The Ten Commandments/You shall not murder

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You shall not murder or You shall not kill is a moral imperative included as one of the Ten Commandments,[1] which, according to the Bible, were inscribed onto two stone tablets by the finger of God.[2] The concept of bloodguilt pervades the Bible and entails punishment for the shedding of innocent blood.[3]

Do not pollute the land where you are. Bloodshed pollutes the land, and atonement cannot be made for the land on which blood has been shed, except by the blood of the one who shed it.

Numbers 35:33 NIV

The commandment against murder can be viewed as a legal issue governing human relationships, noting that the first five commandments relate strongly to man’s duty to God and that the latter five commandments describe duties toward humans.[4][5] The commandment against murder can also be viewed as based in respect for God himself.[6][7] Since man is made in God’s image, the shedding of innocent blood is viewed as a direct offense against the Creator.[8]

Background[edit | edit source]

The ancient understanding of guilt that is incurred from the shedding of innocent blood is seen in the Genesis narrative, in which Cain killed his brother Abel out of anger, and the LORD cursed Cain for shedding his brother’s blood.[9][10]

The voice of your brother’s blood is crying to me from the ground. And now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand.

Genesis 4:10-11 ESV

The Genesis narrative also portrays the prohibition of shedding innocent blood as an important aspect of God’s covenant with Noah.[11][12]

Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed, for God made man in his own image.

Genesis 9:6 ESV

In the Talmud, Genesis 9:5 is interpreted as a prohibition against killing oneself, and Genesis 9:6 is “cited in support for the prohibition of abortion.”[13]

Ancient understanding and legal implementation[edit | edit source]

The Torah portrays murder as a capital crime and describes a number of details in the moral understanding and legal implementation of consequences.[14]

If a man strikes someone with an iron object so that he dies, he is a murderer; the murderer shall be put to death. Or if anyone has a stone in his hand that could kill, and he strikes someone so that he dies, he is a murderer; the murderer shall be put to death. Or if anyone has a wooden object in his hand that could kill, and he hits someone so that he dies, he is a murderer; the murderer shall be put to death. The avenger of blood shall put the murderer to death; when he meets him, he shall put him to death. If anyone with malice aforethought shoves another or throws something at him intentionally so that he dies or if in hostility he hits him with his fist so that he dies, that person shall be put to death; he is a murderer. The avenger of blood shall put the murderer to death when he meets him.

Numbers 35:16-21 NIV

In contrast, if the killing was accidental, the accused person was permitted to flee to a city of refuge where he would be safe from the avenger of blood. Carrying out the death penalty required the testimony of multiple witnesses; putting someone to death on the testimony of a single witness was strictly prohibited.[15]

The Torah had the expectation that capital crimes would be investigated thoroughly, and moral guilt was attached to failure to investigate crimes thoroughly or failure to give testimony when a call was made for witnesses.[16] The understanding of bloodguilt also required a procedure to make atonement for unsolved murder. If a dead body was found lying in a field, the elders and judges were to carefully determine the distance to the closest town, and the elders of the nearest town were to break a heifer’s neck in a prescribed manner and location.[17]

Then all the elders of the town nearest the body shall wash their hands over the heifer whose neck was broken in the valley, and they shall declare: "Our hands did not shed this blood, nor did our eyes see it done. Accept this atonement for your people Israel, whom you have redeemed, O LORD, and do not hold your people guilty of the blood of an innocent man." And the bloodshed will be atoned for. So you will purge from yourselves the guilt of shedding innocent blood, since you have done what is right in the eyes of the LORD.

Deuteronomy 21:6-9 (NIV)

Responsibility for bloodguilt also extended to areas of gross negligence. A man who failed to build a parapet or railing around the roof of his house would incur bloodguilt if someone fell and died.[18] The owner of a bull who was known to have a habit of goring could be put to death if he failed to keep the animal confined and the bull gored a man or woman to death.[19] The Torah also instructs that homicidal animals were also to be stoned to death and the carcass reviled.[20]

Justified killing: due consequence for crime[edit | edit source]

The Torah and Hebrew Bible made clear distinctions between the shedding of innocent blood and killing as the due consequence of a crime. A number of sins were considered to be worthy of the death penalty including murder,[21] child sacrifice,[22] bearing false witness on a capital charge, [23] adultery,[24] idolatry,[25] etc.[26]

For example, the Exodus narrative describes the people as having turned to idolatry with the golden calf while Moses was on the mountain receiving the law from God. When Moses came down, he commanded the Levites to take up the sword against their brothers and companions and neighbors. The Levites obeyed and killed about three thousand men who had sinned in worship of the golden calf. As a result, Moses said that the Levites had received a blessing that day at the cost of son and brother.[27] On a separate occasion, a blasphemer was stoned to death because he blasphemed the name of the LORD with a curse.[28]

The Hebrew Bible has many other examples of sinners being put to death as due consequence for crimes. Achan is put to death by Joshua because he caused defeat of Israel’s army by taking some of the plunder and hiding it in his tent.[29][30] David ordered that an Amalekite be put to death because he claimed to have killed King Saul.[31] In his charge to his son Solomon, King David ordered him to deal with the bloodguilt of Joab, who had murdered Abner and Amasa.[32] Solomon ordered that Joab be killed:

Strike him down and bury him, and so clear me and my father's house of the guilt of the innocent blood that Joab shed. The LORD will repay him for the blood he shed, because without the knowledge of my father David he attacked two men and killed them with the sword. Both of them—Abner son of Ner, commander of Israel's army, and Amasa son of Jether, commander of Judah's army—were better men and more upright than he. May the guilt of their blood rest on the head of Joab and his descendants forever. But on David and his descendants, his house and his throne, may there be the LORD's peace forever.

1 Kings 2:31-33 (NIV)

The biblical refrain for those justly executed as due punishment for crimes is that “their blood will be on their own heads.”[33] This expresses the idea that those guilty of certain actions have brought the shedding of blood upon themselves, and those carrying out due punishment do not bear bloodguilt.

Justified killing: in battle[edit | edit source]

The ancient Hebrew texts make a distinction between the moral and legal prohibition of shedding of innocent blood and killing in battle.[34] For example, the Torah prohibits murder, but sanctions killing in legitimate battle.[35][36] The Bible often praises the exploits of soldiers against enemies in legitimate battle. One of David’s mighty men is credited with killing eight hundred men with the spear,[37] and Abishai is credited with killing three hundred men.[38] Of course, David himself is portrayed as a hero for killing Goliath in battle.[39]

Justified killing: intruder in the home[edit | edit source]

As described in the Torah, the ancient understanding of the prohibition of murder made an exception for legitimate self-defense. A home defender who struck and killed a thief caught in the act of breaking in at night was not guilty of bloodshed. “If a thief is caught breaking in and is struck so that he dies, the defender is not guilty of bloodshed; but if it happens after sunrise, he is guilty of bloodshed.”[40]

A man's house is his castle, and God's law, as well as man's, sets a guard upon it; he that assaults it does so at his peril.

Matthew Henry’s Commentary on Exodus 22

Jewish interpretation[edit | edit source]

Jewish law views the shedding of innocent blood very seriously, and lists murder as one of three sins (along with idolatry and sexual immorality) fall under the category of yehareg ve'al ya'avor, meaning "One should let himself be killed rather than violate it."[41] Jewish law enumerates 613 Mitzvot, or commandments, including prohibition of murder and a number of other commandments related to the preserving of human life and administration of justice in cases of shedding of innocent blood.

482. Don't commit murder (Exodus 20:13)

483. Don't accept ransom for life of the murderer (Numbers 35:31)

484. Exile an accidental murderer (Numbers 35:25)

485. Don't accept ransom from him (Numbers 35:32)

486. Don't kill the murderer before trying him (Numbers 35:12)

487. Save the pursued at the cost of the life of the pursuer (Deuteronomy 25:12)

488. Don't show pity for the pursuer (Numbers 35:12)

489. Don't stand idly by when you can save a life (Leviticus 19:16)

490. Set aside cities of refuge for those who commit accidental homicide (Deuteronomy 19:3)

491. Break the neck of the calf by the river (in ritual following unsolved murder) (Deuteronomy 21:4)

492. Don't till by that river or sow there (Deuteronomy 21:4)

493. Don't cause loss of human life (through negligence) (Deuteronomy 22:8)

494. Build a parapet (in roof of house) (Deuteronomy 22:8)

495. Don't mislead with advice which is a stumbling block (Leviticus 19:14)

496. Help a man remove the load from his beast which can no longer carry it (Exodus 23:5)

497. Help him load his beast (Deuteronomy 22:4)

498. Don't leave him in a state of confusion and go on your way (Deuteronomy 22:4)

Sefer Hamitzvot by Maimonides

Life is considered very precious, even sacred by Jewish teaching. The Talmud cites the prohibition of shedding innocent blood in Genesis 9:6 as the reason why the death penalty should be carried out against non-Jews as well as Jews, and while faithful Jews are required to obey 613 Mitzvot, gentiles are only obliged to obey the seven Noahide laws, which include the prohibition of murder and establishment of a justice system to administer law honestly.[42] Rabbi Dr. Azriel Rosenfeld offers a representative modern summary of Jewish teaching regarding the command not to murder.

Chapter 68. Murderer and Protection of Life - Rotze'ach u-Shemiras Nefesh

It is forbidden to murder, as it says "You shall not murder". (Exodus 20:13, Deuteronomy 5:17) A murderer must be put to death, as it says "He shall be avenged"; (Exodus 21:20, see Leviticus 24:17,21) it is forbidden to accept compensation from him instead, as it says "You shall not take redemption for the life of a murderer...; and there shall be no atonement for the blood that was spilled... except the blood of him that spilled it". (Numbers 35:31-33) It is forbidden to execute a murderer before he has stood trial, as it says "And the murderer shall not die until he stands before the congregation for judgment". (Numbers 35:12) However, we are commanded to prevent an attempted murder by killing the would-be murderer if necessary, and it is forbidden to refrain from doing so, as it says "And you shall cut off her hand; you shall not be merciful" (Deuteronomy 25:12); and similarly for attempted fornication, as it says "[If the man seizes her and lies with her...] just as a man rises up against his friend and murders him, so is this thing."(Deuteronomy 22:26) It is forbidden to refrain from saving life when it is in one's power to do so, as it says "You shall not stand on your friend's blood."(Leviticus 19:16)

Rabbi Dr. Azriel Rosenfeld[43]

New Testament view[edit | edit source]

The New Testament is in agreement that murder is a grave moral evil,[44] and maintains the Old Testament view of bloodguilt.[45] Jesus himself repeats and expands upon the commandment, “Do not murder.”[46] Jesus also tells a parable in which a king justifiably destroys a group of murderers.[47] The New Testament depicts Jesus as explaining that murder, as well as other sins, come from the heart.

For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false testimony, slander.

Matthew 15:19 (NIV)

The New Testament acknowledges the just and proper role of civil government in maintaining justice[48] and punishing evildoers, even to the point of “bearing the sword.”[49] One criminal on the cross contrasts his death as due punishment with Jesus’ death as an innocent man.[50] When Jesus appeared before Pilate, both Pilate[51] and the crowd[52] recognize the principles of bloodguilt. There is no indication in the New Testament that it is unjust, immoral, or inappropriate for secular civil governments to execute those guilty of shedding innocent blood.[53]

Like the Old Testament, the New Testament seems to depict the lawful use of force by soldiers in legitimate battles as justified.[54] The profession of soldier is portrayed in a noble light when the Apostle Paul exhorts the Ephesians to “put on the full armor of God.”[55] Cornelius, the Roman centurion, is portrayed as a righteous and God-fearing man.[56] Jesus praises the faith of a Roman centurion on the occasion of healing the centurion’s servant, and states that he has not found such great faith even in Israel.[57] When John the Baptist was preaching repentance and baptizing penitent sinners in the Jordan river, soldiers came to John and asked for specific instructions regarding their repentance. John the Baptist did not demand that the soldiers renounce their profession, instead he exhorted them to be content with their pay.[58]

Don't extort money and don't accuse people falsely—be content with your pay.

Luke 3:14 (NIV)

Jesus, while not explicitly condoning the use of violence in self-defense, implicitly suggests the need to be prepared for it when he tells his disciples to buy a sword if they do not have one, “now if you have a purse, take it, and also a bag; and if you don't have a sword, sell your cloak and buy one.”[59] However, Jesus was also quick to correct his servant for the improper use of the sword in cutting off the ear of the high-priest’s servant.

Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels?

Matthew 26:52-53 (KJV)

Teaching of the Roman Catholic Church[edit | edit source]

Catholic teaching asserts that the prohibition of murder stems from man being created in God’s image and recognizes the principles of bloodguilt as being necessary for all time.[60] Life is portrayed as sacred, and no one can claim the right to destroy an innocent human being. The sin of shedding of innocent blood cries out to heaven for vengeance.

’’Human life is sacred’’ because from its beginning it involves the creative action of God and it remains for ever in a special relationship with the Creator, who is its sole end. God alone is the Lord of life from its beginning until its end: no one can under any circumstance claim for himself the right directly to destroy an innocent human being… The deliberate murder of an innocent person is gravely contrary to the dignity of the human being, to the golden rule, and to the holiness of the Creator. The law forbidding it is universally valid: it obliges each and everyone, always and everywhere... The fifth commandment forbids direct and intentional killing as gravely sinful. The murderer and those who cooperate voluntarily in murder commit a sin that cries out to heaven for vengeance.

Catechism of the Catholic Church[61]

Self-defense[edit | edit source]

Legitimate defense is depicted as justifiable, even if the defender deals his aggressor a lethal blow. However, a man should not use more force than necessary to repel an attack. The legitimate defense of persons and societies should not be considered as an exception to the prohibition of murdering the innocent: the preservation of innocent life is seen as the intended outcome. Injury or death to the aggressor is not the intended outcome, it is the unfortunate consequence of using necessary force to repel an imminent threat.[62]

Legitimate defense can be not only a right but a grave duty for one who is responsible for the lives of others. The defense of the common good requires that an unjust aggressor be rendered unable to cause harm. For this reason, those who legitimately hold authority also have the right to use arms to repel aggressors against the civil community entrusted to their responsibility.

Catechism of the Catholic Church[63]

Capital punishment[edit | edit source]

The Catholic Catechism teaches that legitimate public authority has the right and duty to punish criminals proportionally to the gravity of the offense to safeguard the public good. Nonlethal means are preferred, if these are sufficient to defend and protect people’s safety. However, recourse to the death penalty is not excluded, provided the guilty party’s identity and responsibility have been fully determined.[64]

Assuming that the guilty party's identity and responsibility have been fully determined, the traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor.

Catechism of the Catholic Church[65]

Abortion[edit | edit source]

Catholic teaching asserts that abortion is a grave moral evil because the act takes an innocent human life. It asserts that human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. From the first moment of his existence, “a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person - among which is the inviolable right of every innocent being to life.”[66]

Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you. (Jeremiah 1:5; See also: Job 10:8-12, Psalms 22:10-11)

My frame was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately wrought in the depths of the earth. (Ps 139:15)

Catechism of the Catholic Church[67]

Euthanasia, Suicide, Alcohol, Drugs[edit | edit source]

Catholic teaching strictly prohibits euthanasia and suicide as violations of the commandment, “You shall not kill.”[68] Recognizing life and health as precious gifts from God, adherents are encouraged to avoid excess of food, tobacco, alcohol, and medications. Endangering others with excesses speed or drunkenness on the roadway incurs grave guilt.[69] The use of drugs, except on strictly therapeutic grounds is a grave offense. Clandestine production and trafficking in drugs constitute “direct co-operation in evil.” [70]

War[edit | edit source]

The Catholic Catechism insistently urges everyone to prayer for the avoidance of war. All citizens and governments are obliged to work toward the avoidance of war. However, it recognizes that governments cannot be denied the lawful right to self-defense, once all peace efforts have failed. The use of legitimate defense by a military force is considered grave and therefore subject to rigorous considerations of moral legitimacy. Elements of a “just war” doctrine are explicitly enumerated. [71]

-the damage inflicted by the aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave, and certain;

- all other means of putting an end to it must have been shown to be impractical or ineffective; - there must be serious prospects of success; - the use of arms must not produce evils and disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated. The power of modern means of destruction weighs very heavily in evaluating this condition.

Catechism of the Catholic Church[72]

Reformation and Post-Reformation views[edit | edit source]

Martin Luther summarized the commandment against shedding innocent blood as grounded in the fear and love of God, and as having both positive and negative aspects: negative in that we must neither harm nor hurt our neighbor’s body; positive in that we must help our neighbor and care for him when he is ill.

You must not kill.(Exodus 20:13)

Q. What does this mean? A. We must fear and love God, so that we will neither harm nor hurt our neighbor’s body, but help him and care for him when he is ill.

Martin Luther, The Small Catechism[73]

In a more detailed teaching, Martin Luther explains that God and government are not constrained by the commandment not to kill, but that God has delegated his authority in punishing evildoers to the government. The prohibition of killing is forbidden to the individual in his relation to anyone else, and not to the government.

We have now completed both the spiritual and the temporal government, that is, the divine and the paternal authority and obedience. But here now we go forth from our house among our neighbors to learn how we should live with one another, every one himself toward his neighbor. Therefore God and government are not included in this commandment nor is the power to kill, which they have taken away. For God has delegated His authority to punish evil-doers to the government instead of parents, who aforetime (as we read in Moses) were required to bring their own children to judgment and sentence them to death. Therefore, what is here forbidden is forbidden to the individual in his relation to any one else, and not to the government.

Martin Luther, The Large Catechism[74]

In “The Institutes of the Christian Religion,” John Calvin viewed the purport of this commandment as the safety of all being entrusted to each person. All violence and injustice, and every kind of harm from which our neighbor’s body suffers is thereby prohibited. Christians are therefore required to faithfully perform that which is within their power to defend the life of their neighbor, be vigilant in warding off harm, and assist in removing danger when it comes. Calvin asserts that the same rule must also be applied in regulating the mind against anger, arguing that since God sees the heart and mind, the commandment against shedding innocent blood also prohibits murder of the heart and requires a sincere desire to preserve our brother’s life. The hand does not commit the murder unless it is conceived by the mind under the influence of wrath and hatred. According to Calvin, where wrath and hatred dwell, there is an inclination to do mischief, quoting the Bible, “whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer”(1 John 3:15) and “whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgement” (Matthew 5:22). [75]

John Calvin also makes a case that the command against shedding blood is founded both in the creation of man in the image of God and in the need for a man to cherish his own flesh.

Scripture notes a twofold equity on which this commandment is founded. Man is both the image of God and our flesh. Wherefore, if we would not violate the image of God, we must hold the person of man sacred—if we would not divest ourselves of humanity we must cherish our own flesh. The practical inference to be drawn from the redemption and gift of Christ will be elsewhere considered. The Lord has been pleased to direct our attention to these two natural considerations as inducements to watch over our neighbour's preservation, viz., to revere the divine image impressed upon him, and embrace our own flesh. To be clear of the crime of murder, it is not enough to refrain from shedding man's blood. If in act you perpetrate, if in endeavour you plot, if in wish and design you conceive what is adverse to another's safety, you have the guilt of murder. On the other hand, if you do not according to your means and opportunity study to defend his safety, by that inhumanity you violate the law. But if the safety of the body is so carefully provided for, we may hence infer how much care and exertion is due to the safety of the soul, which is of immeasurably higher value in the sight of God.

John Calvin[76]

Matthew Henry considered the commandment against killing to apply to both one’s own life as well as the life of one’s neighbor and considered it to apply not only to causing of death but also to prohibit any thing unjustly hurtful to or injurious to the health, ease, and life of one’s own body or the body of any other person. [77] He also ties the commandment against bloodshed back to the command to Noah and his sons in Genesis 9, and he sees it as a command applying to the individual against his neighbor, but not against killing in lawful war, for one’s own necessary defense, or against the government instituting due punishments for criminal offenses. He portrays laying in wait for the blood of the innocent as a grave offense against human dignity as one of the fundamental laws of nature.

This is one of the laws of nature, and was strongly enforced by the precepts given to Noah and his sons, Gen. 9:5, 6. It does not forbid killing in lawful war, or in our own necessary defence, nor the magistrate’s putting offenders to death, for those things tend to the preserving of life; but it forbids all malice and hatred to the person of any (for he that hateth his brother is a murderer), and all personal revenge arising therefrom; also all rash anger upon sudden provocations, and hurt said or done, or aimed to be done, in passion: of this our Saviour expounds this commandment, Mt. 5:22. And, as that which is worst of all, it forbids persecution, laying wait for the blood of the innocent and excellent ones of the earth.

Matthew Henry[78]

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. Exodus 20:1-21, Deuteronomy 5:1-23, Ten Commandments, New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Tyndale House, 1982 pp. 1174-1175
  2. Exodus 31:18, Deuteronomy 9:10, Catholic Catechism 2056,
  3. Bloodguilt, Jewish Virtual Library, , Genesis 4:10, Genesis 9:6, Genesis 42:22, Exodus 22:2-2, Leviticus 17:4, Leviticus 20, Numbers 20, Deuteronomy 19, Deuteronomy 32:43, Joshua 2:19, Judges 9:24, 1 Samuel 25, 2 Samuel 1, 2 Samuel 21, 1 Kings 2, 1 Kings 21:19, 2 Kings 24:4, Psalm 9:12, Psalm 51:14, Psalm 106:38, Proverbs 6:17, Isaiah 1:15, Isaiah 26:21, Jeremiah 22:17, Lamentations 4:13, Ezekiel 9:9, Ezekiel 36:18, Hosea 4:2, Joel 3:19, Habakkuk 2:8, Matthew 23:30-35, Matthew 27:4, Luke 11:50-51, Romans 3:15, Revelation 6:10, Revelation 18:24
  4. The Ten commandments: a handbook of religious, legal, and social issues, Joseph P. Hester, MacFarland, 2003, pp. 19-20
  5. Commentary on Exodus 20, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 150
  6. The Ten Commandments, William Barclay, Westminster John Knox Press, 1998, p. 52
  7. The Ten Commandments, G. Cambell Morgan, Flaming H. Revell, 1901, pp. 66-67
  8. Genesis 9:6, see also James 3:9
  9. The Catholic Catechism 2259
  10. Hebrews 11:4, 1 John 3:12, Jude 1:11
  11. The Catholic Catechism 2260
  12. ’’The Ten commandments: a handbook of religious, legal, and social issues’’, Joseph P. Hester, MacFarland, 2003, p. 21
  13. Commentary on Genesis 9, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 25, Talmud b.B.K 91b, b Sanhedrin 57b
  14. ’’The Ten Commandments’’, William Barclay, Westminster John Knox Press, 1998, pp. 52-57
  15. Numbers 35, Deuteronomy 17, 19
  16. Leviticus 5:1
  17. Commentary on Deuteronomy 21, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 413-414
  18. Deuteronomy 22:8
  19. Exodus 21:28-31
  20. ’’Bloodguilt,’’ Jewish Virtual Library, Exodus 21:28-31, Genesis 9:5
  21. Exodus 21:12, Leviticus 24:17
  22. Leviticus 20:12
  23. Deuteronomy 19:8-21
  24. Leviticus 20:10
  25. Exodus 22:20
  26. ’’The Ten Commandments’’, William Barclay, Westminster John Knox Press, 1998, pp. 52-57
  27. Exodus 32
  28. Leviticus 24:10-23
  29. Joshua 7:10-26
  30. ’’The Ten Commandments,’’ G. Cambell Morgan, Flaming H. Revell, 1901, p. 69
  31. 2 Samuel 2:1-16
  32. 1 Kings 2:5-6
  33. Leviticus 20, 2 Samuel 1:16, Ezekiel 18:13,
  34. The Catholic Catechism 2261, Exodus 23:7
  35. Matthew Henry’s Commentary on Exodus 20:13, Exodus 34:10-14, Deuteronomy 7:7-26
  36. Later generations have given great consideration to the question of what constitutes “legitimate battle.”
  37. 2 Samuel 23:8
  38. 2 Samuel 23:18
  39. 1 Samuel 17
  40. Exodus 22:2-3
  41. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 74a,
  42. Tractate Sanhedrin 57a,
  44. Matthew 5:21, Matthew 15:19, Matthew 19:19, Matthew 22:7, Mark 10:19, Luke 18:20, Romans 13:9, 1 Timothy 1:9, James 2:11, Revelation 21:8
  45. Matthew 23:30-35, Matthew 27:4, Luke 11:50-51, Romans 3:15, Revelation 6:10, Revelation 18:24
  46. Matthew 5:21, Matthew 19:19, Mark 10:19, Luke 18:20
  47. Matthew 22:1-7
  48. Romans 13:1-7, 1 Peter 4:15, John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Book 4, Chapter 20,
  49. Romans 13:4 and commentary, The NIV Study Bible, Zondervan, 1995 p. 2240
  50. Luke 23:41
  51. Matthew 27:24
  52. Matthew 27:25
  53. Matthew 22:7, Romans 13, John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Book 4, Chapter 20, , Catechism of the Catholic Church 2267
  54. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2309-2310
  55. Ephesians 6
  56. Acts 10, An Exposition of the Bible, Volume 5, Marcus Dods, et al., S.S. Scranton Co., 1903, pp. 428-435
  57. Luke 7:1-10, An Exposition of the Bible, Volume 5, Marcus Dods, et al., S.S. Scranton Co., 1903, p. 429
  58. An Exposition of the Bible, Volume 5, Marcus Dods, et al., S.S. Scranton Co., 1903, p. 429
  59. Luke 22:36 NIV, An Exposition of the Bible, Volume 5, Marcus Dods, et al., S.S. Scranton Co., 1903, p. 93
  60. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2259-2260
  61. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2258,2261,2268
  62. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2263-2264
  63. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2265
  64. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2267
  65. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2267
  66. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2270
  67. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2270
  68. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2276-2283
  69. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2288-2290
  70. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2291
  71. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2307-2317
  72. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2309
  73. Martin Luther, The Small Catechism, The Fifth Commandment,
  74. The Large Catechism by Martin Luther, Translated by F. Bente and W.H.T. Dau Published in: Triglot Concordia: The Symbolical Books of the Ev. Lutheran Church (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1921) pp. 565-773
  75. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Chapter 8, Part III, Section 39
  76. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Chapter 8, Part III, Section 40
  77. Matthew Henry’s Commentary on Exodus 20 :13
  78. Matthew Henry’s Commentary on Exodus 20 :13

Further Reading[edit | edit source]

The Jewish Study Bible, Tanakh Translation. 2004. Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Fishbane, Michael, eds. Jewish Publication Society, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195297512

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible, (accessed 02 September, 2009)

The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. 2007. Crossway Bibles, Wheaton, IL. ISBN 1581343795

New Jerusalem Bible. 1985. (accessed 28 August, 2009)

The NIV Study Bible. 1995. Barker, Kenneth, Burdick, Donald; Stek John; Wessel, Walter; Youngblood, Ronald, eds. Zondervan. Grand Rapids, MI, USA ISBN 0310927099

U.S. Catholic Church. Catechism of the Catholic Church. 2003. Doubleday Religion. ISBN 0385508190 (accessed 01 September, 2009)

External links[edit | edit source]