Miskito/Lesson 7

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Miskitu Aisas!

Miskito Language Course

Lesson 6 Bandera regne Miskito.png 7 Inglis aisisma ki?
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Contents Do you speak English?

I am[edit]

Study
What do they mean?
  • I am Maria.
  • I am a woman.
  • I am your mother.
  • I am young.
  • I am in Bilwi.
  • I am here.
  • I am with the children.
  • I am not poor.
  • I am here in the school with you.
  • Maria sna.
  • Mairin kum sna.
  • Yaptikam sna.
  • Tiara sna.
  • Bilwi ra sna.
  • Nahara sna.
  • Tuktan nani ba wal sna.
  • Umpira apia sna.
  • Yang nahara skul ra man wal sna.
Practice Change the subject form witin to yang:
  1. Witin waitna kum sa.
  2. Witin nahara sa.
  3. Witin umpira sa.
  4. Witin utla ra sa.
  5. Witin sirpi pali sa.
  6. Witin skul ra apia sa.
Answers
  1. Yang waitna kum sna.
  2. Yang nahara sna.
  3. Yang umpira sna.
  4. Yang utla ra sna.
  5. Yang sirpi pali sna.
  6. Yang skul ra apia sna.

Sna I am, apia sna I am not.

  • Since these already express the first-person notion, it is not necessary to say yang I with them, although you can: (Yang) Jan sna I am John, (Yang) yaptikam apia sna I am not your mother.




You are[edit]

Study
What do they mean?
  • You are John.
  • You are a man.
  • Are you my father?
  • You are very young.
  • You are in the village.
  • Where are you?
  • Who are you with?
  • You are not poor.
  • You are here in the school with me.
  • Jan sma.
  • Waitna kum sma.
  • Aisiki sma ki?
  • Tiara pali sma.
  • Tawan ra sma.
  • Anira sma ki?
  • Ya wal sma ki?
  • Umpira apia sma.
  • Man nahara skul ra yang wal sma.
Practice Answer these questions, taking the words in parentheses as cues:
  1. Nahara sma ki? (au)
  2. Yaptikam ba wal sma ki? (apia)
  3. Anira sma? (skul)
  4. Tuktan kum sma ki? (apia)
  5. Aisikam anira sa? (tawan)
Answers
  1. Au, nahara sna.
  2. Apia, yaptiki ba wal apia sna.
  3. Skul ra sna.
  4. Apia, tukan kum apia sna.
  5. Aisiki tawan ra sa.

Sma you are, apia sma you are not.

  • As with (yang) sna, man you can be omitted with sma.

Forms of the present tense of kaia to be that you now know:

first person (I...)

sna

second person (you...)

sma

third person (she, he, they...; also yawan we inclusive)

sa


Some personal pronouns[edit]

Study
What do they mean?
  • I am at home.
  • You are also at home.
  • She/He is at home.
  • They are all at home!
  • We (you and I) are at home.
  • You are with me.
  • I am with you.
  • We are with her/him.
  • We are with them.
  • They are with us.
  • Yang utla ra sna.
  • Man sin utla ra sma.
  • Witin utla ra sa.
  • Witin nani sut utla ra sa!
  • Yawan utla ra sa.
  • Man yang wal sma.
  • Yang man wal sna.
  • Yawan witin wal sa.
  • Yawan witin nani wal sa.
  • Witin nani yawan wal sa.
Practice Place yang, man or witin at the beginning of the sentence as appropriate:
  1. Anira sma?
  2. Miriki apia sna.
  3. Miskitu sa.
  4. Prias watla ra sna.
  5. Rum ra sma ki?
  6. Sirpi pali sna.
  7. Yaptiki wal apia sna.
  8. Bahara sa.
Answers
  1. Man anira sma?
  2. Yang Miriki apia sna.
  3. Witin Miskitu sa.
  4. Yang prias watla ra sna.
  5. Man rum ra sma ki?
  6. Yang sirpi pali sna.
  7. Yang yaptiki wal apia sna.
  8. Witin bahara sa.

You also now know the following personal pronouns:

I

yang

you

man

she, he

witin

they

witin nani

we inclusive, i.e. you and I

yawan

These pronouns may function in different grammatical roles in the sentence: as subject, object, complement of a postposition...


The present tense[edit]

Study
What do they mean?
  • I speak Miskito.
  • Do you speak English too? — Yes, I speak English well.
  • She/He only speaks Spanish.
  • What are you doing? — I am going out of the house.
  • Why are you crying? — I am looking for my mother.
  • Are you working? — No, I am only learning Miskito.
  • From here I see my children well.
  • Do you hear the children? Yes, I hear them.
  • Miskitu aisisna.
  • Inglis sin aisisma ki? — Au, yang Inglis pain aisisna.
  • Witin Ispail baman aisisa.
  • Dia daukisma? — Yang utla wina takisna.
  • Dia muni inisma? — Yaptiki plikisna.
  • Man wark takisma? — Apia, Miskitu bila baman lan takisna.
  • Naha wina tuktiki nani ba ra pain kaikisna.
  • Tuktan nani ba ra walisma? Au, witin ra walisna.
Practice Fill the blank with an appropriate present tense form of the verb whose infinitive is given.
  1. Yang Inglis __________. (aisaia)
  2. Man yul ba __________ ki? (kaikaia)
  3. Witin aisiki wal __________. (wark takaia)
  4. Yang yul nani ba __________. (walaia)
  5. Man tuktan kum __________. (kaia)
  6. Yang Miskitu bila baman __________. (aisaia)
  7. Man yaura __________? (plikaia)
  8. Witin sap wina __________. (takaia)
Answers
  1. Yang Inglis aisisna.
  2. Man yul ba kaikisma ki?
  3. Witin aisiki wal wark takisa.
  4. Yang yul nani ba walisna.
  5. Man tuktan kum sma.
  6. Yang Miskitu bila baman aisisna.
  7. Man yaura plikisma?
  8. Witin sap wina takisa.

It was explained before that a verb form such as daukisa comes from dauki (a participle, doing) and sa is. In order to say I am doing, you are doing.., and also I do, you do..., the appropriate form of to be is placed after the i-form (e.g. dauki), and this gives us the regular present tense, with these endings:

first person

-isna

second person

-isma

third person, yawan

-isa

Examples:

daukaia do kaikaia see pulaia play aisaia speak

1

daukisna

kaikisna

pulisna

aisisna

2

daukisma

kaikisma

pulisma

aisisma

3, yawan

daukisa

kaikisa

pulisa

aisisa

  • The compound verbs wark takaia to work and lan takaia to learn are formed from the borrowings from English wark ("work") and lan ("learn") and the Miskito verb takaia. Used as a simple verb, takaia means "go out, come out".


The future tense[edit]

Study
What do they mean?
  • What are you going to do tomorrow? — I am going to study (the) Miskito (language).
  • My mother will go into the shop and I will go in with her.
  • What are you going to buy in the shop? — I am going to buy some mangoes.
  • Are you going to buy a book too? — No, my mother bought a book yesterday.
  • When are you going to see my father? — I will see him soon, and then I will speak with him.
  • I will go into the church afterwards.
  • Where will you sit? — I will sit with the other women.
  • Yauhka dia daukaisma? — Miskitu bila lan takaisna.
  • Yaptiki sap ra dimaisa bara yang witin wal sap ra dimaisna.
  • Man sap ra dia atkaisma? Yang mangu kum kum atkaisna.
  • Buk kum sin atkaisma ki? — Apia, yaptiki buk kum nahwala atkan.
  • Man aisiki ra ahkia kaikaisma? — Tisku kaikaisna, bara witin wal aisaisna.
  • Prias watla ra ningkara dimaisna.
  • Man anira iwaisma ki? — Mairin nani wala ba wal iwaisna.
Practice Answer the questions using the time words given:
  1. Ahkia balaisma? (yauhka)
  2. Truk kum ahkia atkaisma? (tisku)
  3. Aisikam ba yang wal ahkia aisaisa? (ningkara)
  4. Ahkia utla ra kaisma? (yauhka)
  5. Yawan ahkia takaisa? (ningkara)
  6. Tuktikam ahkia kaikaisna? (tisku pali)
  7. Witin nani skul ra ahkia dimaisa? (yauhka)
Answers
  1. Yauhka balaisna.
  2. (Truk kum) tisku atkaisna.
  3. Man wal ningkara aisaisa.
  4. Yauhka kaisna.
  5. Yawan ningkara takaisa.
  6. Tisku pali kaikaisma.
  7. Witin nani skul ra yauhka dimaisa.

The endings of the future tense are similar to those of the present, but begin with ai rather than i. Another way to produce the future is to remove the final -a from the infinitive and add, in its place, the present-tense forms of kaia, thus daukaia → daukai- → daukaisna, daukaisma, daukaisa. Compare the present and the future of daukaia:

PRESENT FUTURE

1

daukisna

daukaisna

2

daukisma

daukaisma

3, yawan

daukisa

daukaisa

  • Miskitu bila the Miskito language, Miskito is a compound noun formed from Miskitu and bila, which basically means "mouth" but also "language" (and numerous other meanings, to be seen later).
  • Bara is commonly used as a connecting word to mean "and then", "and so", or just "and". (Not to be confused with bara sa there is/are, bara kan there was/were, bara kaisa there will be.)


Vocabulary and review[edit]

adv
when
v
buy
adv
only
con
and then, and so
v
go in, enter
n
English
n
Spanish
cpd v
to learn
pron
you
cpd n
Miskito (language)
adv
well
v
go out
adv
soon
v
hear
cpd v
to work


Choose one of the words given to complete the sentence.
Review
Yang utla ra yaptiki ra __________ munaisna.
(pain — hilp — wark)

Yang utla ra yaptiki ra hilp munaisna.

Tibil ra buk kum __________ kaikisna.
(baman — bara — bila)

Tibil ra buk kum baman kaikisna.

Yawan yauhka mangu kum kum __________.
(atkan — atkaisna — atkaisa)

Yawan yauhka mangu kum kum atkaisa.

Miskitu bila pain lan __________.
(takisma — atkisma — inisma)

Miskitu bila pain lan takisma.

Miriki na Miskitu bila lan takan __________ yawan wal pain aisisa.
(man — kum — bara)

Miriki na Miskitu bila lan takan bara yawan wal pain aisisa.


Lesson 6 Flag of the Mosquito Monarchy.svg
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Contents