Structural Biochemistry/Oxycodone

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Oxycodone is a type of analgesic, oral medication used to relieve moderate to severe pain. It was developed in Germany in the year 1916 as an attempt to improve on the existing opioids, drugs derived and used by opium poppy for therapeutic benefits. A few common examples of compounding are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and oxycodone with acetaminophen. Numerous brand names include OxyContin, a Purdue Pharma brand for the time-release oral oxycodone variation, Roxycodone, and Xanodyne.

Xanodyne pharmaceutical 30mg Roxicodone immediate release tablet

Prescribed Usages[edit | edit source]

Oxycodone is mainly used to alleviate moderate to severe pain, as well as managing acute chronic pain. It can also be used an alternative to severe diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome when commonly prescribed drugs do not work effectively. Oxycodone causes less sedation, respiratory distress, pruritus, and nausea than morphine, therefore making it easier for the body to tolerate it than morphine. If oxycodone is taken as a combination product, make sure to read all information about the ingredients and to ask your doctor and pharmacist for more information for safe usage.

Adverse Effects[edit | edit source]

The most common negative side effects reported are disturbing nightmares, memory loss, fatigue, dizziness, constipation, mood changes, flushing, lightheadedness, headaches, dry mouth, itching, heavy sweating, anxiety, and diminished vision. A few patients have experienced abdominal pain, diarrhea, loss of appetite, urine retion, dyspriea, and impotence. Overdose effects include shallow breathing, clammy skin, hypotension, miosis, respiratory arrest, and death.

Main side effects of oxycodone[1]

Dosage and Administration[edit | edit source]

Oxycodone comes in a variety of forms: as a solution (including concentrated), a tablet, capsule, and long-acting/extended-release. The previous list of oxycodone forms are usually taken with or without food every 4 to 6 hours, depending if the medication is needed for temporary pain or as a regularly scheduled form of medication Always follow the directions on the prescription label and ask a doctor or pharmacist to explain any information that you do not fully understand.

As mentioned before, it can be taken orally or intranasally using intravenous injections or rectally. 60-87% of all Oxycodone usage are through oral administration, with the rest remaining Compared to morphine, it can be 1.5 to 2 times as potent when taken orally. Because of its potency, a doctor will likely start a patient on a low dosage and increase it over time if the pain is not managed. The body can grow accustomed to the medication, and when that occurs the doctor may need to increase the dose.

This medication can be habit-forming, and consequently a patient must not take a larger dose. A patient also cannot take oxycodone more often than prescribed or take it for a longer period of time than recommended by his doctor. Do not stop taking the medication abruptly; you may experience symptoms of withdrawal.

Withdrawal[edit | edit source]

When a patient suddenly discontinues the medication, he may experience symptoms such as anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, muscle pain, nausea, fevers, flu-like symptoms (runny noses, sneezing, chills, watery eyes, etc.) and muscle weakness. When withdrawal occurs, the doctor usually decreases the dosage gradually. Most cases of severe withdrawals are associated with those addicted and using Oxycodone illegally. The experience of withdrawals from Oxycodone are unique to each individual due to the differences in metabolism etc. Therefore even with the same amount of dosage, one person might experience a withdrawal much worse than the next man. Withdrawal effects can be diminished by proper detox procedures. [2]

Druge Abuse[edit | edit source]

Oxycodone is a powerful drug used by young teens as well as adults. The drug puts users on a advantage high. Since it is a relief medication, it provides users with a calm relief feeling for a few hours as it enters their bloodstream. The tolerance of taking the drug becomes increasingly higher as users ingest the drug more often. As addiction becomes imminent, certain side effect may come into play and also ruin the social life of drug abusers. Some of the effects addiction leads to are: constantly thinking about oxycodone, obtaining large amounts of the drug, taking the drug secretly in order to hide it from others from knowing, lying to loved ones, and feeling pain and restless thoughts during nights of sleep. And because oxycodone contains acetaminophen, taking high doses of the drug can lead to liver problems in the future and sometimes even death.

Special Precautions[edit | edit source]

Oxycodone is a sensitive and potent medication, and consequently have a few precautions before taking it. Inform your doctor and pharmacist:

  • If you are allergic to certain medications such as codeine, hycodan, and any other medications
  • If you are taking other medications (including vitamin or nutritional supplements) you are taking or plan to take.
  • If you have or ever have had asthma, lung disease, or paralytic ileus
  • If you continue to drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol and if you have used any street drugs (including overdosing on a medication)
  • If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, or if you are breast-feeding
  • If you are about to have surgery (including dental work)

Brand Names[edit | edit source]

Oxycodone also go under the name of:

  • Dazidox
  • Endocodone
  • Oxy IR
  • ETH-Oxydose
  • Oxyfast
  • Roxicodone
  • Oxycontin
  • Oxexta

References[edit | edit source]

"Oxycodone" WEBMD. November 20, 2012

  1. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2009-03-23). "Oxycodone". U.S. National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  2. oxycodone, October 28, 2012