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Taxonomic codification of letters[edit]

The consonants of root words are taken from a conceptual ontology matrix. For example, all root words beginning with the consonant t have something to do with human beings. Root words containing the consonant j relate somehow to time.
For example, the following words all contain the consonant p, which indicates motion:
zíp travel
jap precedence
tóáp step
zòp regression
pán jump
teap visit
mamp flight
Similarly, the following words all end in the consonant l, which indicates liquid:
mil water
vafil wine
mal gasoline
meil mud
vozil paint
teabil tear
Again, the following words all end in the consonant m, which indicates place, space, location, or position.:
tom residence
cem table
dénam library
tilam bar
epem parking lot
mem country

Semantic codification of vowels[edit]

The vowels in root words have various qualitative and quantitative values based on the following scales:

Scale o a e i u
Cardinal 0 1 2 3 4
Ordinal/hierarchical zeroth first second third fourth
Qualitative negative 1 positive 1 neutral positive 2 negative 2
Vectorial down up middle left right
Natural underground sky land water space

The opposite of a word can often be produced by simply changing a vowel to the "opposing" vowel.

  • The vowels "a" and "o" are opposites in the "series 1".
  • The vowels "i" and "u" are opposites in the "series 2."

positive negative
ab on ob off
man light mon shade
aga big oga little
án together ón apart
iga fast uga slow
íga hard úga soft

Throughout the Mirad word construction scheme, the vowel e always has a neutral or medial value:

éb between
éz inside
eza moderate
ge equal
zem middle
ev if
je during
eb at
ve maybe
In hierarchical codification, the vowel o indicates the zeroth or toplevel element of an organization. In a qualitative codification, it has a negative slant. As a prefix, this vowel can also "nullify" a concept as in the following examples:

absolute nullified
tel food otel hunger
gela same ogela different
tadca married otadca unmarried
es function oes malfunction

Hierarchical codification with ordinal vowels[edit]

Root words related hierarchically or organizationally differ only in their ordinal vowels. By ordinal vowels is meant that the vowels have inherent numerical values (o 0, a 1, e 2, etc.). The zeroth element of any hierarchy always contains the ordinal vowel o. For example, the words for royalty differ only by an enumerative vowel which determines the rank:

ordinal value royal rank
1 adeb emperor
2 edeb king
3 ideb prince
4 udeb marquis
5 ádeb count
6 édeb duke
7 ódeb lord

For further illustration, we can look at how the concept human being is hierarchically codified using ordinal vowels, where the larger the numeric value of the ordinal vowel, the lower the element is in the semantic hierarchy:

human being
tob human
tab body
teb head
tib trunk
tub arm
tób leg

Scalability With Contrasting Vowels[edit]

Words can be semantically constructed along the qualitative scale of "postive", '"neutral", and "negative" through the use of vowels imbued with these values. In Mirad, there are two qualitative vowel series:

number positive neutral negative
1 a e o
2 i e u

As implied in the above table, root words with a contrast as semantically opposite with those with o and roots words with i contrast with those with u. Words with e are in the middle between the two extremes. The second series does sometimes lack a middle value. For example:

series positive neutral negative
1 va yes ve maybe vo no
1 vay certainly vey possibly voy not
1 aza strong eza moderate oza weak
2 zi right ze middle zu left
2 fia good fea neither good nor bad fua bad
2 iga fast ega moderate uga slow

Vectorial codification[edit]

On the vectorial (or: directional, geo-spatial) scale, the vowels have the following general values (see later for a more detailed explanation):

positive neutral negative
a   o
up/north/ahead   down/south/back
i   u
right/east/straight   left/west/crooked

Some examples:

positive neutral negative
áb up éb between ób down
ab on eb at ob off
zi right ze in the middle zu left
áber to raise éber to contain óber to lower

In the following examples, the vowels i/u and e take on directional values with respect to the doer of the action:

bier to take nier to consume dier to ask pier to leave iper to go away iber to receive
beer to keep neer to conserve der to say peer to stay eper to stop eber to stop
buer to give nuer to supply duer to suggest puer to arrive uper to come uber to send

Natural (geological) codification[edit]

On the natural scale, the vowels have the following values:

vowel value examples
a sky/air mampar aircraft, map wind (current)
e land/soil mempar car, mep road
i sea/water mimpar ship, mip river
o underground mompar subway, mop tunnel
u outer space mumpar spaceship, mup galaxy

Semantic nuancing[edit]

Semantic nuances and gradations of quality of words are reflected through the "lengthening", that is, addition of a harmonic subordinal vowel to the ordinal vowel, yodification (adding y) of the ordinal vowel, or the addition of one in a series of intensifying (l, r) or distinguishing (c, s, v, f, etc.) consonants, or any of the above techniques in combination. In this scheme, pre-yodification signals a semantic intensification, while post-yodification indicates a weakening or mitigation of sense. A doubling of the vowel usually indicates another kind of lessened strength of the corresponding single-vowel word. Here are some examples:

Post-yodification deintensifies the semantic value of the base word in much the same way as the suffix -ish sometimes mitigates the value of an English adjective.

normal deintensified
ama hot àma warm
oma cold òma cool
ima wet ìma humid
at vage I want at vàge I'd like
at ége I must at yège I should
moza black mòza blackish
e two è half
gla very glà somewhat
mar sun màr star
ifer to love ìfer to like
bók pain bôk ache
tom residence tòm home
dom city dòm town
din story dìn tale
pener to seize pèner to catch
pon rest pòn pause

Pre-yodification is sometimes used to intensify the semantic value of the base word:

normal intensified
om cold óm ice
am heat ám fire
ga more most
pener to seize péner to strike
pot animal pót wild animal
vaa affirmative váa true
ab on yab above
ze in the middle of through
ib away íb far
bok illness bók pain
paner to move páner to jump

The consonant extenders "l" and "r" are sometimes used to intensify the semantic value of the base word.

normal strong stronger
bók pain blók agony brók torture
vag desire vlag yearning vrag craving
éga necessary égla urgent égra critical
péner to hit pénler to beat pénrer to smash
fúder to offend flúder to insult frúder to outrage
dier to request diler to beg direr to demand

The ordinal vowel can be extended with a homorganic subordinal vowel in order to add an element of "lengthening" or some other nuance to the meaning of the base word:

normal lengthened
bok illness book fatigue
vager to want vaager to desire
dob state doob nation
dab government daab administration
tob body toob gender
din story diin recitation
béler to retain béeler to conserve
mil water miil dew

Here are some examples where all these techniques are employed:

derived word method of derivation
bok illness normal
bòk ailment post-yodification (mitigation)
book fatigue lengthening
boòk lassitude post-yodification (mitigation)
bók pain pre-yodification (intensification)
bôk ache post-yodification (mitigation)
bóok suffering lengthening
blók agony L-intensification (1st order)
brók torture R-intensification (2nd order)

derived word method of derivation
vager to want normal
vlager to yearn for L-intensification (1st order)
vrager to crave R-intensification (2nd order)
vaager to desire lengthening
vàger to wish for post-yodification (mitigation)
vaàger to aspire to lengthening

The consonants l, r, and c are used to differentiate nuances of words, usually in a positive degree of strength. Other consonants can also be used for derivation.

derived word
va yes
vaa positive
vala sure
vàla certain
vaala safe
vara evident
vàra manifest
valda certified
vàca secure
váa true
váya genuine
váca correct
vâca right
vába regular
vâba statutory
váva exact
válva perfect
váfa precise
váta fair
váma real
váama virtual
vâma actual
váda frank
vála authentic

Mnemonic and analogic association[edit]

Mnemonics is used to the fullest to associate root words and concepts. For example, the words "neigh", "hehaw", "bark", and "meow" in Unilingua all contain a hint of the animal name with which these are associated. For example:

animal sound verb
épet dog épeder to bark
apet horse apeder to neigh
ápet pig ápeder to squeal
ípet cat ípeder to meow
apat cock apader to crow
pat bird pader to tweet
epèt cow epèder to moo

Two or more words are often joined into a single compound, producing a new concept, where the separate elements are suggestive of the meaning of the resulting compound. In some cases, words overlap much like portmanteau words in English (breakfast + lunch = brunch). (Note, for euphony, if the final consonant of the first root word is the same as the initial consonant of the second root word, one of the consonants is dropped.)

first concept second concept compound
il liquid pan motion ilpan wave
teac- to see per to go teaper to visit
dom city mep way domep street (not dommep)
kum side mep way kumep sidewalk
across mep way zèmep bridge
through mep way zémep thoroughfare
elám iron mep way elámep railroad
mag fire meb mountain magmeb volcano
tóáb foot per to go tóáper to walk
mic window nof cloth micof curtain
mac floor nof cloth macof carpet
bik care nof cloth bikof bandage
teb head nof cloth tef hat
új- to close nof cloth újof fold
tom home nof cloth tomof tent
nun merchandise par vehicle nunpar truck
pat bird ij beginning patij egg
án together iv joy ániv festival
oj future nac money ojnac credit
ej present nac money ejnac cash
relative naz value vénaz coefficient
ke- to seek bier to take kebier to choose
job time bier to take jobier to borrow
dop military bier to take dopbier to conquer
nuc payment bier to take nucbier to purchase
ko- to hide bier to take kobier to steal
tel food tam house telam restaurant
mag fire il liquid magil oil
mam sky mil water mamil rain
mir planet nod point mirnod pole
mam sky nid line mamnid horizon
mar light nid line marnid ray
nof cloth yazser to flatten nofyazser to iron
taob flesh tel food taol meat
taob flesh fab tree faob wood
faob wood cyeb container faocyeb barrel
ápet pig tel meat ápel pork

The following example of compounding with the root word mep (way, route, road) shows the efficiency of Unilingua compounding:

first concept combined concept
kum side kumep sidewalk
tóáb walk tóámep walkway
dom city domep boulevard
dom city domèp avenue
dom city domeap street
éb between ébdomeap alley
across zèmep bridge
through zémep thoroughfare
óg- short ógmep shortcut
oiz indirect oizmep byway
yoz out yozmep exit
éz in ézmep entrance
íz beyond ízmep detour
úz around úzmep beltway
ig- fast igmep expressway
ouj- no-end oujmep cul-de-sac
nùc fee nùcmep toll road, turnpike
agal- main agalmep main road
anog- primary anogmep highway
ogal- minor ogalmep back road
vó- wrong vómep blind alley
áb high ábmep raised highway
mom underground momep subway
elám iron elámep railroad
tóáp- to walk tóámep walkway
par vehicle parmep driveway
-et little mepet path, lane
iz- direct izmep straightaway
-án collective mepán network

Root words[edit]

Root words are divided into two groups:

  • 1st group: nouns.
  • 2nd group: prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and verbs, that is, all other words.

Root words of the 1st group (nouns)[edit]

All noun root words are composed of three letters:

  • The first, a consonant, called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel, called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant, called the generic


classifier ordinal generic meaning
t o b man
t a b body
d o t society
d o m city
t a m house

Table of consonant semantic values[edit]

consonant classifier (1st group) generic (1st group) classifier (2nd group)
b organ, illness, body organism gesture, manner
p animal, vehicle travel movement
c thing, furniture form making, c hundred
s action action doing, action, thing
d society person saying, writing
t human being person knowing
f vegetation textiles, materials quality
v plant, color cloth, linen quality, truth
g     quantity, size, speed
k     weight, volume
j time time time
z   jewels, precious, art, color direction
l   element, liquid, food l ten
m cosmos, nature place, building, metal ml million
n merchandise, containers abstraction counting
r   machine, instrument mr billion

The letter w does not have semantic value, only grammatical value as the sign of the passive voice. The letter h also has no semantic value; it merely forms the correlative deictics or determinants.

Table of vowel numeric values[edit]

vowel numeric value
o 0
a 1
e 2
i 3
u 4
ó 5
á 6
é 7
í 8
ú 9

Table of vowel geo-positional values[edit]

vowel value
a above, superior, north
e center, middle, equator
o below, inferior, south
u left, west
i right, east

Table of vowel vectorial values[edit]

vowel free movement contact movement position examples
a on onto up/north ab (on), aper (mount), aber (apply)
á up onto   áb (up), áper (climb), páer (rise)
o under, off underneath down/south ob (under), ober (remove), boer (support)
ó down down to   óper (descend), póer (fall)
u near to left/west uper (come), puer (arrive)
ú toward until   úb (near), úper (approach), púer (reach)
i away from right/east iper (go away), pier (leave)
í far off off   íb (away), íber (take away), píer (originate)
e between at center/middle eb (at), eper (stop), peer (remain)
é in into   éz (in), éber (contain), béer (detain)

Table of vowel geo-specific values[edit]

vowel value -p -m -l
a sky map wind mam sky mal air
e land mep road mem earth mel soil
i water mip river mim sea mil water
o underground mop tunnel mom mine mol mineral
u nature mup galaxy mum space mul matter

Table of vowel temporal values (for verbs)[edit]

vowel value example
a past pa went, paa had gone, pao will have gone, pae has gone
e present pe goes, pee is going, pea has been going, peo will be going
o future po will go, poa would go, poe is about to go
u untensed pu go!, that (one) go

Root words of the 2nd group (non-nouns)[edit]

All words of the 2nd group, which are word roots other than noun roots, are composed of two letters, either a consonant-vowel combination like za or a vowel-consonant combination like az, not counting grammatical endings like the adjectival suffix -a or the verbal infinitive suffix -er.

Vowel oppositions in 2nd group root words[edit]

Root words with iu opposition :

positive negative
fia good fua bad
via beautiful vua ugly
fía brave fúa afraid
vía clean vúa dirty
ifa lovable ufa hateful
iva happy uva sad
ífa modest úfa proud
íva free úva dependent
iga fast uga slow
íga hard úga soft
gia sharp gua dull
gía difficult gúa easy
ika full uka empty
kia oblique kua lateral
kíaheavy kúa light
íka solid úka fragile
íba far úba near
since up to
iza straight uza crooked
zia right zua left
íz beyond úz around
all over zúa round

Root words with ternary vowel opposition aeo and ieu:

positive neutral negative
aza strong eza medium oza weak
áza flat éza concave óza convex
áz along éz in óz out
za front ze middle zo behind
ahead across back
záa wide through zóa narrow
aga big eg- repeat oga small
ága long ég- must óga short
va yes ve maybe vo no
and, both or, either nor, neither
vager to want veger may, can voger to renounce
av for ev if ov against
váa true véa relative vóa false
áva innocent év- to judge óva guilty
ga more ge equal go less
also as but, except
gáa fat géa moderate góa thin
gla very gle rather glo slightly
gra too gre just gro insufficiently
most average least
kaer find keer seek koer hide
kyaer change kéer fluctuate kóer stay fixed
aker win eker play oker lose
áker to expect éker to try óker to be surprised
ja before je during jo after
aj past ej present oj future
early on time late
-a past tense -e present tense -o future tense
ab on eb at ob off
áb above éb between ób below
ijer to begin ejer to last ujer to end
tijer to be born tejer to live tujer to die

2nd Group Root Word Matrix[edit]

Two-way i/u opposition[edit]

In 2nd group root words, the vowel i signals a positive value, while the contrasting vowel u indicates the negative or opposite value:

positive negative positive negative
fia good fua bad via beautiful vua ugly
ifa dear ufa hateful iva happy uva sad
fía brave fúa afraid vía clean vúa dirty
ífa modest úfa proud íva free úva bound
gia sharp gua dull kia oblique kua lateral
gía difficult gúa easy kía heavy kúa light
iga fast uga slow ika full uka empty
zia right zua left iza straight uza curved
zí- all around zú- round íz- beyond úz- around
ij- begin uj- end íj- open új- close
ib from ub to íb far úb near
ib- receive ub- send íb- take away úb- bring
bi- take bu- give away toward
bin- pull bun- push bín- ... bún- touch
ip- go (away) up- come íp- escape úp- approach
pi- depart pu- arrive pí- originate pú- reach
pin- grab pun- throw pín- seize pún- assault

Three-way a/e/o opposition[edit]

Some 2nd group root words exhibit a three-way contrast where a is the base or positive value, e the middle or in-between value, and o the negative or opposite value:

positive intermediate negative
va yes ve maybe vo no
váa true véa relative vóa false
av for ev if ov against
áva innocent év- judge óva guilty
ga more ge equal go less
gla many gle several glo few
gra too many gre just enough gro too few
most enough least
gáa fat géa moderate góa thin
aga big eg again oga small
ága long ég- must óga short
ka- find ke- search ko- hide
ká- change ké- waver kó- stay
ak- win ek- play ok- lose
ák- expect ék- try ók- be surprised
za front ze middle zo back
záa wide yzé through zóa narrow
aza strong eza average oza weak
áza flat éza concave óza convex
áz along éz in óz out
ja before je during jo after
early on time late
aj past ej present oj future
ab on eb at ob off
ab- apply eb- keep ob remove
áb above éb between ób lower
áb- lift éb- contain ób- lower
ba- lean on be- carry bo- hold up
bar- press bel- keep bol- support
bá- erect bé- lay bó- hang
ban- shake ben- hold bon- calm
ap- get on ep- stay op- get off
áp- ascend ép- intervene óp- descend
pan- move pen- seize pon- rest
pá- jump pé- stand pó- fall
pán- surge pén- attack pón- dive

The following table shows how some of the 2nd group root words can be expanded on through various word-building techniques:

positive negative positive negative
fia good
fi well
fian goodness
fila delicious
fira excellent
fìla exquisite
fieca happy
firsa perfect
fiser to improve
fider to congratulate
fiader to praise
flider to eulogize
frider to brag
fiàsener to favor
fibéna polite
gafia better
gafi better (adv.)
gafif moreso
gafira famous
gafifer to prefer
ísfira useful
fiíser to utilize
fua bad
fura cruel
fula malignant
fùra ferocious
fueca unhappy
flua wicked
fluica sinister
frueca furious
fuvára jeolous
fu ill
gafua worse
gafu worse (adv.)
fuser to spoil
fuscer to bother
fuder to curse
furser to pollute
fùser to debase
fuáser to deteriorate
fulser to damage
fuecer to get angry
fluecer to get irritated
fruicer to grow furious
fun fault
fùn vice
fuùn sin
dofùna immoral
via beautiful
viá pretty
vila magnificent
vira marvelous
vria luxurious
viaga somptuous
vifa elegant
vìfa chic
vifia charming
videréna eloquent
vikaeá admirable
viser to adorn
viber to garnish
viaber to decorate
viaser to embellish
viraser to dazzle
vua ugly
vuá vile
ifa lovable, beloved, dear
ifbier to enjoy
ifbuer to please
ifiber to derive pleasure from
ifca pleasant
ifcla charming
ìfa dear
ìfciona gracious
ifcra delightful
ifra adorable
ifla tender
ìfala cute
ifta nice
ifla nice
ifrana passionate
ìfsrea seductive
ifer to love
ìfer to like
ifcer to be pleased
ifcler to be charmed
ifcrer to be delighted
ifser to please
ifsler to charm
ifsrer to delight
iifper to stroll
ifi thanks
ifider to thank
ifcaler to enjoy
ufa hateful
ufla disagreeable
ufcea unpleasant
ufta mean
ufer to hate
ùfer to dislike
ufuer to despise
ufcer to be displeased
ovufer to avenge
iva gay
ìva joyous
ivla glad
ìvla content
ivra excited
ivalsa amused
ivca funny
ivcla comical
ivaser to rejoice
ivraser to excite
ìvler to satisfy
ivalser to amuse
ivàlser to entertain
ivader to joke
ivlaser to content
uva sad
ùva melancholy
uvla lugubrious
uvca dramatic
uvcra tragic
uvder to complain
uvdlier to lament
uvceuzer to sigh
uvteucer to whine
vónùvuser to regret
ébuvader to pity
uvbaner to move
ébuvlacer to have compassion
uvalser to bore
uvuser to chagrin
ùvuser to punish
uvluser to afflict

Ordinal vowel codification of hierarchical nouns[edit]

Nouns that are related to one another in a hierarchy or organization can be codified using the ordinal feature of vowels. The o vowel (zero value) is used for the topmost element.

job time
jab year
jeb season
jib month
jub day
jób hour
jáb minute
jéb second
tob human
tab body
teb head
tib trunk
tub arm
tób leg
mor universe
mar sun
mer planet
mir earth
mur moon

Individual elements can be further subdivided into a secondary classification by the addition of an ordinal vowel to the right of the first vowel:

tub arm
tuab shoulder
tueb upper arm
tuib elbow
tuub forearm
tuób wrist
tuáb hand
tuéb fist
tuíb palm
tuúb finger
tuób finger nail
tób leg
tóab hip
tóeb thigh
tóib knee
tóub tibia
tóób ankle
tóáb foot
tóéb talon
tóíb heel
tóúb toe
tóób toe nail

A further, tertiary subdivision can be achieved by prefixing an ordinal vowel to the base:

tuúb finger
atuúb thumb
etuúb index
ituúb middle finger
utuúb ring finger
ótuúb little finger

A convenient classification is possible by prefixing an ordinal vowel to the base without any primary or secondary enumeration:

dob state
adob empire
edob kingdom
idob principality
udob marquisate
ódob earldom
ádob barony
édob duchy
ídob dominion
údob tribe

Forming concepts by compounding ("portmanteau")[edit]

New concepts can be formed by compounding simple words. If the generic (final) consonant of the first word matches the classifier (initial) consonant of the following word or his consonantally homorganic with it, the latter is suppressed for convenience and ease of pronunciation:

concept 1 concept 2 compound
dom city mep road domep boulevard
pat bird tub arm patub wing
teb head bók pain tebók headache
tep mind book fatigue tebook boredom

In cases where two ordinated nouns with the same classifier and generic consonants are combined, the vowels are combined:

concept 1 concept 2 compound
mil water mal gas mial vapor
mel soil mil water meil mud

When you wish to form a word composed of words of the same consonantal classification, and the ordinal vowel is o, the o is replaced with the ordinal vowel of the determinant:

concept 1 concept 2 compound
edob kingdom deb leader edeb king
udob principality deb leader udeb prince

Two singleton words often join by replacing the generic (final) consonant of the first word with the generic consonant of the second word, producing a melded concept somewhat like portmanteau words in English ("breakfast" + "lunch" "brunch").

concept 1 concept 2 compound
tob man nof cloth tof clothes
tóáb foot nov tissue tóáv sock
teb head nof cloth tef hat
tib trunk nof cloth) tif vest
tób leg nof cloth tóf pants
tuób hand nof cloth tuóf glove
teib nose nov tissue teiv handkerchief

Making nouns and pronouns "feminine"[edit]

The "feminine" counterpart of a noun or pronoun is obtained by post-yodifying the ordinal vowel (i.e. adding a y glide):

masculine feminine
taf suit tàf dress/outfit
tóáv sock tóâv stocking
tef pants tèf skirt
néf carrying case nêf purse
it he ìt she
tob man tòb woman
apet horse apèt mare
tad husband tèd wife

Codifying nuances of words[edit]

There are several ways of deriving related words with slightly different nuances from the original word:

The l extender is used for a comparatively stronger sense, while the r extender is used for an even stronger (strongest) sense:

absolute comparative excessive
ga more gla very much gra too much
úzbaer squeeze úzbaler pinch úzbarer crush
buer give buler grant burer bestow
ika full ikla packed ikra overflowing
aker win akler vanquish akrer triumph
dier ask diler beseech direr demand

The post-yodifying y extender is used for what usually amounts to a diminutive connotation:

normal mitigated
vager want vàger wish
fuf pipe fùf tube
nas price nàs cost
tep mind tèp spirit
din story dìn tale
cin image cìn mark
ciun sign ciùn signal
sen action sèn act

Pre-yodification of a root vowel often imparts an intensified sense to the word. In any even, the normal and pre-yodified forms are usually related semantically. Compare:

normal intensified
bok malady bók pain
pan motion pán jump
beer to remain béer to detain
aper to get on áper to get up
pet animal pét reptile
otata unholy ótata diabolical
vua ugly vúa dirty
go less least
ga more most
ze in the middle though
ijer to begin íjer to open

Noun-forming derivational suffixes[edit]


Here is a list of suffixes that are added to word bases to form derived nouns:

suffix meaning base derived noun
et subdordinative ted father tedet son
an deadjectival nominalizer (-itude, -ity, -hood, -ness) iva happy ivan happiness
en deverbal nominalizer (-ing, -tion, -ance) azvader to confirm azvaden confirmation
on general abstract nominalizer c- to be con thing
un nominalizer of result nú- to produce núun product
at person (-er) óga young ógat youngster
ut agent (-ist) ces- to build cesut builder
tut expert (-ologist) mem earth memtut geologist
tun science (-ology) mil water miltun hydrology
in doctrine (-ism) tot god totin theism
ar instrument p- to go par vehicle
ir machine vís- to clean vísir vacuum cleaner
ur aparatus magc- to burn magcur stove
am building tel- to eat telam restaurant
em space vab grass vabem prairie
im room magél- to cook magélim kitchen
án collection nac money nacán fund
a genetive/ablative case (of/from) at I ata my
u dative/locative case (in/at/on/to) tam house tamu at home
i pluralizer dén book déni books
ag augmentative tam house tamag palace
àg augmentative affective tam house tamàg nice big house
ág augmentative pejorative tam house tamág big ugly house
og diminutive tam house tamog hut
òg diminutive affective tam house tamòg cottage
óg diminutive pejorative tam house tamóg shack
ob infantile tob human being tobob child


Following is a detailed description of the nominalizing derivations suffixes:

The -et suffix[edit]

The -et suffix is used to form nouns of the same nature, lineage, or composition of a lesser importance:

ted father tedet son
fab tree fabet bush
nac money nacet change
fub branch fubet shoot
táb grandfather tábet grandson

The -an suffix[edit]

The -an suffix is used to form a noun of quality or state from an adjective or noun:

ama hot aman heat
iva beautiful ivan beauty
fia good fian goodness
ted father tedan fatherhood
dat friend datan friendship
odat enemy odatan enmity

The -at suffix[edit]

The -at suffix is used to form the word for a person described by the adjective base.

iktila drunk iktilat a drunkard
iva happy ivat a happy person
ofísa hypocritical ofísat hypocrite
tuja dead tujat dead person

The -ut suffix[edit]

The -ut suffix is used to form the agent for the action described by the verb base "one who does x" or the fabricator of something described by the noun base "one who makes x":

kobier to steal kobiut thief
tóáfser to make shoes tóáfsut shoemaker
teaper to visit teaput visitor
deuzer sing deuzut singer

The -tut suffix[edit]

The -tut suffix is used to form the specialist -ologist or student of something:

tun science tut scientist
memtun geology memtut geography
dad language dadtut linguist

The -ob suffix[edit]

The -ob suffix is used to form the child or younger version of something:
tob man tobob child
apet horse apetob pony
rapat lion rapatob lion cub
tot god totob son of god

The -ar suffix[edit]

The -ar, ir, or -ur suffix on a verb base is used for an instrument/tool, machine, or apparatus, respectively.

álber to lift álbur elevator
álber to lift álbar lever
álbir to lift álbir fork lift
víarer to sweep víarar sweeper
ilújer to plug ilújar faucet
kácanerto transform kácanur transformer
drecer to write drecar pencil

The -en suffix[edit]

The -en suffix is used on a verb base for the verbal noun -ing, -ence, -ment, -tion:

ecer to exist ecen existence
iber to receive iben reception
béer to detain béen detention
otamser to demolish otamsen demolition

The -un suffix[edit]

The suffix -un is used on a verb base for the concrete result of an action:
vyarer to sweep vyarun sweepings
gorfer to tear gorfun a tear, a rip
teacer to see teacun view
zéfser to make glass jewelry zéfsun glass jewelry

The -án suffix[edit]

The suffix -án is used on a noun base for collections or groupings:
fab tree fabán forest
cir machine cirán machinery
meb mountain mebán mountain range
tolar food dish tolarán dishes
mep road mepán network
aco hundred acoán century
dún word dúnán glossary
tam house tamán block (of houses)
màr star màrán constellation

The -ag suffix[edit]

The -ag suffix is used on a noun base for augmentatives "big ...":
tom residence tomag palace
mapil storm mapilag tempest
mep road mepag highway

The -àg suffix[edit]

The suffix -àg is used on a noun base for affectionate augmentatives "big old...":
tam house tamàg big old house
cim chair cimàg big old chair

The -ág suffix[edit]

The suffix -ág is used on a noun base for pejorative augmentatives "big ugly...":

apet horse apetág nag
pem car pemág jalopy
teb head tebág blockhead
tob man tobág brute
pot animal potág beast
tòb woman tòbág hag

The -og suffix[edit]

The suffix -og is used on a noun base for diminutives "little...":
tam house tamog cottage
dén book dénog booklet

The -òg suffix[edit]

The suffix -òg is used on a noun base for affectionate diminutives "sweet little...":
épet dog épetòg doggie, pooch
tòb lady tòbòg little old lady
tèbos kiss tèbosòg peck

The -óg suffix[edit]

The suffix -óg on a noun base for pejorative diminutives "dirty little..."
tebzan face tebzanóg mug
tob man tobóg wretched fellow

The -in suffix[edit]

The suffix -in is used on a word base for a philosophy or doctrine -ism:
òtota godless òtotin atheism
adoba republican adobin republicanism
fob vegetable fobin vegetarianism
ísfrana utilitarian ísfranin utilitarianism

Adjective-forming derivational suffixes[edit]


suffix meaning base derivative
-a relating to moj night moja nocturnal
-aa past participle tuj- to die tujaa dead (also: tuja)
-ea present participle abdab- to dominate abdabea dominant
-èna like tobob child tobobèna childish
-èa tending to da- to talk daèa talkative
-oa future participle tuj- to die tujoa moribund
-wua -able, -ible tel- to eat telwua edible
-àa -ous, -y, -ful, having maf cloud mafàa cloudy
-òa -less maf cloud mafòa cloudless
-ika -ful, full of nac money nacika rich
-uka -less, devoid of nac money nacuka poor

Note: -àa/-òa is synonymous with -ika/-uka. The latter is a new addition to Unilingua author Agapoff's original grammar.


The -a suffix[edit]

The ending -a is used to mean having to do with, in the state of. This is the most common way to form an adjective from a noun:

noun adjective
tej life teja vital
tuj death tuja mortal, dead
moj night moja nocturnal
tob man toba human
yab up yaba upper

In Agapoff's original work on Unlingua, the termination a was also used to form the past passive participle of verbs (ota = unknown). In this work, the proposed termination for past passive participle is waa or more simply, wa (ex: otwa = unknown). See #Verbs for more on this.

active infinitive passive past participle example
ter to know twa known Ca twa ad meir ce yaza. It was known that the earth is flat.
fiser to improve fiswa improved Fiswa nyun improved product
ifer to love ifwa loved, beloved, dear Ifwa ted... Dear Father...

The -éna suffix[edit]

The ending -éna on nouns is used to give the idea of like, having the nature of:

tobob child tobobéna childish, infantile
ted father tedéna paternal, fatherly
bilíg cheese bilígéna cheesy

The -éa suffix[edit]

The ending -éa is used on verb bases to mean tending to:

tuser persuade tuséa persuasive
oceser destroy oceséa destructive
abdaber dominate abdabéa dominating
daer talk daéa talkative

The -ea suffix[edit]

The ending -ea is used on verb bases to form the present participle '-ing, -ant':

tejer live tejea living, alive
tujer die tujea dying
abdaber dominate abdabea dominant

The -wua suffix[edit]

The ending -wua is used on verb bases to mean able to be ...ed '-able':

teler eat telwua edible
teacer see teacwua visible
tiler drink tilwua potable

The -àa suffix[edit]

The ending -àa is used on noun bases to mean full of, having, carrying... '-ous, -y'. This comes from , meaning with. It is synonymous with -ika 'full', presented further on.

meg rock megàa rocky
miek sand miekàa sandy
meb mountain mebàa mountainous

The -òa suffix[edit]

The ending -òa is used on noun bases to mean devoid of, without, un-...ed. This comes from , meaning without. It is synonymous with -uka 'empty', presented further on.

taéb hair taébòa hairless, bald
tec meaning tecòa meaningless
toc feeling tocòa numb

The -ika suffix[edit]

The ending -ika full is used on noun bases to mean full of '-ful, -ous, -y'. This suffix is synonymous with -àa.

ilpaan wave ilpaanika wavy
nas money nasika rich
mil water milika watery, aqueous
voz color vozika colorful

The -uka suffix[edit]

The ending -uka empty is used on noun bases to mean the devoid of '-less'. This suffix is synonymous with -òa and the opposite of -ika and -àa.

nas money nasuka poor
voz color vozuka colorless, bland
teuc taste teucuka tasteless, insipid
nánut population nánutuka unpopulated, deserted

Adverb-forming derivational suffixes[edit]

The -à suffix[edit]

Change the adjectival ending -a to to form an adverb:

yufa proud yufà proudly
teacèa visible teacèà visibly
uva sad uvà sadly

    • Use on noun bases to form an adverbial postpositional phrase mean with...:

ìfcion grace ìfcionà with grace
at me atà with me
úf pride úfà with pride

The -ò suffix[edit]

Use on a noun to mean without...:

nas cost nasò cost-free
seuc noise seucò noiselessly
et you etò without you

The -è suffix[edit]

Use on a noun to mean by, by way of, through, via...:

pam plane pamè by plane
ìt her ìtè by her
ésag hard work ésagè through hard work
Paris Paris Parisè via Paris

Verb-forming derivational suffixes[edit]


ending meaning
er infinitive
cer intransitive stative verb infinitive ("to be/become")
ser transitive dynamic verb infinitive ("to do/make")
per intransitive verb of motion infinitive ("to go")
ber transitive verb of gesture infinitive ("to put")


The -er suffix[edit]

The suffix er is used on noun bases to form a verb infinitive.

noun verb
tej life tejer to live
tuj death tujer to die
túj sleep tújer to sleep
ij beginning ijer to begin
íj opening íjer to open
tíj wakening tíjer to waken
új closing újer to close
tém residence témer to reside
drén print dréner to print

The -cer and -ser suffixes[edit]

The ending -cer be/become is used to create intransitive verbs from nouns and adjectives where the intransitive form contrasts significantly with the transitive form. If the adjective is a base, the -a ending is dropped unless 1) the resulting consonant combination would be difficult; or 2) the meaning is literal as opposed to metaphorical, in which case the dropped -a version is taken as metaphorical. For example, aga big becomes either agacer, meaning literally to become big, or agcer, meaning metaphorically to grow, as in Vab agce ga igà adjobu mamile. The grass grows faster when it rains.

The ending -ser do/make/act/cause is employed to form transitive verbs. In a few cases like teacer/teaser, the opposition of -cer vs. -ser is semantic in nature. In these cases, -ser imparts a more dynamic meaning. In a few other cases, -ser is used to form the causative form of a verb, meaning to make/have/cause/let someone do something.

adjective intransitive verb transitive verb
aga big agacer to get big agaser to magnify
aga big agcer to grow agser to grow
ígza sour ígzacer to grow sour ígzaser to make sour
íva free ívcer to go free ívser to liberate
teab eye teacer to see teaser to look
man light mancer to shine manser to illuminate
ábta vertical, upright ábtacer to stand up ábtaser to erect
ázta incumbant, reclined áztacer to lie down áztaser to lay down
óbta sitting, settled óbtacer to sit down, settle óbtaser to set down

The -per and -per suffixes[edit]

  • The ending -per is used for intransitive verbs of motion (going).
  • The ending -ber is used for transitive verbs of gesture (putting):

base intransitive verb transitive verb
áb up áper to rise áber to raise
ón apart ónper to go apart ónber to separate
ob off oper to get off ober to take off
eb at eper to stop eber to stop
ika full ikper to fill up ikber to fill up

Forming numbers[edit]

Cardinal numeric adjectives[edit]

The cardinal numeric adjectives 0-9 are formed from the ordinal vowels. The tens are formed with the extension consonant l, the hundreds with the consonant c, the thousands with r, the millions with ml, and the billions with mr.

Numbers composed with aro (1,000), amlo (1,000,0000), and amro (1,000,000,000) retain the o and are spelled separately from the rest of the numbers with a space.

number numeral adjective
0 o zero
1 a one
2 e two
3 i three
4 u four
5 ó five
6 á six
7 é seven
8 í eight
9 ú nine
10 alo ten
11 ala eleven
12 ale twelve
13 ali thirteen
14 alu fourteen
15 aló fifteen
20 elo twenty
21 ela twenty-one
22 ele twenty-two
30 ilo thirty
31 ila thirty-one
100 aco one hundred
101 aca one hundred one
123 aceli one hundred twenty-three
200 eco two hundred
1000 aro one thousand
1089 aro ílú
2348 ero iculí
10000 aloro ten thousand
12487 aleru ílé
1000000 amlo one million
6000000 ámlo
6058720 ámlo ólíro écelo

Ordinal numeric adjectives[edit]

The ordinal numeric adjectives are formed by adding -a to the cardinal number:

cardinal ordinal
a 1 aa first
e 2 ea second
i 3 ia third
alo 10 aloa tenth
aci 103 acia one hundred third (pron: a-CI-a)

Ordinal numeric substantives[edit]

When ordinal numbers are used substantively, the letter t is appended for persons and the letter c for things:

English Mirad
The first shall be last. Aati co ujnati.
The second in the series. Eec anána.

Collective numeric substantives[edit]

Collective (or: multiplicative) substantives of the cardinal numbers are formed by adding on.

cardinal collective
a one aon single/whole/unit/solo
e two eon double/couple/pair/duo/twosome
i three ion triple/trio/threesome
u four uon quadruple/foursome/quartet
ó five óon quintuple
é seven éon sevenfold
é seven jubéon week
alo ten alon tenfold
alo ten jabalon decade
ale twelve aleon dozen
aco hundred acon hundredfold
aco hundred aconè percent
aco hundred jabacon century
aro thousand aron thousandfold
aro thousand aroni thousands

Collective numeric prefixes[edit]

Prefixes having a collective (or: multiplicative) numeric meaning are expressed as:

cardinal collective example
a one an- single, mono-, uni anzúc unicycle
e two en- double, bi-, di-, duo- enzúc bicycle
i three in- triple, tri- inzúc tricycle
u four un- quadruple, quad-, tetra- unkum tetrahedron
ó five ón- quintuple, penta- óngun pentagon
alo ten alon- tenfold, deca- alonjab decade
aco hundred acon- hundredfold, hecato-, cent- aconjab century
aro thousand aron- thousandfold, kilo- aronkín kiloliter

Fractional numeric substantives[edit]

Fractional numeric substantives are formed by adding on to the corresponding fractional numeral. The on is dropped in prefixed forms of the fractions:

cardinal fraction prefix example
a one àon unit, whole à- holo- àcin hologram
e two èon half è- semi-, demi- ètot demigod
i three ìon third ì- terci- ìgana terciform
u four ùon quarter ù- quatri- ùser to quarter
alo ten alòon tenth alò- deci- alòser to decimate
aco hundred acòon hundredth acò- centi- acònog centrigrade
aro thousand aròon thousandth arò- milli- aròkík milligram

Frequentative numeric adverbs[edit]

Adverbs of frequency are formed with the root jig, meaning frequency, rate:

cardinal frequency
o zero ojigu never
a one ajigu once
e two ejigu twice
i three ijigu thrice, three times
co hundred acojigu a hundred times
od what odjigu? how often, at what rate?
ge same gejigu at the same rate, as often
ga more gajigu more often
go less gojigu less often
ud this udjigu this often
id that idjigu that often
gla much glajigu very often
glo little glojigu infrequently
glà rather glàjigu rather often

Numeric adjectives of order or rank[edit]

nap order, rank

cardinal order
o zero onapa zeroth
a one anapa primary, first, original
e two enapa secondary, second-ranking
i three inapa tertiary, third-ranking
u four unapa quaternary, fourth-ranking'
za front zanapa front-ranking, ahead
zo back zonapa behind, trailing
ja before janapa former, foregoing
jo after jonapa next, following
ij beginning ijnapa first, original
uj end ujnapa last, final
lo un- lonapa random, unordered

Numeric adjectives of degree[edit]

nog degree, grade, stage

cardinal degree
a one anoga primary
e two enoga secondary
i three inoga tertiary
u four unoga quaternary

Numeric adjectives of base or bit[edit]

Add -na:

cardinal base grouping
o zero ona zero-based onet zero, null
a one ana unary, only anet unit
e two ena binary enet bit
i three ina ternary  
u four una quaternary  
ú eight úna octal únet octet, byte
alo ten alona decimal  
alé sixteen aléna hexadecimal alénet 16-bit byte

Numeric prefixes[edit]

If cardinal numeric morphemes are used as prefixes, -n is added, unless the base to which it is being attached already begins with that letter:

root numeric adjective
kunid edge enkunida double-edged
nid line anida single-lined
nag dimension enaga two-dimenesional
nég space enéga double-spaced
tep mind antepa single-minded
neg level enega split-level
mep way anmepa one-way
voz color anvoza monochrome
can form ancana uniform
tooc sex entoocifa bisexual
tot god antotina monotheistic
izan direction enizana bidirectional

Numeric Expressions[edit]

Distance/size measurements (zák = meter)[edit]

(zág is width, ág is length, ag is size, íban is distance, ábag is height, óbag is depth, gán is girth):

measurement example
zák meter It ca á záki íb. He was 5 meters away.
arozák kilometer Ce eli arozáki bú dom. It is 23 km. to (until) the city.
aroyzák millimeter Cizo alo aroyzáka nid. Draw a ten mm. line.
acozák centimeter Odgan acoyzáki ága ce? How many cm. long is it?

Weight measurements (kík = gram)[edit]

(kín is weight, kíncer is to weigh):

measurement example
kík gram Odgan kíki id kínce? How many grams does that weigh?
arokík kilogram At vage u arokíki vâba. I want five kg. of grain.
aròkík milligram Mez kínce e aròkíki. The crystal weighs two milligrams.

Volume measurements (nék = liter)[edit]

(néd is volume):

measurement example
nék liter Odganu néki it ébe? How many liters does it hold?
aronék kiloliter At vage u aronéki vâba. I want five kilos of grain.
arònék milliliter Ézbo e arònéki mila. Insert two ml. of water.

Math expressions[edit]

(gaber to add, gober to substract, garer to multiply, gorer to divide, gecer to equal):

Mirad English
A gab a gece e. One plus one equals two.
U gob a gece i. Four minus 1 equals three.
E gar u gece ó. Two times four equals eight.
Alo gor e gece á. Ten divided by two equals five.
E veg e gece u. Two to the second power equals four.
E nod u. Two point five (2.5)
U gab a èon or u a èonà 5 1/2

Clock time expressions ( jób = hour)[edit]

The international 24-hour clock is used.

Mirad English
Odjób ce? What time is it? (lit: Which hour is [it]?)
Ce a jób. It's one o'clock.
Ce ali jób alá. It's 1:15 PM.
Ce i jób ilo. It's 3:30 AM.
Ce á jób gob alo. It's ten 'til five. (lit: five hours minus ten)

Calendar expressions[edit]

Unilingua English
Od ce uda jud? What's today's date?'
Udjub ce alá jiub aroúcúli. Today is 16 April 1993.
Ted puo jo i jubi. Father will arrive in two days.
Nunam íjwe yada juebu. The store opens on Mondays.
Nunam íjwo zoa juebu. The store opens on Monday (next).
Zajibu mamila gá ádjoba. Last month it rained the most ever.
Ju zajub! Until tomorrow!
Gla dropeki swa je jabi aroúco. There were many wars during the 1900s.
Zoyejubánu juebu at so ivsej. On monday of next week I will give a party.

Age expressions (jag = age)[edit]

Mirad English
Odjaga et ce? How old are you?
At ce ele jaga. I am 22 years old.
At upta úlo jaga tob. I met a 90-year-old man.

Forming chemical element names[edit]

To form words for chemical elements, use the following method: The first letter is the ordinal vowel for the number of electrons. The next letters are:

  • m for metals
  • mc for nonmetals
  • al for gases
  • il for liquids

electron count type Mirad English
47 metal ulém silver
13 metal alim aluminum
26 metal elám iron
15 nonmetal elómc phosphorus
6 nonmetal ámc carbon
1 nonmetal gas amc hydrogen
7 nonmetal gas émcal azote
8 nonmetal gas ímcal oxygen
80 metal liquid ílomil mercury

Codifyng new words based on mnemonics and analogy[edit]

Sometimes a word or group of words can have a connection with the meaning of a derived word. Such words are formed from this derived word by changing the generic final root consonant or sometimes other consonants of this word:

teub mouth < teb head
teud utterance d say
teuz voice z precious/art,etc.
deuz song d speak/write

taéb hair tab human body
faéb leaf fab tree
vocaéb petal voc flower
potaéb mane pot animal
pataéb feather pat bird
petaéb fur pet land animal
upetaéb fleece upet sheep
pitaéb fin pit fish

taób skin tab human body
taóf leather nof cloth
faób bark fab tree
fáób rind fáb fruit
pitaób scales pit fish
petaób hide, pelt pet animal

cim chair bimer to sit
cum bed bumer to lie
cem table bemer to sit down at the table

teacer to see ceacer to appear
beacer to keep watch
neacer to target
teaper to visit
izeacer to show
váleacer to check
óneater to discern
ágeacer to contemplate
izeader to indicate
abeacer to survey
ijeacer to notice
teader to witness

Forming new words with prefixation[edit]

Prefixed elements (sometimes more than one) can be used to form new concepts related to the root word.

Here are examples where morphemes are joined to der to say:

prefixed morpheme derived concept
ja before jader to predict
early jáder to warn
ja ve before maybe javeder to guess
jo after joder to reply
eg again egder to repeat
oz weak ozder to whisper/hint
az strong azder to insist
óz out ózder to express
all around zíder to broadcast
uj end ujder to conclude
ka- find kader to reveal/admit/confess
ko- hide koder to keep secret/deny
fi well fider to eulogize/bless
fu poorly fuder to curse/damn
fia good fiader to praise
fua bad fuader to malign
via beautiful viader to compliment
vua ugly vuader to malign
fri wonderful frider to flatter
fru terrible fruder to insult
evfia whether good evfiader to critique
av for avder to favor
ov against ovder to object/oppose
ava favorable avader to side with
ova opposed ovader to contradict
av od for what avoder to question
va veg yes can vavegder to permit
vo veg no can vovegder to prohibit
vo va no yes vovader to contest
az ov strong against azovder to protest
va yes vader to affirm/decide
ve maybe veder to speculate
vo no voder to deny
fiva good yes fivader to approve
o fi va not good yes ofivader to disapprove
fu va bad yes fuvader to condemn
az va strong yes fivader to confirm
val certainty valder to certify
vac assurance vacder to assure
vag want vagder to mean/express desire
ván truth váder to swear
vón falsehood vóder to lie
áva innocent ávader to vindicate
óva guilty óvader to indict
áva innocent ávder to thank
óva guilty óvder to blame
íva free ívader to acquit
íva free ívder to forgive
év judgement évder to judge
éb between ébder to discuss
ók surprise ókder to improvisate
ág long ágder to ramble
óg short ógder to summarize
iva happy ivader to thank
iva happy ivder to congratulate
uva sad uvder to complain
uva sad uvader to apologize
jo uva after sad jouvder to regret/mourn
ivcan merriment' ivcder to joke
fu iva bad happy fuivader to mock
ók surprise ókder to improvisate
aj past ajder to evoke
oj future ojder to promise
naz value nazder to evaluate
ók surprise ókder to improvisate
dún name dúnder to nominate
kua lateral kuder to remark (aside)
kia sloped kider to hint
dún name dúnder to nominate
gra too much grader to exaggerate
gro too little groder to underplay
gan quantity gander to quantify
teab eye teader to testify
cin picture cinder to describe
kóa fixed kóder to insist
o not oder to keep silent
kebi choice kebider to vote
tata holy tatader to bless/sanctify
fún fear fúnder to express fear
vates belief vatesder to affirm
vetes doubt vetesder to question/doubt
vika admiration vikader to express admiration
fíl courage fílder to encourage
ofíl not courage ofílder to discourage
ga more gader to say more/go on
ge equal geder to agree
oge not same ogeder to disagree
ék risk ékder to dare say
ég obligation égder to be obliged to say
ek play ekder to pretend
iz straight izder to say frankly
uz crooked uzder to beat around the bushes/equivocate

Forming new adjectival concepts with compounding[edit]

New adjectival concepts can be readily formed by compounding a noun or other rootword with an existing root adjective:
tep intellect aza strong tepaza smart
tep intellect oza weak tepoza dumb
vag will aza strong vagaza strong-willed
vag will oza weak vagoza weak-willed
vag will ána together vagána consensual
vag will óna apart vagóna non-consensual
veg possibility aza strong vegaza likely
veg possibility oza weak vegoza unlikely
tep intellect kía heavy tepkía serious
tep intellect kúa light tepkúa light-hearted
tep intellect káa variable tepkáa scatter-brained
tep intellect kóa fixed tepkóa attentive
tep intellect záa wide tepzáa fair-minded
tep intellect zóa narrow tepzóa narrow-minded
tep intellect íja open tepíja open-minded
tep intellect úja closed tepúja close-minded
tep intellect iga fast tepiga quick-witted
tep intellect uga slow tepuga retarded
tep intellect ána together tepána like-minded
tep intellect óna apart tepóna dissenting
top spirit íga hard topíga cruel
top spirit úga soft topúga leninent
top spirit vaa positive topvaa optimistic
top spirit voa negative topvoa pessimistic
top spirit ába high topába up-beat
top spirit óba low topóba down-beat
top spirit iva happy topiva jolly
top spirit uva sad topuva melancholy
nac money ika full nasika rich
nac money uka empty nasuka poor
áb up ága long ábága tall
ób down ága long óbága deep
áb up óga short ábóga short (vertically)
ób down óga short óbóga shallow
job time ága long jobága long (duration)
job time óga short jobóga short (duration)
mep way iza straight mepiza direct
mep way uza crooked mepuza convoluted
váb rule aza strong vábaza strict
váb rule oza weak váboza lax
dab government ava for dabava pro-government
dab government ova against dabova anti-government

Word Classifiers[edit]

The following are common combinatory morphemes used to distinguish or classify entities. Many of them are abbreviated forms. If you were to produce a list of word rhyming with any of these morphemes, you would have a list of words that all fit within a similar taxonomic category. For example, all Unilingua words ending in pyot refer to wild animals. All those ending in il are liquids.

classifier meaning
am building
em place
im room
ém container
ut agent
j time
jig rate
nog degree
bén manner
caun kind
can shape
gan quantity
pat bird
pet land animal
pót wild animal
pét reptile
pelt insect
peit amphibian
piit crustacean
pit fish
fab tree
fáb fruit
vob plant
vab grass
vol vegetable
voc flower
voz color
ar instrument
par vehicle
ir machine
ur motor
er verb
ez gem
tun science
tut scientist
il liquid
el food
él semi-solid
ol solid
of material
uf cylinder
án collective
ber put
per go
cer be
ser do
un result
en process
an state
on abstract thing
in doctrine
ub apendage
eb head
euz sound
dren document

Basics · Word Families

Basics · Mirad · Word Families
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