# III. THE PARTICULARITY OF CONTRADICTION

3. Máodùn de Tèshūxìng

## Introduction

### §3.1

Contradiction is present in the process of development of all things; it permeates the process of development of each thing from beginning to end. This is the universality and absoluteness of contradiction which we have discussed above.

Máodùn cúnzài yú yīqiè shìwù fāzhǎn de guòchéng zhōng, máodùn guànchuàn yú měi yī shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng de shǐzhōng, zhè shì máodùn de pǔbiànxìng hé juéduìxìng, qiánmiàn yǐjīng shuōguo le.

Now let us discuss the particularity and relativity of contradiction.

Xiànzài lái shuō máodùn de tèshūxìng hé xiāngduìxìng.

### §3.2

This problem should be studied on several levels.

Zhè ge wèntí, yīnggāi cóng jǐ zhǒng qíngxíng zhōng qù yánjiū.

## The forms of motion

### §3.3

First, the contradiction in each form of motion of matter has its particularity.

Shǒuxiān shi gè zhǒng wùzhì yùndòng xíngshì zhōng de máodùn, dōu dài tèshūxìng.

Man's knowledge of matter is knowledge of its forms of motion, because there is nothing in this world except matter in motion and this motion must assume certain forms.

Rén de rènshí wùzhì, jiù shì rènshí wùzhì de yùndòng xíngshì, yīnwèi chúle yùndòng de wùzhì yǐwài, shìjiè shang shénme yě méiyǒu, ér wùzhì de yùndòng bìxū cǎiqǔ yīdìng de xíngshì.

In considering each form of motion of matter, we must observe the points which it has in common with other forms of motion.

Duìyú wùzhì de měi yī zhǒng yùndòng xíngshì, bìxū zhùyì tā hé qítā gè zhǒng yùndòng xíngshì de gòngtóngdiǎn.

But what is especially important and necessary, constituting as it does the foundation of our knowledge of a thing, is to observe what is particular to this form of motion of matter, namely, to observe the qualitative difference between this form of motion and other forms.

Dànshì, yóuqí zhòngyào de, chéngwéi wǒmen rènshí shìwù de jīchǔ de dōngxī, zé shì bìxū zhùyì tā de tèshū diǎn, jiù shì shuō, zhùyì tā hé qítā yùndòng xíngshì de xìngzhì de qūbié.

Only when we have done so can we distinguish between things.

Zhǐyǒu zhùyì le zhè yīdiǎn, cái yǒu kěnéng qūbié shìwù.

Every form of motion contains within itself its own particular contradiction.

Rènhé yùndòng xíngshì, tā de nèibù dōu bāohánzhe běnshēn tèshū de máodùn.

This particular contradiction constitutes the particular essence which distinguishes one thing from another.

Zhè zhǒng tèshū de máodùn, jiù gòuchéng yī shìwù qūbié yú qítā shìwù de tèshū de běnzhì.

It is the internal cause or, as it may be called, the basis for the immense variety of things in the world.

Zhè jiù shì shìjiè shang gè zhǒng shìwù suǒyǐ yǒu qiānchāwànbié de nèizài de yuányīn, huòzhě jiàozuò gēnjù.

There are many forms of motion in nature, mechanical motion, sound, light, heat, electricity, dissociation, combination, and so on.

Zìránjiè cúnzàizhe xǔduō de yùndòng xíngshì, jīxiè yùndòng, fāshēng, fāguāng, fārè, diànliú, huàxué fēnjiě, huàhé děngděng dōu shì.

All these forms are interdependent, but in its essence each is different from the others.

Suǒyǒu zhèxiē wùzhì de yùndòng xíngshì, dōu shì hùxiāng yīcún de, yòu shì běnzhì shang hùxiāng qūbié de.

The particular essence of each form of motion is determined by its own particular contradiction.

Měiyī wùzhì de yùndòng xíngshì suǒ jùyǒu de tèshū de běnzhì, bèi tā zìjǐ de tèshū de máodùn suǒ guīdìng.

This holds true not only for nature but also for social and ideological phenomena.

Zhè zhǒng qíngxíng, bùdàn zài zìránjiè zhōng cúnzàizhe, zài shèhuì xiànxiàng hé sīxiǎng xiànxiàng zhōng yě shì tóngyàng de cúnzàizhe.

Every form of society, every form of ideology, has its own particular contradiction and particular essence.

Měi yī zhǒng shèhuì xíngshì hé sīxiǎng xíngshì, dōu yǒu tā de tèshū de máodùn hé tèshū de běnzhì.

## The fields of science

### §3.4

The sciences are differentiated precisely on the basis of the particular contradictions inherent in their respective objects of study.

Kēxué yánjiū de qūfēn, jiù shì gēnjù kēxué duìxiàng suǒ jùyǒu de tèshū de máodùnxìng.

Thus the contradiction peculiar to a certain field of phenomena constitutes the object of study for a specific branch of science.

Yīncǐ, duìyú mǒu yī xiànxiàng de lǐngyù suǒ tèyǒu de mǒu yī zhǒng máodùn de yánjiū, jiù gòuchéng mǒu yī mén kēxué de duìxiàng.

For example, positive and negative numbers in mathematics; action and reaction in mechanics; positive and negative electricity in physics; dissociation and combination in chemistry; forces of production and relations of production, classes and class struggle, in social science; offence and defence in military science; idealism and materialism, the metaphysical outlook and the dialectical outlook, in philosophy; and so on--all these are the objects of study of different branches of science precisely because each branch has its own particular contradiction and particular essence.

Lìrú, shùxué zhōng de zhèngshù hé fùshù, jīxièxué zhōng de zuòyòng hé fǎnzuòyòng, wùlǐxué zhōng de yīndiàn hé yángdiàn, huàxué zhōng de fēnjiě hé héchéng, shèhuì kēxué zhōng de shēngchǎnlì hé shēngchǎn guānxì, jiējí hé jiējí de hùxiāng dòuzhēng, jūnshìxué zhōng de gōngjī hé fángyù, zhéxué zhōng de wéixīnlùn hé wéiwùlùn, xíng'érshàngxuéguān hé biànzhèngfǎguān děngděng, dōu shì yīnwèi jùyǒu tèshū de máodùn hé tèshū de běnzhí, cái gòuchéng le bù tóng de kēxué yánjiū de duìxiàng.

Of course, unless we understand the universality of contradiction, we have no way of discovering the universal cause or universal basis for the movement or development of things; however, unless we study the particularity of contradiction, we have no way of determining the particular essence of a thing which differentiates it from other things, no way of discovering the particular cause or particular basis for the movement or development of a thing, and no way of distinguishing one thing from another or of demarcating the fields of science.

Gùrán, rúguǒ bù rènshí máodùn de pǔbiànxìng, jiù wúcóng fāxiàn shìwù yùndòng fāzhǎn de pǔbiàn de yuányīn huò pǔbiàn de gēnjù; dànshì, rúguǒ bù yánjiū máodùn de tèshūxìng, jiù wúcóng quèdìng yī shìwù bù tóng yú qítā shìwù de tèshū de běnzhì, jiù wúcóng fāxiàn shìwù yùndòng fāzhǎn de tèshū de yuányīn, huò tèshū de gēnjù, yě jiù wúcóng biànbié shìwù, wúcóng qūfēn kēxué yánjiū de lǐngyù.

## The processes of cognition

### §3.5

As regards the sequence in the movement of man's knowledge, there is always a gradual growth from the knowledge of individual and particular things to the knowledge of things in general.

Jiù rénlèi rènshí yùndòng de zhìxù shuōlái, zǒngshì yóu rènshí gèbié de hé tèshū de shìwù, zhúbù de kuòdà dào rènshí yībān de shìwù.

Only after man knows the particular essence of many different things can he proceed to generalization and know the common essence of things.

Rénmen zǒngshì shǒuxiān rènshí le xǔduō bùtóng shìwù de tèshū de běnzhì, ránhòu cái yǒu kěnéng gèng jìnyībù de jìnxíng gàikuò gōngzuò, rènshí gè zhǒng shìwù de gòngtóng de běnzhì.

When man attains the knowledge of this common essence, he uses it as a guide and proceeds to study various concrete things which have not yet been studied, or studied thoroughly, and to discover the particular essence of each; only thus is he able to supplement, enrich and develop his knowledge of their common essence and prevent such knowledge from withering or petrifying.

Dāngzhe rénmen yǐjīng rènshí le zhè zhǒng gòngtóng de běnzhì yǐhòu, jiù yǐ zhèzhǒng gòngtóng de rènshí wéi zhǐdǎo, jìxù de xiàngzhe shàngwèi yánjiūguo de huòzhě shàngwèi shēnrù de yánjiūguo de gè zhǒng jùtǐ de shìwù jìnxíng yánjiū, zhǎochū tā de tèshū de běnzhì, zhèyàng cái kěyǐ bǔchōng, fēngfù hé fāzhǎn zhè zhǒng gòngtóng de běnzhì de rènshí, ér shǐ zhè zhǒng gòngtóng de běnzhì de rènshí bùzhì biànchéng kūwěi de hé jiāngsǐ de dōngxī.

These are the two processes of cognition: one, from the particular to the general, and the other, from the general to the particular.

Zhè shì liǎng ge rènshí de guòchéng: Yī ge shì yóu tèshū dào yībān, yī ge shì yóu yībān dào tèshū.

Thus cognition always moves in cycles and (so long as scientific method is strictly adhered to) each cycle advances human knowledge a step higher and so makes it more and more profound.

Rénlèi de rènshí zǒngshì zhèyàng xúnhuán wǎngfù de jìnxíng de, ér měi yī cì de xúnhuán (zhǐyào shì yángé de ànzhào kēxué de fāngfǎ) dōu kěnéng shǐ rénlèi de rènshí tígāo yī bù, shǐ rénlèi de rènshí bùduàn de shēnhuà.

Where our dogmatists err on this question is that, on the one hand, they do not understand that we have to study the particularity of contradiction and know the particular essence of individual things before we can adequately know the universality of contradiction and the common essence of things, and that, on the other hand, they do not understand that after knowing the common essence of things, we must go further and study the concrete things that have not yet been thoroughly studied or have only just emerged.

Wǒmen de jiàotiáozhǔyìzhě zài zhè ge wèntí shang de cuòwù, jiù shì, yīfāngmiàn, bù dǒngdé bìxū yánjiū máodùn de tèshūxìng, rènshí gèbié shìwù de tèshū de běnzhí, cái yǒu kěnéng chōngfèn de rènshí máodùn de pǔbiànxìng, chōngfèn de rènshí gè zhǒng shìwù de gòngtóng de běnzhì; lìngyī fāngmiàn, bù dǒngdé zài wǒmen rènshí le shìwù de gòngtóng de běnzhì yǐhòu, hái bìxū jìxù yánjiū nàxiē shàngwèi shēnrù de yánjiūguo de huòzhě xīn màochūlái de jùtǐ de shìwù.

Our dogmatists are lazy-bones. They refuse to undertake any painstaking study of concrete things, they regard general truths as emerging out of the void, they turn them into purely abstract unfathomable formulas, and thereby completely deny and reverse the normal sequence by which man comes to know truth.

Wǒmen de jiàotiáozhǔyìzhě shì lǎnhàn, tāmen jùjué duìyú jùtǐ shìwù zuò rènhé jiānkǔ de yánjiū gōngzuò, tāmen bǎ yībān zhēnlǐ kànchéng shì píngkōng chūxiàn de dōngxī, bǎ tā biànchéng wéi rénmen suǒ bù nénggòu zhuōmō de chúncuì chōuxiàng de gōngshì, wánquán fǒurèn le bìngqiě diāndǎo le zhè ge rénlèi rènshí zhēnlǐ de zhèngcháng zhìxù.

Nor do they understand the interconnection of the two processes in cognition-- from the particular to the general and then from the general to the particular. They understand nothing of the Marxist theory of knowledge.

Tāmen yě bù dǒngdé rénlèi rènshí de liǎng ge guòchéng de hùxiāng liánjié――yóu tèshū dào yībān, yòu yóu yībān dào tèshū, tāmen wánquán bù dǒngdé Marxzhǔyì de rènshílùn.

## The process of development in motion

### §3.6

It is necessary not only to study the particular contradiction and the essence determined thereby of every great system of the forms of motion of matter, but also to study the particular contradiction and the essence of each process in the long course of development of each form of motion of matter.

Bùdàn yào yánjiū měi yī ge dà xìtǒng de wùzhì yùndòng xíngshì de tèshū de máodùnxìng hé tā suǒ guīdìng de běnzhì, érqiě yào yánjiū měi yī ge wùzhì yùndòng xíngshì zài tā de fāzhǎn chángtú zhōng de měi yī ge guòchéng de tèshū de máodùn hé tā de běnzhì.

In every form of motion, each process of development which is real (and not imaginary) is qualitatively different.

Yīqiè yùndòng xíngshì de měi yī ge shízài de fēi-jiǎxiǎng de fāzhǎn guòchéng nèi, dōu shì bù tóng xìngzhì de.

Our study must emphasize and start from this point.

Wǒmen de yánjiū gōngzuò bìxū zhuózhòng zhè yī diǎn, érqiě bìxū cóng zhè yī diǎn kāishǐ.

## The methods for resolving contraditions

### §3.7

Qualitatively different contradictions can only be resolved by qualitatively different methods.

Bù tóng xìngzhì de máodùn, zhǐ yǒu yòng bù tóng xìngzhì de fāngfǎ cái néng jiějué.

For instance, the contradiction between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie is resolved by the method of socialist revolution; the contradiction between the great masses of the people and the feudal system is resolved by the method of democratic revolution; the contradiction between the colonies and imperialism is resolved by the method of national revolutionary war; the contradiction between the working class and the peasant class in socialist society is resolved by the method of collectivization and mechanization in agriculture; contradiction within the Communist Party is resolved by the method of criticism and self-criticism; the contradiction between society and nature is resolved by the method of developing the productive forces.

Lìrú, wúchǎnjiējí hé zīchǎnjiējí de máodùn, yòng shèhuìzhǔyì gémìng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; rénmín dàzhòng hé fēngjiàn zhìdù de máodùn, yòng mínzhǔ gémìng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; zhímíndì hé dìguózhǔyì de máodùn, yòng mínzú gémìng zhànzhēng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; zài shèhuìzhǔyì shèhuì zhōng gōngrénjiējí hé nóngmínjiējí de máodùn, yòng nóngyè jítǐhuà hé nóngyè jīxièhuà de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; Gòngchǎndǎng nèi de máodùn, yòng pīpíng hé zìwǒ pīpíng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; shèhuì hé zìrán de máodùn, yòng fāzhǎn shēngchǎnlì de fāngfǎ qù jiějué.

Processes change, old processes and old contradictions disappear, new processes and new contradictions emerge, and the methods of resolving contradictions differ accordingly.

Guòchéng biànhuà, jiù guòchéng hé jiù máodùn xiāomiè, xīn guòchéng hé xīn máodùn fāshēng, jiějué máodùn de fāngfǎ yě yīnzhī ér bù tóng.

In Russia, there was a fundamental difference between the contradiction resolved by the February Revolution and the contradiction resolved by the October Revolution, as well as between the methods used to resolve them.

Éguó de Èryuè gémìng hé Shíyuè gémìng suǒ jiějué de máodùn hé tā suǒ yòngyǐ jiějué máodùn de fāngfǎ shì gēnběn shang bù xiāngtóng de.

The principle of using different methods to resolve different contradictions is one which Marxist-Leninists must strictly observe.

Yòng bù tóng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué bù tóng de máodùn, zhè shì Marxist-Leninzhǔyìzhě bìxū yángé de zūnshǒu de yī ge yuánzé.

The dogmatists do not observe this principle; they do not understand that conditions differ in different kinds of revolution and so do not understand that different methods should be used to resolve different contradictions; on the contrary, they invariably adopt what they imagine to be an unalterable formula and arbitrarily apply it everywhere, which only causes setbacks to the revolution or makes a sorry mess of what was originally well done.

Jiàotiáozhǔyìzhě bù zūnshǒu zhè ge yuánzé, tāmen bù liǎojiě gè zhǒng gémìng qíngkuàng de qūbié, yīn'ér yě bù liǎojiě yīngdāng yòng bù tóng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué bù tóng de máodùn, ér zhǐ shì qiānpiānyīlǜ de shǐyòng yī zhǒng zìyǐwéi bù kě gǎibiàn de gōngshì dàochù yìngtào, zhè jiù zhǐ néng shǐ gémìng zāoshòu cuòzhé, huòzhě jiāng běnlái zuò dé hǎo de shìqíng nòng de hěn huài.

## To discover the essence of the process of contradiction

### §3.8

In order to reveal the particularity of the contradictions in any process in the development of a thing, in their totality or interconnections, that is, in order to reveal the essence of the process, it is necessary to reveal the particularity of the two aspects of each of the contradictions in that process; otherwise it will be impossible to discover the essence of the process. This likewise requires the utmost attention in our study.

Wèi yào bàolù shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng zhōng de máodùn zài qí zǒngtǐ shang, zài qí xiānghù liánjié shang de tèshūxìng, jiù shì shuō bàolù shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng de běnzhì, jiù bìxū bàolù guòchéng zhōng máodùn gè fāngmiàn de tèshūxìng, fǒuzé bàolù guòchéng de běnzhì chéngwéi bù kěnéng, zhè yěshì wǒmen zuò yánjiū gōngzuò shí bìxū shífēn zhùyì de.

### §3.9

There are many contradictions in the course of development of any major thing.

Yī ge dà de shìwù, zài tā de fāzhǎn guòchéng zhōng, bāohánzhe xǔduō de máodùn.

For instance, in the course of China's bourgeois-democratic revolution, where the conditions are exceedingly complex, there exist the contradiction between all the oppressed classes in Chinese society and imperialism, the contradiction between the great masses of the people and feudalism, the contradiction between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, the contradiction between the peasantry and the urban petty bourgeoisie on the one hand and the bourgeoisie on the other, the contradiction between the various reactionary ruling groups, and so on.

Lìrú, zài Zhōngguó zīchǎnjiējí mínzhǔ gémìng guòchéng zhōng, yǒu Zhòngguó shèhuì gè bèi-yāpò jiējí hé dìguózhǔyì de máodùn, yǒu rénmín dàzhòng hé fēngjiàn zhìdù de máodùn, yǒu wúchǎnjiējí hé zīchǎnjiējí de máodùn, yǒu nóngmín hé chéngshì xiǎozīchǎnjiējí yǐjí zīchǎnjiējí de máodùn, yǒu gè ge fǎndòng de tǒngzhì jítuán zhījiān de máodùn děngděng, qíngxíng shì fēicháng fùzá de.

These contradictions cannot be treated in the same way since each has its own particularity; moreover, the two aspects of each contradiction cannot be treated in the same way since each aspect has its own characteristics.

Zhèxiē máodùn, bùdàn gègè yǒu qí tèshūxìng, bù néng yīlǜ kàndài, érqiě měi yī máodùn de liǎng fāngmiàn, yòu gègè yǒu tā de tèdiǎn, yěshì bùnéng yīlǜ kàndài de.

We who are engages in the Chinese revolution should not only understand the particularity of these contradictions in their totality, that is, in their interconnections, but should also study the two aspects of each contradiction as the only means of understanding the totality.

Wǒmen cóngshì Zhōngguó gémìng de rén, bùdàn yào zài gè ge máodùn de zǒngtǐ shang, yějiùshì máodùn de xiānghù liánjié shang, liǎojiě tā de tèshūxìng, érqiě zhǐyǒu cóng máodùn de gè ge fāngmiàn zhuóshǒu yánjiū, cái yǒu kěnéng liǎojiě tā de zǒngtǐ.

When we speak of understanding each aspect of a contradiction, we mean understanding what specific position each aspect occupies, what concrete forms it assumes in its interdependence and in its contradiction with its opposite, and what concrete methods are employed in the struggle with its opposite, when the two are both interdependent and in contradiction, and also after the interdependence breaks down.

Suǒwèi liǎojiě máodùn de gè ge fāngmiàn, jiùshì liǎojiě tāmen měi yī fāngmiàn gè zhàn shénme tèdìng de dìwèi, gè yòng shénme jùtǐ xíngshì hé duìfāng fāshēng hùxiāng yīcún yòu hùxiāng máodùn de guānxì, zài hùxiāng yīcún yòu hùxiāng máodùn zhōng, yǐjí yīcún pòliè hòu, yòu gè yòng shénme fāngfǎ hé duìfāng zuò dòuzhēng.

It is of great importance to study these problems.

Yánjiū zhèxiē wèntí, shì shífèn zhòngyào de shìqíng.

Lenin meant just this when he said that the most essential thing in Marxism, the living soul of Marxism, is the concrete analysis of concrete conditions.

Lièníng shuō: Marxzhǔyì de zuì běnzhì de dōngxi, Marxzhǔyì de huó de línghún, jiù zàiyú jùtǐ de fēnxī jùtǐ de qíngkuàng. Jiù shì shuō de zhè ge yìsī.

Our dogmatists have violated Lenin's teachings; they never use their brains to analyse anything concretely, and in their writings and speeches they always use stereotypes devoid of content, thereby creating a very bad style of work in our Party.

Wǒmen de jiàotiáozhǔyìzhě wéibèi Lenin de zhǐshì, cónglái bù yòng nǎojīn jùtǐ de fēnxī rènhé shìwù, zuò qǐ wénzhāng huò yǎnshuō lái, zǒngshì kōngdòng-wúwù de bāgǔ-diào, zài wǒmen Dǎng nèi zàochéng le yī zhǒng jí huài de zuòfēng.

## To avoid subjectivity, one-sidedness and superficiality

### §3.10

In studying a problem, we must avoid subjectivity, one-sidedness and superficiality.

Yánjiū wèntí, bìmiǎn dài zhǔguānxìng, piànmiànxìng hé biǎomiànxìng.

To be subjective means not to look at problems objectively, that is, not to use the materialist viewpoint in looking at problems.

Suǒwèi zhǔguānxìng, jiù shì bù zhīdào kèguān de kàn wèntí, yě jiùshì bù zhīdào yòng wéiwù de guāndiǎn qù kàn wèntí.

I have discussed this in my essay "On Practice".

Zhè yī diǎn, wǒ zài “Shíjiàn Lùn” de wénzhāng zhōng yǐjīng shuōguo le.

To be one-sided means not to look at problems all-sidedly, for example, to understand only China but not Japan, only the Communist Party but not the Guomindang, only the proletariat but not the bourgeoisie, only the peasants but not the landlords, only the favourable conditions but not the difficult ones, only the past but not the future, only individual parts but not the whole, only the defects but not the achievements, only the plaintiff's case but not the defendant's, only underground revolutionary work but not open revolutionary work, and so on.

Suǒwèi piànmiànxìng, jiù shì bù zhīdào quánmiàn de kàn wèntí. Lìrú: Zhǐ liǎojiě Zhōngguó yīfāng, bù liǎojiě Rìběn yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě Gòngchǎndǎng yīfāng, bù liǎojiě Guómíndǎng yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě wúchǎnjiējí yīfāng, bù liǎojiě zīchǎnjiējí yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě nóngmín yīfāng, bù liǎojiě dìzhǔ yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě shùnlì qíngxíng yīfāng, bù liǎojiě kùnnán qíngxíng yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě guòqù yīfāng, bù liǎojiě jiānglái yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě gètǐ yīfāng, bù liǎojiě zǒngtǐ yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě quēdiǎn yīfāng, bù liǎojiě chéngjī yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě yuángào yīfāng, bù liǎojiě bèigào yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě gémìng de mìmì gōngzuò yīfāng, bù liǎojiě gémìng de gōngkāi gōngzuò yīfāng, rúcǐ děngděng.

In a word, it means not to understand the characteristics of both aspects of a contradiction.

Yījùhuà, bù liǎojiě máodùn gèfāng de tèdiǎn.

This is what we mean by looking at a problem one-sidedly.

Zhè jiù jiàozuò piànmiàn de kàn wèntí.

Or it may be called seeing the part but not the whole, seeing the trees but not the forest.

Huòzhě jiàozuò zhǐ kànjiàn júbù, bù kànjiàn quántǐ, zhǐ kànjiàn shùmù, bù kànjiàn sēnlín.

That way it is impossible to kind the method for resolving a contradiction, it is impossible to accomplish the tasks of the revolution, to carry out assignments well or to develop inner-Party ideological struggle correctly.

Zhèyàng, shì bù néng zhǎo chū jiějué máodùn de fāngfǎ de, shì bù néng wánchéng gémìng rènwù de, shì bù néng zuò hǎo suǒ rèn gōngzuò de, shì bù néng zhèngquè de fāzhǎn Dǎng nèi de sīxiǎng dòuzhēng de.

When Sunzi said in discussing military science, "Know the enemy and know yourself, and you can fight a hundred battles with no danger of defeat", he was referring to the two sides in a battle.

Sūnzǐ lùn jūnshì shuō: “Zhībǐzhījǐ, bǎizhànbùdài.” Tā shuō de shì zuòzhàn de shuāngfāng.

Wei Zheng of the Tang Dynasty also understood the error of one-sidedness when he said, "Listen to both sides and you will be enlightened, heed only one side and you will be benighted."

Tángcháo rén Wèi Zhēng shuōguo: “Jiān-tīng-zé-míng, piān-xìn-zé-àn.” Yě dǒngdé piànmiànxìng bù duì.

But our comrades often look at problems one-sidedly, and so they often run into snags.

Kěshì wǒmen de tóngzhì kàn wèntí, wǎngwǎng dài piànmiànxìng, zhèyàng de rén jiù wǎngwǎng pèngdīngzi.

In the novel Shuihu Zhuan, Song Jiang thrice attacked Zhu Village. Twice he was defeated because he was ignorant of the local conditions and used the wrong method.

《水浒传》上宋江三打祝家庄，两次都因情况不明，方法不对，打了败仗。

“Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn” shang Sòng Jiāng 3 cì dǎ Zhùjiāzhuāng, 2 cì dōu yīnwèi qíngkuàng bùmíng, fāngfǎ bù duì, dǎ le bàizhàng.

Later he changed his method; first he investigated the situation, and he familiarized himself with the maze of roads, then he broke up the alliance between the Li, Hu and Zhu Villages and sent his men in disguise into the enemy camp to lie in wait, using a stratagem similar to that of the Trojan Horse in the foreign story. And on the third occasion he won.

Hòulái gǎibiàn fāngfǎ, cóng diàochá qíngxíng rùshǒu, yúshì shúxī le pántuólù, chāisàn le Lǐjiāzhuāng, Hùjiāzhuāng hé Zhùjiāzhuāng de liánméng, bìngqiě bùzhì le cáng zài dírén yíngpán li de fúbīng, yòng le hé wàiguó gùshì zhōng suǒ shuō Mùmǎ Jì xiāngxiàng de fāngfǎ, dì-3 cì jiù dǎ le shèngzhàng.

There are many examples of materialist dialectics in Shuihu Zhuan, of which the episode of the three attacks on Zhu Village is one of the best.

《水浒传》上有很多唯物辩证法的事例，这个三打祝家庄，算是最好的一个。

“Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn” shang yǒu hěnduō wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ de shìlì, zhè ge 3 cì dǎ Zhùjiāzhuāng, suànshì zuì hǎo de yī ge.

Lenin said:

... in order really to know an object we must embrace, study, all its sides, all connections and "mediations". We shall never achieve this completely, but the demand for all-sidedness is a safeguard against mistakes and rigidity.

Lenin shuō: “Yào zhēnzhèng de rènshí duìxiàng, jiù bìxū bǎwò hé yánjiū tā de yīqiè fāngmiàn, yīqiè liánxì hé ’méijiè’. Wǒmen juébù huì wánquán de zuòdào zhè yī diǎn, kěshì yāoqiú quánmiànxìng, jiāng shǐ wǒmen fángzhǐ cuòwù, fángzhǐ jiānghuà.”

We should remember his words. To be superficial means to consider neither the characteristics of a contradiction in its totality nor the characteristics of each of its aspects; it means to deny the necessity for probing deeply into a thing and minutely studying the characteristics of its contradiction, but instead merely to look from afar and, after glimpsing the rough outline, immediately to try to resolve the contradiction (to answer a question, settle a dispute, handle work, or direct a military operation).

Wǒmen yīnggāi jìdé tā de huà. Biǎomiànxìng, shì duì máodùn zǒngtǐ hé máodùn gèfāng de tèdiǎn dōu bù qù kàn, fǒurèn shēnrù shìwù lǐmiàn jīngxì de yánjiū máodùn tèdiǎn de bìyào, jǐnjǐn zhàn zài nàli yuǎnyuǎn de wàng yī wàng, cūzhīdàyè de kàn dào yīdiǎn máodùn de xíngxiàng, jiù xiǎng dòngshǒu qù jiějué máodùn (dáfù wèntí, jiějué jiūfēn, chǔlǐ gōngzuò, zhǐhuī zhànzhēng).

This way of doing things is bound to lead to trouble. The reason the dogmatist and empiricist comrades in China have made mistakes lies precisely in their subjectivist, one-sided and superficial way of looking at things.

Zhèyàng de zuòfǎ, méiyǒu bù chūluànzi de. Zhōngguó de jiàotiáozhǔyì hé jīngyànzhǔyì de tóngzhìmen suǒyǐ fàn cuòwù, jiùshì yīnwèi tāmen kàn shìwù de fāngfǎ shì zhǔguān de, piànmiàn de hé biǎomiàn de.

To be one-sided and superficial is at the same time to be subjective. For all objective things are actually interconnected and are governed by inner laws, but instead of undertaking the task of reflecting things as they really are some people only look at things one-sidedly or superficially and who know neither their interconnections nor their inner laws, and so their method is subjectivist.

Piànmiànxìng, biǎomiànxìng yěshì zhǔguānxìng, yīnwéi yīqiè kèguān shìwù běnlái shì hùxiāng liánxì de hé jùyǒu nèibù guīlǜ de, rénmen bù qù rúshí de fǎnyìng zhèxiē qíngkuàng, ér zhǐ shì piànmiàn de huò biǎomiàn de qù kàn tāmen, bù rènshí shìwù de hùxiāng liánxì, bù rènshí shìwù de nèibù guīlǜ, suǒyǐ zhè zhǒng fāngfǎ shì zhǔguānzhǔyì de.

### §3.11

Not only does the whole process of the movement of opposites in the development of a thing, both in their interconnections and in each of the aspects, have particular features to which we must give attention, but each stage in the process has its particular features to which we must give attention too.

Bùdàn shìwù fāzhǎn de quán guòchéng zhōng de máodùn yùndòng, zài qí xiānghù liánjié shang, zài qí gèfāng qíngkuàng shang, wǒmen bìxū zhùyì qí tèdiǎn, érqiě zài guòchéng fāzhǎn de gè ge jiēduàn zhōng, yě yǒu qí tèdiǎn, yě bìxū zhùyì.

### §3.12

The fundamental contradiction in the process of development of a thing and the essence of the process determined by this fundamental contradiction will not disappear until the process is completed; but in a lengthy process the conditions usually differ at each stage.

Shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng de gēnběn máodùn jí wèicǐ gēnběn máodùn suǒ guīdìng de guòchéng de běnzhì, fēi dào guòchéng wánjié zhī rì, shì bù huì xiāomiè de; dànshì shìwù fāzhǎn de cháng guòchéng zhōng de gè ge fāzhǎn de jiēduàn, qíngxíng yòu wǎngwǎng hùxiāng qūbié.

The reason is that, although the nature of the fundamental contradiction in the process of development of a thing and the essence of the process remain unchanged, the fundamental contradiction becomes more and more intensified as it passes from one stage to another in the lengthy process.

Zhè shì yīnwèi shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng de gēnběn máodùn de xìngzhì hé guòchéng de běnzhì suīrán méiyǒu biànhuà, dànshì gēnběn máodùn zài cháng guòchéng zhōng de gè ge fāzhǎn jiēduàn shang cǎiqǔ le zhújiàn jīhuà de xíngshì.

In addition, among the numerous major and minor contradictions which are determined or influenced by the fundamental contradiction, some become intensified, some are temporarily or partially resolved or mitigated, and some new ones emerge; hence the process is marked by stages.

Bìngqiě, bèi gēnběn máodùn suǒ guīdìng huò yǐngxiǎng de xǔduō dà-xiǎo máodùn zhōng, yǒuxiē shì jīhuà le, yǒuxiē shì zhànshí de huò júbù de jiějué le, huòzhě huǎnhé le, yòu yǒuxiē shì fāshēng le, yīncǐ, guòchéng jiù xiǎnchū jiēduànxìng lái.

If people do not pay attention to the stages in the process of development of a thing, they cannot deal with its contradictions properly.

Rúguǒ rénmen bù qù zhùyì shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng zhōng de jiēduànxìng, rénmen jiù bù néng shìdàng de chǔlǐ shìwù de máodùn.

### §3.13

For instance, when the capitalism of the era of free competition developed into imperialism, there was no change in the class nature of the two classes in fundamental contradiction, namely, the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, or in the capitalist essence of society; however, the contradiction between these two classes became intensified, the contradiction between monopoly and non-monopoly capital emerged, the contradiction between the colonial powers and the colonies became intensified, the contradiction among the capitalist countries resulting from their uneven development manifested itself with particular sharpness, and thus there arose the special stage of capitalism, the stage of imperialism.

Lìrú, zìyóu jìngzhēng shídài de zīběnzhǔyì fāzhǎn wéi dìguózhǔyì, zhè shí, wúchǎnjiējí hé zīchǎnjiējí zhè liǎng ge gēnběn máodùnzhe de jiējí de xìngzhì hé zhè ge shèhuì de zīběnzhǔyì de běnzhì, bìng méiyǒu biànhuà; dànshì, liǎng jiējí de máodùn jīhuà le, dúzhàn zīběn hé zìyóu zīběn zhījiān de máodùn fāshēng le, zōngzhǔguó hé zhímíndì de máodùn jīhuà le, gè zīběnzhǔyì guójiā jiān de máodùn jí yóu gè guó fāzhǎn bù pínghéng de zhuàngtài ér yǐnqǐ de máodùn tèbié jiānruì de biǎoxiàn chūlái le, Yīncǐ xíngchéng le zīběnzhǔyì de tèshū jiēduàn, xíngchéng le dìguózhǔyì jiēduàn.

Leninism is the Marxism of the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution precisely because Lenin and Stalin have correctly explained these contradictions and correctly formulated the theory and tactics of the proletarian revolution for their resolution.

Leninzhǔyì zhīsuǒyǐ chéngwéi dìguózhǔyì hé wúchǎnjiējí gémìng shídài de Marxzhǔyì, jiùshì yīnwèi Lenin hé Stalin zhèngquè de shuōmíng le zhèxiē máodùn, bìng zhèngquè de zuò chū le jiějué zhèxiē máodùn de wúchǎnjiējí gémìng de lǐlùn hé cèlüè.

### §3.14

Take the process of China's bourgeois-democratic revolution, which began with the Revolution of 1911; it, too, has several distinct stages.

Ná cóng Xīnhài Gémìng kāishǐ de Zhōngguó zīchǎnjiējí mínzhǔ gémìng guòchéng de qíngxíng lái kàn, yě yǒu le ruògān tèshū jiēduàn.

In particular, the revolution in its period of bourgeois leadership and the revolution in its period of proletarian leadership represent two vastly different historical stages.

Tèbié shì zài zīchǎnjiējí lǐngdǎo shíqī de gémìng hé zài wúchǎnjiējí lǐngdǎo shíqī de gémìng, qūbié wéi liǎng gè hěn dà bù tóng de lìshǐ jiēduàn.

In other words, proletarian leadership has fundamentally changed the whole face of the revolution, has brought about a new alignment of classes, given rise to a tremendous upsurge in the peasant revolution, imparted thoroughness to the revolution against imperialism and feudalism, created the possibility of the transition from the democratic revolution to the socialist revolution, and so on.

Zhè jiù shì: Yóuyú wúchǎnjiējí de lǐngdǎo, gēnběn de gǎibiàn le gémìng de miànmào, yǐnchū le jiējí guānxì de xīn diàodù, nóngmín gémìng de dà fādòng, fǎn dìguózhǔyì hé fǎn fēngjiànzhǔyì de gémìng chèdǐxìng, yóu mínzhǔ gémìng zhuǎnbiàn dào shèhuìzhǔyì gémìng de kěnéngxìng, děngděng.

None of these was possible in the period when the revolution was under bourgeois leadership.

Suǒyǒu zhèxiē, dōu shì zài zīchǎnjiējí lǐngdǎo gémìng shíqī bù kěnéng chūxiàn de.

Although no change has taken place in the nature of the fundamental contradiction in the process as a whole, i.e., in the anti-imperialist, anti- feudal, democratic-revolutionary nature of the process (the opposite of which is its semi-colonial and semi-feudal nature), nonetheless this process has passed through several stages of development in the course of more than twenty years; during this time many great events have taken place-- the failure of the Revolution of 1911 and the establishment of the regime of the Northern warlords, the formation of the first national united front and the revolution of 1924-27, the break-up of the united front and the desertion of the bourgeoisie to the side of the counterrevolution, the wars among the new warlords, the Agrarian Revolutionary War, the establishment of the second national united front and the War of Resistance Against Japan.

Suīrán zhěnggè guòchéng zhōng gēnběn máodùn de xìngzhì, guòchéng zhī fǎn-dì fǎn fēngjiàn de mínzhǔ gémìng de xìngzhì (qí fǎnmiàn shì bàn zhímíndì bàn fēngjiàn de xìngzhì), bìng méiyǒu biànhuà, dànshì, zài zhè cháng shíjiān zhōng, jīngguò le xīnhài gémìng shībài hé Běiyáng Jūnfá tǒngzhì, dì-1 cì mínzú tǒngyī zhànxiàn de jiànlì hé 1924 nián zhì 1927 nián de gémìng, tǒngyī zhànxiàn pòliè hé zīchǎnjiējí zhuǎnrù fǎn gémìng, xīn de jūnfá zhànzhēng, tǔdì gémìng zhànzhēng, dì-2 cì mínzú tǒngyī zhànxiàn jiànlì hé Kàng-Rì Zhànzhēng děngděng dà shìbiàn, 20 duō nián jiān jīngguò le jǐ gè fāzhǎn jiēduàn.

These stages are marked by particular features such as the intensification of certain contradictions (e.g., the Agrarian Revolutionary War and the Japanese invasion of the four northeastern provinces), the partial or temporary resolution of other contradictions (e.g., the destruction of the Northern warlords and our confiscation of the land of the landlords), and the emergence of yet other contradictions (e.g., the conflicts among the new warlords, and the landlords' recapture of the land after the loss of our revolutionary base areas in the south).

Zài zhèxiē jiēduàn zhōng, bāohánzhe yǒuxiē máodùn jīhuà le (lìrú Tǔdì Gémìng Zhànzhēng hé Rìběn qīnrù Dōngběi 4 shěng), yǒuxiē máodùn bùfèn de huò zhànshí de jiějué le (lìrú Běiyáng Jūnfá de bèi xiāomiè, wǒmen mòshōu le dìzhǔ de tǔdì), yǒuxiē máodùn chóngxīn fāshēng le (lìrú xīn jūnfá zhījiān de dòuzhēng, Nánfāng gè gémìng gēnjùdì sàngshī hòu dìzhǔ yòu chóngxīn shōuhuí tǔdì) děngděng tèshū de qíngxíng.