Novial/Hound Lesson 3
Li Legende[edit | edit source]
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”On ha dikte multi diferanti rakontes pri li origine del Hunde del Baskervilles. Ankore pro ke Hugo Baskerville es men ansestre e pro ke me lernad li rakonte fro men patro e lo fro sen patro, me nun skripte te kel me kreda verim ha eventa. Lerna dunke fro ti rakonte e sorga non liberisa tal mali pasiones, kel porta sufro a nusen familie.
”Ye li tempe del sivili milite li proprietere de dis estate esed Hugo Baskerville, kel esed verim sovaji, sindeal viro. Hugo did ama li filia de farmere, kel proprietad lande proxim li estate de Baskerville. Ma li bon yuna evitad lo, pro ke la timad lon mal nome.”
Vocabulary[edit | edit source]
- ama – (to) love
- ankore – yet, still
- ansestre – ancestor
- apoya – (to) lean
- diferant(i) – different
- dunke – therefore, so, consequently
- estate – estate
- eventa – to happen
- evita – (to) avoid
- farmere – farmer
- filia – daughter
- fro – from
- hore – hour
- important(i) – important
- kel – which, who, that, what (see)
- kelkum – something
- klosa – (to) close
- komensa – (to) begin
- konsulta – (to) consult
- kreda – (to) believe
- kurti – short
- lande – land, country
- lekte – (to) read
- lerna – (to) learn
- liberisa – (to) free, liberate
- lume – light
- milite – war
- moderni – modern, new
- multi – many, much
- mus – must, have to (auxiliary verb)
- naratione – narration, story
- nome – name
- nun – now
- okule – eye
- on – one, people, we, you, they
- origine – origin
- pasione – passion
- patro – father
- porta – (to) carry
- pri – about, concerning
- pro ke – because
- proprieta – (to) own
- proprietere – owner, proprieter
- proxim – close to
- proximim – closely
- rakonte – story
- relate – (to) relate to
- retro – back, backwards
- sal – will, shall (future auxiliary verb)
- sindeal(i) – godless
- sivil(i) – civil
- skripte – (to) write
- solu – (to) solve
- sorga – (to) take care of, look after, take pains with
- sovaji – savage, wild
- stranji – strange
- stule – chair
- sufro – suffering
- tal(i) – such a, of that kind
- te kel – that which, what
- tempe – time
- ti (-e, -o, -a, -u) – that (see Grammar Notes)
- tima – (to) fear
- tre – very (much)
- turna – (to) turn
- verim – truly
- vers – towards
- viro – man
- voli – (to) want
- yun(i) – young
- yuna – young woman, girl
Grammar Notes[edit | edit source]
Relative Pronouns[edit | edit source]
The relative pronoun in English takes several forms (who, whom, which, that). In Novial one word, kel, can serve for all of these:
- evita pasiones, kel porta sufro – avoid passions which (that) bring suffering
- li yuna, kel me ama, es bel – the young woman, whom (that) I love, is beautiful
- me donad lu al proprietere, kel es oldi viro – I gave it to the owner who is an old man
- li stule, sur kel me sida, es grandi – the chair, on which I sit, is big
The English possessive (whose) is translated as kelen or de kel:
- li farmere, kelen filia me ama, es oldi viro – the farmer, whose daughter I love, is an old man
- li farmere, li filia de kel me ama, es oldi viro – the farmer, the daughter of whom I love, is an old man
If necessary in order to avoid ambiguity the endings -o, -a, -u may be used to indicate sex or lack of sex and -s may be used to indicate a plural:
- li filia del doktoro, kela me ha renkontra, es inteligenti – the daughter of the doctor, whom I have met, is intelligent (I met the daughter not the doctor)
- tima li ansestres e li pasiones, kelus pove ankore veni a vu – fear the ancestors and the passions, which can yet come to you (the passions can come not the ancestors)
In the following sentences translate the English in brackets into Novial.
- Lo parlad a Holmes (who) sidad in (his own) stule..
- La lekte li manuskrite (which) es sur li table.
- Lo have pasiones fro (which) lo sufra.
- Me sal renkontra li proprietere (whose) filia es yuni.
- Li farmere (who) proprieta li lande es oldi.
- Me have (this) importanti probleme.
- (That) naratione es stranji.
- Me sal dikte (what) me lernad fro (that) manuskrite.
- Dis yuno ama li (young woman).
- Li (young people) ama (their own) amikes.
- Lo parlad a Holmes kel sidad in sen stule..
- La lekte li manuskrite kel es sur li table.
- Lo have pasiones fro kel lo sufra.
- Me sal renkontra li proprietere kelen filia es yuni.
- Li farmere kel proprieta li lande es oldi.
- Me have disi importanti probleme.
- Ti naratione es stranji.
- Me sal dikte tu kel me lernad fro ti manuskrite.
- Dis yuno ama li yuna.
- Li yunes ama sen amikes.
Verbs – Future Tense[edit | edit source]
The future tense is formed by placing the auxiliary verb sal in front of the present tense of the verb:
- me sal evita tal stranji viros – I shall avoid such strange men
Adverbs from Adjectives[edit | edit source]
An adjective may be converted to a corresponding adverb by adding -m after the final -i:
- diferanti – different
- diferantim – differently
- proximi – close
- proximim – closely
(Note that proximi without the -i is proxim, a preposition meaning close to (something).)
This and That – Pronouns from Adjectives[edit | edit source]
As we have already seen with personal pronouns and nouns with natural sex differences, Novial has convenient endings to distinguish sexless things, male, female and male or female. The demonstrative adjectives ti (that) and disi (this) use the same endings to provide the corresponding pronouns with such distinctions. Remember that adjectives themselves (here ti and disi) do not change form or agree with their noun. However, the derived pronouns have alternative endings to indicate sex and number:
- ti kose – that thing
- tu – that (one) (sexless thing)
- te – that one (male or female)
- ta – that one (female)
- to – that one (male)
- tus – those (ones) (sexless things)
- tes – those (male or female or a mixture of both)
- tas – those (female)
- tos – those (male)
- disi kose – this thing
- disu – this (one) (sexless thing)
- dise – this one (male or female)
- disa – this one (female)
- diso – this one (male)
- disus – these (sexless things)
- dises – these (male or female or a mixture of both)
- disas – these (female)
- disos – these (male)
As with the third person pronouns, le and les, it is convenient to use te, tes and dise, dises to indicate either sexless things or persons or a mixture of both without being specific.
Pronouns may be formed from other adjectives in the same way:
- yuni filia – young daughter
- yuna – young woman (also young female of animals)
- yuni filio – young son
- yuno – young man (also young male of animals)
- yuni home – young person
- yune – a youth
- yunes – youths, young ones
- yunu – young thing
Verbal Suffixes -ISA and -IFIKA[edit | edit source]
The suffixes –isa and –ifika are used to make verbs meaning to make, make into or render. For example:
- liberi – liberisa (free – liberate, make free, free)
- real – realisa (real – make real, realize)
- kurti – kurtifika (short – shorten, make short)
- veri – verifika (true – verify)
Verbs meaning to provide with , cover with are made with –isa (but not with –ifika):
- alkohole – alkoholisa (alcohol – alcoholize)
- lume – lumisa (light – light (up))
Substantival Suffix -ERE[edit | edit source]
The person who performs an action is formed from a verb with the suffix –ere.
- proprieta – proprietere (to own – owner, proprietor)
- fuma – fumere (to smoke – smoker)
- visita – visitere (to visit – visitor)
Use endings and affixes to convert the following Novial root words to the English words indicated.
- ama – lover (male or female)
- importanti – importantly
- lekte – reader
- nome – to name, give a name
- papere – to paper, cover with paper
- lerna – learner
- yuni – to make young, rejuvinate
- stranji – strangely
- sufra – sufferer
- importanti – make important
- jorne – by day
- lume – to light, shine light on