Introductory Chemistry Online

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Introductory Chemistry Online is an open-source introductory chemistry textbook/workbook that is designed cover a college-level one-semester course. Many contemporary textbooks in chemistry seem have adopted the notion that "more is better"; the books are long, expensive, and the pages are often cluttered with interesting tidbits and restatements of what it is that you have “just learned”. The Chemistry Online text, on the other extreme, is designed to be simple, uncluttered and very much to the point.

This text was under development at a main-stream publisher when I realized that it was destined to become "yet another" $200 textbook that would be "revised" every three years. I withdrew from my contract and removed the Publisher's material. A printed, basic black-and-white textbook based on the revised Introductory Chemistry Online text is relatively inexpensive (about $30), compared with traditional textbooks, and is available through the Wikibooks mechanism, or through the Chemistry Online website.

Profits from book sales support the external site and help pay contractual licensing fees and royalties. You can also print the book yourself by clicking on 'print version' on the left sidebar, or download the book as PDF and print it there. You can also visit Special:Book, compile all pages within the book and order a copy to be printed from PediaPress. Within the printed text, the photographs, illustrations and problems are either licensed through third-party vendors, prepared by contributing authors, or they are available within the public domain. Because the licensed content cannot be distributed as public domain, Figures, Exercises and End-of-Chapter problems are only available through links provided in the text; but the full content is available.

In order to gain maximum advantage from the text, you should use the accompanying website and work through the problems and the tutorials. This will give you an internal check on your developing chemistry problem-solving skills and make the entire subject clearer and less intimidating. On the website, you will also have access to a full set of lecture slides for each chapter. These are based on the slides that are used in classes at the University of Illinois at Chicago; if you are an instructor using this text, you may request access to the full set of PowerPoint slides in editable format from the author below.

The website also has an assortment of archived exams. Instructors using this text are encouraged to “partner” with us and contribute to the collection. Again, these may not exactly reflect what you see on exam day, but they are an excellent reviewing and assessment tool.


  • Paul R. Young, Professor of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Wiki: AskTheNerd; PRY﹫ - pyoung﹫;

  Click here to view the complete book online. Click here to view the Lecture Slides.


The complete table of contents is shown below; the links will take you to the individual chapters.

CHAPTER 1: Measurements and Atomic Structure

  • 1.1 Why Study Chemistry?
  • 1.2 Organization of the Elements: The Periodic Table
  • 1.3 Scientific Notation
  • 1.4 SI and Metric Units
  • 1.5 Unit Conversion with the Metric System
  • 1.6 Significant Figures
  • 1.7 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration
  • 1.8 Filling Orbitals with Electrons

CHAPTER 2: The Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter

  • 2.1 Pure Substances and Mixtures
  • 2.2 The States of Matter
  • 2.3 Density, Proportion and Dimensional Analysis
  • 2.4 Chemical & Physical Properties and Changes
  • 2.5 Conservation of Mass

CHAPTER 3: Chemical Bonding and Nomenclature

  • 3.1 Compounds, Lewis Diagrams & Ionic Bonds
  • 3.2 Covalent Bonding
  • 3.3 Lewis Representation of Ionic Compounds
  • 3.4 Identifying Molecular and Ionic Compounds
  • 3.5 Polyatomic Ions
  • 3.6 Resonance
  • 3.7 Electronegativity and the Polar Covalent Bond
  • 3.8 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
  • 3.9 Common Valence States & Ionic Compounds
  • 3.10 Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

CHAPTER 4: The Mole and Measurement in Chemistry

  • 4.1 Measurement and Scale; the Mole Concept
  • 4.2 Molar Mass
  • 4.3 Mole-Mass Conversions
  • 4.4 Percentage Composition
  • 4.5 Empirical and Molecular Formulas

CHAPTER 5: Chemical Reactions

  • 5.1 Chemical Changes & Chemical Reactions
  • 5.2 Chemical Equations
  • 5.3 Balancing Chemical Equations
  • 5.4 Classifying Chemical Reactions
  • 5.5 Oxidation & Reduction Reactions
  • 5.6 Predicting Products from Chemical Reactions
  • 5.7 Predicting Solubility Trends
  • 5.8 The Energetics of Chemical Reactions

CHAPTER 6: Quantitative Relationships in Chemistry

  • 6.1 An Introduction to Stoichiometry
  • 6.2 Molar Stoichiometry in Chemical Equations
  • 6.3 Mass Calculations
  • 6.4 Percentage Yield
  • 6.5 Limiting Reactants

CHAPTER 7: Aqueous Solutions

  • 7.1 Hydrogen Bonding and the Properties of Water
  • 7.2 Molecular Dipoles
  • 7.3 Dissolution of Ionic Compounds
  • 7.4 Concentration and Molarity
  • 7.5 Solution Stoichiometry
  • 7.6 Dilution of Concentrated Solutions

CHAPTER 8: Acids, Bases and pH

  • 8.1 Hydrogen Bonding
  • 8.2 Ionization of Acids in Solution
  • 8.3 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
  • 8.4 Acids-Bases Reactions: Neutralization
  • 8.5 The Meaning of Neutrality: The Autoprotolysis of Water
  • 8.6 pH Calculations
  • 8.7 Titrations: Neutralization and Stoichiometry

CHAPTER 9: The Gaseous State

  • 9.1 Gasses and Atmospheric Pressure
  • 9.2 The Pressure-Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law
  • 9.3 The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles’s Law
  • 9.4 The Mole-Volume Relationship: Avogadro’s Law
  • 9.5 The Ideal Gas Law
  • 9.6 Combining Stoichiometry and the Ideal Gas Laws

CHAPTER 10: Principles of Chemical Equilibrium

  • 10.1 The Concept of Equilibrium Reactions
  • 10.2 The Equilibrium Constant
  • 10.3 Calculating Equilibrium Values
  • 10.4 Using Molarity in Equilibrium Calculations
  • 10.5 Equilibria involving Acids and Bases
  • 10.6 The pH of Weak Acid Solutions
  • 10.7 Solubility Equilibria

CHAPTER 11: Nuclear Chemistry

  • 11.1 Radioactivity
  • 11.2 The Nuclear Equation
  • 11.3 Beta Particle Emission
  • 11.4 Positron Emission
  • 11.5 Radioactive Half-Life
  • 11.6 Atomic Fission and Fusion Reactions