Interesting social sciences/The theory of evolution in physics, biology and sociology
Theories of progress
The world endures progress from simple to complex. everywhere - the Universe endures progress, the biosphere endures progress, society endures progress. It is natural that different scientists create theories of evolution which explain this process of progressive development in these three worlds.
George Gamov has created the Big Bang theory, that is Georgy Gamov has created the theory of evolution of the physical world. Charles Darwin has created the theory of biological evolution. I, Valery Starikov, try to formulate the theory of social evolution too.
Hot "Big Bang" theory
This theory draws developed picture of evolution of physical world. The Universe has arisen 13,8 billion years ago as a result of the Big Bang when a substance has arisen. Substance began to scatter in different directions and to cool down. This regularity of gradual cooling is expressed at the second law of thermodynamics: "Heat can't flow from a cold thing to hot thing". This cooling has led to a possibility of evolution of the physical world, to possibility all of new and new forms of substance – elementary particles, atoms, chemical elements, molecules, stars, planets and, at last, live organisms which have based biosphere These forms of substance have the interval of temperatures when they can exist and not collapse. Temperature of the Universe falls through all these intervals in the course of cooling of the Universe, creating opportunities for emergence of a wide variety of physical forms of substance. Thus, cooling of the Universe plays the same role of the reason of development, as natural selection in biology.
According to George Gamov's theory, development of the Universe has passed through the following stages:
- Hadron stage when time is equal from 0 to 0,000001 of a second. Elementary particles haв arisen: nucleons, anti-nucleons, electrons, positrons, mezons, electromagnetic quants, a neutrino and an anti-neutrino. A difference between amount of substance and antimatter existed, the substance was a little more. All elementary particles consist of quarks.
- Leptonic stage when time is equal from 0,000001 up to 10 seconds. Quarks had to first quit the stage. Then annihilation (combustion) has begun of a nucleon - anti-nucleon couples. Annihilation was a source of "relic" radiation. Plasma is formed from elementary particles. Annihilation of mezons went. This annihilation generating electrons, positrons and a neutrino. Neutrino almost cease to interact with plasma and neutrino move freely before our days.
- Era of photon plasma when time is equal from 10 seconds to 32 thousand years. Plasma was in balance with a radiation, neutrino are free.
- Era of hydrogen recombinations from primary plasma when time is equal from 32 thousand years to now.
It isn't enough to make a hypothesis in science, this hypothesis needs to be proved. One of ways of the proof is a putting forward of forecasts which have to be confirmed. George Gamov has put forward three forecasts which were confirmed:
- Share of helium in the Universe is 23%, hydrogen – 75%, all other chemical elements – 2%. This chemical composition of substance of galaxies and stars is identical everywhere including at the Sun. This chemical composition was "welded" not within stars, and at once in all Universe at the first stages of expansion. "The early Universe" is a copper in which there was a synthesis of chemical elements has happened under high temperature and density.
- Scientists have opened relic background radiation in 1965 with a temperature of 3 ° K. George Gamov has predicted earlier both existence of this radiation, and exact value of temperature.
- Redshift in a spectrum of galaxies demonstrates according to Doppler effect that these galaxies move away from our galaxy the Milky Way. Our Universe extends, and galaxies move away from a point of the Big Bang. The closest to us galaxy move away from us with a small speed, and the most distant to us galaxy move away from us with high speed. Names of The closest to us galaxies is the Andromeda Galaxy, Small and Large Magellanic Cloud. Most often the Form of a Galaxy reminds a spiral.
In my opinion, the history of development of the Universe resembles several directions of development:
- evolution of elementary particles,
- evolution of chemical elements,
- evolution of stars and planets,
- evolution of chemicals,
- evolution of organic compounds on the basis of carbon and the beginning of evolution of life.
These directions of development represent as branches of a phylogenetic tree of the physical world.
The first four directions reach the deadlock in development where further complication becomes impossible because of contradictions of the internal development. An example of the deadlock are Transuranium elements, that is chemical elements which break up quickly. Chemical elements are a system which arose only from three elementary particles – a proton, a neutron and an electron. Carbon is necessary surely for formation of organic compounds. Oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen is necessary often for formation of organic compounds.
Theory of biological evolution
Origin of life on Earth
There are three points of view on origin of life on Earth:
- space theory of a panspermia, according to which seeds of life had got to Earth from space on meteorites,
- Alexander Oparin's theory about origin of life on Earth.
The first point of view is unscientific and unworthy even for discussion. The theory of a panspermia did not find experimental confirmation. Alexander Oparin made a hypothesis In 1924 that the most plain organic compounds could arise at powerful electric discharges in the terrestrial atmosphere which consisted of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide and vapors of water 4-4.5 billion years ago. This organic compounds are necessary for emergence of life. These forecasts of Alexander Oparin found partial experimental confirmation.
The American researchers Stanley Miller and Harold Urey made in 1953 experiment which confirmed such possibility of formation of organic compounds. Complex organic compounds was received experimentally under transmission of electric charges through mix of gases and vapors which hypothetically coincides with composition of the atmosphere of ancient Earth.
Further forecasts of Alexander Oparin did not find experimental confirmation yet. Coastal areas could become the environment of emergence of life. Alexander Oparin considered coacervates (the organic structures surrounded with fatty membranes). Coacervate drops reminded clots of organic matter. Coacervates were capable to adsorb organic matter from the environment, as result growth of organism and a metabolism with the environment had arisen. Then a heredity and ability to reproduction similar had arisen gradually. Live organisms changed composition of the atmosphere of Earth. The live organisms capable to photosynthesis emitted huge amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. Live organisms created the Biosphere. Vladimir Vernadsky has entered this concept "Biosphere". If complex organic compounds can arise today somewhere in areas of intensive volcanic activity, then this organic compounds will be immediately absorbed by live organisms. Therefore live arises only from live now.
A phylogenetic tree in the biosphere was much more complex than a phylogenetic tree in the physical world. The main branches of this phylogenetic tree in the biosphere are plants, animals, fungi, bacterias and so on.
Biosphere and noosphere
These concepts were entered into biology by Vladimir Vernadsky.
The biosphere is a cover of Earth, composition, structure and power of which are defined by activity of all live organisms. The biosphere is an open system. The biosphere receives from the outside solar energy which is transformed by plants in the course of photosynthesis. Live organisms transformed in the past and support atmosphere in balance, absorbing carbon dioxide and emitting oxygen. Other live organisms use oxygen for breath and other live organisms emit carbon dioxide. Many microorganisms participate in oxidation of iron and restore of sulfates that led to formation of sedimentary iron ores and fields of sulfur.
The noosphere is a sphere of reason. It is such stage of development of the biosphere when reasonable human activity becomes the defining factor of development. The term a noosphere is entered in 1927 by the French scientists Édouard Le Roy and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin who considered noosphere as "mental layer", an extra biological "cover of a thought" of the planet which is developed over world of plants and animals. Vladimir Vernadsky treats a noosphere as result of human activity. Influence of society on the biosphere reached catastrophic scales today and it is shown in ecological crisis.
Theory of biological evolution
According to the theory of biological evolution of Charles Darwin, four factors of evolution of living beings work in the biosphere:
- fight for existence,
- natural selection of the fittest
The essence of this theory is expressed in the following theses:
- A huge scope of individual variation of signs exists within one species. Two absolutely identical individuals don"t exist.
- All live organisms have ability to fast reproduction. If there was no destruction, then the posterity of one couple quickly would cover by all Earth.
- Vital resources are limited therefore a fight for existence arises, fight for the place in the sun arises (for life and an opportunity to have posterity) between individuals of one species and between individuals of different species or fight against severe environmental conditions.
- The strongest fittest individuals survive in this fight, this individuals have those deviations which were favorable accidentally in these environmental conditions. Deviations in genes arise accidentally as though God plays dice. Descendants of the survived individual inherit a useful deviation and descendants are fittest for these environmental conditions.
- Survival and primary reproduction of the fittest individuals is a natural selection.
- Natural selection of certain individuals of one species in different environmental conditions leads to a divergence of signs and to speciation.
One unsolvable problem was found within the theory of evolution already during lifetime of Charles Darwin. Fleeming Jenkin specified that favorable deviations have to be dissolved when interbreeding. This problem was resolved by the founder of genetics Gregor Mendel who proved that the specific signs which are written down in genes cannot be dissolved when interbreeding, and specific signs are transferred or not transferred to posterity in an invariable look. Genes are dominant and recessive. The dominant gene suppresses recessive gene when interbreeding, but the recessive gene all the same can be shown in an invariable look in the second and the next generations.
Priests damned of Charles Darwin because differently it was necessary to recognize of Bible as false. Fight around the theory of evolution continues and today. So-called "monkey trial" took place in 1925 in Dayton, the State of Tennessee, over the teacher John T. Scopes which was accused of teaching the theory of Charles Darwin. The U.S. Supreme Court repealed the law forbidding by teaching of theory of evolution only in 1968.
Progress of society happens through the conflicts. The reformer offering new social inventions has to win in conflict of conservatives who do not want to change social structure. Preservation of social inventions happens thanks to the system of social control when this system of social control stops all attempts to cancel of social inventions made in the past, this system of social control seeks to destroy people who try to usurp state power illegally, for example, to usurp the Supreme power without victory on elections. According to Pitirim Sorokin, a disorganization of the power and a disorganization of social control occurs during revolution. Armed conflict for the power begins in the form of civil war and military takeovers.
Progress of society leads to an invention everything new and new types of social conflict and social control. The invention of new and new types of social conflict and social control leads, in turn, to acceleration of social progress. The fact of acceleration of social progress in the 20th century the first was noticed by Alvin Toffler in the work "Future shock", Alvin Toffler wrote that people feel shock from a squall of fast changes. Society consists from active people who have an infinite need for wealth, prestige and the power. These people are ready always to enter to conflict with each other for own needs, for the status of the controller, for resources. And these active people are ready and will capture these resources, the territory of the earth, the power, wealth and prestige to that limit which their opponents in the conflict will be set to them . The race of arms begins as a result of this conflict in which that opponent wins, eventually,who is capable to invent the most destructive, most effective type of weapon. That opponent wins who is capable to produce the most large number of weapons . That opponent wins who shows a high morale, psychological readiness to overcome all difficulties of the conflict in the course of achievement of a victory in the conflict. Progress of society also consists in an invention all of new and new types of weapon, new kinds of the conflict, new kinds of control.
Emergence of new steps in development of society and the new organizations is connected with an invention all of new and new types of social conflict and social control. Each organization perform some useful function in society. 4 steps of development (4 formations) existed in the history of society. This concept "formation" was entered by Karl Marx in social science, but he could not name correct criterion which distinguishes one formation from other formation. In my opinion, emergence of each new formation became possible only after invention of essentially new kind of control.
- Relic psychological control (hypnosis, "fatal" love, manipulation of crowd from demagogue) and the relic psychological conflict with the help of a language of gestures were invented in pack of the highest mammals. Hunting as a kind of the conflict was invented in pack of the highest mammals. Man has invented weapon. Hunting became a first kind of armed conflict.
- The first formation – primitive formation - was constructed on moral control. The family as a kind of social group, was invented in period of origin of primitive society. First production groups had arose, and this production groups were constructed on moral control. The cattle breeding and agriculture became the first modes of production. The economy was natural. War as a second kind of armed conflict was invented during transition from primitive society to slaveholding society. At first all prisoners of war were just destroyed, winners ate of prisoners of war even sometimes according to custom of cannibalism, Aztecs sacrificed to gods of prisoners of war. Then men defeated in the war began to turn into slaves.
- The second formation – slaveholding formation - was constructed on military control with help of corporal punishments. Slaveholding was applied in agriculture especially widely. Slavery of African Americans was applied on agricultural plantations in 1619-1865 in the USA. "Southerners" lost to "northerners" in civil war between "North" and "South" in the USA from 1861 to 1865. Northerners suggested to cancel slavery of African Americans, because northerners suggested to apply more effective and more progressive economic control (money’s bonus or fine) instead of corporal punishments under hiring African Americans to work on plantations. The craft became the second mode of production. Trade and the market competition was invented for exchange and for trade by craft goods. The esthetic conflict (competition) between actors was invented. The theater, for example, was invented in Ancient Greece. The sport and sports competitions as a kind of the conflict was invented in Ancient Greece too in the form of the Olympic Games. Such kind of sport as gladiatorial fights has arisen in Ancient Rome. The science and philosophy were invented, thereby the ideological conflict (a scientific dispute and a political debate) was invented in Ancient Greece. New organization – professional army instead of a primitive militia was invented for warfare with external enemies in the countries of the Ancient East, the discipline in army was maintained with help of corporal punishments (the armed control). The state was invented in the countries of the Ancient East, the state consisted of such parts as the government, court, police, prison always. The code of laws was invented in the countries of the Ancient East. That to support these parts of the state and army, taxes and bureaucracy were invented in the countries of the Ancient East, taxation became the main function of bureaucracy. Construction of irrigational systems and other global objects (the Egyptian pyramids, the Chinese wall, city walls and ziggurats in Mesopotamia) became the second function of bureaucracy in the countries of the Ancient East. Asiatic mode of production as Asian kind of slaveholding and feudalism was constructed in the countries of the Ancient East. The Asiatic mode of production was constructed in Russia under Bolsheviks later in the 20th century. The government at slaveholding was formed on the basis of three known forms of government – direct democracy, the aristocracy and tyranny. Only tyranny (despotism) was applied in the countries of the Ancient East within the Asiatic mode of production. The new way of the conflict – direct elections of governors was invented at direct democracy and the aristocracy. Elections took place in people's assembly at direct democracy. Elections took place in an privileged assembly (in the Senate) at the aristocracy. The mechanism of religious control was invented in three world religions (in the Buddhism, Christianity and Islam) in the period of a decline of slaveholding, but "Golden Age" of religious control came only in the period of feudalism.
- The third formation – feudal formation - was constructed on administrative control. The vassal‐fief system was invented in Europe. The vassal‐fief system was constructed on administrative control. The vassal‐fief system had resulted to feudal fragmentation in Europe that had a consequence of difficulty and even cancellation of international trade on overland roads in Europe in the early Middle Ages because of the big customs duties and return to relic subsistence economy. Process of construction of the new cities as centers of craft and trade had begun in Western Europe in the late Middle Ages. Process of recovery of domestic trade and the market competition had begun in Western Europe in the late Middle Ages. Vassal‐fief system was in the ancient East never, but a bureaucracy constructed on administrative control was in the ancient East. Russia is a transitional country from Asia to Europe therefore the Tatar-Mongolian conquerors had brought bureaucracy from China to Russia for collecting a tribute in favor of the Golden Horde. The fourth form of government – a hereditary monarchy was invented in Europe and in Russia when the successor received a throne without elections that led to degeneration of representatives of a ruling dynasty and captures of a throne by impostors.
- The fourth formation – capitalist formation - was constructed on the most effective kind of control – on economic control. I agree with Max Weber's opinion that protestants of Western Europe and the USA invented capitalism. The cities as the centers of craft and trade were built in Western Europe in the period of a decline of feudalism, then manufactories on the basis of division of labor were built instead of craft workshops , then factories were built with use of machines and the artificial engine (at first – the water engine, then – the steam engine, then – the electric motor). The ocean ships were invented for needs of international trade with application at first of a sail (caravels in Portugal and Spain), then – with use of the steam engine (steamships), then – with use of the internal combustion engine. People used the internal combustion engine for planes at first, and then It used the jet engine for planes. People built hydroelectric power stations for obtaining energy at first, then people built thermal power station on the basis of combustion of coal, oil or gas, then people built nuclear power plants. Businessmen employed labor force. and businessmen controlled its work with the help of economic stimuluses – an award and a penalty. There was a blossoming of trade and the market competition under capitalism instead of feudal subsistence economy. There were bourgeois revolutions in the field of policy in Western Europe (in Britain and France), there was a change of elite, businessmen came to the power in the country instead of noblemen. The new form of government was invented – representative democracy instead of a hereditary monarchy. Multi-party elections, the constitution, parliament, the system of division of the authorities were invented in Britain and the USA. Mass media (newspapers, radio, television, internet) and means of mass culture were invented (a gramophone recording, recording of music and video on a magnetic tape, disks DVDS, on flash cards and so on). It became a basis for the invention of ideological and esthetic control, it became a basis for transition of the ideological and esthetic conflict to new level. The science reached new level with the invention of natural and technical science, as result a huge number of technical inventions appeared undercapitalism.
It is possible to consider fight for world supremacy and leadership in 19, 20 and 21 centuries between Britain, France, the USA, Germany, Russia, Japan and China as the reason of social progress. Fight for colonies, for sales markets, sources of raw materials and for territories of the earth became the reason of this conflict. This fight began with the fact that China was divided by the European colonialists into colonies as pumpkin at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century as a result of opium wars and suppression of the Boxer Rebellion. Then Russia lost war of Japan in 1904-1905 and as result Japan had taken away a Half of the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands at Russia. Whole world was divided between the European colonial empires in the beginning of the 20th century. Germany was late to this partition of the world therefore Germany demanded repartition of the world in own favor that became the main reason of World War I.
As a result of World War I Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) lost to Triple Entente (Britain, France, and Russia). The USA supported Triple Entente in World War I. There was a social explosion because of difficulties of this war in Russia and Bolsheviks had come to the power and Bolsheviks had begun an unsuccessful social experiment, Bolsheviks has cancelled many great social inventions – the market competition, a private property, multi-party elections, parliament. Bolsheviks has entered censorship and Bolsheviks has constructed the system of propaganda (deception) instead of an art competition and fair discussions. Bolsheviks has entered the ancient forms of government – oligarchy and tyranny instead of representative democracy. Thereby Bolsheviks has directed development of Russia on the way of social regress. The Bolsheviks surrendered to Germany six months before the victory of the Triple Entente. Russia was excluded from the list of winners in World War I. The paradox consists that Bolsheviks ("red") managed to win civil war against all the opponents ("white") which suggested to direct development of Russia on the way of social progress. Usually utopians lose civil war to supporters of social progress. But there was an exception of this rule in Russia including because of readiness of Bolsheviks to go for any crimes and for any terror against own people for the sake of achievement of the utopian purpose – achievement of social equality. All who could only be robbed were robbed by Bolsheviks for the sake of this purpose in Russia – at first businessmen and noblemen in 1917, then rich peasants (during collectivization) and church.
Russia was in economic and diplomatic isolation from the international community after World War I, but Bolsheviks managed to break through this blockade in 1922, having signed the Treaty of Rapallo with Germany. This allowed the Bolsheviks to emerge from international isolation that to gain technologies necessary for industrialization of the country and, especially, to gain technologies necessary for war industry. Raw materials and, especially, grain became the main export goods for Bolsheviks. Bolsheviks took away this grain from peasants in the course of the collectivization and Bolsheviks took away this grain at collective farms. New huge oil and gas fields in Western Siberia, on Pechora and in the Volga region were found in 1960, oil and gas became new export goods of Russia instead of grain because Bolsheviks ruined agriculture of Russia as a result of own policy of collectivization. Bolsheviks managed to carry out industrialization and to construct war industry to the beginning of World War II due to mobilization of all resources of Russia. By the way, Bolsheviks had to evacuate war industry from the territories occupied by Germany to the Urals and to Siberia during World War II.
Germany has begun World War II in 1939. Germany could capture almost all Western Europe at the beginning of World War II, except Britain. Italy concluded by alliance with Germany. Then Germany attacked the USSR in June 22, 1941. And then the ally of Germany Japan attacked the USA in December 7, 1941 on naval base Pearl Harbor, war on the Pacific Ocean had begun in this the moment. The USA and Britain were forced to enter into alliance with the USSR against the countries of "axis" (Germany, Italy and Japan). The USA and Britain rendered to the USSR the military and economic help on a Lend-Lease. As a result of World War II Germany was crushed and divided into occupation zones between the USSR, the USA, Britain and France. Countries of Eastern Europe (Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Bulgaria) got to a sphere of influence of the USSR and the Soviet regimes were set in these countries. Development of these countries was directed on the way of communist social regress. The USSR could not subordinate to own control Yugoslavia, but Yugoslavia went on the way of communist social regress too. The USA crushed Japan on the Pacific Ocean and the USA used two atomic bombs against the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The USSR has crushed the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria and The USSR returned a half of the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. China went on the way of communist social regress under the governor Mao Zedong.
"Cold" war has begun between NATO countries (the USA, Britain and their allies) against the countries of the Warsaw pact (the USSR and its allies) after the end of World War II. China and Yugoslavia pursued independent policy. "Cold" war consisted in a race of arms between the USA and the USSR, "Cold" war laid down a heavy burden on economy of the USSR. The economic help to allies and communist regimes worldwide (for example in Cuba) laid down a heavy burden on backward economy of the USSR too. As a result the "Cold" war and the drop in oil and gas prices organized by the Arab countries to the order of the USA there was economic crash in the USSR in 1990 which paralyzed communist regime in the USSR. Countries of Eastern Europe came over to the side of NATO and entered into the European Union. There was a Dissolution of USSR in 1991. Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia came over to the side of NATO and entered into the European Union. Britain leaves the European Union on the basis of a referendum today. The European Union exists under control of the USA today, and the European Union can become the independent player in fight for world leadership or the European Union can to undergo disintegration under a burden of internal contradictions in the future. Uncontrollable inflow of refugees from the countries of the Middle East and Africa became a huge problem for the European Union because of the actual lack or powerlessness of boundary protection on borders of the European Union. Activity of this boundary protection is paralyzed by the utopian ideas of multiculturalism. Activity of this boundary protection is paralyzed because of powerlessness of the government of the European Union today. The amount of inflow of immigrants in any country has to be limited to ability of indigenous people to assimilate of migrants. Otherwise immigrants can assimilate of indigenous people and immigration can turn into invasion and Great Migration. It is worth to remember about the fate of Ancient Rome which died as a result of unlimited inflow of the Syrian slaves and Great Migration of Barbarians. It is not casual that many countries of the European Union under pressure of common sense refuse to accept of migrants in own territory.
President of Russia Boris Yeltsin has undertaken economic and political reforms on the western sample in Russia, as result private property (economic control), the market competition and representative democracy were entered, thereby economic and political backwardness was overcome in Russia. As result Russia has gone on the way of social progress. Probably plan of the West was to arrange disintegration of the Russian Federation that to make of Russia by weak and dependent country, but these plans were not fated to come true. The West managed to carry out this plan in Yugoslavia where Serbia was subjected to bombings from NATO in 1994-1995 and Serbia could not interfere with breakup of Yugoslavia when Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Kosovo left structure of Yugoslavia.
President of Russia Vladimir Putin has brought order in Russia, Vladimir Putin has beaten of separatists in Chechnya, the Arab countries helped to this separatists as a result of the second Chechen war in 1999-2000. Vladimir Putin has crushed of Georgia as a result of the Russian-Georgian war in 2008, South Ossetia and Abkhazia left from structure of Georgia as a result of this war and South Ossetia and Abkhazia turn out in a sphere of influence of Russia today. Nationalists came to the power in Ukraine as a result of the Euromaidan organized by the western countries and as a result of seizure of power in 2014. Russian population was revolted against this unconstitutional coup in some Southeast areas of Ukraine and in the Crimea, as a result the civil war has begun in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions for separation of these areas from Ukraine and for accession them with the Russian Federation. Insurgents crushed of troops of regular Ukrainian army and nationalists with help of military and economic support from Russia. The population of the Crimea voted for accession of the Crimea to the Russian Federation in 2014. It is necessary to notice that Donbass, the Crimea and Black Sea Coast were presented by Bolsheviks to Ukraine from structure of Russia therefore return of these areas to structure of Russia is the act of historical justice. Fight continues between Russia and the West for spheres of influence on Ukraine and the future will show what this fight will end. Ukraine tried to arrange blockade of the Crimea therefore Russia has built Crimean Bridge in 1918. Length of the Crimean bridge is 18 kilometers. Ukrainians stole Russian gas from the pipeline and threatened to blow up this pipeline in case of war of Ukraine with Russia. That to save itself from this blackmail, Russia had built and builds today by gas pipelines under the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea "Nord Stream 1", "Nord Stream 2", "The Turkish stream" bypassing the territory of Ukraine. Thus, Russia will have unleashed its hands in the conflict with Ukraine after the completion of this construction. The USA tried to interfere with this construction, having offered to European Union the more expensive liquefied gas instead of cheaper pipeline Russian gas, but most of Europeans refused this economically unprofitable offer. The President of Russia Vladimir Putin declared about invention of new kinds of weapon in Russia: hypersonic rockets, fighting lasers, tanks Armata, fighter aircraft of the 5 generation of SU 57, thus technological superiority of Russia was outlined at a new stage of "Cold" war. In addition, military spending on maintaining military bases around the world has placed a heavy burden on the US economy, that resulted in huge budget deficit of the USA. China did not hesitate to take advantage of the US economic weakening in the world market. Deng Xiaoping has begun economic reforms in China in 1978 and Deng Xiaoping has entered a private property (economic control) and the market competition in China, but Deng Xiaoping did not enter representative democracy, having preserved the oligarchy of the Communist Party of China. As a result rapid economic growth of economy of China has begun at the expense of cheap and hardworking work force. China has come to the second place in the world on the volume of Gross domestic product today and China will overtake of the USA on this indicator soon. The leadership of the USA has imposed economic sanctions against Russia because of accession of the Crimea to Russia, it caused some economic slowdown in Russia, but these sanctions could not destroy economy of Russia. Sanctions has led to blossoming of agriculture in Russia and sanctions has led to export growth of grain from Russia. Russia found new economic allies in the person of, first of all, China. Besides the U.S. President Donald Trump has begun by trade war against China, having raised the sales duties for the Chinese goods. It became Donald Trump mistake as the USA should not enter the conflict against Russia and China at the same time.
The USA lost the war in Vietnam in 1973 because of military support of communists in Vietnam from side of the USSR. Americans decided to revenge to Russians. And the USA rendered military help during the Afghan war (1979 — 1989) to the Afghan insurgents who were at war against the Soviet troops. Islamic terrorism grew on this military aid. The USA lost the war in Vietnam in 1973 because of military support of communists in Vietnam from the USSR. Americans decided to revenge Russians. And during the Afghan war (1979 — 1989), the USA rendered military aid to the Afghan insurgents who were at war against the Soviet troops. Islamic terrorism has grown on this military help. The USA performed the operation "Desert Storm" against the tyrannical regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq in 1991. Islamic terrorists arranged terrorist attack on the USA on September 11, 2001. In reply to the USA collected and headed by the coalition of the international forces which purpose was an overthrow of the regime of Talibs in Afghanistan in the territory of which Al-Qaeda was based. But the USA got stuck for a long time in this country without having achieved concrete result - defeat of Islamic terrorists. Invasion of the USA and their allies into Iraq (2003) had led to emergence of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). the Western countries rendered military aid to insurgents in Libya that to overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi's regime. But it turned out that the power of tyrants in the East is better than the ochlocracy of Islamic terrorists. Terrorists created the Islamic State in the territory of Syria that threatened military bases of Russia in this country therefore Russia decided to render military help to the lawful government of Syria led by Bashar al-Assad in war against Islamic terrorists in 2015. The Islamic State in Syria was in general crushed by the Syrian army with assistance of the Russian aircraft in the beginning 2018. Russia used the war in Syria as the ground for test and the advertizing platform for the latest systems of arms. The Russian troops has got fighting experience thanks to frequent rotation of staff. The U.S. President Donald Trump declared in 2018 about decision to remove the American troops from Syria, as a result, U.S. bases in Syria were given to Russian and Turkish troops.
Thus, fight for world leadership between Russia, the USA, European Union and China continues also today, the future will show what this fight will end. Perhaps this conflict for world leadership will end never because the end of conflict for world leadership is end of progress of mankind what is impossible in principle.