Interesting social sciences/Sociology of religion. Mechanism of religious control.

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Three world religions:[edit]

Konfuzius

  

Krishna statute at the Sri Mariamman temple, Singapore
Paradise by Jan Bruegel
Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180)
The drawing illustrating how the soul travels to any one of the four states of existence after death depending on its karmas, according to Jainism.

  

Osiris
The Last Judgment by Michelangelo
Mars Pater of the Roman people, Guardian of soldiers and farmers, God of War, Destruction and Masculini.Statue of Mars from the Forum of Nerva, 2nd century AD, based on an Augustan-era original that in turn used a Hellenistic Greek model of the 4th century BC, Capitoline Museums
Dionysus God of the vine, grape harvest, winemaking, wine, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, and theatre.2nd-century Roman statue of Dionysus, after a Hellenistic model (ex-coll. Cardinal Richelieu, Louvre)
Vladimir the Great
Hagia Sophia

Buddhism,

Christianity,

Islam.

Mechanism of religious control was built in each from the world religions. The analysis of advantages and shortcomings of this mechanism constructed in various world religions will be made further. Other religions – various forms of paganism, Confucianism in China, Shinto in Japan, Hinduism and Krishnaism in India are more primitive religions in comparison with world religions as the mechanism of religious control isn't completed up to the end in this other religions. The religion existed in primitive society, but the mechanism of religious control has been constructed much later - during era of transition from slaveholding society to feudalism for the first time.             

Religious control, as well as other kinds of control, consists that the controller forces by objects to control to carry out by norms of behavior under the threat of application of reward or punishment. The priest forces by believers to to carry out by religious norms of behavior under threat to send to paradise or hell. As people considered in the Middle Ages, the Pope has keys from the sky in a pocket. The religion is considered from the point of view of atheism and science in this paragraph, but I recognize by advantage of religion and uselessness of attempts to cancel by religion. Though paradise and hell doesn't exist in the nature actually, but influence of the priest on believers is quite real as believers believe in existence of these sanctions.

The mechanism of religious control is the most complex in comparison with other kinds of social control. The mankind has spent several centuries (about 500-700 years) for creation of this mechanism in Christianity. Then Muhammad (years of life: apprx. 570-632): [2], as the creator of Islam, has borrowed a structure of this mechanism from Christianity, Muhammad has even improved this mechanism in something – Muhammad has embodied by principle of monotheism more strictly, and Muhammad has worsened this mechanism in something – Muhammad couldn't enter by icons and musical instruments as elements of cult. Buddhism has arisen much earlier then Christianity - in the middle of 1 millennium BC therefore the structure of the mechanism of religious control has a more primitive character in the Buddhism then in Christianity, for example, there was no notion about god in the Buddhism. God is Atman in the Buddhism, that is emptiness. People say often that the Buddhism is a religion without god. More primitive myth about requital beyond the grave is created in the Buddhism (about reincarnation}. There are many movements in the Buddhism, the dogma tangled extremely in the Buddhism and the dogma reminds more by philosophical doctrine about the moral norms leading to rescue of soul in the Buddhism.

Polytheism is characteristic for Shinto, Hinduism and Krishnaism that has prevented to construct the mechanism of religious control in these religions. Shinto is ancient national religion of Japanese. There is a belief in existence of a huge number of gods in Shinto. Each thing has own spirit, the deity is Kami. The Supreme deity is a goddess of the Sun Amaterasu declared by ancestor of a ruling imperial dynasty. Hinduism and the Krishnaism is religions of Indians in which there are many gods, main of which – Vishnu, Shiva, Brakhma and Krishna.

Five elements of mechanism of religious control:[edit]

• myth about requital beyond the grave,   

• monotheism,  

• cult

• clergy,  

• supervision for observation of religious norms.   

Myth about requital beyond the grave[edit]

         The myth about requital beyond the grave by means of which prophets have proved by existence of religious sanctions in hands of priests. Religious sanctions in Christianity and Islam is a threat of eternal torment in hell and eternal pleasure in paradise. Religious sanctions in the Buddhism is a promise of advantages in the course of reincarnation as Vladimir Vysotsky sang, "Hindus have thought up good religion" if the person behaves well in this life, then this person will be by chief or the minister in the next life and if this person behaves bad in this life then this person will be by a snake, a pig or a baobab in next life. The myth about paradise and hell has been for the first time invented in Judaism, in the Old Testament. There was a myth about the kingdom beyond the grave in some previous religions too where souls of the dead men get. For example, one of gods (Osiris) became a tsar in a world beyond the grave in the Egyptian religion where Osiris judged souls of the dead men. a monster (a lion with the head of a crocodile) devoured by souls of sinners . Souls of righteous persons remained to live in Osiris's kingdom where there was a lot of water and wheat in human height. But other four elements of the mechanism of religious control about which it will be told below haven't been created in the Egyptian religion about Osiris therefore the mechanism of religious control remained unfinished in the myth about Osiris. It is told about doomsday in the Iranian prophecies of Zoroaster when gods win against demons the last fight, and sacred fire will clean by whole world, only by the righteous persons following by words of god Ahura Mazda will be entered in future life, but the mechanism of religious control remained unfinished in these prophecies too. There is a myth about God's court over live and dead men after doomsday in Christianity and Islam as a result of which righteous persons will find eternal pleasure in paradise, and sinners together with a devil and his servants will be condemned on eternal torment in hell. Circle of reincarnations (sansara) is connected with suffering sin the Buddhism. The best exit from this circulation of sufferings is the way of a righteous life consisting in respect for five moral norms: abstention from causing the evil, from a lie, from theft, from sensual pleasures and alcohol intake. Respect for these norms has to bring by person to a non-existence, to immersion to a nirvana state – in a condition of the highest pleasure, the highest happiness and calm.

Conclusion: the most effective myth about requital beyond the grave has been invented in Christianity and this myth was borrowed from Christianity to Islam.

Monotheism[edit]

    

Monotheism is a myth about one God. Polytheism is myth about many Gods. It was difficult for priest, for example in Ancient Rome, to force by believers to carry out by rules of behavior, because, for example, Mars (God of war) orders to go to the war, Venus (goddess of love) orders to love, Mercury helps in busy of trade, Vulcan helps in the busy of handicraft, and the believer can submit by advices of that God which suit to this believers, rather than suit to a priest. By the way, plebeians esteemed especially by Liber (God of wine and fun). The Roman senate had to forbid the unbridled orgies connected with Bacchus-Dionysus's cult even. That as that to order this complex system of Gods, the Supreme god has appeared, Supreme god Zeus had appeared at ancient Greek, Supreme god Jupiter had appeared at ancient Romans, Supreme god Odin had appeared at ancient Germans. Invention of monotheism had allowed by priest to order to believers to carry out by norms of behavior from face of a single God which has one code of norms and one will. Monotheism was invented for the first time in Judaism, where a single God by name Yahweh had created by World and Man for seven days. Acts of this God and misadventures of the people of Israel was described in the Old Testament, where myths about creation of World, Flood, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the revelation of God to Moses, the exodus of Jews from Egyptian captivity.

The first five books of the Old Testament were named by Torah and this first five books have been, allegedly, written by Moses according to Yahweh. The Torah began to be written in 10-9 centuries BC. This work was continued up to 5 century BC when the Jerusalem priests have for the first time published it, and since then the Torah didn't change almost. New Testament has arisen in 1‐2 centuries AD and New Testament consists from four books (Gospels), where it is told about the life of Jesus Christ (son of God), his suffering, death and wonderful revival, creating of miracles and lectures. The fourth Gospel (Revelation of St John) draws the pictures of Last Judgement. It is described in the actions of Apostles (pupils of Jesus Christ) that Holy Spirit had gone to the Apostles a few days after the Ascension of Jesus Christ to the sky. Apostles learned to speak to different language suddenly and Apostles have gone to preach by Christianity in different countries.

Thus, there were three Gods in Christianity historically:

  • God the Father,
  • God the Son,
  • God the Holy Spirit.

But only one god was necessary. Therefore priests met to Ecumenical Council twice (First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD and the First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD) and priests had decided to believe that God is one in three persons, in three hypostases. Entity of this doctrine about “Trinity” consists in that a single God has three manifestations. Until today, scientists and theologians puzzle over this contradiction 3 = 1, then everything is very easy, priests can do even from 10 gods to 1 God for realization of the social order.  Alexandria’s Bishop Arius did not understand by social order and Arius continued insist to the traditional point of view that God‐father is the only God and Jesus Christ is not true God, but Jesus Christ was as excellent creation of God‐father” only. Therefore Arius has been declared as heretic in First Council of Nicaea, Arius has been excommunicated and Arius has been exiled. Such bitter destiny waited also for other priests who had deviated from line on building of mechanism of religious control or these priests continued to insist on outdated traditional dogmas. For example, representatives of Monophysitism (Armenian Church) recognized only one divine nature in Jesus Christ and representatives of Monophysitism denied human nature in Jesus Christ. Representatives of Iconoclasm fought against the introduction of icons in Byzantium in 8‐9 centuries AD, because  representatives of Iconoclasm didn't understand by benefits of icons for strengthening of controlling influence on believing people, representatives of Iconoclasm referred to the God’s precept “Don’t create myself by idol!” "You shall not make for yourself any carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them nor serve them.". Icon plays the role of visual aids for illiterate believers, where these believers see clearly the pictures of Last Judgement, paradise and hell. Those priests won in these disputes inevitably always who proposed by measures for improvement of mechanism of religious control.  The church sought to keep this mechanism safe and sound after creation of this mechanism, that not to allow his destruction by inadequately conceiving false prophets (by heretics).        

The creator of Islam Muhammad has made conclusions of the problems of Christians   with monotheism and with dogma about Trinity, therefore Muhammad proclaimed the strict monotheism: "There is no god but Allah alone and Muhammad is his prophet", that is Muhammad is not god, but Muhammad is the ordinary person in whom god has inspired the truth.

Conclusion: the principle of monotheism is carried out more strictly in Islam, than in Christianity,the only advantage of Islam consists in that in comparison with Christianity.  

The cult[edit]

  Cult is a system of ceremonials, symbolic things, musical instruments, which have a function of the amplifier of influence on believers in the hands of a priest.                The disadvantage of the Roman religion consist in that this religion carried by seal of formalism in the performance of ceremonials, Roman religion did not excite by sacred awe, Roman religion touched by feelings of believers a little, Roman religion demanded by petty performance of ceremonials, rather than the spiritual merge with god. Roman religion did not promise the salvation from life’s adversity.  Roman religion couldn't console to sufferings. Thus, the Roman religion had bad cult. Therefore, Rome had borrowed by Christianity’s cult from the East, where system of mystical ceremonies was developed for a long time, this eastern ceremonies was capable to render a strongest influence to the feelings of believers, and degree of religious fanaticism was higher in East always.          

The Eastern ceremonies allow to turn by religious sermon into procedure of mass hypnosis and to turn the crowd of believers to crowd of blind fanatics led up before religious ecstasy. There are also other means of strengthening of suggestibility except a situation of a mass prayer: icon, bell, organ’s music at Catholics, majestic architecture, drums and copper plates at Buddhists, gilded vestments of priests, cross worn on the neck at Christians, numerous bows and genuflection. Any images of the person and animals are forbidden in the temple in Islam. Muslims trying to compensate the absence of icons and musical instruments with help of a large number of mass prays in Temple. A Muslim is obliged to pray five times a day, for that a Muslim carry with itself a rug everywhere. A Muslim must stand on own knees at this rug in the process of prayer and to bow before the earth.   

When Kiev’s Prince Vladimir the Great chose by religion for Russia instead  Paganism at the end of 10 century AD, Vladimir the Great had sent own ambassadors in different countries, this ambassadors had seen by poorly decorated Muslim temples, sad prayer, sad faces of believers in Volga Bulgaria. Ambassadors had seen by magnificence of the temple, rich clothing of priests, furniture of altars, delightful singing of kliros (church choir), sacred importance and mystery of ceremonies in Orthodox Cathedral of Sacred Sofia in Constantinople, as though supreme God lives in this temple and connects directly to people. Magnificent worship service in datsans (monasteries) is typicalness for Buddhism, where there are sculptures of Buddha and other gods of Buddhist pantheon. Buddhism replaced by repetition of spells to rotation of drums filled by  texts  of prayers and sacred literature.  

Conclusion: poor cult in Islam is disadvantage in comparison with Christianity and even in comparison with Buddhism.

The clergy[edit]

Patriarch Nikon.

     

Clergy is a hierarchical pyramid of priests with severe discipline within this pyramid. This pyramid had arisen not at once. Wandering priests preached by religion in period of the formation of Christianity, this priests moved from the community into the community. This priests were named by charismatics. Charisma is a Divine grace, of God's gift, gift to do by miracles and prophecy. This priests preached by Christianity at own discretion. This led to constant conflicts, schisms and disputes on religious matters. That to overcome by conflicts, a single hierarchical organization (the Christian Church) was created at First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD, this Christian Church consists from clergy (organization of priests) and laymen (believers, who aren't dressed by a holy order has been created).  

Hierarchy within the Catholic Church:

• Pope,

• Bishop,

• priest,

• deacon.

Relations of these priests have extremely authoritarian character: blind submission is required from the lowest ranks to the highest ranks.  Excommunication from Church, pilgrimage to holy places, public repentance, scourging, wearing of shameful signs, imprisonment were applied as punishment in Church. Imprisonment were lifelong in solitary confinement, in shackles, on bread and water. Such sanctions were applied in the Church  like in any hierarchical pyramid as promotion or demotion in service. Inquisition transfers by heretics persisting in heresy to the hands of secular authorities for burning on fire. Any attempts to divide the Church, to change by dogma without permission of Ecumenical council or Pope, to break a  mechanism of religious control  were nipped in the bud with help of these cruel punishments. East–West Schism of the Christian Church to Catholic Church and Orthodox Church had happened in 1054. Pontiff of Rome had stood in the head of Catholics. Patriarch of Byzantine had stood in the head of Orthodoxies. The destruction of Byzantium had led to a weakening of the authorities of the Byzantine Patriarch and even to his humiliation in side of the Turkish Muslims.  Patriarch stays in head of Russian Orthodox Church today too.                  

Moscow tried even to appoint herself by Centre of Orthodoxy. Patriarch Nikon of Moscow had organized for this by church’s reform  in 17 century  with help to correct by mistakes in the Bible, this mistakes were admitted under numerous copying of the Bible, since the introduction of Russian Orthodoxy in 10 century.

List of mistakes which Patriarch Nikon had corrected:

  • Russian Orthodoxies had begun to be christened with help of three fingers, instead of two fingers.
  • Russian Orthodoxies had begun to write “Jesus Christ” instead of “Isus Christ” and so on. 

            

Similar hierarchical pyramid have been established in Islam and Buddhism too. Islam were divided to two directions (Sunni Islam and Shia Islam). There is a huge quantity of monks in Tibetan Buddhism, because the elder son in any family becomes by Lama (priest or Monk) usually.   

Supervision for observance of religious norms[edit]

         Parish priests engaged to upbringing of believers directly, parish priests guided by the Bible in own sermons and parish priests interpreted by Bible’s content in different ways depending from the situation, parish priests gave by instructive examples. According to Old Testament,  Yahweh entered into union with ancestor of Jewish people Jacob, and then with the itself Jewish people. God has stated own will, God had given manuals, the precepts and laws. God promised awards for obedience and the most severe penalties for disobedience. Once the Jewish people, led by Moses, has escaped from Egyptian captivity to Palestine.

Jahveh had proclaimed to Moses ten commandments on mount Sinai on this road, this laws were the main norms of behavior for believers:

  • The first three commandments forbid by people to have other gods, except Jahveh (this is the preservation of principle of monotheism), and make any images of Jahveh (prohibition to draw the icons and to make the crucifixion of Jesus Christ).
  • Fourth commandment demands to observance of the day off – Saturday. It is forbidden strictly for Jews to work in this day of week and today.

• Fifth commandment demands absolute respect for parents.  

• The rest commandments demands “Not kill!”, “Not steal”, “Not covet neighbour's house,  neighbour's wife, neighbour's servants, animals, or anything else.         Jesus Christ said to apostles before ascension to the sky in the New Testament in Sermon on the Mount, in which Jesus Christ presented the “precepts of beatificate”.  The Christian must be crying, gentle etc. Christ called: “Not oppose to malicious man”, “If anybody strikes you to right cheek, that it need  substitute and left cheek”.  “It need to love your enemies”. Conclusion: The sermon of obedience delivers the society from superfluous social conflicts, but this sermon makes to people by fluffy passive. Some religious norms make behavior of men simply inadequate to requirements of reality, because people had to, even against religious norms, enter to conflicts for power and wealth constantly.       

Two methods are known of control over observance of religious norms:  


• The supervising for believers in side of a priest, the believer should recognized to priest in their sins at confession, after that a priest must forgive the believer from the name of God, priest must observe   the secret of confession (priest has not right to disclose the information obtained at confession), collective confession is practiced    today in the Church mostly.   

• The supervising for the believers in side of the community.   Conclusion: the second form of control is more effective.  

Max Weber about the Protestant ethics and spirit of capitalism. The essence of fundamental restructuring of mechanism of religious control and Kalvin had done this restructuring[edit]

Max Weber

  

Martin Luther
John Calvin
Diderot par Louis-Michel van Loo en 1767 (musée du Louvre)

Pontiff of Rome and the Catholic Church got huge, even excessive power in Western Europe In the middle ages.      Pontiff of Rome fought for the Supreme poverty with the Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, this empire united, in general, the German Kingdoms. Almost every new emperor must have arranged military campaign to Rome in the beginning of his rule with aim to force that  Pontiff of Rome crown by emperor in that case, if Pontiff of Rome did not wont to do that voluntarily.  


Means of struggle in hands of Pontiff of Rome against emperors:   

• There is excommunication by emperor.


• There is permission of Pontiff of Rome to vassals of emperor that this vassals could disturb the oath of faithfulness to the Emperor, after that this vassal betrayed    the Emperor often and this vassals passed to side of Pontiff of Rome.


•   There is imposing of interdict on the guilty    territory, that is the prohibition to conduct the religious ceremonies (to read the burial service of deceased men and to conduct Baptism of babies, without which these deceased men and babies  should have get into hell straight in the opinion of the people of that time.              

Pope of Rome was in fact only Center of power in conditions of feudal dissociation and the weakness of the Royal power in the middle ages in Western Europe. But nevertheless Pope of Rome had lost this struggle to secular rulers after all, as a result the Catholic Church was lost its secular power and value largely. The French King seized Rome and captured  Pope of Rome, French King had taken away Pope from Rome and forced to live Pope    in the city Avignon. When Pope of Rome had returned from   Avignon’s captivity, Pope had lost their power in Western Europe.           The Pope of Rome received huge income from all Catholic countries of Western Europe      in the middle ages. Huge stream of gold flowed down from all Western Europe into Italy. Pope of Rome and Cardinals lived in luxury, they spent own time at feasts and hunting, such a way of life became a disgrace for the Catholic Church.


These incomes of Pontiff of Rome added  from several sources:   

• There is Church’s tithe, as tax in benefit of the Church.  


• There are incomes from ownership of monastic land and monastic peasants.   

• There are incomes from voluntary offering in benefit of the Church.


• Payment for ceremonies (baptism of babies, the reading the burial service of deceased men, weddings ceremony of fiancé and fiancee, etc.   

• This money was not enough for Pope of  Rome  even  and he ordered to sell the indulgences (documents about forgiveness of sins) throughout all Europe.         

Sale of indulgences has become the last drop which overflowed the bowl of patience of   believers. Moreover, layer of people has appeared    in Western Europe, this people could count their money, it was the layer of entrepreneurs. They have arranged a religious revolution (Reformation), as result of which the countries of Northern Europe have become Protestant and it have ceased to pay money to Pontiff of Rome. The first to Protestant prophets have become Martin Luther in Germany and John Calvin in Switzerland.     German sociologist Max Weber has reflected the essence of this Protestant revolution in work “Protestant ethics and spirit of capitalism”, which he wrote in 1904‐1905. Researchers of his scientific creativity confirm often that he wanted in his book to refute historical materialism of Karl Marx. Marx considered the religion as superstructure and economy as basis, with that basis determines to superstructure, for example, as if capitalist economy forces the religion to justify capitalist exploitation from the name of God. In opposite of that, Weber considered that Protestant ethics and protestant religion has generated to capitalism. Protestant religion has urged to work persistently, assistance and let them into circulation, to get new money. The Protestant religion was created for the upbringing of entrepreneurs. Catholics believed earlier that a beggar and suffers hit to paradise. Calvin invented the myth about predetermination entity of which consists in follows. Protestants believed that only such men hit to paradise as men was elected by God in advance from birth. People do not know in advance own destiny, own predefinition – to hit to paradise or hell, but people may guess. For that man should engage to the business. If man has grown rich as result of enterprise activity, that means that he has elected by God and God helps in business  him already under Earth's  life. If man has became a poor bankrupt  as a result of  enterprise activity, it means that God sent his beforehand to hell and God punishes already under the Earth's life. Protestant earns the money without aim that to spend them and to enjoy of life (to buy a house, yacht and car),   protestant earns the money that to earn a pass to paradise.

Here is a precepts from the Code of Builder of capitalism, which Calvin cited in their speeches:    • Chest with gold is a pass to paradise.

• Time is money.  

• Money bears the new money.  

• If men  produced the fat from livestock, that entrepreneurs produced the money from men. • If man pays debts in time, that purse of other men is opened for this man.

• Knock of your hammer inspires the calmness for your creditors.       

With point of view Calvin, capitalism could appear only in Western Europe, where the Protestant religion bring up the striving to profit   purposefully.  The love of Chinese to traditions prevented to the emergence of capitalism in China. The caste system and myth about resettlement of souls prevented of capitalism   in India, because the caste system is incompatible with the free labour and myth about resettlement of souls made senseless the striving to profit.   Calvin has restructured a little, but Calvin has not destroyed the mechanism of religious control. He left in inviolability the first two elements of this mechanism (the myth about requital beyond the grave and monotheism, but changed the cult‐overturned icons, crosses), but Calvin has changed the cult, Calvin has canceled the using of icons, crucifixes, crosses, frescos, expensive clothes of priests etc, with aim to make the Church by “cheap”, with aim to remove  gold and silver from the system of cult (Golden salaries icons, Golden crosses, Golden clothing of priests). Protestants (Huguenots) rushed to Catolic temples and  cut icons with help of axes during a religious war with Catholics in France. Calvin has destroyed the hierarchical pyramid within clergy, priests have been ceased to appoint from above, community has begun to choose of priests from its environment. Bible has been translated with not clear for many men Latin language into national languages (German, English, French and so on), Because the   simple believers has received the opportunity to read the Bible every day themselves and engaged to self‐education. Only priest had the right to save the believers from sine earlier, believers were able to save themselves now. Monasteries were closed, because Calvin considered that the monks were   parasites which were doomed to  get into hell. Thus, the quantity of priests was reduced  radically, this has allowed to  reduce the costs for maintenance of priests in many times that to make the Church moor cheaper. Calvin had canceled the confession and Calvin had passed    from the control under believers with side of priest to more effective supervision by the community for its members.   Protestant communities became to remind the first communities of Christians in early in the first Millennium. Calvin had forbidden even expensive clothing and entertainments in Geneva  even that it didn’t prevent by  Protestants to engage in their main affairs – to pray and to work. Positive values of the Protestant religion is that the countries of Northern Europe (England, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden, Northern Germany and  later the USA) have become the rich countries, and Catholic countries of southern Europe (Spain, Portugal and Italy) have become poor countries.    Conclusion: the Protestant religion is the most advanced and useful in an era of capitalism.

The benefit of religion[edit]

      

The benefit of religion is that religion helps to establish the social peace and to satisfy human neeв  in consolation    of feelings of    grief, trouble, loneliness and especially fear before death. Christianity was religion of bottom for society at the dawn of history of religion, but elite had established the control under clergy subsequently with help of promotion of their representatives to senior posts within the clergy and monetary donations. Elite saw in Christianity “the bridle” for plebeians. Slaves were located outside the system of religious organizations in ancient Rome, but Christianity has incorporated the slaves into system of religious control at first of all, as people who are inclined most of all to the destruction of social peace. All Revolutionary Army were consisted of beggars and slaves. If religion consoles the fear before death, that the atheists are unhappy people in this relation. There Is such fee for the progress of science.    Religion is indispensable in principle in the sense of consolation of fear before death. The Russian communists tried to destroy religion and Church as the latest counter‐revolutionary party, communists had sent to prison and shot many priests, communists had dynamited many temples, communists have conducted the atheistic propaganda, but they were unable to destroy religion, because to cancel the fear before death is not possible. Then they have delivered the religion under the supervision of the political police and communists have forced some priests to serve as informants. There were easier by Bolsheviks to deliver under control the Orthodox Church than Protestant sects, who could operate semi‐legally, many others priests could appear at the place of arrested protestant’s preacher on another day, because each member of Protestant’s sect is obliged to know the Bible excellently. The Communists tried to console to people with help of the tales about communism, but people did not believe in this tales. Enterprise of Communists to destroy to religion and Church has failed, because the mechanism of religious control is a great social invention, such inventions disappear never in the history of society and this inventions accumulate only.        

French materialists (Claude Adrien Helvétius, Julien Offray de La Mettrie , Denis Diderot, Baron d'Holbach) considered the religion as kind of delusion. Of course, these critics of religion were right in that such things as God, paradise and hell do not exist in nature, but religion doesn’t engage by search of the truth, knowledge is not function of a religion already for a long time. Knowledge is a function of science, because similar criticism of religion has wide of the mark. French materialists have assigned to Church  somebody else’s function, and then this materialists has begun to reproach the Church in that Church performs this function badly. With point of view of the French materialists, It it is impossible to understand Christianity history, cause and meaning of the struggle between religious trends for the building of mechanism for religious control. With point of view of French materialists, all of these trends are only different kinds of delusions; all representatives of these trends are fool simply. In opinion of Valery Starikov people are not so fool that to engage to useless affair in during of many centuries. According to calculations by Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin religion should die off long ago, because religion is “opium for people”.  In opinion of Valery Starikov the myth about communism is genuine “opium”. Practice did not confirmed the theoretical prognosis about the    of dying of religion, this means that Marxist theory turn out the false theory. In contrast to these prognosis, there is the flourishing of religion after the collapse of socialism in Russia, destroyed  temples are restored and new temples are built today, popular sects are emerging  in Russia, for example, Hare Krishna and Protestants. The meaning of the administrative and religious control is that they have served as a foundation for the building of feudalism, who has became a new progressive step in the development of society compared with slavery. Feudalism was “golden age” in the history of religion, after that meaning of religion has decreased a little.