Russian/Loanwords

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Warning: This might still contain errors.


The Base Of The Russian Language[edit]

The Russian language is one that developed with the influx of various European and Middle Eastern languages. This is largely due to the geographical location of Russia, historical trade with other countries, and cultural Renaissance started by Russian royalty and other Bourgeoisie. Because of this, the Russian language is one that can be compared to languages such as Greek, Dutch, Italian, French, Arabic, Yiddish, and others that helped to mold it into the language known today. Though the base of the language is Slavic, many alphabetical, grammatical, and vocabulary forms are distinctly foreign.

Dutch[edit]

Words from Dutch[edit]

Dutch Russian English translation
sluis шлюз lock
snoer шнур flex, cord
kabeltouw кабельтов cable length
kiel киль keel
ruim трюм hold
kajuit каюта cabin
schipper шкипер captain (skipper)
vlaggestok флагшток flagstaff
bootsman боцман boatswain
noord норд north (wind)
zuid зюйд south (wind)
oost ост east (wind)
west вест west (wind)
straf штраф penalty, fine
reis рейс journey, voyage
appelsien апельсин orange

Words that entered Dutch[edit]

  • broek - брю́ки (pants)

English[edit]

Words from English[edit]

English Russian
basketball баскетбол
business бизнес
businessman бизнесмен
chips чипсы
football футбол
film фильм
filter фильтр
hamburger гамбургер
jeans джинсы
office офис
sport спорт
tennis теннис

Words that entered English[edit]

Russian English
дача Dacha
субботник Subbotnik
тройка troika
спутник sputnik

German[edit]

Words from German[edit]

German Russian English translation
Schlagbaum шлагба́ум barrier
Rucksack рюкза́к backpack
Zifferblatt цифербла́т clock face
Perückenmacher парикма́хер hairdresser (wigmaker)
Kartoffel карто́фель potato
Graf граф count
Butterbrot бутербрóд sandwich (literally 'bread and butter')
Schlauch шланг Hose
Lager лагерь Camp

Words that entered German[edit]

Russian German
дача Datsche
субботник Subbotnik

French[edit]

Words from French[edit]

  • avant-garde - аванга́рд (avant-garde)
  • avant-scène - авансце́на (proscenium)
  • bagage - бага́ж (baggage)
  • bigoudis - бигуди (hair curler)
  • bouquiniste - букинист
  • café - каф́е (a café, not coffee; read: каф́э)
  • cauchemar - кошма́р (nightmare)
  • chance - шанс (chance)
  • chanson - шансон (org. song, a music style, see: Russian chanson)
  • concours - конкурс (competition)
  • costume - костюм (costume, suit)
  • couchette - куше́тка (couch)
  • coupé - купе́ (compartment)
  • dame - да́ма (lady)
  • douche - душ (shower)
  • ensemble - анса́мбль (meaning "a band", not "together")
  • équipage - экипаж (crew)
  • écran - экран (screen)
  • étage - этаж (floor on a building)
  • garage - гара́ж (garage)
  • jalousie - жалюзи (jalousie, window blinds)
  • meuble - ме́бель (furniture)
  • mirage - мира́ж (mirage)
  • nature morte - натюрморт (nature morte)
  • ostéochondrose - остеохондроз (osteochondrosis)
  • plage - пляж (beach)
  • restaurant - рестора́н (restaurant)
  • sac voyage - саквояж (valise)
  • trottoir - тротуар (sidewalk)
  • ventouse - вантуз (plunger)
  • virage - вира́ж (road turn)
  • voyage - вояж (tour, journey)

Words that entered French[edit]

  • bistro - бы́стро

Italian[edit]

Words from Italian[edit]

  • Tomato - Pomodoro - помидо́р
  • Wine - Vino - вино
  • Painting - Cartina - картина
  • Abbreviation - abbreviatura - аббревиату́ра
  • Drinking Glass - Boccale - бокал
  • Bravo - Bravo - браво
  • Prodigy - Virtuoso - виртуоз
  • Irredentism - Irredentismo - ирредентизм
  • Macaroni - Macaroni - макароны
  • Net Weight - Ves nétto - вес нетто
  • Prostitute - Puttana - путана
  • Soldier - Soldato - солдат
  • Nice (City in France) - Nizza - Ницца
  • Cake - Torta - торт
  • Magazine - Giornale - журнал
  • Newspaper - Gazzetta - газета

Greek[edit]

Words from Greek[edit]

  • εβραίος - еврей - (Jew)
  • икона - икона - (Image)
  • κάκτος - кактус - (Cactus)
  • χορός - хор - (Dance)

As well as words from Greek, many letters of the Russian alphabet come from Greek origin.

Cyrillic Greek English
А Α A
В Β V
Г Γ G
Е Ε E
К Κ K
Р Ρ R
с ς S
Ф Φ F
Х Χ H

Yiddish[edit]

Words from Yiddish[edit]

  • גוי - гой - Gentile
  • יאַרמלקע - ермолка - Yarmulke
  • כתיבה - ксива - ID
  • פּוץ - поц - Putz
  • שמאָק - чмо - Schmuck

Furthermore, the Russian letters Ш (Sh) and Щ (Sch) are believed to come from the Yiddish/Hebrew letter ש (Sh).

Arabic[edit]

Words from Arabic[edit]

  • بَدَوِيُّون - бедуин - An Arabic Desert Traveler
  • بَرْبَرِيّ - бербер - Berber
  • وَقْف - вакф - An act of charity
  • كَبَاب - кебаб - Kebab
  • بازار - базар - Bazaar/Market


Miscellaneous[edit]

Words that are very similar in Russian and other Indoeuropean languages[edit]

  • mother - moeder (Dutch) - mutter (German) - mater (Latin) - мать
  • daughter - dochter (Dutch) - дочь
  • son - сын
  • brother - брат
  • sister - сестр́а
  • cat - кот
  • chair/stool - stoel (Dutch) - Stuhl (German) - Stalas (Lithuanian) - стул
  • cold - хо́лодно
  • day, день
  • door - deur (Dutch) - дверь
  • go, walk - ire (Latin) - идти́
  • honey, mead - мёд
  • house - domus (Latin) - дом
  • key, ключ
  • love - любо́вь (noun), люби́ть (verb)
  • milk, молоко́
  • moon - luna (Latin) -луна́
  • mouse, мышь
  • my/mine - мой/моя́/моё/мои́
  • night - ночь
  • nose - нос
  • snow, снег
  • sun - со́лнце (read: со́нцэ)
  • water - вода́
  • wolf - волк
  • And - Y (Latin form) - и
  • buy - kopen (Dutch) - kaufen (German) - купить

To be classified[edit]

  • sport - спорт
  • Saturday - zaterdag/sabbat (Dutch) - sabbath - суббо́та
  • Fruit - Vrucht (Dutch) - фрукт
  • pity/blessed/pathetic - zielig (Dutch) selig (German) - жалкий
  • confection/candy - конфеты
  • I - Yo (Spanish), Io (Italian) - я
  • You - Tú (Spanish), Tu (Italian) - ты
  • Our - Nuestro (Spanish), Nostro (Italian) - наш
  • Library - Biblioteca (Spanish/Italian), Bibliothèque (French) - библиотека