Topical For topical drug administration, drugs are applied directly to the affected area. The effect reminds in the local area. The advantage of topical administration is that drugs can be given to the patient. No trained personnel are required for application. Usually, there is no pain involved in administration. Side effects are very minimal.
Epicutaneous Drugs are applied directly onto the skin surface. This administration can be used to test if a patient is allergic to certain drugs or substance. Epicutaneous administration can also be used for local anesthesia to relieve minor pain for cuts or burns. Eye drops Drugs are applied directly into the affected eye. Eye drops are saline-containing liquid. Examples of eye drops are rinse eye drops, Glaucoma eye drops, steroid and antibiotic eye drops. Inhalational Drugs are inhaled through the mouth by the patient. Inhalational administration drugs can be used to treat asthma or acute infection in upper airway. The advantage of inhalational administration is that the response of body is much faster than oral administration because the drug does not have to go through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Also, because the drug does not have to go though liver, so the damage to liver is minimized. Intranasal route Intranasal route administration is also known as nasal spray. Examples of nasal spray are decongestant nasal spray or allergy relive.