that, at that, in thatidà with thatidè by that, thusidò' without that
uda this/these, of this, from thisudu to/at this, thereforeudà with thisudè by this, thusudò without this
áda every, each, alládu to everything, in everytingádà with everythingádè by everything, by all meansádò without everything
óda not, not aódu to nothingódà with nothingódè by nothingódò without nothing
oáda not a single, nooádu in not a single one, to noneoádà with nothingoádè by nothing, in no way--
éda any, whicheverédu to anythingédà with whateverédè by whatever, howeverédò without whatever
úda some, a certainúdu at a certain thingúdà with somethingúdè by something, somehowúdò without something
geda same, the samegedu to the same thinggedà with the same thinggedè by the same thinggedò without the same thing
ogeda different, the other, anotherogedu to another thingogedà with another thingogedè by something elseogedò without another thing

Possessive Pronouns[edit]

Any of the above pronominal adjective forms can be substantivized by adding -c. The resulting possessive pronouns can then take the plural affix and case endings.
singularplural
atac mineataci mine
etac yoursetaci yours
itac hisitaci his
ìtac hersìtaci hers
atiac oursatiaci ours
etiac yoursetiaci yours
itiac theirsitiaci theirs
ìtiac theirsìtiaci theirs
utac one'sutaci one's
otac? whose?otaci whose
átac everyone'sátaci everyone's
ótac nobody'sótaci nobody's
odac? which oneodaci which ones
ódac the other oneódaci the other ones
udac this oneudaci these
idac that oneidaci those
ádac each oneádaci all of them
édac any one, whichever oneédaci whichever ones
Any of the above substantival pronouns can take case endings:
MiradEnglish
ataca of mine
otacàwith whose
átacuto everyone's
udacòwithout this one
Examples:


MiradEnglish
Uda tam ce atac.That house is mine.
Oda déni et dédaé?Which books have you read?
Ída tej aju vò teacâe.Such a life has not been seen before.
Buu atu udi!Give me those!
Áda tej nazace.Every life counts.
Ádac nazace.Each one counts.
Áta tej nazace.Everyone's life counts.
Átac nazace.Everyone's counts.
Áda évcunuti kode.All lawyers lie.
Áti kode.All of them lie.
Át kodeé.Everyone is lying.
Ád ce kod.Everything is a lie.
Mar ce zem áda.The sun is the center of everything.
Ót ége kaer if ádu.One can find pleasure in everything.
If ége uper bi éd.Pleasure can come from anything.
Ud ce ga fia vél id (or: ga fia idu).This is better than that.
Od ce eta dún?What is your name?
At vage éd et vage.I want what(ever) you want.
At vò ta ev it upo.I didn't know whether he would come.
At ta ad it upo.I knew (that) he would come.
Ad tej ce gúa vò vege vodé.That life is hard cannot be denied.
Ev it íztejo vò twe.Whether he will survive is unknown.
At vò te ev it íztejo.I don't know if he'll survive.
Ad ìt sa ce ota seun.What she did is nobody's business.
Atac ce ga aga vé etac.Mine is bigger than yours.
Odac ce etac.Which one is yours?
Édac cu fia atu.Whichever one would be fine for me.
Otac ce ud?Whose is this?
Otaci ce udi?Whose are these?
Ev et co ata dat?Are you going to be my friend?
Oádad ifca atu.I did not like a single one.
Odè ìt tujswa?How (by what) was she killed?
Otà et pa?With whom did you go?
...otacò ait vò vegu íztejer....without whose we could not survive.
Odu et sa id?Why (for what) did you do it (that)?
Iti údè kaa mep.They somehow found the way.
Ébdren drwa atà otè?The letter was written to me by whom?
Ota tamu et peé?To whose house are you going?
Otacu et peé?To whose are you going?

Correlatives[edit]

By "correlatives" is meant a set of functional words in the languages than can be arranged in a matrix, all sharing a set of "deictic" or "specifier" prefixes. For example, the English words "which, what, where, why, when, how, who, whether, etc." can be considered part of a matrix of correlatives, because they all ask a question about topics such as "place", "time", "manner", and are therefore called "interrogative correlatives." The situation is similar in Unilingua. Note, however, that some of the correlative words in the chart below are slightly different from those invented by the original author of Unilingua.

Deictic morphemes (specifiers)[edit]

categorydeictic morpheme
interrogativeod- which, what
relativead- the, the one which
proximalud- this
distalid- that
intensiveíd- so, such a
genericúd- some, a certain
distributiveád- all, every, each
indeterminateéd- any, whatever
negativeód- no, not any
identicalged- same, selfsame
non-indenticaloged- different, other

Dimensional Classifiers[edit]

The above deictic morphemes combine with the following dimensional classifiers to form a whole matrix of functional deictic correlatives:
categoryclassifiershort version
person-t
thing-d
place-emm
time-jobj
manner/means
quality/kind-én
quantity-gan
degree-nog
frequency-jig

Matrix of Deictic Correlatives[edit]

thingpersonadjectiveplacetimemannerkindfrequencyquantitydegree
od whatot whooda whichodmu whereodju whenodè howodéna what kind ofodjigu how oftenodganu how muchodnogu how
ud thisut this personuda thisudmu hereudju nowudè this wayudéna this kind ofudjigu this oftenudganu this muchudnogu to this extent
id thatit that person, heida thatidmu thereidju thenidè that way, thusidéna that kind ofidjigu that oftenidganu that muchidnogu to that extent
íd such a thingít such a personída such, such aídmu at such a placeídju at such a timeídè in such a way, soídéna such aídjigu so oftenídganu so muchídnogu so
úd somethingút someoneúda some, a certainúdmu somewhereúdju sometimeúdè somehowúdéna some kind ofúdjigu sometimesúdganu someúdnogu somewhat
ád everythingát everyoneáda every, eachádmu everywhereádju every time, alwaysádè in every wayádéna every kind ofádjigu at all timesádganu all ofádnogu completely
éd whatever, anythingét whoever, anyoneéda whichever, anyédmu wherever, anywhereédju whenever, anytimeédè however, in any wayédéna whatever kind ofédjigu however oftenédganu however much, anyédnogu to any extent
ód nothingót nobodyóda no, not aódmu nowhereódju neveródè in no wayódéna no kind ofódjigu not onceódganu not any, noódnogu not at all
ged the same thingget the same person, selfgeda the same, the verygedmu at the same placegedju at the same timegedè in the same waygedéna the same kind ofgedjigu as oftengedganu, ge as muchgednogu, ge to the same degree, as
oged something elseoget someone elseogeda the other, anotherogedmu elsewhereogedju at another timeogedè elsewiseogedéna another kind ofogedjigu at a different frequencyogedganu not as muchogednogu otherwise

Basic deictic adjectives / Determiners[edit]

categorydeterminerexample
indefinite/unarya aa tam a house
definite/relativeada theada tam the house, ada tami the houses
interrogativeoda whichoda dén which book, oda déni which books
proximaluda this, theseuda pat this bird, uda pati these birds
distalida that, thoseida pat that bird, ida pati those birds
negativeóda noóda mep no road, óda mepi no roads
totalativeáda every, all, eacháda mep every road, áda mepi all roads
indeterminateéda any, whicheveréda voz any color, éda vozi whichever colors
intensiveída such a, suchída dún such a name, ída dúni such names
partitiveúda some, a certain, certainúda tob some man, úda tobi certain men
identicalgeda samegeda dún the same name
non-identicalogeda different, otherogeda dún different name, another name
quasi-identicalgèda similargèda ceus a similar sound
superiorga morega nac vé at more money than I
equalge as much, as manyge job vé et vage as much time as you want
inferiorgo less, fewergo és less work
majorativegla a lot, muchgla if a lot of fun
quasi-majorativeglà a goodly portion of, severalglà jubi several days
excessivegra too much, too manygra tel too much food
maximal mostgá poti most animals
sufficient enough, quite a bitgé job enough time
minorativeglo very little, very fewglo auti very few individuals
insufficientgro too little, too fewgro ék too little effort
minimal the leastgó ék the least effort


Note: Nouns in Mirad are not normally accompanied by a definite article (the) or an indefinite article (a/an). The word tob can mean man, a man, or the man, depending on circumstances. Where further definition is required, a, the numeric or deictic adjective one, can be used for the indefinite article, while ada, the deictic adjective the can be used for the definite article.

Deitic pronouns[edit]

Inanimate pronouns[edit]
singularplural
od? what?odi? what (things)
ad the thing (that)adi the things (that)
ud thisudi these
id thatidi those
ád everythingádi all things
éd anything, whateverédi any things
íd such, such a thingídi such things
ód nothingódi none
úd somethingúdi certain things
ged the same thinggedi the same things
oged another, something elseogedi other things
gèlac a similar thinggèlaci similar things
gac moregaci more things
gec as muchgeci as many things
goc lessgoci fewer things
glac a lot, muchglaci many things
glàc a goodly portionglàci several things
grac too muchgraci too many things
gác the mostgáci most things
géc enough, quite a bitgéci quite a few things
gloc very littlegloci few things
groc too littlegroci too few things
góc the leastgóic as few things as possible
Animate pronouns[edit]
singularplural
ot? who?oti who (pl.)
at Iati we
et youeti you (pl.)
ut this person, this oneuti these
it that person, that oneiti those
át everyoneáti all people
ét anyone, whoeveréti any people
ít such a personíti such people
ót not a single person, nobobyóti none
út somebodyúti certain people
get the same person, selfgeti the same people, themselves
oget' the other person, someone elseogeti others, other people
ìt that female,she, herìti they (f.), them
ùt this female, she, herùti they (f.), them
aut person, individualauti persons, people
out nobody, no oneouti no people, none
 ga auti more people
 ge auti as many people
 go auti fewer people
 gla auti many people
 glà auti several people
 gra auti too many people
 gá auti most people
 gé auti quite a few people
 glo auti few people
 gro auti too few people
 gó auti as few people as possible


Note: As with all pronouns and nouns, the above pronouns can appear in the genetive/ablative/possessive case (-a) or dative/locative case (u). For example: otu to whom, ota whose, áta everyone's, gla autia most people's, ata my, etu to you. The possessive adjective forms can, in turn, be substantivized by adding -c (thing): atac mine, atacu to mine, otac whose, getac the same person's, etc.

Determiners of Place[edit]

place
odmu? where?, whither? (also: odma? from where?, whence?)
udmu here (also: udma from here, hence)
idmu there (also: idma from there, thence)
admu at/in/to the place where (relative)
ódmu nowhere
ádmu everywhere
édmu anywhere, whereever
ídmu at/in/to such a place
ogedmu elsewhere (ogedem alibi)
údmu somewhere
gedmu at/in/to the same place (also: gedma from the same place)
gèdmu at/in/to a similar place (also: gèdma from a similar place)

Determiners of Time[edit]

time
odju? when? (also: odja whence?, ji odjob since when?, etc.)
udju now (also: udja hence)
idju then (also: idja thence)
adju when, at the time when (relative)
ódju never
ádju each time, everytime, always, ever
édju anytime, whenever
ídju at/in/to such a time
údju sometime
gedju at the same time
ogedju at another time

Determiners of Quality[edit]

kind
odéna? what kind of?
udéna this kind of
idéna that kind of
adéna the/what kind of (relative)
ódéna no kind of
ádéna every kind of
édéna any/whatever kind of
ídéna such
údéna some kind of
gedéna the same kind of
gèdéna a similar kind of
ogedéna another kind of

Determiners of Degree[edit]

degree
odnogu? how (...big, ...little, etc.)?, to what extent?
udnogu this, to this degree
idnogu that, to that extent
adnogu how, to what degree, to the extent (that...) (relative)
ódnogu not at all, to no extent
ádnogu completely, to the full extent
édnogu however, to whatever extent
ídnogu so, to such an extent
údnogu in some way, somehow
ge, genogu equally, to the same degree, as
oge, ogenogu unequally, to a different extent
gè, gènogu similarly, to a similar extent
ga, ganogu more, to a greater extent
gla, glanogu very, greatly, very much so
gra, granogu too, to too great an extent, overly, extremely
go, gonogu less, to a lesser extent
glo, glonogu slightly, to a small extent
gro, gronogu to too small a degree, under
gá, gánogu maximally, to the greatest extent possible
gó, gónogu minimally, to the smallest extent possible
gé, génogu enough, rather, pretty, sufficiently, quite
ogé, ogénogu insufficiently
fià, finogu to a good extent, well
fuà, funogu to a bad extent, poorly
végà, véga nogu proportionately
vácà, váca nogu to the right extent, properly, duly
vócà, vóca nogu to the wrong extent, disproportionately, unduly
anogu primarily
enogu secondarily
uja nogu ultimately

Determiners of Manner, Means[edit]

manner
odè? how?, in what way?
udè this way, thus
idè that way, thus
adè how, in the way that, as
ódè in no way
ádè in every way
édè in whatever way, however
ídè so, in such a way
údè somehow'
gedè in the same way, also
ogedè otherwise
gèdè similarly, likewise

Determiners of Quantity[edit]

The noun following the determiner is in the singular if a mass noun (odganu dril how much ink) or in the plural if a countable noun (odganu jubi how many years).
quantity
odganu?* how much, how many
udganu this much, this many
idganu that much, that many
adganu how much, how many, the amount/number that
ódganu no, not any, no amount of
ádganu all
édganu any, however much, however many
ídganu so much, so many
údganu a certain amount of, some, some number of'
ge, geganu as much, as many
oge, ogeganu a different quanity of
ga more
go less, fewer
gla a lot (of), much, many
glà a goodly amount (of), quite a few
glo little, too many
glò barely, scarcely, hardly
most
gro too little, too few
as little/few as possible
a fair amount (of), enough, quite a lot (of)
several
* Literally: in what quantity, as in Odganu nac et àce? How much money do you have?. Used substantively, Odganu becomes Odgan, as in Odgan et àce? How much do you have? If followed by a mass noun, gla means much; if followed by a counting noun, gla means many; if followed by an adjective or adverb, it means very. All of the ga...ge...go words are multifunctional in this way.

Determiners of Frequency[edit]

frequency (jig = rate, frequency
odjigu? how often?(lit: on how many occasions)
udjigu this often
idjigu that often
adjigu as often as, the rate that
ódjigu never
ádjigu every time
édjigu however often, anytime
ídjigu so often
údjigu with some frequency, sometimes'
gejigu as often
ogejigu at a different rate
gajigu more often
gojigu less often
glajigu (very) often, frequently
glojigu seldom, rarely, not very often
grajigu too often
gájigu as often as possible
grojigu too seldom
gójigu as seldom as possible
géjigu quite often, rather often, frequently enough

Prepositions and relational adverbs[edit]

positive middle negative 
ab on, at the top of eb between ob off, at the bottom of
áb above, up éb amid, among ób below, down
with, along by, via without
ib away from ---   ub toward
íb far from ---   úb near to
bi from, of be at bu to
starting with, since ---   ending with, up to, as far as
án together ---   ón apart
za in front of ze in the middle of zo behind
forward across back
áz flush with éz in óz out
iza straight --- uza roundabout
íz beyond ---   úz around, about
zi right ---   zu left
all over through zúa round
ja before je during, while jo after
ahead (in time) throughout back (in time)
ji since --- ju until
av for ev if ov against

Compound prepositions[edit]

Prepositions can be compounded for more detailed senses:
compound prepositionexample
ézbu intoIt tôapa ézbu tim. He walked into the room.
ézbi in fromAt upa ézbi mamil. I came in from the rain.
ézbe in (location)Dén ce ézbe ném. The book is inside the box.
ózbu out toPo ózbu ekem. Go out to the playground.
ózbi out of, out fromIt upea ózbi ita ésim. He was coming out of his office.
ózbe out in (as in: out in the backyard)Potòg ce ózbe mamil. The pet is out in the rain.
ábzè overMampar pa ábzè tam. The plane flew over the house.
óbzè underAt tôapa óbzè domep. I walked under the highway.
zèbu across toAt tôapa zèbu ogeda kum. I walked over to the other side.
zèbi across fromIt beme zèbi at. He sits across from me.
zòbu back toAit pee zòbu Berlin. We are going back to Berlin.
zòbe back atAit ce zòbe tom. We are back at home.
zòbi back fromAit ce zóbi Berlin. We are back from Berlin.
zàbu ahead toTeaso zàbu eta oj. Look forward to your future.
zàbi ahead ofEd et ce zàbi at? Are you ahead of me?
ónbi apart fromPa ónbi ogeti. It went apart from the others.
ánbe together withUpo ánbe at. Come along with me.
izbu straight toPo izbu ótotem! Go straight to hell!
izbi straight fromÌt upa izbi nunem. She came straight from the market.
izbe right atAt ca izbe zem. I was right at the center.
zabi in front ofAt ce zabi et. I am in front of you.
zobi in back ofEt ce zobi at.' You are in back of me.
abu ontoBo dén abu cem. Put the book onto the table.
abe on (at)Dén ce abe cem. The book is on the table.
obi off ofBio dén obi cem. Take the book off of the table.
obe on the underside ofEce úd obe cem. There is something on the underside of the table.
ábu up toPo ábi eta tim. Go up to your room.
ábe up inOd ce íd ábe mam? What is that up in the sky?
ábi up fromIt upa ábi aaned. He came up from the first floor.
ábè up (via)At tôapa ábè meb. I walked up the mountain.
óbu down toUpo óbu momtim. Come down to the basement.
óbe down inAt ce óbe momtim. I am down in the basement.
óbi dowm fromUpo óbi mamtim. Come down from the attic.
óbè down (via)It igpa óbè meb. He hurried down the mountain.
óbézbu down intoPa óbézbu mom. He went down into the underground.
úzbu around toPo úzbu ogeda kum tama. Go around to the other side of the house.
úzbè around (via)Par pa úzbè tam. The car went around the house.
ízbi past, beyondPar pa ízbi ait. The car went past us.
ízbu on toAt pa ízbu Kanad. I went on to Canada.

Postpositions / Cases[edit]

The following case endings or postpositions are shortcuts for prepositions:


short formlong form
-a of, frombi
-u to, on, atbu to or be at / in / on
with
without
by, via, through, per
For example, the following expressions are equivalent:
long formshort form
be tam bi X at the house of Xtamu Xa
bi dom bu dom from town to towndoma domu
tej bò if life without pleasuretej ifò
bè Paris by way of ParisParisè
bà at with meatà

Other Prepositional Constructions[edit]

vélu regarding, concerning, about, with respect to
gè ov despite
kumu next to, beside, along, on the side of
ón bi apart from
án bu together with
gal in addition to, plus, including, besides
gol minus, except
gar times, multiplied by
gor divided by
zamu...-a in the face of (also: be zamu bi)
cànu ...-a in the guise of
canu ...-a in the form of
debanu ...-a under the auspices of
ûb in the presence of, in the face of
dida ...-è at the request of
iju...-a at the end of
tecu...-a in the sense of
av búun...-a for the sake of
... thanks to
... along the lines of
izanu...-a in the direction of
zág along
kumnidu ...-a on the edge of, on the brink of
genidu ...-a in line with, parallel to
úbanu ...-a in the vicinity of, around
gáanu ...-a in excess of
bi abem...-a off the top of
bi kumnidu...-a from the brink of
dudea...-u in response to
ovbea in opposition to
... in contrast to
lovanu...-a in spite of
oejanu...-a in the absence of
usu ...-a because of
usu ...-a on account of
gè ov notwithstanding
...-è per
via
vél than, compared to, relative to
adju ...-a at the time of
admu ...-a at the place of

Using prepositions[edit]

Prepositions go between the two elements they link, just as in English. Here are some examples:
MiradEnglish
Odju et po bu déntam?(or: déntamu)When are you going to the library?
Uda bun ce av et (or: etu).This gift is for you.
Dyen ca ab cem (or: cemu).The book was on the table.
Upu bay at (or: atà).Come with me.
Iyt igpa ub titam.She ran toward the school.
Et co éz gela titim.You will be in the same class.
Tob tyoyapa ózbi tam.The man walked out of the house.
Mampar zaymampa ábzè dom.The plane flew over the city.
Nidpar pa bi him bu hum.The train went from here to there.
Et voy ibo bun ju zemoj.You won't receive the gift until midnight.

Prepositions prefixed to verbs[edit]

As adverbials, many prepositions can be prefixed to other words, especially to verb bases. The following is a list of per (go) and ber (put) verbs with prepositional prefixes. Note that prepositions ending in b drop the b before the verb bases per and ber.


intransitive   transitive  
aper get on aber put on
eper stop eber stop
oper get off ober take off
áper rise áber raise
éper intervene éber block
óper descend óber lower
iper go (away) iber receive
uper come uber send
úper approach úber bring near
íper go away íber take away
ézper enter ézber bring in
ízper surpass ízber take beyond
zéper go through zéber pull through
zèper transit zèber take across
ánper meet ánber unite
ónper separate ónber separate
izper go straight/ head (for) izber guide
zúper roll zúber turn
ózper exit ózber take out
zòper return, go back zòber take back
zòpuer arrive back zòbuer give back
zateaser look forward zoteaser look behind
zèteaser look across zíteaser look all around
zéteaser look through ízteaser look beyond
ézteaser look in ózteaser look out
ábteaser look up óbteaser look down
ibteaser look away izteaser look straight (ahead)
ziteaser look left zuteaser look right
uzteaser look askance úzteaser look around
avdaer speak for ovdaer speak against

Personal pronouns and pronominal adjectives[edit]

Personal pronouns have three persons (represented by the ordinal vowels a (1st), e (2nd), and i (3rd).
The plural forms have the suffix i.
There are also three case forms, which are alternate ways of expressing prepositional relations: Add -a for the genetive/possessive (of, from); -u for the locative/dative (to, at, 'for); (short for ) for with; è (short for ) for through/by, and ò (short for ) for without.
Note: These are the same case endings that can be added to any nouns. For example, tamu (to the house), taébò (without hair), teda (father's).
nominative/accusative genetive/possessive dative/locative comitive instrumental privative
at (I, me) ata (my, mine) atu (to/for me) atà (with me) atè (through/by me) atò (without me)
et (you) eta (your, yours) etu (to/for you) età (with you) etè (through/by you) etò (without you)
it (he, him) ita (his) itu (to/for him) ità (with him) itè (through/by him) itò (without him)
ìt (she,her) ìta (her, hers) ìtu (to/for her) ìtà (with her) ìtè (through/by her) ìtò (without her)
ati (we, our) atia (our, ours) atiu (to/for us) atià (with us) atiè (through/by us) atiò (without us)
eti (you [all]) etia (your, yours) etiu (to/for you) etià (with you) etiè (through/by you) etiò (without you)
iti (they, them (m. or m/f)) itia (their) itiu (to/for them) itià (with them) itiè (through/by them) itiò (without them)
ìt (they (f.)) ìtia (their) ìtiu (to/for them) ìtià (with them) ìtiè (through/by them) ìtiò (without them)


Possessive pronouns are expressed with the addition of -c to the genetive/possessive ending:
EnglishMirad
This book is mine.Uda dén ce atac.
Those books are ours.Ida déni ce atiaci.
Theirs has not arrived. Itiac vò puaé.
Theirs have arrived. Itiaci puaé.
Is this yours or mine?Ev ud ce etacatac?
Will you come to mine tomorrow?Ev et upo atacu zajubu?
Nothing will happen without yours.ód swo etacò.

Conjunctions[edit]

Correlative Conjunctions/Adverbs[edit]

positiveneutralnegative
va yesve maybevo no
indeed possibly not
và...và both...andvè...vè either...orvò...vò neither...nor
av that, so that, forev whether, ifov lest, against
à andè orò but
with by, through, via without
ga more (than)ge as, equal togo less (than
most enough least
also, moreoever even, including except, but
gla verygle somewhatglo slightly, little, not very
gra too (much)gre just, exactlygro too little
Note: oev = unless; ad means that as the conjunction introducing a factual clause, not to be confused with av meaning so that introducing a subjunctive or unreal clause.
EnglishMirad
I do want to go, but I cannot.At vage per ò at vege.
Do you know whether he's coming.Ev et te ev it upo?
It will either rain or snow. mamilo màlómo.
If it rains, I'll not come.Ev mamilo at vò upo.
No, it's not true that he died.Vo, ce váa ad it tuja.
My father and mother are still alive.Ata ted à tèd gaju tejeé.
Is it true that you were you born here?Ev et tija udmu?
We did not know (that) you were married.Ati ta ad et ce tadca.
The fact that you work is not the issue.Ad et ése vò ce kos.
Whether you work or play is more important.Et ése eke ce ga kíta.
Unless you go to school you will never learn anything.Oev et po titamu et ódju tio úd.
In order to learn you must study more.Av ticer et ége ga tier.
Everyone except you is ready.Yat et ce perfia.
Did you want me to come long?'Ev et vaga av at àpu?
I want you not to leave.At vage ov et piu.
Don't tell her what I did.Ov du ìtu od at sa.
Are you for or against me?Ev et av è ov at?

Other Conjunctional Expressions[edit]

conjunctionexample
ad thatAti ta ad it upo. We knew (that) he would come.
av so thatAt egdo id av et tico. I will repeat it so that you'll understand.
avad becauseIt tuja bi us avad it vò abá ígtef. He died because he was not wearing a helmet.
ju untilJu et uvdo at vò teapo et. Until you apologize, I will not visit you.
ji sinceJi et pua at cee iva. Since you arrived, I've been happy.
ánad even though, althoughÁnad et oka, at gaju fítce et. Even though you lost, I still respect you.
ovad despite the fact thatOvad et zageda, et vò upa. Despite the fact that you agreed in advance, you didn't come.
igjo as soon asIgjo ìt pua at gafi teca. As soon as she arrived, I felt better.
váfà ge just asVáfà ge at jada, ija mamiler. Just as I predicted, it started raining.
ge ev as ifÌt teubozá ge ev ìt ca iva. She smiled as if she were happy.
ev whetherAt vò te ev mamilo. I don't know whether it will rain.
ev ifEt zàpo ev et éko. You will advance if you try.
à andEt à at ce gá fia. You and I are the best.
è orEt vege jobier è kobier; ce eta kebi. You can borrow or steal; it's your choice.
kéà ad in the event thatKéà ad mamilo, aúbio eta mamilovar. In the event that it should rain, bring along your umbrella.
fiákea av in the hope thatIt nucbia drénet fiákea av it ako. He bought a ticket in the hope that he would win.
fúnea ov for fear thatIt ézpa fúnea ov mamilo. He went inside for fear that it might rain.
ov lestBono ov et tíjso lopét. Stay calm lest you awake the snake.
ónad aside from the fact thatYonad gaijop mamile, doma mamecan ce gla fia. Aside from the fact that it rains occasionally, the city's weather is very nice.
tea ad knowing thatAt vage tujer tea ad at po totamu. I want to die knowing that I will go to heaven.

Verbs[edit]

Verbs in Mirad are conjugated for tense (present, past, future), mood (indicative, conditional/imperative/subjunctive/jussive), voice (active, passive), and finiteness. The verbal system is perfectly regular and predictable.
The infinitive, which serves as the dictionary lookup form, always ends in -er. The stem, therefore, is the infinitive without the -er ending. For example, the stem of the verb buner (to push) is bun. The stem is used as the base of all conjugated verb forms.

Finite forms[edit]

Finite verb forms are modulated for tense based on the three-way vowel distinction a (present), e (past), and o (future).
A fourth ending, u is used for the equivalent of the English conditionals, subjunctives, and imperatives.
Verbs can be further modulated for progressive, anterior (perfect), and imminent senses through compounding.
Endings do not change depending on the subject person. For example, unlike in English where am, are, and is are used in the present depending on the subject, the Unilingua verb cer has one present indicative form of to be for all persons: ce.
MiradEnglish
at ceI am
et ceyou are
it cehe is
ìt ceshe is
id cethat is, it is
ud cethis is
ot cewho is?
ati cewe are
eti ceyou (all) are
iti cethey are
íti cethey are
oti cewho are?
át ceeveryone is
ét cewhoever/anyone is
ód cenothing is
apeti cehorses are
Simple tense forms[edit]
The simple tense verb forms are generated by adding the tense markers a, e, o, or the conditional marker u to the stem of the verb. For example, the stem of the verb ter to know is t and the inflected forms of the simple tenses are as follows:
Active voice forms[edit]
endingmeaningexample
epresentIt te. He knows.
apastAt ta. I knew.
ofutureEt to. You will know.
uconditionalIti tu. They would know.
Non-indicative forms[edit]
The u ending is not only used for the conditional as above, but also non-indicatives moods such as the imperative and and subjunctive. The conditional form without a subject is used for imperatives (direct commands). Positive subjunctives and jussives are expressed with the use of the affirmative jussive conjunction av (for, so that, let) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional.
patternmeaningexample
Vudirect commandAku! (short for Av et aku!) Win!.
av N Vumay N VAv ati aku! May we win!.
av N Vulet N VAv it upu. Let him come.
av N Vuwishes, etc.At vàge (av) et piu. I wish you would leave.
Negative subjunctives and jussives are expressed with the use of the negative jussive conjunction ov (against, lest) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional.
patternmeaningexample
ov Vudirect commandOv oku!. Don't lose!
ov N Vumay N VOv ati oku! May we NOT lose!.
ov N Vulest N VOv it upu. Don't let him come.
ov N Vuwishes, etc.At vayge ov et piu. I wish you would NOT leave (lit: I wish lest you leave).
Unreal conditionals are expressed with the conditional conjunction ev (if, whether) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional (-u) in both the main and subordinate clause..
patternmeaningexample
ev N Vu, N Vu...if N were..., N would...Ev at cu edeb, at ívsu it. If I were king, I would free him.
Illative patterns[edit]
Interrogative[edit]
Beginning a sentence with the conditional conjunction ev (whether, if) makes the sentence into a yes/no question:
patternmeaningexample
ev + VPIs it true that...?Ev et aka? Did you win?
Negative[edit]
Use the negative adverb voy (not) in front a verb to negate it:
patternmeaningexample
vò + VnegativeEt vò ako. You will not win.
ev + negVPnegative interrogativeEv et vò akeé? Aren't you winning?
Affirmative[edit]
Similary, the positive adverb vay' (indeed) is used in various combinations to qualify verbs. Like (not), this adverb immediate preceeds the verb form.
endingmeaningexample
và + VaffirmativeAt và aka. I did win. / I won indeed.
Potential[edit]
Used the potential adverb (maybe) in front of a verb to qualify it as potential or possible (like English may):
endingmeaningexample
vè + VpotentialIt vè ako He may win!.
ev + VPnegative potential interrogativeEv et vè vò akaú? Might'nt you have won?
Passive voice forms[edit]
The passive voice is formed by preceding the tense endings with w.
endingmeaningexample
w+epresentIt twe. He is known.
w+apastIt twa. He was known.
w+ofutureIt two. He will be known.
w+uconditionalIt twu. He would be known.

Progressive aspect forms[edit]

The progressive or continuous tenses, which are optional and used only where the distinction is useful, are formed from the simple present forms by compounding with pre-yodified tense vowels.
endingmeaningexample
e+épresent continuous activeAt akeé. I am winning. (pronounced: a-KE-ye)
e+ápast continuous activeAt akeá I was winning. (pronounced: a-KE-ya)
e+ófuture continuous activeAt akeó. I will be winning.
e+úconditional continuous activeAt akeú. I would be winning.
we+épresent continuous passiveAt akweé. I am being beaten.
we+ápast continuous passiveAt akweá I was being beaten.
we+ófuture continuous passiveAt akweó. I will be in the process of being beaten.
we+úconditional continuous passiveAt akweú. I would be in the process of being beaten.

Anterior tense forms[edit]

The anterior or perfect tenses, which are also optional, are formed from the simple past tense form by compounding with pro-yodified tense vowels.
endingmeaningexample
a+épresent perfect activeAt akaé. I have won.
a+ápast perfect activeAti akaá We had won.
a+ófuture perfect activeAti akaó. We will have won.
a+úconditional perfect activeAti akaú. We would have won.
wa+épresent perfect passiveIti akwaé. They have been beaten.
wa+ápast perfect passiveIti akwaá. They had been beaten.
wa+ófuture perfect passiveIti akwaó. They will have been beaten.
wa+úconditional perfect passiveIti akwaú. They would have been beaten.

Imminent aspect forms[edit]

The so-called imminent tenses are formed from the simple future active tense forms in the same way.
endingmeaningexample
o+épresent imminent activeAt akoé. I am going to win.
o+ápast imminent activeAt akoá I was about to win.
wo+épresent imminent passiveEt akwoé. You are going to be beaten.
wo+ápast imminent passiveEt akwoá. You were about to be beaten.

Non-finite forms[edit]

endingmeaningexample
eractive infinitiveEt ége aker You must win.
werpassive infinitiveEt vò vagu akwer You would not want to be defeated.
enactive verbal nounAken ce ád. Winning is everything.
wenpassive verbal nounAt vò ife akwen. I do not like being beaten.
eaactive present participleAkea ekut The winning player
aaactive past participleAkaa ekut The player who won.
oaactive future participleTob ce tujoa. Man is mortal (about to die).
uaactive conditional participleTob cua deb. The man who would be king.
weapassive present participleAkwea ekut The player being beaten
waapassive past participleMagelwaa taol Cooked meat.
woapassive future participleTeacwoa pancin the film to be seen
wuapassive conditional participleOteacwua tob the invisible man
present affirmative gerundiveAt teacibso pueà. I will call upon arriving.
present negative gerundiveAt ija teò éd. I started without knowing anything.
past affirmative gerundiveTeacaà at pia. Having seen, I left.
past negative gerundiveAt pila dom teacaò ád. I left the town without having seen everything.
enèpresent instrumental gerundiveEt akso gla ésenè. You will succeed by working hard.
    • Note: The -ua/wua ending approximates the English -able ending. oteacwua = invisible, íztijua = survivable, ogorwua = 'indivisible, vegua = capable, opanua = immobile. Adding an -n forms the substantive, eg. ogorwuan = indivisibility.

Conditional constructions[edit]

In sentences with conditional clauses the conditional clause is in the same tense as the main clause, contrary to the practice in English:
  • Ev mamilo at co uva. If it rains (= will rain), I will be sad.
  • Ev mamilaú at caú uva. If it had rained (= would have rained), I would have been sad.
  • Ev at cu nasika at ga zípu. If I were (=would be) rich, I'd travel more.
  • Ev et tu dud, (av et) du id atu. If you (= would) know the answer, (= that you would) tell it to me.

Sequence of tenses[edit]

Unlike in English, the tense of a consecutive clause is a real tense, not an adjusted tense relative to the main clause:
  • It da ad it tadco at. He said he would (= will) marry me.
  • It da ad it teaca it ejipu. He said he had seen (= saw) it twice.

Impersonal constructions[edit]

Impersonal verbs are conjugated without the subject personal pronoun:
  • Mamileé. It is raining.
  • Amco. It will warm up.
  • Eco dropek. There will be a war.
  • Ége av et upu já. It is necessary that you come early.
  • Ce fia. It's ok.

The verb "to be"[edit]

In Mirad, the verb cer (to be) is not suppressed in the present tense as in some languages like Russian or Agapoff's original version of Unilingua. Also, there is no existential distinction as in Spanish between ser and estar. Furthermore, the progressive forms ceá and ceé can be used at times as in some of the examples below:
  • Ati ce íva! We are free.
  • At co idmu. I'll be there.
  • Déni ca ab cem. The books were on the table.
  • Cayo e jubi ji at ca dopu. It will have been two days since I was in the army.
  • Cer ey voy cer. To be or not to be.
  • At caú uva ev et vò upaú. I would have been sad if you hadn't

come.

  • Et ceé gla fua. You are being very bad.
  • At vò ceá ivcla. I was not being funny.

Reflexive constructions[edit]

Verbs can be made reflexive by adding the direct object get (self).
  • At vímila get ja per majtulu. I washed up (washed myself) before going to breakfast.
  • Tobet tuja get. The boy killed himself.
  • At teasa get cinzéfu. I looked at myself in the mirror.
  • Tu get! Know thyself!

Modal or auxiliary verbs[edit]

MiradEnglishMeaningExample
ívermaypermissionEt íve iper. You may leave.
úvermustrequirementEt úve iper. You must leave.
ûvershouldobligationEt ûve iper. You should leave.
égerhave tonecessityAt ége iper. I have to leave.
êgershouldobligationEt êge iper. You ought to leave.
vagerwant tovolitionAt vage iper. I want to leave.
vaagerlong toyearningAt vaage iper. I long to leave.
vàgerwould like topreferenceAt vàge iper. I would like to go.
vagrerbe eager toeagernessAt vagre iper. I am eager to leave.
valterintend tointentionAt valte iper. I intend to leave.
vegercanabilityAt vege ser id. I can do that.
vogerrefuse torefusalAt voge ser id. I refuse to do that.
ákerexpect toexpectationAt áke aker. I expect to win.
áakerhopetoaspirationAt áake aker. I hope to win.
ékertry toattemptIt vò éko iper. He won't try to leave.
éklerdare todareIt vò éklo iper. He will not dare leave.
ókerto be surprised tosurpriseAt óka aker. I was surprised to win.
iferto love toloveIt ife eker. He loves to play.
ìferto like tolikingIt ìfe eker. He likes to play.
uferto hate tohateIt ufe eker. He hates to play.
ùferto dislike todislikeIt ùfe eker. He dislikes playing.
iverto be glad togladnessAt ivo iper. I shall be glad to leave.
uverto regret toregretAt uva der id. I regretted saying it.
averto favorespousalAt ave iper. I favor leaving.
overto be opposed tooppositionAt ove eker. I am opposed to playing.
As you see in the examples above, modal verbs are followed by the infinitive form (-er) of the main verb.

Subordinate clauses introduced by ad[edit]

The positive complementizer particle ad (the fact that) is used to introduce a subordinate clause:


  • At ta (ad) it upo. I knew THAT he would come.
  • At ce vala (ad) et vádeé. I'm sure THAT you are telling the truth.
  • Ad mamilo ce valan. THAT it will rain is a certainty.
  • Ata tèd da (ad) iyt co tamu ojo èmaj. My mother said THAT she would be home by noon.
As in English, if the that can be dropped without any loss of meaning, it can be:
  • At da at dro. I said I'd (= I'll) write.
  • Et ta it sa id. You knew he had done (= did) it.
Unlike in English, a relative sequence of tenses is not applied. For example, English "I knew he would come." is rendered in Unilingua as "I knew he will come."
Do not confuse the particles ad and av. Clauses following ad are facts, whereas clauses following av are unreal wishes. Av should be thought of as so that.
  • At pana av it ábtu. I moved so that he could (= would) sit down.
  • At ta ad it ábto. I knew that he would (= will) sit down.

Subordinate clauses introduced by ev[edit]

The conditional complementizer particle ev (whether) is used to introduce a subordinate clause of the type "whether...":
  • At vò ta ev it upo. I did not know whether he would come.
  • Ev it upo ca teskía atu. whether he would or would come was not important to me.

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives end in the suffix -a. They are invariable in form:
  • aga big
  • oga small
  • aza strong
  • oza weak
  • taba bodily
  • teaba ocular
  • tea aware
  • otea unaware


Adjectives used substantively to describe persons end in -t, while those used to describe things end in -c:


adjectiveanimate substantiveinanimate substantive
yoga young / newyogat youthyogac novelty
tuja deadtujat dead persontujac dead thing
fia goodfiat good personfiac good thing


Adjectives always preceed the noun they modify:


  • aga tam a big house
  • yaga drun the long sentence
  • aza tob the strong man
  • mona maf a dark cloud


Serial adjectives usually go in the same order as in English:


  • ujna via jeeba jub the last beautiful summer day


Degrees of Comparison in Adjectives and Adverbs[edit]

Summary of Comparison Constructions[edit]
Note: vél is a preposition that comes from the verb véler to relate and is used to signal the object against which a relative comparison is being made (than, relative to).
MiradEnglish
ga...vélmore...than
ge...vélas...as
go...vélless...than
gá...vélthe most...in/of
gé...vélrather...compared to
gó...vélthe least...in/of
The Comparative of Superiority[edit]
More than is expressed by the adverb ga, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared:
MiradEnglish
Ata tadet ce ga aza vél et.My brother is stronger than you.
At ga ése vél et.I work more than you.
Ita tedet ga aga vél ata.His son is taller than mine.
Uda dén ce ga ketlea vél idac.This book is more interesting that that one.
Mam ce ga aga vél et tese.The sky is bigger than you think.
The Comparative of Equality[edit]
As...as' is expressed by the adverb ge, following by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared.
MiradEnglish
Ìt ge te vél at.She knows as much as I do.
At ge fi deuze vél et.I sing as well as you do.
Ata tam ce ge aga vél eta.My house is as big as yours.
Ece ge tobi vél tobomi.There are as many grownups as babies.
The Comparative of Inferiority[edit]
Less...than' is expressed by the adverb go, following by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared.
MiradEnglish
Ìt go te vél at.She knows less than I do.
At go fi deuze vél et.I sing less well than you do.
Ata tam ce go aga vél etac.My house is less big than yours.
Ece go tobi vél tobomi.There are fewer grownups than babies.
The Superlative of Superiority[edit]
The most...of/in' is expressed by the adverb gya, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb, and the compared noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition vyel.
MiradEnglish
Ud ce gya yobaga miam vyel mir.This is the deepest lake in the world.
At gya fi deuze.I sing the best.
Gya fia ticudi vyel ticudyan akbuyo.The best students in the class will be rewarded.
At ce gya ivat vyel yati.I am the happiest person of all.
The Superlative of Inferiority[edit]
The least...of/in' is expressed by the adverb gyo, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb, and the compared noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition vyel.


MiradEnglish
Uda ticud ce gó tepaza vél áda ticudi.This student is the least intelligent of all the students.
At gó fi deuze.I sing the least well.
Gó fia ticudi vél ticudyan uóvfuso.The worst students in the class will be punished.
At ce gó ivat vél áti.I am the least happy person of all.
Idioms Using Adjectival/Adverbial Comparison Constructions[edit]
MiradEnglishexample
ga...gathe more...the moreGa mamile ga ilirke. The more it rains, the more it floods.
ga...gothe more...the lessGa iva at ce ga azà at dae. The happier I am the louder I speak.
go...gathe less...the moreGo et tile ga fia ce. The less you drink the better.
go...gothe less...the lessGo et ézbue go et ózbie. The less you put in the less you get out.
gá...as much as possible...At tele gá ida telamu. I eat as much as possible in that restaurant.
gá veá...the most possiblePuo gá já veá. Arrive as early as possible.
gó veá...the least possibleBookco gó veá. Tire yourself out the least possible.
vòga...vélno more...thanAt tila oga vél jubénà. I drank no more than usual.


Note: vél, as a preposition, originates from a verb, much like the prepositions gal plus and gar times:


verbpreposition
galer to addgal plus
garer to multiplygar times
goler to subtractgol minus
gorer to dividegor divided by
véler to relatevél relative to, than

Adverbs[edit]

Formation[edit]

Adverbs can be formed from adjectives by post-yodifying the adjectival ending, that is, by changing -a to , for example:
adjectiveadverb
fia goodfià well
ana singleanà only
gía easygíà easily
The adverbial ending is really the same as the comitive ending, meaning with. So, in effect, nouns in the comitive case are really adverbs. The same holds true for the instrumental ending by means of, through, by.
nounadverb
gúan difficultygúanà with difficulty
ágan lengtháganè lengthwise, by length
bik carebikà with care, carefully
at meatè by me
Similarly, a noun in the dative case (-u) can amount to an adverbial expression.
nounadverb
uda job this dayudjobu today
oda em which placeod(e)mu where?
tam housetamu (at) home
mep waymepu en route
Some words are inherently adverbs:
  • áb up as in go up
  • ób down as in come down
  • ahead as in run ahead
  • back as come back
  • úz around as in spin around
  • ga more as in eat more
  • go less as in eat less
  • ge same, as as in as big or do the same
  • gla very as in very good
  • glo not so as in not so bad
  • indeed as in He is indeed our leader.
  • not as in He is not our leader.
  • possibly as in It's possibly true.

Comparison[edit]

Adverbs are compared in the same way as adjectives:
normalequalitive degreecomparitive degreemaximal degree
igà quicklyge igà (vél) as quickly (as)ga igà more quicklygá igà as quickly as possible
ugà slowlyge ugà (vél) as slowly (as)go ugà less slowlygá ugà as slowly as possible

Syntax[edit]

Adverbs, like adjectively, normally precede the element in the sentence which they modify, however, this rule is a loose one and can be bent without peril in most cases.
  • Igà upu! Come quickly!'
  • At anà go te. I know only a little.
  • Uda tam fià ceswa. This house was built well.
  • Et vò sa ge fuà. You did not do as badly.
  • Upu gá ubà. Come as closely as possible.
  • At vò te ev it pa áb è ób. I don't know whether he went up or down.

Shortcuts[edit]

Adverbs formed from adjectives ending in -ia or -ua can be shorted to -i and -u, respectively:
  • Pu fi! Fare well!'
  • vi swa beautifully done
  • ésu gú! Work hard!


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