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Mass Media

The current, editable version of this book is available in Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection, at
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Mass_Media

Permission is granted to copy, distribute, and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.


Preface

This is a Wikibooks textbook about the Mass Media. The intention of this project is to create an open-source resource under the GNU Free Documentation License which would be suitable for use in a university or high school Media Studies class.




Introduction

H. Lasswell's definition of communication is "who says what to whom by what means and to what effect."

The three functions of media are to entertain, inform, and persuade.

There are four types of communication: intra-personal (daydreams and internal monologues), interpersonal (discussion in small groups), group (discussion with large groups, such as public speaking), and mass (technology-driven communication with thousands or millions of people). The system of communication which brings news and entertainment to the populace at large through books, newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet is called the "Mass Media."

The Mass Media is playing an increasingly large role in our everyday lives. The term mass media is mainly used by academics and media-professionals. When members of the general public refer to "the media" they are usually referring to the mass media, or to the news media, which is a section of the mass media.

Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks and of mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. The mass-media audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass media techniques such as advertising and propaganda.

The mass media system has controls: media monitors whom ensure that bad messages are cut down or eliminated. These include regulators (such as the FCC), pressure groups (such as the Catholics, whose power is leveraged through boycotts), and gatekeepers, such as editors, directors, and corporate moguls like Rupert Murdoch. A classic example of a gatekeeper exercising control was when NBC fired Phil Donohue over ideological differences.

Another control is perceived public opinion. For example, the press doesn't like to run photos of the dead or injured from war, for fear of public outrage.



History

Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of movable type, has been called "the most influential man of the millennium."

The first book printed in the colonies was in 1640. The first publisher was Lipincott.

Thomas Jefferson was considered a radical for his defense of Free Speech and opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts. His criticism became so intense, that his supporters convinced him to prosecute under those same acts.

Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes argued that free speech must be upheld, except in cases of a "clear and present danger." He supported the prosecution of two anti-war socialists, because they discouraged citizens from fighting in World War I.



Conglomerates

Please note that this article mainly discusses the modern American media landscape.

The Modern Media Landscape[edit | edit source]

The modern media industry (since about 1950 on)has been characterized by two paradoxical trends.

Media have trended toward conglomeration: One giant company owns several properties like movie studios, publishing houses, newspapers, radio stations, television stations and networks, and websites.

Media have also trended toward fragmentation: Where there were once four major television stations there are now hundreds, and while there used to be just a handful of major general interest magazines, there are now nearly a hundred in the same category. Not only that, but the number of categories has exploded. There are enthusiast magazines, websites, and TV stations that cater to every possible topic under the sun.

Conglomeration[edit | edit source]

Only a few large corporations own a disproportionate amount of media and entertainment outlets. This allows for cross-promotion and larger budgets, but critics think it can limit creativity and independent media.


Fragmentation[edit | edit source]

Instead of having just three TV networks like in the 1950s and 1960s, there are now hundreds of choices. Similarly, the number of magazines and radio stations have grown but each reaches fewer people, because they are highly targeted.


The Media Giants[edit | edit source]

While there are plenty of independent media outlets, a relatively small number of large corporations control the biggest and most profitable media vehicles in the country. Some of the properties listed below are not fully owned by these conglomerates but they have a significant or controlling interest.

-Viacom owns a huge variety of properties, especially in television. Their holdings include MTV and Comedy Central, VH1, Paramount Pictures, Nickelodeon, Simon & Schuster, Scribner, Infinity Radio stations, CBS networks, TNN, CMT, BET, exclusive transit advertising in major markets, and billboards across the country.

-General Electric is a far reaching company that does everything from jet engines and futuristic plastics to television shows. TGE owns all the NBC networks, A&E and History channels, IFC, Bravo, AMC, and WE networks. They also own several sports teams and venues like the New York Knicks and Rangers, and Madison Square Garden.

-Disney not only has a themepark empire and their movie studios, they also own Miramax, ESPN, ABC networks, Hyperion Books, Buena Vista and Touchstone Pictures, Soap Net, Radio Disney, and they own the Mighty Ducks and Anaheim Angels sports teams, Broadway productions like The Lion King, and magazines like Family Fun. They also own a town called Celebration, Florida.

-Time Warner has a multitude of divisions. Their properties include AOL and Netscape, moviefone and mapquest, and Winamp, DC Comics, Warner Brothers, New Line Cinema, Castle Rock Productions, CNN networks, E! and Style Networks, Cartoon Network, HBO and Cinemax, Turner Classic Movies and Court TV, Atlantic, Elektra, and Rhino recording labels, and magazines like Time, Golf, Popular Science, Real Simple, and Entertainment Weekly. They are also a major cable provider.

-Clear Channel owns many radio stations and billboards. In some markets they nearly have a monopoly on the local radio market.

-News Corporation is owned by Australian Rupert Murdoch. His North American properties include Fox networks, FX, National Geographic Channel, TV Guide, Twentieth Century Fox, the New York Post, several British tabloids. These media outlets, especially FOX News, have been accused of conservative bias.

-Vivendi Universal owns Houghton Mifflin textbook publisher, Universal Studios and themepark, USA, Sci-Fi, Canal + networks, Interscope, Geffen, Def Jam, Mercury, and Motown Records. They also own multiple properties in France.

-Sony not only makes electronics equipment, they own Columbia Pictures and Revolution Studios, Loews Movie Theaters, and own the Columbia, American Epic, and Sony recording labels.

-Liberty Media owns the Discovery Channel, QVC, Primedia magazine group (Seventeen), Hallmark Network, and hotel internet access.


The following corporations also have strong properties, although they are not quite as large as the previously mentioned companies.

-Martha Stewart Omnimedia owns all media properties that carry the Martha Stewart name, including her television shows and magazines like Martha Stewart Living and Everyday Food.

-Conde Nast owns many high profile magazines like Wired, Vogue, Gourmet, the New Yorker. They also own other properties like the City Business Journals.

-Hearst owns several newspapers and magazines like Cosmopolitan and Oprah's magazine.

-Wenner Media owns magazines like Men's Journal, Maxim, Stuff, The Week, and Rolling Stone.



Theories

Noise[edit | edit source]

There are three types of noise, which garble a communication: semantic (i.e., speech impediments or misspelling), environmental (i.e., background noise), and tech (i.e., static).

There are also three types of filters, which determine how a communication gets interpreted by the receiver:

info (i.e., the message is in a language unknown to the receiver), physical (i.e., the receiver is fatigued), or psych (i.e., the receiver is prejudiced in some way toward the communicator or message).

Hypodermic Model[edit | edit source]

The hypodermic needle model is a model of communications. It is also referred to as the "magic bullet", or the "profound effects" theory. Essentially this model holds that an intended message is directly received and wholly accepted by the receiver.

The most famous example of what would be considered the result of the Magic Bullet or Hypodermic Needle Model was the 1938 broadcast of The War of the Worlds and the subsequent reaction of the mass American audience that was tuned in.

The phrasing "Hypodermic needle" is meant to give a mental image of a message's direct infusion into an individual. This view tends to ignore things like interpretation and for this fatal flaw it is clearly less than perfect.

A more modern version is the Two-step flow of communication theory (or "minimal effects" theory). The two-step flow model was propouded by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz. Unlike the hypodermic needle model which considers mass media effects to be direct, the two-step flow model stresses human agency. (One way of looking at it is that media doesn't tell us what to think, it tells us what to think about.)

According to Lazarsfeld and Katz, mass media information is channeled to the "masses" through opinion leadership. The people with most access to media, and having a more literate understanding of media content, explain and diffuse the content to others.

Two-step flow model laid the foundation for diffusion of innovations.

Cultivation Theory[edit | edit source]

Developed by Professor George Gerbner, the Cultivation Theory focuses on the effects of long term repetition of messages. This view of media's influence on culture states that it occurs over time through a distortion of reality. Cultivation Theory does not rely on extensive consumption of media, but that the media cultivates cultural change over time throughout society.

The effects of cultivation of the media are exacerbated by an homogenized media landscape, where media outlets, through financial or other pressures, become similar or uniform. If all people receive a similar media message, portraying uniform values, then audiences will more quickly perceive those representations to be accurate.

Elitist and Populist Media[edit | edit source]

Broadly speaking, there are two views of media's place in society. One is Elitist (media should educate), and the other is Populist (media should be whatever the people want).

Marshall McLuhan was a famous media and communication theorist. He coined the term "global village" while discussing his belief that the effect of the television would be to unite the world. He also believed that print media changes the way you think, and that the written word could make language "official."



Influence of Media

Mass media plays a huge role in politics. One example was Arnold Schwarzenegger's campaign for governor of California, where he was portrayed as a candidate with a serious demeanor, but a hedonistic past.

The Mass Media also determines what issues are discussed by the populace, by putting certain news stories into the limelight. News is separated into two categories, hard news (such as politics, foreign affairs, and other serious issues), and soft news ("entertainment" news, like celebrity gossip, and scandals). Sometimes, a hard news story will replace a softer one for dominance. The Gary Condit scandal was forgotten after the World Trade Center disaster.

The outlook on an issue is called the "spin." One of the most obvious examples of spin is the types of terminology groups use for themselves and their opponents. Anti-abortion activists refer to themselves as "pro-life" and their opponents as "anti-life", while pro-abortion groups call themselves "pro-choice" and their opponents "anti-choice." This is a very basic example of spin. Although news media is not supposed to have any spin, the choice of wording for a story can affect how it is perceived.

A large topic of research for sociologists is Media Effects. The media can create distortion. For instance, an emphasis on reporting child abductions may cause the populace to believe that kidnapping is on the rise, when the truth may be just the opposite.

One of the most powerful effects of media is "agenda setting." Mass media cam indirectly create policy. By focusing on certain types of stories, politicians can be influenced. For example, when Roy of Siegfried & Roy was mauled by their tiger, it was a big story. Soon, similar stories surfaced in the news, such as one where a man was bit by a tiger he kept in his apartment. Soon, a bill was put before Congress to restrict domestication of big cats.

Stereotyping is aided by mass media. A simple stereotype follows the form "All X are Y." These form the basis of prejudices, which can be very harmful to a society. A stereotype can be applied to people, places, or things. If something is portrayed the same way many times in the media, the message will be enforced through repetition. Some people will believe it is true, especially if their only link with the thing is through mass media. For instance, people whose experience with African-Americans is primarily made up of negative media impressions (such as gangsta rap and gangland films) will probably have a negative prejudice towards blacks.

However, media can also give us access to cultures we may never see otherwise.

Public Relations[edit | edit source]

A huge part of media use is for Public Relations (PR): persuasive messages used to influence the populace's opinion of a person, organization, or product. Corporations and other organizations often use advertising for PR, but many other types of media are also used. For example, the US government and other groups sometimes use the Fourth of July as a PR effort to induce patriotism.

George Washington recruited Thomas Paine to write the Crisis Papers, which he read to the US troops. They went on to a great victory.

P.T. Barnum used PR for huckstering.

Teddy Roosevelt was the first US president to hire a press secretary. Journalists followed his "Rough Riders."

Rockefeller broke up striking miners with gunfire. The media called it a "massacre." He hired Ivy Lee (the "Father of Public Relations") to improve his image.

It was Edward Bernays who established PR as an industry, and wrote the first PR book. He was called the "Master of Spin." When a hair net company came to Bernays with poor sales, he helped by urging labor commissioners to require female workers to wear hair nets in the interest of safety and hygiene. His campaign was successful. [1]

All organizations have PR. PR is used in the military to indoctrinate soldiers.

PR activities include issuing press releases, various community work, and media manipulation. PR workers believe that "journalists report bad news, PR men report good news."

Press releases are papers written like a news article. They are sent to media outlets in the hope of getting them turned into news stories. They may be part of a press packet, which contains supporting material, such as a videotape for TV news.

Press conferences are meetings of organization spokesmen with various members of the media. The spokesmen discuss issues in the hope of getting into the news. A pseudo-event is a staged event for PR purposes.

Two important rules for PR are to break a story right before the newscast and to never lie.



Ethics of Media

Media Ethics[edit | edit source]

A 2017 map of the world by freedom of the press.

In the United States, Freedom of the Press is guaranteed by the First Amendment. This right is common in most healthy democracies - a free press is essential to criticize poor government policy. This is because in countries without this freedom, journalists who criticize the state can be jailed or even put to death. However this freedom does come at a cost, as there will always be those who abuse it.

The First Amendment is often cited to defend speech which is offensive. Indeed, many argue that that is what the First Amendment was designed to defend. By definition, inoffensive speech is in no danger of censorship; it is the offensive speech which must be protected. In John Milton's Aereopagitica, he argues that we must be tested by evil in order to be virtuous. Censorship, by removing the evil, prevents this. (In a similar vein, Benjamin Franklin wittily defends printers in his Apology for Printers )

Reliable media sources will not publish until there is confirmation by two or three sources. Less scrupulous media may publish rumors as fact, or even invent their own stories.

It is important to remember that the media is market-driven, to a large extent. This can affect content in many ways. "Media circuses" result from sensational stories that, while entertaining for the public, are often unimportant. Another example of this is that most editors will self-censor by refusing to publish photos of dead or injured soldiers during a war, to preemptively avoid of public outrage.

Advertising Ethics[edit | edit source]

Because advertising's intent is to persuade people to take some sort of action, much sensitivity revolves around the products, strategies, and tactics used to persuade. Advertising ethics is frequently a politically and emotionally charged topic both within the industry and among the general public.

A little known fact is that there are almost no national laws regarding advertising ; it is a self-regulated industry although the FCC does regulated the media through which advertising is communicated. Several bodies self-regulate including organizations that represent advertisers, advertising agencies, magazine publishers, film producers, TV and radio executives, as well as consumer and advocacy groups.

Deliberate dissemination of misinformation or false advertising is one of the few areas that is punishable by law depending upon the severity of the case. The tobacco industry in the early 20th century included testimonials from doctors, athletes, and opera singers who recommended a particular tobacco brand for its positive health effects. Some dieting products fall under this category.

Marketing for Winston Cigarettes in a animation of The Flintstones. Marketing tobacco in mediums likely to be more popular with youth has been controversial.

Unethical audience targeting involves advertising a product to a group of the population that might be inappropriate. Fast food, soda, and tobacco companies have been accused of disproportionately targeting poor minorities in the ghetto where eating habits and healthcare are already severe problems. Targeting very expensive luxury or athletic apparel to these communities has also come under fire. Armed services advertising to poor and minority young people is also controversial, especially during wartime.

Advertising "vice" products like tobacco, alcohol, and increasingly fast food and unhealthy food products is questioned as to whether any of the products should be advertised at all. All three of these industries increasingly self-regulate where and how they advertise and who they target. State and local governments can regulate legal ages for consumption of tobacco and alcohol, and increasingly regulate schoolchildren's access to unhealthy food products.

Racial, gendered, and other stereotypical advertising has a history almost as old as advertising itself. Because advertisers generally have a short time to communicate their message, many use archetypes such as the busy soccer mom and the suited businessman to quickly communicate an idea. However, historically many of these archetypes have reflected the prejudices of the time. The use of negative racial and ethnic stereotypes to sell products, as well as portrayals that denigrate women and other groups is no longer considered appropriate. Many advertising icons have been criticized including Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben, and Frito Bandito.

Direct to Consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical adverting is a newer phenomenon and has also attracted supporters and critics. Critics allege that this advertising can undermine the professional opinions of doctors while supportes say that it lets consumers know that there are medications that can improve their health conditions.

Tasteless advertising that portrays very sexual elements, nudity, anti-social behavior, or obscene language are sometimes criticized.

A common complaint is that advertising creates desires for products and services that consumers don't really need, creating a society that is never satisfied.

Copyright[edit | edit source]

Copyright law varies by jurisdiction. Generally copyright law in the United States protects material for the lifetime of the creator, plus 70 years.



Forms

Print can lay claim to being the first mass medium. 20% of Americans don't (or can't) read. The average American reads .8 books a year.

It is traditionally been suggested that it first made an impact with the invention of Gutenberg's system of movable type in 1452. However, the earliest example of a printed book is the Diamond Sutra printed using movable clay type in China in 868CE. Though this is the earliest available example, it is thought this system was already well established when the Diamond Sutra was published. Gutenberg's innovation, made apparently without knowledge of the Chinese system, was to cast individual letter forms from metal.

Ratings are used to get statistics on popularity of programming. The ratings system used for TV is Nielsen, and the system for radio is Arbitron.

The press is called the "Fourth Estate." In the US, it is protected by the First Amendment. Print press is unrestricted, but TV and radio isn't. Radio stations and network broadcasters must have licenses. Cable networks aren't required to have licenses, so they can do whatever they want.

"On the Media" is an NPR show about media analysis. Audio and transcripts can be found at |http://www.wnyc.org/onthemedia/.



Television

Television in a home.

98% of US households have at least one television set.

The first presidential campaign orchestrated for television was John F. Kennedy's.

In the case of the 9/11 benefit, the media was used for national mourning. John F. Kennedy's funeral was a similar case.

Situation comedies (sitcoms) are a common genre of TV show. Like much television programming, they have been accused of appealing to the lowest common denominator. Sitcoms often follow a formula which has been successful for other sitcoms. Since plots are very spare, characterization is important.

Broadcast television is moderated by the FCC for content, so material which can be broadcast on cable may be unacceptable for broadcast. When the popular HBO show "The Sopranos" was put on broadcast, it was a "clean version" edited for content.

The grand debate for the 2003 Recall election in California was five-way: between Arianna Huffington, Peter Camejo, Cruz Bustamante, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and Tom McClintock. This was the first electoral debate of its type in US history. Darrell Issa, who bankrolled the petition drive for the recall, was then encouraging people to vote against recall because there were two major Republicans (Schwarzenegger and McClintock), and he was afraid that the vote would be split and Bustamante would win.

In his film Dreamworlds II: Desire, Sex, and Power in Music Video, Sut Jhally makes an analysis of how music videos portray sexuality. The video was released by The Media Education Foundation.



Cinema

A contemporary cinema

The Great Train Robbery was one of the first films to use a narrative story format, special effects, and color.

The famous film Citizen Kane by Orson Welles was heavily based on the life of newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst. Hearst tried to keep the film from being distributed.

The "post-Will Hayes" ratings are NC-17 (cannot be viewed by anyone under 17) and R (cannot be viewed by anyone under 17 unless accompanied by an adult).

The movie industry has been largely self-censored. The Hayes censorship board was funded by the Motion Picture Producers Association. The MPAA was formed by the movie industry to prevent government regulation of cinema. This group sets the standards for film.

The independent short film 405, by Bruce Branit and Jeremy Hunt, gained notoriety for its high quality special effects created with advanced computer software.




Radio

Radio is "the theater of the mind"; because you only get audio, you must create visuals with your imagination.



Books

Illustration of books

Categorizing Books[edit | edit source]

Books are typically broadly categorized using a genre and a demographic.

Genre[edit | edit source]

Broadly book genres are divided between fiction (Imagined stories) and non-fiction (Covering the real world).

Non-Fiction[edit | edit source]

Popular non-fiction includes cookbooks, diet, self-help, and how-to books.

It is important to note that just because a book is categorized as non-fiction does not guarantee factual accuracy, particularly when dealing with narrative sub-genres such as autobiographies.

Fiction[edit | edit source]

Popular fiction includes fantasy, romance, westerns, and science-fiction.

Demographic[edit | edit source]

Broadly book demographics are split between books for adults and books for children. Further age based demographics for books can be found in books for the elderly, young adults, teenagers, and the very young. Demographics can also be expressed in other ways, with some books being specifically targeted at a specific gender, race, or other identity.

Book Formats[edit | edit source]

Physical Properties[edit | edit source]

Many books are printed in hardcover first and paperback later. Hardcover books are typically more durable, and are seen by some as more prestigious. Paperbacks are cheaper, and are more portable due to their smaller size. The paper used, cover material, and binding of a book are other indications of quality.

Special Properties[edit | edit source]

Books sometimes use special formats, such as large format books or books with braille text for those with reduced vision.

Books often come in multiple editions. The first edition is often most valued by collectors, however later editions are often more useful to readers as these typically feature corrections, additions, and other small improvements.

A signature or handwritten note on the book by the author may or may not increase the value of a book, but it rarely hurts it. Signatures by famous authors, especially those who have been deceased for some time or rarely signed their books, almost always increase the value of the book.

Audiobooks[edit | edit source]

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as an audiobook (Part 1 of 2).

Some books are available as audiobooks - where the contents of the book are audio recorded as spoken word. These books are commonly available as a digital download or on optical disk, though some other formats also exist. These books are commonly used by the literate as a way to read books when it would be undesirable or impossible to read a traditional book. Thus audiobooks are commonly used while working, exercising, on commutes, or other similar scenarios. Audiobooks also possess the obvious quality of being far more accessible to the blind and visually impaired then traditional books. Audiobooks may also be helpful for the illiterate.

Audiobooks sometimes add additional flair to make them more appealing, such as sound effects, music, multiple readers for different characters, or special readers such as readings by celebrities or by the author.

E-books[edit | edit source]

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as an e-book. (Click or tap to read)

A number of books are distributed electronically, as e-books. Consumers who opt for e-books may find both advantages and disadvantages over traditional books. While cost savings in production and distribution are often not passed to the consumer, e-books are often slightly cheaper then their physical counterparts, and some e-books are distributed for free (Either gratis or libre). While early e-books were sometimes shipped on dedicated computer storage devices, modern e-books are often simply downloaded, with readers being able to easily house whole libraries and bookstores in their pocket or at home.

Book Paraphernalia[edit | edit source]

A number of items are commonly used alongside books, including bookmarks, reading glasses, and book lights. There are even books meant to accompany other books, such as study guides for specific pieces of literature.

Readers[edit | edit source]

Communication theorists consider book readers to be "opinion makers."




Newspapers

A newspaper and coffee.

Newspapers are print media and/or the newsgathering organizations that produce them. Most conventional newspapers are published on a daily or weekly basis, and are meant to inform the general public about recent events, especially public affairs. Besides local, national or international news, papers often carry sports and entertainment features, opinion columns and advertising.

Newspapers may address a general audience, focus on a geographical area, or cover a specialized subject, such as newspapers for a specific profession, industry or interest. Newspapers traditionally are supported by selling advertising space as well as subscription or single-copy sales of the newspapers themselves. Through history, newspapers have sometimes been subsidized by organizations or interest groups, including political parties. Mass-circulation newspapers, such as those evolving in 19th century New York, attempt to appeal to a wider audience (and wider advertising market) than overtly partisan papers.

As the Internet's World Wide Web spread in the 1990s, newspaper companies established Web editions carrying stories from the print edition and, increasing in the next decade, original material. By 2009 this had blurred the distinction between the printed newspaper and the online newspaper. By 2009, some newspapers were shifting from daily print production to daily Web production with weekly printed editions. Some new Web-only publications adopted reporting and writing styles commonly associated with printed newspapers.

Newspaper advertising categories include:

  • "display ads" -- rectangular advertisements, often including images, usually for commercial products and services, or for delivery of issue-oriented or political messages.
  • "classified ads" -- (brief advertisements, often text-only, presented in column form by topic: items for sale, help wanted, personal messages, etc.
  • coupons -- small promotional ads that may be cut or torn out to be redeemed for a discount on a product.

Newspapers are the largest employers of print media.

About 40% of ad revenue for a newspaper comes from classifieds.

International events[edit | edit source]

National events[edit | edit source]

National papers include USA Today and the Christian Science Monitor.

Local events[edit | edit source]

Newspapers are a populace's main source of local news.

Editorials[edit | edit source]

Editorial pages exist solely to display opinions, usually on political matters. They're kept separate from other areas of the newspaper because the opinions aren't meant to represent the newspaper so much as they are meant as a public forum. An editorial page may consist of political cartoons, letters sent by readers, or a persuasive article.

Examples[edit | edit source]

UK: Daily Mail, The Times, The Guardian

Italy: Reppublica, Corriere della Sera

France: L'Équipe

There are hundreds of national and regional newspaper but most of them you can only find in it's country or region(state).



Magazines

Magazines in a shop

During the 19th century, magazines were the predominant national medium. (Newspapers were the local medium.)

Magazines are a kind of periodical (along with newspapers), meaning they are published regularly. Common schedules include weekly, biweekly (every other week), monthly, bimonthly (every other month), quarterly, or even annually. The typical magazine is published on paper, usually with a heavier, thicker paper as the cover, although paper quality varies significantly.They are usually bound with either glue or staples. There are some magazines that are only published online, and other experiments happen, such as magazines on CD, or podcasts.

Magazines are distributed in several ways. Magazine issues can be sold individually on the newsstand, including grocery stores. They can also be sold as a subscription where several issues will be delivered by mail for a set fee. Other methods include targeted mailings to particular places, or "dropping" issues in high-traffic places like stores, salons, and doctor's offices.

From an advertising perspective, magazines allow messages to be highly targeted - magazines range from a specialized art publication that may reach 2,000 people to a mass publication that could reach 2-3 million people (People, Time Magazines). Magazines also offer a variety of audiences that may be highly targeted to men (Esquire) or women (Vogue), to luxury (Elite Traveler) to the everyday (Woman's Day). Magazine editorial can range from general (Newsweek) to highly specific (Cat Fancy) which offers lots of options for both consumers and advertisers. Categories include General Interest, Celebrity, Epicurean (food), Lifestyle, Service (advice), Fashion/Beauty, Shelter (home), Art, Music, Entertainment, Regional/Local/City, Business, Newsweekly, Newspaper Supplement, Health, Literary, Alternative/Independent, Travel, and Enthusiast (hobbies). Many of these can be categorized further as men's, women's or teen titles. Some target certain ethnic groups, language groups, or lifestyles.

Trade publications are often expensive for the consumer, but they are highly specific to particular industries, for example, long-haul trucking, steel manufacturing, bar owners, or organic farmers all have magazines dedicated to them.

Magazines are good for advertisers, because they typically cater to a narrow demographic. Since it is easy to discern the audience of most magazines, it makes it easy for advertisers to "target" their ads. Generally, magazine readers are professionals in management, and have higher incomes compared to other media audiences. People pay more attention to magazine advertisements than advertising in any other medium, such as TV, radio, or digital.

The policy of "church and state" is self-regulated by the publishing industry. It means that advertisers should not be allowed to influence the editorial or articles of the magazine and vice versa. Publishers may choose to reject an advertisement or require the page to carry the words "advertisement" or "promotion" if it looks too much like an article.

The magazine publishing industry is mostly self-regulated. Most advertisers voluntarily restrict their messaging about tobacco, alcohol, and increasingly unhealthy food.



World Wide Web, Newsgroups and Discussion Groups

The United States Congress funded the federal Do Not Call list, which allows citizens to opt-out of telemarketing. The website is located at http://www.donotcall.gov/. So far, 50,000,000 have signed up. AT&T was sued by the US government when they refused to follow the Do Not Call list.



Digital Television

Digital Television offered a number of different changes compared to traditional television.



Journalism

Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, analyzing and presenting information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists.Journalism is often dangerous but very practical in day today world.

News-oriented journalism often is described as the "first draft of history." Even though journalists often write news articles to a deadline, news media usually edit and proofread the results prior to publication.



Authors

  • Original Author: AmishThrasher 06:29, 22 September 2005 (UTC)
  • Principal Author:
  • Chief Contributor of Images:

Contributors[edit | edit source]

(In Alphabetical Order - please sign using four '~')

Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

The following Wikipedia articles were used as a basis for material used in this book: