Novial/Hound Lesson 4

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Novial homePronunciation Guide

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Li Kaptate[edit | edit source]

The first occurrence of each new word is highlighted in blue (in the text title also). Click on the word to jump down to its translation. Then click the back key on your keyboard or the "Back" button on your browser to return to the text.

Li manuskrite kontinua:

”Eventad ke ye un yule disi minim honorabli Hugo kun sink o six ek sen otiosi kompanes vadad al ferme por aracha li yuna durant ke lan patro e fratros esed for. Kand les had porta la al kastelete, les klefad la in li maxim superi chambre, durant ke Hugo e sen amikes sidad por drinka multi alkohole, kom les did ye omni vespre.

”Li yuna timad li klamado e malediktiones kel venid ek subu. Finalim pro timo la fad tu kel min bravi home vud tima e la klimad subu per hedre kel kreskad an li sudi mure. Tand la fugad tra li agres a hem. Kelkitem plu tardim Hugo livad sen gastes por porta manjaje e drinke a sen kaptate. Tand lo devenid tam irati kam diable e hastad subu per li eskalere, saltad a sur li table e dikted ke on deved senda li hundes vers la. Hugo kursed ek li hause klamant al serveres ke les sadla sen maxim bon kavala e ke les lasa li hundes eku. Lo donad nase-tuke del yuna al hundes e sub lume del lune departad tra li agres. Dek-tri ek lon kompanes prendad sen kavales e probad seku Hugo e li hundes."

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]

  • a hem(to) home, homewards
  • a suronto (Literally: to on)
  • agrefield
  • alkoholealcohol
  • anat, on (next to or contiguous with something)
  • arachasnatch away, pull out
  • bravibrave
  • departa(to) depart
  • deveought, should (auxiliary verb)
  • deveni(to) become
  • diabledevil
  • drinka(to) drink
  • drinkedrink
  • ekuout, outwards
  • eskalerestairs
  • fermefarm
  • finalimfinally
  • foraway
  • fratrobrother
  • fuga(to) flee
  • gasteguest
  • hadhad (pluperfect auxiliary verb)
  • hasta(to) rush, hurry
  • hedreivy
  • hemehome
  • honorablihonourable
  • iratiangry
  • kamas, than (after a comparative)
  • kaptatecaptive, prisoner
  • kasteletemanor house, chateau, small castle
  • kavalamare
  • kavalehorse
  • kelkitemsometime, sometimes
  • klamadoshouting
  • klamant(i)shouting
  • klefa(to) lock
  • klima(to) climb
  • kompanecompanion, mate
  • kontinua(to) continue
  • kreska(to) grow
  • kunwith
  • kurse(to) run
  • lasalet, allow
  • liva(to) leave
  • lunemoon
  • manjajefood
  • maxim bonbest(superlative)
  • minless (comparative)
  • minimleast (superlative)
  • murewall
  • nase-tukehandkerchief
  • oor
  • omniall, every
  • otiosiidle, unoccupied
  • patrofather
  • perby, by means of, with
  • plumore (comparative)
  • plu tardimlater (adverb)
  • porfor, for the sake of, in order to
  • prenda(to) take
  • proba(to) try, attempt
  • sadla(to) saddle
  • salta(to) jump
  • seku(to) follow
  • senda(to) send
  • servereservant
  • subbelow, under
  • subudownwards, down
  • sudisouthern, south
  • superiupper
  • tabletable
  • tamas (comparative)
  • tam…kam…as…as… (comparative)
  • tandthen, at that time
  • tardimlate (adverb)
  • timofear
  • trathrough
  • vada(to) go
  • vespreevening
  • yuleChristmas

Grammar Notes[edit | edit source]

Pluperfect Tense[edit | edit source]

The pluperfect tense is formed by placing the auxiliary verb had in front of the present tense of the verb:

  • lo had salta a sur li table – he had jumped onto the table

Prepositions and Adverbs from Prepositions[edit | edit source]

Adverbs are formed from prepositions by adding -u as seen in these examlpes:

  • lo non es inuhe is not in
  • prou (= pro tu) therefore, on account of that
  • anteu (= ante tu) formerly, before that
  • durantuduring that time, meanwhile
  • li hundes kursed ekuthe dogs ran out (of somewhere)
  • exeptu (=exept tu) with that exception
  • lo sidad proxim li porte, e lon filia sidad proximu (= proxim lo)

he sat near the door and his daughter sat nearby (= near him)

  • lo vadad subuhe went down(wards)
  • les es kunu noktim e jornimthey are together night and day

Prepositions before the Infinitive[edit | edit source]

English phrases such as without going, before seeing etc. are translated with the appropriate preposition followed by the infinitive (same as the present tense):

me had departa ante vida laI had left before seeing her

nus vadad por vida lawe went (in order) to see her

Infinitive Clauses[edit | edit source]

The following examples show this English construction and how it can be translated:

  • me voli ke vu veniI want you to come (Literally: I want that you come)

Use a preposition with a definite literal meaning if it makes sense:

  • la sendad li serveres por porta manjajeshe sent the servants to bring food

Another way to express the infinitive clause is seen in the second of these examples:

  • les varta ke me arivathey wait for me to arrive (Literally: they wait for that I arrive)


  • les varta men arivothey wait for my arrival

Where arivo is the verbal noun (arrival or arriving) derived from the verb ariva. (This will be covered thoroughly in lesson 6)

However, the following is grammatically identical and may be used:

  • me voli vun venioI want you to come (Literally: I want your coming).

Comparative and Superlative[edit | edit source]

Adjectives and adverbs are compared as follows:

  • plu bon kambetter than
  • tam bon kamas good as
  • min bon kamless good than
  • maxim bon ekbest (out) of
  • minim bon ekleast good (out) of
  • la es li maxim grandishe is the biggest
  • la es plu grandi kam meshe is bigger than I (am)
  • la es tam grandi kam meshe as big as I (am)
  • la es min grandi kam meshe is less big than I (am)
  • la es li minim grandishe is the least big
  • lo kurse maxim bonim ek leshe runs best out of them
  • lo kurse plu bonim kam mehe runs better than I
  • lo kurse tam bonim kam mehe runs as well as I
  • lo kurse min bonim kam mehe runs less well than I
  • lo kurse minim bonim ek nushe runs least well out of us

Kam is used in making comparisons, even where English does not use than:

  • me prefera disu kam tuI prefer this to that

Translate as good as possible and similar phrases like this:

  • maxim bon posibli
EXERCISE • Hound Lesson 4 • Word Derivation

Use endings and affixes to convert the following Novial root words to the English words indicated.

  1. kuntogether
  2. lunelunar
  3. patroparents
  4. maximmaximal
  5. maximto maximize
  6. fratrosiblings
  7. kavalestallion
  8. bravibravery
  9. subdown, downwards
  10. minimminimal
  11. minimto minimize
  12. sovajisavages
SOLUTION • Novial/Hound Lesson 4 • Word Derivation
  1. kunu
  2. lunal
  3. patres
  4. maximal
  5. maximisa or maximifika
  6. fratres
  7. kavalo
  8. braveso
  9. subu
  10. minimal
  11. minimisa or minimifika
  12. sovajes


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Novial homePronunciation Guide

ContentsLesson 1Lesson 2Lesson 3 - Lesson 4Lesson 5 - Lesson 6Lesson 7