Structural Biochemistry/Helpful Mnemonics
This category is meant to better help students with understanding and remembering topics in biochemistry that would otherwise be tough to do.
Southern vs. Northern vs. Western Blot
SN0W DR0P: · Match up the 1st word letter with 2nd word letter:
- Southern = DNA
- Northern = RNA
- Western = Protein
· Note: the 0's in snow drop are zeros, since there is no Eastern blot.
For Eukaryotic Cells-DNA Replication
- LeaDing strand- dna polymerase Delta
- LAgging strand- dna polymerase Alpha
Purines vs. Pyrimidines
Pure(purines) As(adenine)Gold(guanine) or Guardian Angels are Pure, with two Wings: G and A are Purines, with two Rings. or
Adenine and Guanine are larger structures(two rings) in relation to A Genius who has a larger brain.
Pyrimidines are Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine and are one ring structures. ---> Pyrimidines are C U T from purines.
Pyramids are built for U To C (see)
Glycolysis steps "Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies":
· 'Did', 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-.
· 'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process.
Also referred to as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Citrate → Aconitate → Isocitrate → Oxalosuccinate → α-Ketoglutarate → Succinate → Fumarate → Malate → Oxaloacetate
(Caesar’s Armies Invaded Other Kingdoms Searching For Many Oranges)
Essential Amino Acids
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Essential amino acids PVT. TIM HALL:
· Pvt. is short for Private in the military. · Arg and His are considered semiessential.
To remember when sugars have alpha or beta configuration of the hydroxyl on the anomeric carbon
"B"eta-Hydroxyl points up because "B"irds fly up And the greek letter alpha looks like a fish and fish swim down therefore, alpha hydroxyl groups point down.
When rings form:
Furanose has Five carbons....both start with an F Pyranose has Six carbons....its the one that doesn't start with an F
Quick summary of sugars of things you must know: Reducing Sugars vs Non-Reducing Sugars Reducing-When it has anomeric carbons that are hemiacetals>are able to undergoe mutarotation
Non-reducing-When it has anomeric carbons that are acetals>are not able to undergo mutarotation because of the acetal bridge To further understand reducing sugars, looking at the tests that detect them can help.
Tollen's test: Reagent is Ag+, NH4+-OH, H2O....just remember, a tall dark and handsome man who gives you a silver mirror and tells you you look pretty is the key. Silver because the reagent is Ag+. Tall because it is similar to Tollen, the name of test. He is the key because the test is used to test for aldehydes or ketones.
This reaction is an oxidation reaction and basically what these reactions do is remove a C-H bond and add C-O bond. Simple as that. If you have to C-H bond to get rid of, you cannot make a new C-O bond. Ketones have two R groups and do not have the extra H to give to make a C-O bond, so the reaction does not occur if the starting reagent is a ketone. An aldehyde however does have a C-H bond.
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Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Only FON can Hydrogen Bond. FON is referring to Fluorine, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
Gibb's Free Energy
ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
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Loss of Electrons is Oxidation, Gain of Electrons is Reduction ---> LEO the lion says GER
Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain ---> OIL RIG
AN Ox and a RED CAT
Anode is site of Oxidation; CAThode is site of REDuction.
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s, p, d, f. Then orbitals follow the alphabet...g, h, i, j, k, and so on.
National Library (of) Medicine Sizzles ---> n, l, m, s
VG PHEST (Very Good Festival)
The following are all state functions:
V for volume
G for Gibb's free energy
P for pressure
H for enthalpy
E for internal energy
S for entropy
T for temperature
Acid to Water, All is Well.
Water to Acid, What an Accident.
Cis/trans (Geometric) Isomers
Z: Zame Zide
Z for same side and E for opposite sides
Addition of Amine to Carbonyl Group "SE PI" (or "SEe PIe")
Secondary amine --> Enamine Primary amine --> Imine
(Side Note: tertiary and quaternary amines do not react with the C=O group.)
Downfield is Deshielded.
Meta-Directing Groups on a Benezene Ring
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Quaternary amino -NR3+
Sulfonic acid -SO3H
Ortho- and Para- Directing Groups on a Benezene Ring
"AHA AHA P"
Amino -NH2, -NHR, -NR2 (not -NR3+)
In order of increasing frequency:
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Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet