Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology to the legal process. - American Board Of Forensic Anthropology (revised 9/15/05)
Forensic anthropologists help to identify badly decayed or skeletal human remains by determining age, ancestry, sex, stature, and in rare cases occupation. They are often called upon to assist the police department, the county coroner's office, medical examiner's office, homicide detectives from the local police department, or field archaeologists investigating a burial site.
Anatomical position - Standing erect with the palms facing forward
Anterior - The front of the body or situated near the front of the body
Coronal plane - Vertical plane running through the body that divides it into more or less equal front and back halves
Distal - Away from the point of attachment to the trunk or the centre of the body. Used especially to denote parts of limbs.
Inferior (caudal) - Toward the soles of the feet
Palmar - Direction the palms are facing, however they may be oriented (forward in anatomical position)
Plantar - Direction the soles of the feet are facing, however they may be oriented (inferior in anatomical position)
Proximal - Nearer the centre of the body or away from the point of attachment to the trunk. Used especially to denote parts of limbs.
Posterior - The back of the body or situated near the back of the body
Sagittal plane - Vertical plane running through the body that divides it into more or less equal right and left halves
Superior (cranial) - Toward the crown of the head
Transverse plane - Horizontal plane (at right angles to the sagittal and coronal) that divides the body into more or less equal upper and lower halves
Features Of A Bone
Condyle - A knuckle-like prominence at the end of a bone, usually where it connects to another bone
Diaphysis - The shaft or central section of a long bone.
Epiphysis - Growing end of a long bone. it is separated by a cartilage from the shaft of the bone.
Foramen - A hole in the bone that allows for the passage of veins and/or nerves into and out of the bone
Fossa - A more or less circular depression in the bone
Sinus - An air space in the bone
Examination of Skeletal Remains
Human bones - The bones should be sorted out into Human and Non Human bones.
Determination of Age - The appearance and union of centres of bone growth and changes in bones and teeth helps the investigator in determining the age of the individual at the time of death.
Determination of Sex - The adult skeleton has several morphological differences between the sexes which are used to determine the sex of the individual.
Determination of Race - Although race is not biological, bones have morphological characteristics which are confined to individuals of a particular race. There are a variety of factors that account for this including cultural practices, but also differences between populations. IE, a 20 year old Caucasian from 1786 will have different morphological characteristics from a 20 year old Caucasian from 2014. Determinations of race are only accurate 80% of the time.
Height - The height of the individual can be calculated with reasonable accuracy by applying formulae to the length of individual bones, especially the long bones of limbs.
Duration of interment -