Lingwa de planeta/Reference grammar

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search

The alphabet and pronounciation[edit]

At present the Latin script is most widespread, so it was chosen to be the official Lidepla script. The alphabet of Lidepla contains 25 letters ("q" isn't used, "c" occurs only in "ch"):

A B Ch D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Z

a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z

a be che de e ef ge ha i ja ka el em en o pe er es te u ve wa iks ye ze


Vowels[edit]

Basic vowels: a, o, u, i, e

Vowels in Lidepla, unlike English ones, are regular and never change pronunciation. The situation is the same as in languages like Italian and Spanish.

Some examples of one syllable words with the basic vowels (in italics there is a close (in pronunciation) English word; also the meaning of the Lidepla words is given):

ba (bar) – (an imperative particle)

do (door) – (the preposition introducing a characteristic feature)

ku (coo(l)) – (a question particle)

li (lea(d)) – they

me (me(n)) – I, me

Also the letter "y" is used. It sounds generally the same as "i", but is never stressed. One can say that it corresponds to the English "y". For example: ya (yah) – yes, yo (yore) – already, yu (you) – you, ye (yeah) – there is, lyu (lew) – leave, may (my) – my, ley (lay) – their


Consonants[edit]

b, d, g: bu (boo) – not, de (dea(f)) – of, ga (gar) – completely

p, t, k (with aspiration): pan (pun) – bread, tak (tuck) – so

z ([dz]): zun ([dzun]) – occupy oneself

j, ch: jan (jun(to)) – to know, chay (chi(ld)) – tea

w / v, f: fa (far) – (to grow/get), wo (wore) – where

s (as in English, it may be voiced between vowels), sh: se (se(t)) – this (noun), shu (shoe) – shoe

h: hu (who) – who

m, n, r, l: man (mun) – man, la (lar) – (used not to repeat a noun), ruf (roof) – roof

The letter "x" sounds as a combination "gs" (before a consonant my be pronounced as simple "s"; like the English “x”, may be voiced between vowels, as in “exam”): ex (ex) – ex

The combination ng is pronounced as the English ng: bruing (brewing) – brewing

Word stress[edit]

The general rule is as follows: the vowel before the last consonant or "y" is stressed.

Thus, if the word ends in a consonant, the last syllable is stressed: kalAm – pencil, sabAh – morning

If the word ends in a vowel, the syllable before the last one is stressed: mAta – mother, kitAba – book, famIlia – family

The "y" itself is never stressed, it can affect the stress position though: dEy – day, ruchEy – brook

If there are 2 vowels in the syllable, one should remember that "u" and "i" in combinations (au, eu, ai, ei, oi) are not stressed, and "o" is not stressed in "ao": dao – way, auto – car, euro – euro, fail – file, meil – mail, asteroida – asteroid


There are some exceptions though, as Lidepla tries to keep the pronunciation close to widespread patterns. You don't need to memorize the rule, just read the examples attentively. (In this grammar you will meet a reminder if the stress is irregular.)

Thus, there are 4 endings that are never stressed:

-um (fOrum – forum, vAkum – vacuum, sIrkum – around)

-us (vIrus – virus, sIrkus – circus)

-er (sUper – super, kompyUter – computer)

-en (exAmen – exam, Iven – even)

Endings -ik- and -ul- in simple (not compound) nouns and adjectives are not stressed: gramAtika – grammar, pUblika – audience, Afrika – Africa, polItike – politic, lOgike – logic, stImula – stimulus, fAbula – fairy-tale, fOrmula – formule

-im in "mInim" (the least), "mInimum", "mAximum" is not stressed.

In some special cases the non-standard stress is indicated by doubled vowel: adyoo – bye, namastee – hello, how do you do


Compound words retain the stress of the components.

The stress doesn't change when using the following:

- the plural form of nouns (+ (e)s): kitAba / kitAbas – book / books, man / mAnes – man / men

- adverbs formed from adjectives: jamIle / jamIlem – beautiful / beautifully

- nouns formed from verbs: lOpi / lOping – run / running


Simple sentence[edit]

1. Word order in a clause: subject – predicate – object (usually)

- Me (I) lubi (to love) yu (you). Me lubi yu. – I love you.

To mark the change of the word order special particles are used:

a) da (before the subject)

b) den (before the object):

- Lubi (to love) da me (I). Lubi da me. – I love.

- Den yu (you) me (I) lubi (to love). Den yu me lubi. – I love you. It's you whom I love.


2. Word order in a phrase: adjective is before a noun (usually).

- Es (is/are) may (my) syao (little) son (son). Es may syao son. – That's my little son.

To emphasize the adjective, it can be placed after the noun.

- Me (I) pri (to like) elay (her) gran (big) okos (eyes) blu (blue). Me pri elay gran okos blu. – I like her big blue eyes.


3. Predicative adjectives and nominals

- May (my) mata (mother) es (is) talimer (teacher). May mata es talimer.– My mother is a teacher.

- May (my) sista (sister) yao (to want) bikam (to become) leker (doctor). May sista yao bikam leker.– My sister wants to become a doctor.

- Sey (this) gela (girl) es (is) muy (very) jamile (beautiful). Sey gela es muy jamile.– This girl is very beautiful.

- Es (is) jamile (beautiful) hir (here). Es jamile hir.– It's beautiful here.


4. Impersonal sentence (without the subject)

- Pluvi (to rain) gro (much). Pluvi gro.– It rains / is raining much.

- Treba (it's necessary) shwo (to talk). Treba shwo.– It's necessary to talk.

- Es (is) garme (hot). Es garme. – It's hot.


5. Negation: negation particle bu is placed before the verb group.

- Lu (he) bu (not) somni (to sleep). Lu bu somni. – He doesn't sleep / isn't sleeping.

- Me (I) bu (not) wud (would) yao (to want) resti (to remain) dar (there). Me bu wud yao resti dar.– I won't stay there.

If there is at least one negative word in the phrase, the whole phrase gets a negative meaning. If there are several of them, that only emphasizes the negative meaning.

- Lu (he) bu (not) samaji (to understand) nixa (nothing), neva (never)! Lu bu samaji nixa, neva!– He doesn't understand anything, ever!


6. General question: the particle ob (is placed before the phrase):

- Ob yu (you) lubi (to love) me (I)? Ob yu lubi me? – Do you love me?

Possible answers: ya (yes), non (no), doh

a) Ob yu lubi me? – Ya, me lubi. Non, me bu lubi. – Do you love me? – Yes, I do. No, I don't.

b) Ob yu bu lubi me? – Ya / non, me bu lubi. Doh, me lubi. – Don't you love me? – No, I don't. Yes, I do.


Other ways to make a general question:

a) "bu ver?" (is placed after a phrase, with a comma):

- Es (is) hao (good) meteo (weather), bu (not) ver (really)? Es hao meteo, bu ver? – The weather is good, isn't it?

Possible answers: ver (yes, it's true), bu es ver (no, it isn't true).

b) Repeating of the verb with "bu" particle:

- Yu lai-bu-lai? – Are you coming (or not)?


7. Special question

In a special question the question word is put in the beginning of the phrase, the word order doesn't change. The inversion can occur only in the phrase with the verb "bi / es/ bin": Wo (where) es (is) may (my) kalam (pencil)? – Where is my pencil?

hu – who: Hu (who) somni (to sleep)? Hu somni? – Who sleeps?

kwo – what: Kwo (what) yu (you) vidi (to see)? Kwo yu vidi? – What do you see?

kwel – what sort of, which: Kwel (what) flor (flower) yu (you) pri (to like)? Kwel flor yu pri? – What flower do you like?

komo – how: Komo (how) yu (you) zwo (to make) se (this)? Komo yu zwo se? – How do you make this / have you made this?

way – why: Way (why) yu (you) bu (not) somni (to sleep)? Way yu bu somni? – Why don't you sleep?

wen – when: Wen (when) yu (you) lai (to come)? Wen yu lai? – When are you coming?

wo – where: Wo (where) es (is) may (my) docha (daughter)? Wo es may docha? – Where is my daughter?

a wo – where, to what direction: A wo (where) yu (you) yao (to want) go (to go)?A wo yu yao go? – Where do you want to go?

fon wo – where from: Fon wo (where from) yu (you) lai (to come)? Fon wo yu lai? - Where do you come from?

kwanto – how many, how much: Kwanto (how many) bonbon (sweets) yu (you) he ("past tense") chi (to eat)? Kwanto bonbon yu he chi? – How many sweets have you eaten?


8. Emphasizing of the whole phrase meaning: ya (before or after the predicate)

- Me (I) ya lubi (to love) yu (you)! Me ya lubi yu! – I love you indeed!

- Es (is) ya hao (good) dey (day)! Es ya hao dey! – What a good day!


9. Emphasizing of a single word: hi (in assertion), ku (in a question)

- Me (I) hi bu (not) yao (to want) somni (to sleep). Me hi bu yao somni. – Personally I don't want to sleep.

- Yu (you) ku bu (not) yao (to want) somni (to sleep)? Yu ku bu yao somni? – Is it you who doesn't want to sleep?

Compound Sentence[edit]

1. The sentence topic: one can specialize the topic of the sentence at the beginning.

- Sey (this) aksham (evening), ob ("if") yu (you) ve ("will") go (to go) a ("to") koylok (somewhere)? Sey aksham, ob yu ve go a koylok? – Are you going somewhere tonight?

2. Simple sentences may be combined into complex ones by conjunctions or combination "preposition + ke":

- Me (I) pri (to like) gani (to sing) e (and) yu (you) pri (to like) rasmi (to draw). Me pri gani e yu pri rasmi. – I like to sing and you like to draw.

- Me (I) wud ("would") yao (to want) lekti (to read) bat (but) kitaba (book) yok (there is no). Me wud yao lekti bat kitaba yok. – I would like to read but there is no book.

- Me (I) promeni (to go walking) obwol (although) pluvi (to rain). Me promeni obwol pluvi. – I'm walking although it's raining.

- Me (I) mog (can) go (go) adar (there), bat (but) sol (only) kun (with) ke ("that") yu (you) go (to go) toshi (too). Me mog go adar, bat sol kun ke yu go toshi. – I can go there, but only if you also go.


3. One simple sentence may be a constituent of another sentence. It may take place of:

3.1. the object

a) with the conjunction ke:

- Me (I) vidi (to see) ke ("that") ela (she) rasmi (to draw). Me vidi ke ela rasmi. – I can see that she is drawing.

b) with preposition + the conjunction ke:

- Me (I) shwo (talk) om (about) ke ("that") yu (you) bu (not) gun (to work). Me shwo om ke yu bu gun. – I talk about the fact that you don't work.

c) with the particle ob:

- Me (I) bu (not) jan (to know) ob ("if") ta (he / she) es (is) in (in) dom (house). Me bu jan ob ta es in dom. – I don't know if he / she is at home.

d) with a question word:

- Me (I) jan (to know) kwo (what) yu (you) yao (to want). Me jan kwo yu yao. – I know what you want.

e) After perception verbs (vidi (to see), kan (to look), audi (to hear), slu (to listen) etc.) there are can be "noun + participle" combination:

- Me (I) vidi (to see) ela (her) rasmi-she (drawing). Me vidi ela rasmi-she. – I see her draw.


3.2. attribute

a) If the attribute phrase is before the noun, use ti .. na to mark it:

- { Ti yu (you) vidi (to see) na boy (boy) } janmog (can) gani (to sing) hao (well). Ti yu vidi na boy janmog gani hao. – The boy that you see can sing well.

b) If the attribute phrase is after the noun, it is introduced by the conjunction ke:

- { Boy (boy) ke ("that") yu (you) vidi (to see) } janmog (to know how) gani (to sing) gro-hao (greatly). Boy ke yu vidi janmog gani gro-hao. – The boy that you see can sing beautifully.

- { To (that) ke ("that") yu (you) shwo (to say) } es (is) hao (good). To ke yu shwo es hao. – The thing that you are talking about is good.

c) The attribute phrase may have the same subject as the main phrase. In this case the pronoun kel (..na) is used:

- Me (I) vidi (to see) boy (boy) { kel janmog (to know how) gani (to sing) gro-hao (greatly)}. Me vidi boy kel janmog gani gro-hao. – I see the boy who can sing beautifully.

- Boy (boy) kel janmog (to know how) gani (to sing) gro-hao (greatly) na es (is / are) hir (here). Boy kel janmog gani gro-hao na es hir. - The boy who can sing beatifully is here.


3.3. predicative:

a) with the particle ke:

- May (my) opina (opinion) es (is) { ke ("that") yu (you) es (is / are) verem (truly) jamile (beautiful) }. May opina es ke yu es verem jamile. – My opinion is that you are really beautiful.

Word[edit]

1. Noun[edit]

Examples: jen (human), arda (earth), flor (flower), animal (animal).

1.1 Number

a) The basic form of a noun doesn't convey the number:

- jen – a human / many humans

- un (one) jen – a human

- dwa (two) jen – two humans

- mucho (many) jen – many humans

- jenes – humans


b) plural form (the stressed vowel doesn't change):

if the word ends with a vowel: + s: un kitaba (a book) – kitabas, un tabla (a table) – tablas

if the word ends with a consnant: + es: un flor (a flower) – flores, un animal (an animal) – animales


1.2. Case:

a) There are no special case forms.

b) The change of the word order is indicated by the particle den:

- Den sey (this) flor (flower) me (I) pri (to like). Den sey flor me pri. – I like this flower.

- den dom (house) sobre (above) den dom sobre – above the house

c) Nominative marker is da (used only when necessary):

- Mata (mother) samaji (to understand) me (I) sam (same) hao (good, well) kom (as) da yu (you). Mata (mother) samaji (to understand) me (I) sam (same) hao (good, well) kom (as) da yu (you). – Mother understands me as well as you do.

- Mata (mother) samaji (to understand) me (I) sam (same) hao (good, well) kom (as) den yu (you). – Mother understands me as well as you.


1.3. Gender:

a) Nouns don't belong to any gender: amiga – friend (male or female)

b) One can specify the sex of a human by:

particles man- and gin-

- leker (doctor) – man-leker (male-doctor) – gin-leker (female doctor)

- kota (cat) – man-kota (male-cat) – gin-kota (female-cat)

changing "a" with -o and -ina:

- amiga (friend) – amigo (male friend) – amigina (female friend)

c) Some nouns imply the sex of the human:

- man (man) – gina (woman)

- boy (boy) – gela (girl)

- patra (father) – mata (mother)

- son (son) – docha (daughter)

- opa (grandfather) – oma (grandmother)

- brata (brother) – sista (sister)

- onkla (uncle) – tia (aunt)


1.4. Apposition may be marked with to (from "to es" – that is):

- Me (I) to kitabnik (book lover) lekti (to read) mucho (much). Me to kitabnik lekti mucho. – I, being a book lover, read a lot.

- Molya (wife) gro-lubi (to adore) suy (her) mursha (husband) to soldata (soldier). Molya gro-lubi (to adore) suy (her) mursha (husband) to soldata (soldier). – The wife adores her husband who is a soldier.


1.5. There is no article (numeral "un" (one) and demonstrative pronouns like "sey" (this) are used instead, when necessary).


2. Pronouns that function like nouns[edit]

2.1. Personal:

a) me (I), nu (we), yu (you), ta (he / she), li (they)

- Nu (we) vidi (to see) li (they). Nu vidi li. – We see them.

- Me (I) dumi (to think) om (about) yu (you). Me dumi om yu. – I'm thinking about you.

b) lu (he), ela (she), it (it), yu oli (you all), oni (one), ambi (both)

- Oni (one) shwo (to say) ke ("that")... Oni shwo ke... – One says that...

- Es (is) kitaba (book). Me (I) pren (to take) it (it). Es kitaba. Me pren it. – This is a book. I take it.

- Me (I) hev (to have) dwa (two) kota (cat). Ambi (both) es (is / are) swate (black). Me hev dwa kota. Ambi es swate. – I have two cats. They both are black.


2.2. Reflexive: swa (oneself), mutu (one another)

- Me (I) woshi (to wash) swa (oneself). Me woshi swa. – I wash myself.

- Ela (she) lubi (to love) swa (oneself). Ela lubi swa. – She loves herself.

- Nu (we) lubi (to love) mutu (one another). Nu lubi mutu. – We love one another.


2.3. Compound:

a) koywan (somebody), koysa (something)

b) eniwan (anybody), enisa (anything)

c) kadawan (everybody), oli (all, everybody), olo (all, everything)

d) nulwan (nobody), nixa (nothing)


2.4. Demonstrative: se (this), to (that)

- Se (this) es (is) auto (car), e (and) to (that) es (is) avion (airplane). Se es auto, e to es avion. – This is a car, and that is an airplane.


2.5. Relative:

a) ke ("that" – object)

- Es (is) kitaba (book) ke ("that") yu (you) he ("past tense") lekti (to read). Es kitaba ke yu he lekti. – This is the book that you have read.

b) kel ("who / which" – subject, or with a preposition)

- Es (is) boy (boy) kel (who) janmog (to know how) gani (to sing) muy (very) hao (good, well). Es boy kel janmog gani muy hao. – This is the boy who can sing very well.

2.6. sama (the same thing)

- Hao (good) Nove (new) Yar (year)! – Sama (the same thing) a yu (to you)! Hao Nove Yar! – Sama a yu! – Happy New Year! – The same (thing) to you!


3. Adjective[edit]

Examples: hao (good), jamile (beautiful), blu (blue).

3.1. Comparison:

a) pyu... kem (more... than), meno... kem (less... than)

- May (my) syao (little) kamila (camomille) es (is / are) pyu (more) jamile (beautiful) kem (than) yur (your) gran (big) rosa (rose). May syao kamila es pyu jamile kem yur gran rosa. – My little camomille is more beautiful than your rose..

b) sam .. kom (as... as),

c) zuy (the most), minim (the least)

- Luy (his) auto (car) es (is) zuy (the most) kway (fast). Luy auto es zuy kway. – His car is the fastest.

d) kem... tem (the... the...)

- kem pyu (more) kway (fast), tem pyu (more) hao (good, well) - kem pyu kway, tem pyu hao – the faster, the better


3.2. Intensification:

a) muy (very)

- Ela (she) es (is / are) muy (very) jamile (beautiful). Ela es muy jamile. – She is very beautiful.

b) tro (too)

- Sey (this) panta (trousers) es (is / are) tro (too) gran (big). Sey panta es tro gran. – These trousers are too big.

c) idyen (a little)

- Yur (your) klaida (clothes) es (is / are) idyen (a little) mokre (wet). Yur klaida es idyen mokre. – Your clothes are a little wet.

d) basta (enough)

- Sey (this) dom (house) es (is / are) basta (enough) gran (big). Sey dom es basta gran. – This house is big enough.

e) ga (completely)

- Kinda (child) es (is / are) ga (completely) gande (dirty). Kinda es ga gande. – The child is completely dirty.

f) aika (quite)

- Sey (this) dom (house) es (is / are) aika gran (big). Sey dom es aika gran. - This house is quite big.


3.3. Pronouns that function as adjectives[edit]

a) possessive: may (my), nuy (our), yur (your), suy (his / her), luy (his), elay (her), ley (their)

- Wo (where) es (is) yur (your) mata (mother)? Wo es yur mata? – Where is your mother?

b) swa-ney (own)

- Me (I) pren (to take) swa-ney (own) bao (bag), bu (not) yur (your) shapa (hat). Me pren swa-ney bao, bu yur shapa. – I take my own bag, (and) not your hat.

c) demonstrative: sey (this), toy (that), tal (such)

- Sey (this) dom (house) es (is) gao (tall). Sey dom es gao. – This house is tall.

- Me (I) bu (not) pri (to like) tal (such) joka (joke). Me bu pri tal joka. – I don't like such jokes.

d) specifying: koy (some), eni (any), kada (every, each), otre (other), same (same), nul (no), ol (all, whole)

- Kada (every) gina (woman) pri (to like) chokolat (chocolate). Kada gina pri chokolat. – Every woman likes chocolate.

- Nul kota pri chi legum. – No cat likes to eat vegetables.

4. Adverb[edit]

Examples: hao (well), klarem (clearly).

4.1. Comparison: look comparison for adjectives


4.2. Demonstrative[edit]

a) of manner: tak (so)

- Me (I) bu (not) pri (to like) wen (when) yu (you) shwo (to say) tak (so). Me bu pri wen yu shwo tak. – I don't like when you talk so.

b) number: tanto (so much)

- Yu (you) bu (not) gai (should) shwo (to say) tanto (so much) lautem (loudly). Yu bu gai shwo tanto lautem. – You shouldn't talk so loudly.

- tanto kway (fast) kom (as) posible (possible) - tanto kway kom posible – as fast as possible

c) situation: hir (here), dar (there)

- Me (I) es (is /are /am) hir (here), yu (you) es (is / are / am) dar (there). Me es hir, yu es dar. – You are here, I'm there.

d) direction: ahir ((to) here), adar ((to) there)

- Lai (to come) ba ("imperative") ahir (here)! Nau (now) go (to go) ba ("imperative") adar (there)! Lai ba ahir! Nau go ba adar! – Come here! Now go there!

e) time, condition: dan (then)

- dan me (I) bu (not) mog-te (can + "past tense") – dan me bu mog-te – then (at that time) I could not

- dan me (I) bu (not) go (to go) - dan me bu go – then (under such condition) I'm not going


4.3. Compound[edit]

a) situation: koylok (somewhere), enilok (anywhere), kadalok (everywhere), otrelok (in the other place), nullok (nowhere)

- Lu (he) lekti (to read) mucho (much), luy (his) kitaba (book) es (is) kadalok (everywhere). Lu lekti mucho, luy kitaba es kadalok. – He reads a lot, his boooks are everywhere.

- Hir (here) yur (your) bao (bag) yok (there is no), shuki (to look for) ba ("imperative") otrelok (in the other place). Hir yur bao yok, shuki ba otrelok. – There is no your bag here, look for it some other place.

b) time: koytaim (sometime), enitaim (anytime), oltaim (all the time); koyves (sometimes), kadaves (every time), unves (once), otreves (another time), nulves (not once, never)

- Koytaim (sometime) me (I) ve ("future tense") go (to go) a ("direction") Paris (Paris). Koytaim me ve go a Paris. – Sometime I will go t Paris.

- Lu (he) lekti (to read) oltaim (all the time). Lu lekti oltaim. – He is reading all the time

c) manner: koykomo (somehow), enikomo (anyhow)

- Yu (you) mog (can) resolvi (to solve) sey (this) taska (task) enikomo (anyhow). Yu mog resolvi sey taska enikomo. – You can solve this task anyhow.

d) degree: koygrad (to some degree), nulgrad (not in the least)

- Me (I) sol (only) koygrad (to some degree) samaji (to understand) yu (you). Me sol koygrad samaji yu. – I understand you only to some degree.

e) other: olosam (anyway), otrekas (otherwise)


4.4. Other[edit]

a) frequence: sempre (always), oftem (often), rarem (rarely), pinchanem (usually), neva (never)

- Lu (he) sempre (always) tardi (to be late). Lu sempre tardi. – He is always late.

b) time: nau (now), poy (then, later), sun (soon), turan (suddenly), tuy (right now), yeri (yesterday), sedey (today), manya (tomorrow)

- Sedey (today) meteo (weather) es (is) hao (good). Me (I) bu (not) jan (to know) kwel (what) meteo (weather) ve ("future tense") bi (to be) manya (tomorrow). Sedey meteo es hao. Me bu jan kwel meteo ve bi manya. – Today the weather is good. I don't know what the weather will be like tomorrow.

c) yo (already), haishi (still, as yet), snova (again)

- Me (I) yo (already) jan (to know) om (about) to (that). Me yo jan om to. – I know about that already.

- Lu (he) haishi (still) safari (to travel). Lu haishi safari. — He still travels.

d) supposition: shayad (perhaps), mogbi (maybe), musbi (must be), semblem (seemingly), sertem (certainly), zaruu (without fail), ouran (casually), verem (actually)

- Shayad ta (he / she) bu (not) ve ("future tense") lai (to come). Shayad ta bu ve lai. – Perhaps he / she will not come.

- Musbi ta (he / she) he ("past tense") fogeti (to forget). Musbi ta he fogeti. – He must have forgotten about it.

e) addition, confirmation: yoshi (also), toshi (too)

- Me (I) hev (to have) blan (white) kamila (camilla).Yoshi (also) me (I) hev (to have) rude (red) rosa (rose). Me hev blan kamila. Yoshi me hev rude rosa. –– I have a white camilla. Also I have a red rose.

- Lu (he) toshi (also, too) hev (to have) rosa (rose). Lu toshi hev rosa. – He has a rose too.

f) non-exactness: hampi (almost), sirke (about, approximately), vaika (just, at least), kwasi (as if)

- Hampi (almost) oli (everybody) lai (to come). Hampi oli lai. – Nearly everybody comes / came.

- Me (I) hev (to have) sirke (approximately) dwa (two) litra (litre) milka (milk). Me hev sirke dwa litra milka. – I have about two litres milk.

- Dai (to give) ba ("imperative") vaika (at least, just) fo (for) un (one) minuta (minute)! Dai ba vaika fo un minuta! – Give (it to me) at least for one minute!

- Ela (she) kwasi bu (not) merki (to notice) me (I). Ela kwasi bu merki me. - She behaves as if she didn't notice me.

g) exceptiveness: sol (only), sim (simply), rek (just, straight), yus (just)

- Sol ela (she) mog (can) samaji (to understand) me (I). Sol ela mog samaji me. – Only she can understand me.

- Sim silensi (to keep silence) ba (imperative marker) idyen (a little). Sim silensi ba idyen. - Just keep silence for a while.

- Sey (this) kamina (road) dukti (to lead) rek a (to) urba (town). Sey kamina dukti rek a urba. - This road leads straight to the town.

h) degree: gro (very much, greatly)

- Lu (he) lubi (to love) suy (his / her) molya (wife) gro (much). Lu lubi suy molya gro. – He loves his wife very much.

i) continuation: for (further, on)

- Ta (he / she) gun (to work) for (further). Ta gun for. – He is working on.

j) away: wek (away)

- Go (to go) wek (away)! Go wek! – Go away!

k) loose: los

- Doga (dog) es (is) los (loose). Doga es los. – The dog is loose.

l) on / off: on, of

- Mah ("to make") radio (radio) on. Mah radio on. – Make the radio on.

m) emphasis: iven (even), primem (firstly)

- Iven kinda (child) mog (can) samaji (to understand) se (this)). Iven kinda mog samaji se. – Even a child can understand that.

n) in vain: vanem

- Li (they) shuki (to look for) ol (whole) dey (day), bat (but) vanem. Li shuki ol dey, bat vanem. – The have been looking for it during the whole day, but in vain.

5. Verb[edit]

Examples: vidi (to see), jan (to know), shwo (to talk). 5.1. Verb form doesn't change. Grammar meaning are expressed with special particles. Exception: bi (to be) – es (is / are / am) – bin (was / were).


5.2. Tenses

If there is any indication of time of action, the basic verb form can be used.

- Unves (once) me (I) miti (to meet) rega (king / queen). Unves me miti rega. – Once I met a king / queen.

The tense can be specified with particles:

a) ve- ("future tense"), -te ("past tense")

- Me (I) lekti (to read) mucho (much). Me lekti mucho. – I read a lot.

- Bat (but) me (I) bu (not) lekti-te (to read + "past tense") sey (this) kitaba (book). Bat me bu lekti-te sey kitaba. – I didn't read this book.

- Me (I) ve ("future tense") lekti (to read) it (it). Me ve lekti it. – I will read it.

b) zai (continuous marker)

- Me (I) bu (not) mog (can) lai (to come) nau (now), me (I) zai chi (to eat) deyfan (dinner). Me bu mog lai nau, me zai chi deyfan. – I can't come now I'm having dinner.

- Kwo (what) me (I) zwo (to do) yeri (yesterday) klok ("o'clock") sit (six)? Me (I) zai promeni-te (to walk + "past tense") in (in) shulin (forest). Kwo me zwo yeri klok sit? Me zai promeni-te in shulin. – What was I doing yesterday at six o'clock? I was walking in the forest.

c) he (completed action)

- Me (I) he zwo (to do) olo (all, everything). Me he zwo olo. – I have done everything.

d) yus he ("just")

- Way (why) yu (you) es (is / are) gande (dirty)? Me (I) yus he woshi (to wash) yu (you)! Way yu es gande? Me yus he woshi yu! – Why are you dirty? I have just washed you!

e) gwo (indefinite past, "used to")

- Ob (a question particle) nu (we) gwo miti (to meet) koylok (somewhere)? Ob nu gwo miti koylok? – Have me ever met somewhere?

f) sal (near future, "be going to")

- Sup (soup) es (is / are) tayar (ready). Nu (we) sal chi (to eat) deyfan (dinner). Sup es tayar. Nu sal chi deyfan. – The soup is ready. We are going to have dinner.


5.3. Subjunctive ("would"): wud

- Me (I) wud yao (to want) bi (to be) rega (king / queen). Me wud yao bi rega. – I would like to be a king / a queen.

5.4. Speaking about an other people's opinion: muka

- Lu (he) muka lubi (to love) ela (she). Lu muka lubi ela. – He is said to love her.

5.5. Imperative:

a) ba

- Gani (to sing) ba, me (I) pri (to like) audi (to hear) wen (when) yu (you) gani (to sing). Gani ba, me pri audi wen yu gani. – Sing (to me), I like to hear you sing.

b) bye (don't)

- Bye lai (to come)! Bye lai! – Don't come!

c) hay (let, may), magari (I wish), nomagari (I wish not)

- Hay may (my) yaosa (wish) fulfil (fulfil)! Hay may yaosa fulfil! — May my wish come true!

- Magari surya (sun) lai (to come)! Magari surya lai! – I wish the sun came!

- Nomagari pluvi (to rain)! Nomagari pluvi! – I wish it didn't rain!


5.6. Indication of transitiveness (if necessary):

a) fa- ("to become, get"): astoni (to astonish) – fa-astoni (to get astonished)

b) mah- ("to cause"): lwo (to fall) – mah-lwo (to drop)

5.7. Indication of the aspect (if necessary):

a) en- (to begin): Poy (then) ta (he / she) en-gani (to begin to sing). Poy ta en-gani. – Then he / she begins / began singing.

b) ek- ("one time or suddenly"): Ela (she) ek-krai (to cry one time) turan (suddenly). Ela ek-krai turan. – She gave a cry suddenly.

c) verb doubling (action takes some time or is repeated many times): Lu (he) go-go (go) pa (preposition of a wide meaning) shamba (room). Lu go-go pa shamba. – He paced up and down the room.

d) the adverb oltaim (the action is continuous or is repeting all the time): Lu (he) shwo (to say, to talk) oltaim. Lu shwo oltaim. – He is talking all the time.


5.8. Passive: gei ("is being done")

- Me (I) zai (continuous marker) lekti (to read) sey (this) kitaba (book), also (so) it (it) gei lekti (to read). Me zai lekti sey kitaba, also it gei lekti. – I'm reading this book, so it is being read.

5.9. Participle:

a) -she (active)

- Me (I) zai (continuous marker) lekti (to read), me (I) es (is / are) lekti-she (reading). Me zai lekti, me es lekti-she. – I'm reading.

b) -ney (passive or past)

-Me (I) he (past tense marker) lekti (to read) sey (this) kitaba (book), it (it) es (is / are) yo (already) lekti-ney (read). Me he lekti sey kitaba, it es yo lekti-ney. – I have read this book, it is already read.

- Lu (he) yus he ("just") lai (to come), lu (he) es (is / are) yo (already) lai-ney (come). Lu yus he lai, lu es yo lai-ney. – He has just come.

5.10. Participle: -yen ("while doing")

- Me (I) zai (continuous marker) slu (to listen) kan-yen (looking at) yu (you). Me zai slu kan-yen yu. – I'm listening while looking at you.


5.11. Simultaneity: al

- Al vidi (to see) me (I) lu (he) ahfi (to hide) swa (oneself). Al vidi me lu ahfi swa. – As soon as he sees me, he hides himself.

5.12. Succession of actions: afte (after)

- Afte vidi (to see) un (one) ves (time) yu (you) neva (never) fogeti (to forget). Afte vidi un ves yu neva fogeti. – After you see it once, you will never forget it.


6. Special verbs[edit]

6.1. fai (can substitute any verb): fai kama (bed) – to lie or to sleep in the bed

6.2. mah ("to cause"): mah sikin (knife) agude (sharp) - mah sikin agude – to sharpen the knife (= mah-agude sikin)

6.3. hev (to have), ye (there is), yok (there is no), walaa (here is)

- Me (I) hev (to have) dwa (two) kalam (pencil). Me hev dwa kalam. – I have two pencils.

- Kalam (pencil) ye (there is), bat (but) papir (paper) yok (there is no). Kalam ye, bat papir yok. – There is a pencil, but there is no paper.

- Walaa may (my) shamba (room). Walaa may shamba. – Here is my room.


6.4. Modal verbs.

a) Possibility, ability: mog

- Me (I) mog zwo (to do) se (this). Me mog zwo se. – I can do it.

- Bu (not) mog jivi (to live) sin (without) akwa (water). Bu mog jivi sin akwa. – One can't live without water.

b) Know how: janmog

- Me (I) janmog gani (to sing) hao (good, well). Me janmog gani hao. – I can sing well.

c) Permission: darfi

- Hir (here) bu (not) darfi fumi (to smoke). Hir bu darfi fumi. – One can't (isn't allowed to) smoke here.

d) Need: nidi

- Me (I) nidi chi (to eat) koysa (something). Me nidi chi koysa. – I need to eat something.

e) Be obliged, have to: majbur

- En-pluvi (to begin to rain), me (I) majbur go (to go) a dom (home). En-pluvi, me majbur go a dom. – it has started to rain; I have to go home.

f) It is necessary; require: treba

- Treba fini (finish) til (till) aksham (evening). Treba fini til aksham. – It is necessary to finish till the evening.

g) Should: gai

- Bu (not) gai lanfai (to be lazy). Bu gai lanfai. – One shouldn't be lazy.

h) Must: mus

- Me (I) mus go (to go) a ofis (to the office). Me mus go a ofis. – I must go to the office.

i) Wish: yao

- Me (I) yao shwo (to talk) kun (with) yu (you). Me yao shwo kun yu. – I want to talk to you.

j) To like: pri

- Me (I) pri raki (to ride) bisikla (bicycle). Me pri raki bisikla. – I like to ride a bicycle.



6.5. “Intensive” verbs (before another verb)

a) to succeed in doing: pai (to get)

- Me (I) pai ofni (to open) boxa (box). Me pai ofni boxa. – I have managed to open the box.

b) indication of a new condition: lwo in (to fall in)

- Ela (she) lwo in plaki (to cry). Ela lwo in plaki. – She burst into tears.

c) unexpectedness: dai (to give)

- dai shwo (ta say, to talk) – to blurt out


6.6. "worth": val

- Val slu (to listen) pyu (more) atentem (attentively). Val slu pyu atentem. – It's worth listening more attentively.

6.7. “state” verb: sta

- Komo (how) yu (you) sta? Komo yu sta? – How are you?

- Me (I) sta hao (good, well). Me sta hao. – I'm well.


Compound words[edit]

1. When sequence of two words acquires a new meaning, at least a little, the words are written together and a compound word appears.

1.1. The last word is the main one in a sequence:

- gun (to work) + taim (time) = guntaim (action time)

- surya (sun) + flor (flower) = suryaflor (sunflower)

- maus (mouse) + kapter (catcher) = mauskapter (mouse trap)


1.2. Some words are regularly used to make compound words:

a) jen (person), man (man), gina (woman): jadu (sorcery) – jadujen (sorcerer/sorceress) – jadugina (sorceress) – jaduman (sorcerer)

b) yuan (employee): polis (police) – polisyuan (policeman)

c) guan (institution): kitaba (book) – kitabaguan (library)

d) lok(o) (place): habitilok (habitation)

e) menga (great amount): jenmenga (crowd)

f) fin (end): lekti (to read) – finlekti (to read completely)

g) swa (oneself): swa-luba (self-love), swa-kontrola (self-control)

h) for (ahead): for-gunsa (work continuation)

i) kontra (against): kontratoxin (antidote); kontrapon (to oppose)

j) sin (without): sinsensu-ney (meaningless)

k) tra (through): go (to go) – trago (to go through)


Interchange of one part of speech for another[edit]

1. Noun to adjective:

a) -ney (for nouns ending with -а the short form is acceptable: resta-ney = reste): interes (interest) – interes-ney (interesting)

b) -ful (full of): luma (light) – lumaful (full of light, luminous)

c) -lik (similar in appearance or character): gina (woman) – ginalik (feminine, womanly)


2. Adjective to noun:

2.1. Suffixes.

a) -a (only for adjectives ending in -e) (“something or somebody characterized with this quality”)

- adulte (grown-up) – adulta (a grown-up person), konstante (constant) – konstanta (a constant)

b) -(i)taa (makes abstract nouns): vere (true) – veritaa (truth), hao (good) – haotaa (goodness)

c) -nesa: gao (high) – gaonesa (highness) – gaotaa (height)

d) -nik (characteristic feature): hao (good) – haonik (good one)

e) -ka (a thing having the quality): mole (soft) – molika (pulp)

2.2. Particles:

a) lo: Lo zuy (most) muhim (important) es (is) luba (love). – The most important thing is love.

b) -la / -las: Walaa (here is) dwa (two) rosa (rose). Sey-la (this one) es (is) rude (red), toy-la (that one) es (is) blan (white). – Here are two roses. This one is red and that one is white.

c) wan (only about people): Syao (little) wan bu (not) lai (to come). – The little one isn't coming.


3. Adjective to adverb: -(e)m (the stressed vowel doesn't change) or the same form

a) for adjectives ending in -e: klare (clear) – klarem (clearly)

b) for adjectives ending in a consonant: santush (satisfied, contented) — santushem (contentedly)

c) for other adjectives the form doesn't change: hao (good, well), kway (quick, quickly)


4. Noun to adverb: -nem: amiga (friend) – amiga-nem (friendly)


5. Noun to verb:

a) -vati: pao (a bubble) – paovati (to bubble)

b) -isi: memoria (memory) – memorisi (to memorize)


6. Adjective to verb

a) fa- (= -ifi): hao (good) – fa-hao (to improve, grow better), leve (light) – levifi (to lighten, become lighter)

b) mah- (= -isi): gran (big) – mah-gran (to increase, make bigger), klin (clean) – klinisi (to clean, cleanse)

c) -fai: hwan (yellow) – hwanfai (appear/show yellow)


7. Verb to noun

7.1. Without special changes in meaning

a) -a (for the verbs ending with "consonant + i"), -sa (for other verbs) (the act, the result): lubi (to love) – luba (love), gun (to work) – gunsa (work)

b) -ing (the process) (the stressed vowel doesn't change): swimi (to swim) – swiming (swimming), gloti (to swallow) – glota (a swallow) – gloting (swallowing)

c) tu: Tu samaji (to understand) es (is / are) tu pardoni (to forgive). – To understand means to forgive.

7.2. Doer

a) -er (doer or tool): leki (to treat medically) – leker (doctor), ofni (to open) – ofner (opener)

b) -sha (a person performing the action): plei (to play) – plei-sha (the one who is playing)

c) -nik (a person having a characteristic feature): fobi (to be afraid of) – fobnik (coward)

7.3. Related to the action

a) -tura (the final result): shwo (to say, to talk) – shwotura (a saying)

b) -wat (the object of action): pi (to drink) – piwat (beverage)

c) -ka (an object related to the action): pendi (to hang) – pendika (peg, rack)


8. Verb to adjective

8.1. General meaning

a) -ke (related to): helpi (to help) – helpike (auxiliary), hao-chi-ke (good, well + to eat) fan (food) – tasty food

b) -she, -ney (participles): skribi (to write) – skribi-she (writing), skribi (to write) – skribi-ney (written)

8.2. With special meaning

a) -bile (possibility): vidi (to see) – vidibile (visible)

b) -shil (tending to): kusi (to bite) – kusishil (tending to bite)

c) -val (worth doing): admiri (to admire) – admirival (admirable)


9. Verb to adverb

a) -shem (the short form for the verbs ending with i: sembli-shem = semblem): ahfi (to hide) – ahfi-shem (secretly)

b) -nem: ofensi (to offend) – ofensi-nem (like being offended)


Particles and affixes that don't change the class of word[edit]

1. Common[edit]

(can be used with words of different classes)

1.1. Opposition: no-: pinchan (ordinary) – nopinchan (extraordinary)

1.2. Diminutive and magnifying:

a) -ki (diminutive, doesn't change the quality): doga (dog) – doga-ki (a little dog, doggy); somni (to sleep) – somni-ki (to take a nap)

b) gro- (magnifying, without change in meaning): okos (eyes) – gro-okos (big eyes), gao (high, tall) – gro-gao (very high), danke (thank you) – gro-danke (thank you very much), pluvi (to rain) – gro-pluvi (to rain heavily)

1.3. pre- (precedence): vidi (to see) – previdi (to foresee), nam (name) – prenam (first name), yeri (yesterday) – preyeri (the day before yesterday)

1.4. Negative attitude

a) dus- ("bad, ill"): fauha (smell) – dusfauha (stink), trati (to trat) – dustrati (to mistreat)

b) shma- (disdain): kaval (horse) – shma-kaval (jade), skribi (to write) – shma-skribi (to scribble)

1.5. Similarity: -si: kitaba-si (sort of a book)


2. Noun[edit]

2.1. Diminutive and magnifying:

a) -kin (diminutive, with some change of quality): barela (barrel) – barelakin (keg)

b) -gron (magnifying, with some change of meaning): denta (tooth) – dentagron (tusk)

2.2. Other:

a) -inka (particle): snega (snow) – sneginka (snowflake)

b) -tot (a whole, a total): rishta (a relative) – rishtatot (all relatives, a clan)

c) yun- (a young): kota (cat) – yunkota (kitten)

d) pra- (ancestor): opa (grandfather) – praopa (great-grandfather), lingwa (language) – pralingwa (parent language)

e) -ista (relating to a doctrine or a profession): denta (tooth) – dentista (dentist)

f) -nik (bearer of some characteristic feature): kitaba (book) – kitabnik (book lover)

g) -dan (a container): nayu (butter) – nayudan (butterdish)

h) fuy- (disgust): jen (person) – fuy-jen (nasty person)

i) stif- (step-): - mata (mother) – stif-mata (stepmother)

j) -inloo (indirect kinship) (colloq.): brata (brother) – brata-inloo (cousin)


3. Adjective[edit]

3.1. bu- (negation, but not opposition): gran (big) – bugran (not big)

3.2. -ish ("to some degree"): blan (white) – blanish (whitish), hao (good) – haoish (passable)


4. Verb[edit]

4.1. Prefixes of aspect

a) en- (beginning): lubi (to love) – en-lubi (to fall in love)

b) ek- (one time or suddenly): krai (to cry) – ek-krai (to give a cry)

4.2. Opposite action: de(s)-: sharji (to charge) – desharji (to unload, to discharge)

4.3. Other prefixes

a) ras- (separation, division, or dispersion): dai (to give) – rasdai (to distribute, give to several people)

b) ri- (again): zwo (to do) – rizwo (to do anew)

c) ko- (together): senti (to feel) – ko-senti (sympathize (with), feel (for))

d) be- (changes the object): dumi (to think) – bedumi koysa (ponder over something), chori (to steal) – bechori koywan (to rob somebody)

Prepositions[edit]

1. The place of a preposition

1.1. After a preposition there may be:

a) a noun (or a noun group): fo (for) molya (wife) – for wife

b) a verb: fo (for) miti (to meet) – in order to meet

c) ke + phrase: fo (for) ke ("that") yu (you) samaji (to understand) – in order that you understand

1.2. If necessary, the preposition may be put after the word. In this case there has to be the particle den: den kinda (child) om (about) – about the child


2. Simple prepositions[edit]

2.1. belonging: de: kitaba (book) de boy (boy) – the book of the boy

2.2. direction: a: dai (to give) a me (I) – give me

2.3. purpose: fo: dona (gift) fo yu (you) – a gift for you

2.4. cause: por: bu (not) lai (to come) por morba (desease) – not come because of a disease

2.5. topic, object: om: dumi (to think) om molya (wife) – to think about the wife

2.6. with, without: kun, sin: promeni (to walk) kun kinda (child) – to walk with the child, chay (tea) sin sukra (sugar) – tea without sugar

2.7. doer, tool: bay: chi (to eat) bay chiza (spoon) – to eat with a spoon, gana (song) (skriben (written)) bay Vysotski – a song by Vesotski

2.8. object of action: an: kansa (glance) an dom (house) – a glance at the house

2.9. accordance: segun: plei (to play) segun regula (rule) – to play according to the rules

2.10. means: via: en-jan (to learn) habar (news) via visin (neighbor) – to learn the news from the neighbor

2.11. change, exchange: pur: kupi (to buy) pur mani (money) – to buy with money, zwo (to do) pur amiga (friend) – to do instead of a friend

2.12. simultaneity, circumstances: al: lagi (to lie) al lekti (to read) – to lie reading, al se (this) ta (he / she) en-stan *to stand up) - at this he / she stand up

2.13. material: aus: kastela (castle) aus ramla (sand) – a castle (made) out of the sand

2.14. characteristic feature: do: okula (glasses) do surya (sun) – sunglasses

2.15. relation: relatem: me (I) es (is / are/ am) neutrale (neutral) relatem sey (this) kwesta (question) – I'm neutral concerning this question

2.16. support: pro: li (they) shwo (say, talk) pro guverna (government) – they talk pro government

2.17. opposition: kontra: kontra may (my) vola (will) – against my will


3. Prepositions of correlations[edit]

3.1. replacement: inplas: onpon (to put on) jupa (skirt) inplas panta (trousers) – to put on the skirt instead of trousers

3.2. exception: exepte: oli (all, everybody) exepte me (I) – everybody except me

3.3. besides: krome: lu (he) hev (to have) mucho (many) amiga (friend) krome me (I) – he has a lot of friend besides me

3.4. concession: malgree: nu (we) promeni (to walk) malgree pluva (rain) – we walk in spite of the rain


4. Prepositions of situation[edit]

(the mark komo means that the preposition may be used independently, as an adverb)

4.1. in limits:

a) in (in): promeni (to walk) in shulin (forest) – to walk in a forest

b) inen (inside (komo)): ye (there is) koysa (something) inen boxa (box) – there is something inside the box

4.2. outside: ausen (komo): may (my) oma (grandmother) jivi (lives) ausen urba (city) – my grandmother lives outside the city

4.3. near: bli (komo): skola (school) es (is) bli dom (house) – the school is near the house

4.4. at the other side of: traen (komo): Es (is) tume (dark) traen winda (window). – It's dark outside (the window).

4.5. in relation to other things:

a) inter (between): nu (we) es (is / are) inter skay (sky) e (and) arda (earth) – we are between the sky and the earth

b) miden (among): miden amigas (friends) – among the friends

4.6. linear sequence: bifoo (before), afte (after)

- In (in) sey (this) fila (line, queue) yu (you) es (is / are) bifoo me (I) e (and) afte ela (she). – In this line you are before me and after her.

4.7. sequence in space: avanen (in front of (komo)), baken (behind (komo)): avanen kolona – in front of the column, baken dwar – behind the door

4.8. vertically:

a) on (on): Kitaba (book) es (is / are) on tabla (table). – The book is on the table.

b) sobre (above), sub (under): Papagay (parrot) flai (to fly) sobre tabla (table), kota (cat) sidi (to sit) sub lemar (wardrobe). – The parrot flies over the table, the cat sits under the wardrobe.

c) uuparen (up, at the upper part of (komo)), nichen (at the lower part of (komo)): nichen kolina (hill) — at the bottom of the hill, fon (from) uuparen — from above

4.9. horizontally:

a) flanken (at the side of (komo)): Flanken dom (house) ye (there is) garden (garden). – At the side of the house there is a garden.

b) leften (at the left (komo)), desnen (on the right (komo)): In (in) korpa (body) kordia (heart) es (is / are) leften. – In the body the heart is at the left.

4.10. around: sirkum (komo): sirkum dom (house) – around the house

4.11. opposition: kontra (komo): Teatra (theater) es (is / are) kontra sirkus (circus). – The theater is in front of the circus.

4.12. a typical place or feature: she: Me (I) es (is / are) she me (I). – I am at mine.


5. Prepositions of movement[edit]

(the mark komo means that the preposition may be used independently, as an adverb)

5.1. direction to:

a) a: Me (I) zai ("continuous marker") go (to go) a dom (to the house). – I'm going (walking) to the house (home).

b) versu: Treba (it is necessary) turni (to turn) versu dom (home). – One should turn towards home.

5.2. direction from: fon: May (my) mata (mother) zai ("continuous marker") go (to go) fon dom (house) fo (for) miti (to meet) me (I). – My mother is walking from the house in order to meet me.

5.3. into: inu (komo): Bye (don't) stan (stand), go (go) inu dom (house). – Don’t stand, go into the house.

5.4. out of: aus (komo): Me (I) bu (not) mog (can) findi (to find) dao (way) aus shulin (forest). – I can't find the way out of the forest.

5.5. through: tra: Me (I) mog (can) vidi (to see) yu (you) tra winda (window). – I can see you through the window.

5.6. along: along: go (to go) along riva (river) – to go along the river

5.7. vertically: uupar (up (komo)), nich (down (komo)): go (to go) uupar kolina (hill) – to go up the hill

5.8. horizontally: avan (forward, ahead (komo)), bak (back (komo)): go (to go) bak kamina (road) – to go back along the road

5.9. impact: kontra (against): Me (I) apogi (lean) kontra mur (wall). – I lean against the wall.

5.10. past, by: pas: Oni (one, they) go (go) pas e (and) bu (not) merki (to notice) nixa (nothing). – They are going past and don't notice anything.


6. Prepositions of time[edit]

6.1. period: fo: me (I) pren (to take) it (it) fo tri (three) dey (day) – I take it for three days

6.2. duration: duran: duran gwer (war) – during the war

6.3. beginning: depos: Me (I) es (is / are / am) hir (here) depos klok (o'clock) sit (six). – I've been here since six o'clock.

6.4. limits: fon, til: Me (I) majbur (to have to) bi (to be) hir (here) fon sabah (morning) til aksham (evening). – I have to be here from morning till evening.

6.5. in, after: afte:

- Me (I) ve ("future tense") bi (to be) hir (here) afte (after) klok (o'clock) sit (six). - I'll be here after six o'clock.

- Me (I) lai (to come) afte dwa (two) minuta (minute). - I'll be back in two minutes.

6.6. by: bifoo

- Treba (to have to) zwo (to do) se (this) bifoo klok (o'clock) sem (seven). - You have to do (to have been done) that before seven o'clock.

- Bifoo chifan (to have meal) gai (should) woshi (to wash) handas (hands) e (and) afte chifan (to have meal) gai (should) shwo (say) "danke" (thank you). – Before meal one should wash the hands, and after the meal one should say "thank you".


7. Prepositions of number[edit]

7.1. approximate: sirke: sirke dwa (two) metra (meter) – about two meters

7.2. distribution per unit: per: dwa (two) dolar (dollars) per jen (man) – two dollars per head

7.3. distribution into portions: po: Olo (all, everything) es (is / are) po dwa (two) dolar (dollar). – Everything costs two dollars each piece.


8. Preposition of general meaning: pa[edit]

- pa fortuna (luck) – fortunately

- pa mur (wall) – at the wall

- shwo (to say, to talk) pa ruski (Russian) – to speak Russian


Conjunctions[edit]

1. Conjunctions unite: either words of the same class or whole clauses.

1.1. simple:[edit]

a) combination: e (and)

- me (I) e yu (you) – me and you

- Me (I) janmog (to know how) rasmi (to draw) e gani (to sing). – I can draw and sing.

b) contrasting: bat (but)

- Me (I) janmog (to know how) rasmi (to draw), bat me (I) bu (not) janmog (to know how) gani (to sing). – I can draw, but I can't sing.

c) alternative: o (oda) (or)

- Pren (to take) sey (this) kitaba (book) o toy-la (that one). – Take this book or that one.


1.2. doubled:[edit]

a) both...and: i .. i: Me (I) lubi (to love) i yu (you) i ela (she). – I love both you and her.

b) neither... nor: ni .. ni: Me (I) bu (not) yao (to want) vidi (to see) li (they), ni lu (he) ni ela (she). – I don't want to see them, neither him nor her.

c) either... or: oda .. oda: Nu (we) sal (to be going to) hev (to have) oda son (son) oda docha (daughter). – We are going to have either a son or a daughter.

d) nau .. nau: Ta (he / she) shwo (to say, to talk) nau lautem (loudly), nau kyetem (quietly). - He / She is talking now loudly, now quietly.


1.3. phrasal:[edit]

a) condition: si: Me (I) lai (to come) si yu (you) yao (to want). – I will come if you want.

b) concession: obwol: Ta (he / she) bu (not) lai (to come) obwol me (I) he ("past tense") pregi (to ask for). – He/she didn't come, though I had asked (her to come).

c) purpose: dabe: Me (I) shwo (to say, to talk) dabe yu (you) samaji (to understand) me (I). – I speak so that you understand me.

d) cause: bikos (because), sikom (as, for)

- Me (I) lai (to come) bikos yu (you) pregi (to ask for). – I come because you asks (for it).

- Sikom yu (you) bu (not) pregi (to ask for), me (I) bu (not) ve ("future tense") lai (to come). – As you don't ask (for it), I won't come.

e) sudden circumstance: ewalaa

- Me (I) zai ("continuous marker") somni (to sleep) ewalaa baji (to ring) gro (much). – I'm sleeping, and suddenly it rings a lot.

f) opposition: yedoh

- Me (I) koni (to know, to be acquainted) yu (you) yedoh me (I) bu (not) koni (to know, to be acquainted) yur (your) sista (sister). – I know you, however I don't know your sister.


Numerals[edit]

1. Words denoting a number (with all such words the basic form of noun is used)

1.1. basic numerals[edit]

a) units

nol (0)

un (1), dwa (2), tri (3), char (4), pet (5), sit (6), sem (7), ot (8), nin (9), shi (10)

a) tens

dwashi (20), trishi (30), charshi (40) ... ninshi (90) (written as one word)

b) hundreds

sto (100), dwasto (200), tristo (300) ... ninsto (900) (written as one word)

c) thousand: mil (1000) (written in several words)

d) million: milion (1.000.000) (written in several words)

e) numbers

shi-un (11), shi-dwa (12), shi-tri (13) ... shi-nin (19)

dwashi-un (21), petshi-sem (57)

22 957 = dwashi-dwa mil ninsto-petshi-sem


1.2. Fractions: -fen

- un dwafen – 1/2

- sem shifen – 7/10; 0,7

- tri koma pet – 3,5


Deriven worda[edit]

1.3. Adjectives:

a) -ney: un-ney (the first), dwa-ney (the second), tri-ney (the third) ...

b) -ple: unple (single), dwaple (double) ...


1.4. Adverbs:

a) -nem: un-nem (firstly), dwa-nem (secondly) ...

b) -plem: dwaplem (twice), triplem (three times as much) ...


1.5. Nouns:

a) -ka: unka (one), dwaka (two) ...

b) haf (half), para (pair)


1.6. Pronouns[edit]

a) mucho (many, much)

b) pluri (several)

c) kelke (some)

d) idyen (a little, a few)

e) shao (little, few)

- Me (I) vidi (to see) mucho (many, much) flor (flower). – I see a lot of flowers.

- Ta (he/she) hev (to have) shao (little, few) kalam (pencil). – He/she has few pencils.

f) zuy mucho = maiste, zuy shao = minim

- Lu (he) hev (to have) minim bonbon (sweet). – He has the smallest amount of sweets.

g) kwanto (how many. how much)

h) tanto (so, to such extent)


2. Date[edit]

2.1. days of the week: numeral + di

a) undi (Monday)

b) dwadi (Tuesday)

c) tridi (Wednesday)

d) chardi (Thursday)

e) petdi (Friday)

f) sitdi (Saturday)

g) semdi (Sunday)


2.2. months

a) januar = mes-un (January)

b) februar = mes-dwa (February)

c) marto = mes-tri (March)

d) april = mes-char (April)

e) mey = mes-pet (May)

f) yuni = mes-sit (June)

g) yuli = mes-sem (July)

h) augusto = mes-ot (August)

i) septemba = mes-nin (September)

j) oktoba = mes-shi (October)

k) novemba = mes-shi-un (November)

l) desemba = mes-shi-dwa (December)

- dey trishi-un de mes-shi-dwa – the 31th of December

- dey 21 mes 9 yar 1945 – 21.9.1945


3. O'clock: klok

-klok dwa – two o'clock

- klok sem sin pet – five before seven o'clock

- klok sit e haf – half past six

Exclamations[edit]

1. Greetings[edit]

1.1. Swasti! – (universal greeting) Be happy! Let the peace be on the Earth!

1.2. Compound greetings

a) Hao sabah! – Good morning!

b) Hao dey! – Good afternoon!

c) Hao aksham! – Good evening!

d) Hao nocha! – Good night!


1.3. Simple greetings

a) Salam! Heloo! Ola! – Hello!

b) Namastee! Nihao! – Hello! How do you do!


1.4. Bye

a) Chao! – Bye!

b) Adyoo! – Good bye!


2. Politeness words[edit]

2.1. Thankfulness

a) Danke! Shukran! – Thank you!

b) Danke gro! – Thank you very much!

c) Bi hao! – You are welcome!


2.2 Excuse

Skusi! – Excuse me!


2.3. Request

a) Plis – please (when asking)

b) Bi karim – be kind

2.4. Swaagat! – Welcome!


3. Interjections[edit]

a) Afsos! – Alas!

b) Kamon! – Come on!

c) wel – well