Interesting social sciences/Sociology of religion. Mechanism of religious control.

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Religious control mechanism.

English subtitles exist in this video. On the cover is St. Sophia Cathedral in Istanbul. God does not exist, but religion is useful.A chest of gold is a pass to heaven. . Religious control mechanism. Five elements of the mechanism of religious control are the myth of the afterlife, monotheism, cult, clergy, religious norms of behavior. Max Weber about Protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism. Benefits of religion.

Three world religions:

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Krishna statute at the Sri Mariamman temple, Singapore
Paradise by Jan Bruegel
Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180)
The drawing illustrating how the soul travels to any one of the four states of existence after death depending on its karmas, according to Jainism.


The Last Judgment by Michelangelo
Mars Pater of the Roman people, Guardian of soldiers and farmers, God of War, Destruction and Masculini.Statue of Mars from the Forum of Nerva, 2nd century AD, based on an Augustan-era original that in turn used a Hellenistic Greek model of the 4th century BC, Capitoline Museums
Dionysus God of the vine, grape harvest, winemaking, wine, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, and theatre.2nd-century Roman statue of Dionysus, after a Hellenistic model (ex-coll. Cardinal Richelieu, Louvre)
Vladimir the Great
Hagia Sophia




Mechanism of religious control was built in each from the world religions. The analysis of advantages and shortcomings of this mechanism constructed in various world religions will be made further. Other religions – various forms of paganism, Confucianism in China, Shinto in Japan, Hinduism and Krishnaism in India are more primitive religions in comparison with world religions because the mechanism of religious control isn't completed up to the end in this other primitive religions. The religion existed in primitive society, but the mechanism of religious control was constructed much later - during era of transition from slaveholding society to feudalism for the first time.             

Religious control, as well as other kinds of control, consists that the controller forces of objects of control to carry out norms of behavior under the threat of application of reward or punishment. The priest forces of believers to carry out religious norms of behavior under threat to send in paradise or hell. As people considered in the Middle Ages, the Pope has keys of Heaven in a pocket. I consider the religion from the point of view of atheism and science in this paragraph, but I recognize advantage of religion and uselessness of attempts to cancel religion. Though paradise and hell doesn't exist in the nature actually, but influence of the priest on believers is quite real because believers believe in existence of these sanctions.

The mechanism of religious control is the most complex in comparison with other kinds of social control. The mankind has spent several centuries (about 500-700 years) for creation of this mechanism of religious control in Christianity. Then the creator of Islam Muhammad (years of life: approx. 570-632) has borrowed a structure of this mechanism from Christianity, Muhammad has improved even this mechanism in something – Muhammad has embodied principle of monotheism more strictly, and Muhammad has worsened this mechanism in something – Muhammad couldn't introduce icons and musical instruments as elements of cult. Buddhism has arisen much earlier then Christianity - in the middle of 1 millennium BC therefore the structure of the mechanism of religious control has a more primitive character in the Buddhism than in Christianity, for example, notion about god didn't arise in the Buddhism. God is Atman in the Buddhism, that is emptiness. People say often that the Buddhism is a religion without god. More primitive myth about reward after death is created in the Buddhism (about reincarnation}. Many movements exist in the Buddhism, the dogma is tangled extremely in the Buddhism and the dogma reminds more philosophical doctrine about the moral norms leading to rescue of soul in the Buddhism.

Polytheism is characteristic for Shinto, Hinduism and Krishnaism. Polytheism has prevented to construct the mechanism of religious control in these religions. Shinto is ancient national religion of Japanese. Belief in existence of a huge number of gods exists in Shinto. Each thing has own spirit, the deity (Kami). The Supreme deity is the sun goddess Amaterasu declared by ancestor of a ruling imperial dynasty. Hinduism and the Krishnaism is religions of Indians in which many gods exist, main of which – Vishnu, Shiva, Brakhma and Krishna.

Five elements of mechanism of religious control:

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  • the myth about reward after death, 
  • monotheism,  
  • cult,
  • clergy,  
  • supervision for observation of religious norms


Myth about reward after death

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         The myth about reward after death by means of which prophets have substantiated existence of religious sanctions in hands of priests. Religious sanctions in Christianity and Islam are a threat of eternal torment in hell and eternal pleasure in paradise. Religious sanctions in the Buddhism are a promise of advantages in the course of reincarnation. As Vladimir Vysotsky sang: "Hindus have thought up good religion". If the person behaves well in this life, then this person will be by chief or the minister in the next life. If this person behaves bad in this life then this person will be by a snake, a pig or a baobab in next life. The myth about paradise and hell was invented in Judaism in the Old Testament for the first time. Myth exested in some previous religions about the kingdom after death too where souls of the dead people get. For example, one of gods (Osiris) became a tsar in he kingdom after death in the Egyptian religion where Osiris judged souls of the dead people. A monster (a lion with the head of a crocodile) devoured of souls of sinners. Souls of righteous persons remained to live in Osiris's kingdom where there was a lot of water and wheat. But other four elements of the mechanism of religious control weren't created in the Egyptian religion about Osiris therefore the mechanism of religious control remained unfinished in the myth about Osiris. It was told about End time in the Iranian prophecies of Zoroaster when gods win against demons in the last fight, and sacred fire will clean of whole world, only the righteous who followed to words of the god Ahura Mazda will enter into future life, but the mechanism of religious control remained unfinished in these prophecies too. Myth exests about judgment of God over live and dead people after End time in Christianity and Islam as a result of which righteous persons will find eternal pleasure in paradise, and sinners together with a devil and his servants will be condemned on eternal torment in hell. Circle of reincarnations (sansara) is connected with sufferings in the Buddhism. The best exit from this circulation of sufferings is the way of a righteous life consisting in respect for five moral norms: abstention from causing the evil, abstention from a lie, abstention from theft, abstention from sensual pleasures and alcohol intake. Respect to these norms has to bring of person to a non-existence, to immersion in state of nirvana – in state of the highest pleasure, the highest happiness and calm.

Conclusion: the most effective myth about reward after death was invented in Christianity and this myth was borrowed from Christianity to Islam.


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Monotheism is a myth about one God. Polytheism is myth about many Gods. It was difficult for priest, for example in Ancient Rome, to force of believers to carry out norms of behavior, because, for example, Mars (God of war) orders to go to the war, Venus (goddess of love) orders to love, Mercury helps to be engaged in trade, Vulcan helps to be engaged in handicraft, and the believer can submit to advices of that God which suit to this believers, rather than suit to a priest. By the way, plebeians esteemed especially of Liber (God of wine and fun). The Roman senate had to forbid the unbridled orgies connected with Bacchus-Dionysus's cult even. That to streamline somehow this complex system of Gods, the Supreme God appeared, Zeus appeared at ancient Greeks, Jupiter appeared at ancient Romans, Odin appeared at Germans. Invention of monotheism had allowed to priest to order to believers to carry out norms of behavior from face of a single God which has one code of norms and one will. Monotheism was invented for the first time in Judaism, where a single God by name Yahweh had created World and Man for seven days. Acts of this God and misadventures of the people of Israel was described in the Old Testament, where myths exist about creation of World, about Flood, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the revelation of God to Moses, the exodus of Jews from Egyptian captivity.

The first five books of the Old Testament were named as Torah and this first five books were, allegedly, written by Moses according to the words of Yahweh. The Torah began to be written in 10-9 centuries BC. This work was continued up to 5 century BC, when the Jerusalem priests have published the Torah for the first time, and since then, Torah has hardly changed. New Testament has arisen in 1‐2 centuries AD and New Testament consists from four books (Gospels), where it is told about the life of Jesus Christ (son of God), his suffering, death and wonderful revival, creating of miracles and lectures. The fourth Gospel (Revelation of St John) draws the pictures of Last Judgement. It is described in the actions of Apostles (pupils of Jesus Christ) that Holy Spirit had gone to the Apostles a few days after the Ascension of Jesus Christ in Heaven. Apostles had learned to speak to different language suddenly and Apostles had gone to preach Christianity in different countries.

Thus,three Gods existed in Christianity historically:

  • God the Father,
  • God the Son,
  • God the Holy Spirit.

But only one god was necessary. Therefore priests met on Ecumenical Council twice (First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD and the First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD) and priests had decided to believe that God is one in three Divine persons, in three hypostases. Entity of this doctrine about “Trinity” consists in that a single God has three manifestations. Until today, scientists and theologians puzzle over this contradiction 3 = 1, and everything is very easy here, priests can do 1 God from 10 gods even for realization of the social order.  Alexandria’s Bishop Arius hasn't understood this social order and Arius continued insist on the traditional point of view that God‐father is the only God and Jesus Christ is not true God, but Jesus Christ was as excellent creation of God‐father only. Therefore Arius was declared as heretic at First Council of Nicaea, Arius was excommunicated and Arius was exiled. Such bitter destiny waited also for other priests who had deviated from line on building of mechanism of religious control or these priests continued to insist on outdated traditional dogmas. For example, representatives of Monophysitism (Armenian Church) recognized only one divine nature in Jesus Christ and representatives of Monophysitism denied human nature in Jesus Christ. Representatives of Iconoclasm fought against the introduction of icons in Byzantium in 8‐9 centuries AD, because  representatives of Iconoclasm didn't understand benefits of icons for strengthening of controlling influence on believers, representatives of Iconoclasm referred to the third God’s Commandment from Ten Commandments “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image”. [1] "You shall not make for yourself any carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them nor serve them.". Icon plays the role of visual aids for illiterate believers, where these believers can see clearly the pictures of Last Judgement, paradise and hell. Those priests won in these disputes inevitably always who proposed measures for improvement of mechanism of religious control.  The church sought to keep this mechanism safe and sound after creation of this mechanism, that not to allow his destruction by false prophets (by heretics).        

The creator of Islam Muhammad has made conclusions of the problems of Christians with monotheism and with dogma about Trinity, therefore Muhammad proclaimed the strict monotheism: "“There is no god but Allah alone and Muhammad is the messenger of God”, that is Muhammad is not god, but Muhammad is the ordinary person to whom god has inspired the truth.

Conclusion: the principle of monotheism is carried out more strictly in Islam, than in Christianity. This is the only advantage of Islam in comparison with Christianity.  

The cult

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  Cult is a system of rites, symbolic things, musical instruments, which have a function of the amplifier of influence on believers in the hands of a priest.                The disadvantage of the Roman religion consisted in that this religion carried seal of formalism in the performance of rites, Roman religion did not excite sacred awe, Roman religion touched feelings of believers a little, Roman religion demanded petty performance of rites, rather than the spiritual merge with god. Roman religion did not promise the salvation from life’s adversity.  Roman religion caused at believers a feeling of internal dissatisfaction. Roman religion could not comfort of suffering people. Thus, the Roman religion had bad cult, therefore, Rome had borrowed Christianity’s cult from the East, where system of mystical rites was developed for a long time, this eastern rites was capable to render a strongest influence to the feelings of believers, and degree of religious fanaticism was higher in East always.          

The Eastern rites allow to turn religious sermon into procedure of mass hypnosis and the Eastern rites allow to turn the crowd of believers to crowd of blind fanatics the Eastern rites allow bring these fanatics before religious ecstasy. Other means of strengthening of suggestibility exist also except a situation of a mass prayer: icon, bell, organ’s music at Catholics, majestic architecture, drums and bronze cymbals at Buddhists, gilded vestments of priests, cross worn on the neck at Christians, numerous bows and genuflections. Any images of the person and animals are forbidden in the temple in Islam. Muslims try to compensate the absence of icons and musical instruments with help of a large number of mass prays in temple. A Muslim is obliged to pray five times in day, for that a Muslim carry with itself a rug everywhere. A Muslim must stand on own knees on this rug in the process of prayer and to bow before the earth.   

When Kiev’s Prince Vladimir the Great chose religion for Russia instead paganism at the end of 10 century AD, Vladimir the Great had sent own ambassadors in different countries, this ambassadors had seen poorly decorated Muslim temples, sad prayer, sad faces of believers in Volga Bulgaria. Ambassadors had seen magnificence of the temple, rich clothing of priests, icons of altars, delightful singing of kliros (church choir), sacred importance and mystery of ceremonies in Orthodox Cathedral of Sacred Sofia in Constantinople, as though supreme God lives in this temple and connects directly with people. Therefore Kiev’s Prince Vladimir has chosen Orthodoxy for Russia.

Buddhism is characterized by a lush divine service in the datsans (monasteries), where sculptures of the Buddha and other gods of the Buddhist pantheon are located. Buddhism replaced repetition of spells to rotation of drums filled by texts of prayers and sacred literature.  

Conclusion: poor cult in Islam is shortcoming in comparison with Christianity and even in comparison with Buddhism.

The clergy

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Patriarch Nikon.


Clergy is a hierarchical pyramid of priests with severe discipline within this pyramid. This pyramid had arisen not at once. Wandering priests preached religion in period of the formation of Christianity, this priests moved from one community to another community. This wandering priests were named by charismatics. Charisma is a Divine grace, of God's gift, gift to do miracles and prophecy. This priests preached Christianity at own discretion. This led to constant conflicts, schisms and disputes on religious matters. To overcome conflicts, a single hierarchical organization (the Christian Church) was created at First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD, this Christian Church consists from clergy (organization of priests) and laymen (believers without Holy orders).  

Hierarchy within the Catholic Church:

  • Pope,
  • Bishop,
  • priest,
  • deacon.

Relations of these priests have extremely authoritarian character: blind submission is required from the lowest ranks to the highest ranks.  Excommunication from Church, pilgrimage to holy places, public repentance, scourging, wearing of shameful signs, imprisonment were applied as punishment in Church. Imprisonment were lifelong in solitary confinement, in shackles, on bread and water. Such sanctions were applied in the Church  like in any hierarchical pyramid as promotion or demotion in service. Inquisition transfers of heretics persisting in heresy to the hands of secular authorities for burning on fire. Any attempts to divide the Church, to change dogma without permission of Ecumenical council or Pope, to break a  mechanism of religious control were nipped in the bud with help of these cruel punishments. East–West Schism of the Christian Church to Catholic Church and Orthodox Church had happened in 1054. Pontiff of Rome had stood in the head of Catholics. Patriarch of Byzantine had stood in the head of Orthodoxies. The crash of Byzantium had led to a weakening of the power of the Byzantine Patriarch and even to his humiliation by the Turkish sultan.  Patriarch stays in head of Russian Orthodox Church today too.                  

Moscow tried even to appoint herself by Centre of Orthodoxy. Patriarch Nikon of Moscow had organized this church’s reform in 17 century with help to correct of mistakes in the Bible, this mistakes were admitted under numerous copying of the Bible, since the introduction of Russian Orthodoxy in 10 century.

List of mistakes which Patriarch Nikon had corrected:

  • Russian Orthodox people had begun to christen with help of three fingers, instead of two fingers.
  • Russian Orthodox people had begun to write “Jesus Christ” instead of “Isus Christ” and so on. 


Similar hierarchical pyramid was established in Islam and Buddhism too. Islam were divided on two directions (Sunni Islam and Shia Islam). A huge quantity of monks exists in Tibetan Buddhism, because the elder son in any family becomes by Lama (priest or Monk) usually.   

Supervision for observance of religious norms

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         Parish priests engaged to upbringing of believers directly, parish priests guided by the Bible in own sermons and parish priests interpreted Bible’s content in different ways depending from the situation, parish priests gave instructive examples. According to Old Testament,  Yahweh entered into union with ancestor of Jewish people Jacob, and then with the itself Jewish people. God has stated own will, God had given manuals, the precepts and laws. God promised awards for obedience and the most severe penalties for disobedience. The Jewish people, led by Moses, has escaped from Egyptian captivity to Palestine once.

Jahveh had proclaimed to Moses ten commandments on mount Sinai on this road from Egyptian captivity to Palestine, this laws were the main norms of behavior for believers:

  • The first three commandments forbid to people to have other gods, except Jahveh (this is the preservation of principle of monotheism), and make any images of Jahveh (prohibition to draw the icons and to make the crucifixion of Jesus Christ).
  • Fourth commandment demands to observance of the day off – Saturday. It is forbidden strictly for Jews to work in this day of week and today.
  • Fifth commandment demands absolute respect for parents.  
  • The rest commandments demands “Not kill!”, “Not steal”, “Not covet neighbour's house,  neighbour's wife, neighbour's servants, neighbour's animals, or anything else. [2] 

      Jesus Christ said to apostles before ascension to the heaven in the New Testament in Sermon on the Mount, in which Jesus Christ presented the “Beatitudes”:

  • "Blessed are the poor in spirit".
  • "Blessed are those who mourn".
  • "Blessed are the meek".
  • "Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness".
  • "Blessed are the merciful".
  • "Blessed are the pure in heart".
  • "Blessed are the peacemakers".
  • "Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness sake". 

Jesus Christ called:

  • That ye resist not a evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.
  • Love your enemies, bless them that curse you. [3] 

Conclusion: The sermon of humility saves of society from superfluous social conflicts, but this sermon makes of believers by excessively passive people. Some religious norms make behavior of people simply inadequate to requirements of reality, because people had to enter to conflicts for power and wealth constantly even against religious norms.  

Two methods of control over observance for religious norms are known:

  • Supervision of the believer by the priest. The believer must confess to the priest his sins at the confession, after which the priest must forgive the believer on behalf of God. The priest must observe the secret of confession - not to disclose the information received at confession. Today, the church practices mainly collective confession.

 * Supervision of the believer by the community..  

Conclusion: the second form of control is more effective.  

Max Weber about the Protestant ethics and spirit of capitalism.  Essence to the cardinal reorganization of the mechanism of religious control made by John Kalvin

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Max Weber


Martin Luther
John Calvin
Diderot par Louis-Michel van Loo en 1767 (musée du Louvre)

The Pope and the Catholic church has acquired enormous, even excessive power in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. The Pope fought for the supreme power with the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire which united, generally German principalities. Almost each new emperor was forced to organize campaign to Rome at the beginning of own board with the purpose to force of Pope to crown him in case if Pope doesn't want to do that voluntarily.

Means of struggle in hands of Pope against emperors:   

  • Excommunication of emperor.
  • Permission of Pope to vassals of emperor that this vassals could break an oath of fealty to the Emperor, after that this vassal could betray of Emperor often and this vassals passed to side of Pope.
  • Imposing of interdict on the guilty  territory, that is the prohibition to conduct religious ceremonies (to read the funeral service of deceased people and to conduct infant baptism, , should have directly gone to hell without which these deceased people and babies had to end up in hell according to opinion of people of that time.  

       Pope was in fact only center of power in conditions of feudal disunion and the weakness of the Royal power in the middle ages in Western Europe. But nevertheless Pope had lost this struggle to secular rulers after all, as a result the Catholic Church was lost its secular power and value largely. The French King seized Rome and the French King captured of Pope, French King has taken away of Pope from Rome and French King has forced of Pope to live in the city of Avignon. Pope had returned from  Avignon’s captivity, but Pope had lost own secular power in Western Europe as result this Avignon’s captivity.          

The Pope received huge income from all Catholic countries of Western Europe in the middle ages. A huge flow of gold flowed from all over Western Europe to Rome. Pope and Cardinals lived in luxury, Pope and Cardinals spent own time at feasts and hunting, such a way of life became a disgrace for the Catholic Church.

This incomes of Pope consisted from several sources:   

  • Church’s tithe, as tax in benefit of the Church.  
  • Incomes from possession of the monastery land and monastic peasants.
  • Income from voluntary donations in favor of the church.
  • Payment for ceremonies (Infant baptism, the reading of Funeral service of deceased people, weddings ceremony and so on. 
  • This money was not enough for Pope even and Pope ordered to sell across the whole Europe indulgences (documents about a remission of sins).  

       Sale of indulgences has become the last straw which has overflowed bowl of patience of believers. Besides, a group of people has appeared in Western Europe, this group of people were able to count money, it was the layer of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs have organized religious revolution (Reformation), as result of which the countries of Northern Europe have become by Protestant and this countries have ceased to pay money to Pope. Martin Luther in Germany and John Calvin in Switzerland have become by first Protestant prophets.      German sociologist Max Weber has reflected the essence of this Protestant revolution in work “The protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism”[4], which Max Weber has written in 1904‐1905. Researchers of scientific creativity of Max Weber confirm often that Max Weber wanted in his book to disprove historical materialism of Karl Marx. Karl Marx considered the religion as superstructure and Karl Marx considered economy as basis, at the same time basis determines superstructure, for example, allegedly, capitalist economy forces religion to justify capitalist exploitation from the name of God. Contrary to it, Max Weber considered that Protestant ethics and protestant religion has generated capitalism. Protestant religion has urged to hard work, save up money and to put them them into circulation, that to receive new money.

The Protestant religion was created for the upbringing of entrepreneurs. Catholics believed earlier that only beggars and sufferers get to paradise. Gohn Calvin has invented the myth about Predestination, essence of which is as follows. Protestants believed that only those people get to paradise which people was elected by God in advance from birth. People can't foreknow own destiny, own Predestination – to get in paradise or in hell, but people may guess. For that man should engage by business. If as a result of business activity man has grown rich, then it means that man is elected by God and God helps to this man already during lifetime, God helps in business. If man has became by poor bankrupt  as a result of  enterprise activity, it means that God has sent this man to hell in advance and God punishes this man at during lifetime.

Protestant earns money without aim that to spend this money and to enjoy of life (to buy a house, yacht and car), protestant earns the money that to earn a pass to paradise.

Here is a precepts from the Code of Builder of capitalism, which were preached by Benjamin Franklin and Ferdinand Kürnberger:    • Chest with gold is a pass to paradise.

• Time is money.  

• Money give birth the new money.  

• If people  produced the fat from livestock, then entrepreneurs produced the money from people.

• The purse of other people is open for the one who accurately pays debts.

• The knock of your hammer inspires tranquility in your creditors        With point of view Max Weber, capitalism could appear only in Western Europe, where the Protestant religion bring up the aspiration to profit purposefully. The love of Chinese to traditions prevented emergence of capitalism in China. The caste system and myth about reincarnation prevented emergence of capitalism in India, because the caste system is incompatible with the free labour and myth about reincarnation made senseless the aspiration to profit. John Calvin has restructured the mechanism of religious control a little, but John Calvin has not destroyed the mechanism of religious control. John Calvin left in inviolability the first two elements of this mechanism - the myth about reward after death and monotheism), but John Calvin has changed the cult, John Calvin has canceled the using of icons, crucifixes, crosses, frescos, expensive clothes of priests and so on, with aim to make the Church by “cheap”, with aim to remove gold and silver from the system of cult (Golden frames of icons, Golden crosses, Golden clothing of priests). Protestants (Huguenots) rushed to Catolic temples and Huguenots cut icons with help of axes during a religious war with Catholics in France. John Calvin has destroyed the hierarchical pyramid within clergy, priests ceased to be appointed from above, community has begun to choose of priests from own environment. Bible was translated with Latin language unclear for many people into national languages (German, English, French and so on), therefore the simple believers has received the opportunity to read the Bible every day themselves and the simple believers has received the opportunity to be engaged in self-education. Only priest had the right to save of believers from sin earlier, believers were able to save themselves from sin now. Monasteries were closed, because John Calvin considered that the monks were parasites which were doomed to get into hell. Thus, the quantity of priests was reduced radically, this has allowed to reduce the costs for maintenance of priests in many times that to make the Church even cheaper.

John Calvin had canceled the confession and John Calvin had passed from supervision of the believer by the priest to more effective supervision of the believer by the community. Protestant communities began to remind the first communities of Christians in early in the first Millennium. John Calvin had forbidden even expensive clothing for inhabitants and entertainments in Geneva that entertainments didn’t prevent to Protestants to engage to their main affairs – to pray and to work. Positive values of the Protestant religion is that the countries of Northern Europe (England, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden, Northern Germany and later the USA) have become the rich countries, and Catholic countries of southern Europe (Spain, Portugal and Italy) have become poor countries.   

Conclusion: the Protestant religion is the most advanced and useful during a capitalism era.

The benefit of religion

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The benefit of religion is that religion helps to establish the social peace and to satisfy human need in consolation of feelings of grief, sorrow, loneliness and especially fear before death. Christianity was religion of bottom for society at beginning of own history, but elite had established the control over clergy subsequently with help of promotion of representatives of elite to senior posts within the clergy and with help of monetary donations. Elite saw in Christianity “the bridle” for Plebs. Slaves were located outside the system of religious organizations in ancient Rome, but Christianity has incorporated of slaves into system of religious control at first of all, as people who are inclined most of all to the destruction of social peace. All Revolutionary Army were consisted from beggars and slaves. If religion consoles the fear before death, that the atheists are unhappy people in this relation. There is such payment for the progress of science. Religion is irreplaceable thing in principle in the sense of consolation of fear before death.

The Russian communists tried to destroy religion and Church as the last counter‐revolutionary party, communists have sent to prison many priests and communists have shot many priests, communists have blown up many temples, communists have conducted the atheistic propaganda, but communists were unable to destroy religion, because to cancel the fear before death is not possible in principle. Then communists have put the religion under the supervision of the political police and communists have forced of some priests to serve as informants. There were easier for Bolsheviks to put under control the Orthodox Church than Protestant sects, who could function semi‐legally, many others priests could appear at the place of arrested protestant’s preacher on another day, because each ordinary believer is obliged to know the Bible in perfection at Protestants. The Communists tried to console of people with help of the tales about communism, but people did not believe in this tales. Аttempt of Communists to destroy religion and Church has failed, because the mechanism of religious control is a great social invention, such great social inventions disappear never in the history of society and this great social inventions are added only.        

French materialists (Claude Adrien Helvétius, Julien Offray de La Mettrie, Denis Diderot, Baron d'Holbach) considered the religion as kind of delusion, false outlook. Of course, these critics of religion were right in that such things as God, paradise and hell do not exist in nature, but it has turned out that religion doesn’t engage by search of the truth, cognition is not function of a religion already for a long time. Сognition is a function of science, because similar criticism of religion shoot wide of the mark. French materialists have assigned on Church somebody else’s function, and then this materialists have begun to reproach the Church in that Church performs this function badly. From point of view of the French materialists, it is impossible to understand Christianity history, it is impossible to understand the reason and meanings of fight between religious sects during period of the building of mechanism for religious control. With point of view of French materialists, all beliefs of these sects are only different kinds of delusions; all representatives of these sects are fools simply.

In my opinion, people are not so fool that to engage by useless affair during of many centuries. According to calculations of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin, religion should die off long ago, because religion is “opium for people”. In my opinion, true "opium" is the myth about communism. Practice did not confirmed the theoretical forecasts about the of dying of religion, this means that Marxist theory turn out as false theory. Contrary to these forecasts, there is the flourishing of religion after the collapse of socialism in Russia, destroyed temples are restored, new temples are built today, popular sects arise in Russia, for example, Hare Krishna and Protestant sects. The meaning of the administrative and religious control is that they have served as a foundation for the building of feudal formation, who has became a new progressive step in the development of society compared with slaveholding formation. Feudal formation was “golden age” in the history of religion, after that meaning of religion has decreased a little. The Marxism served in hands of Bolsheviks only as justification for robbery of the rich classes. The atheism served in hands of Bolsheviks only as justification for robbery of orthodox church. There was simply no one to rob after the robbery of the church and the possessing classes, therefore destruction and famine has begun in Russia. An impression is made that robbery is the only business which leaders of Bolsheviks were able to do wonderful before the October revolution. Joseph Stalin plundered banks, and Vladimir Lenin lived perfectly abroad on this stolen money before the October revolution. And Bolsheviks suppressed fair discontent of the people robbed by Bolsheviks with help of Cheka terror after the October revolution.

Citations and references.

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