Interesting social sciences/Sociology
- 1 The social status
- 2 Statics and dynamics as two conditions of social structure
- 3 Main concepts of sociology
- 4 A socialization
- 5 Gesture language, the creation of its own image and the exchange by symbols as the methods of the expression of norms and threat of application for sanctions in the course of psychological control
Social status is a position of man in the society, this status have the appropriate list of rights and duties. Status can be compared with the empty cell in the organization or in the group, which this or that person can occupy, people come and leave, but statuses remain in the organization. Organization is a system of interconnected and specialized statuses. Each status has own function in the organization, for example, the function of head consists in the management of ordinary employees, the function of teacher consists in the education of pupils, the function of worker consists in management and in repair by technical devices and so on. Each person occupies several statuses simultaneously, for example, person can occupy the statuses of worker, husband, athlete, friend, student of the evening department of university, member of the party, author of newspaper publication, visitor of hospital and so on.
In my opinion, the main kinds of statuses are status of controller and status of the object of control, status of enemies in the conflict. Other kinds of statuses are secondary, for example, notions "ascribed status" and "achieved status" are secondary.
Social role is such behavior, which surrounding men expect from the person, when this person occupies specific status.
The founder of sociology Auguste Comte had introduced these concepts
Statics is a social structure or the anatomy of social organism at the given historical moment as the system of the organizations, which resemble by organs in the organism.
Dynamics is a description of the sequence of stages for development of the structure of social organism, that is appearance in total new and new organizations and groups. Each organizations has own function in the society.
In my opinion, there is eleven basic groups and organizations in the society, this groups and organizations were invented in turn:
• A family. Family has a function of the production of healthy posterity. Family was invented in the period of the origin of primitive society. Family, genus and tribe are built on the moral control. The wars flared up between the tribes frequently.
• A production’s organization. A production’s organization has function is a production of vital goods (food, clothing, dwelling and so on.). The first modes of production were nomadic cattle breeding and agriculture, then craft and machine production. Most effective at that moment kinds of social control were applied in the production’s organization, for example, the moral control was applied in the production’s organizations under the primitive society, the armed control was applied in the production’s organizations under the slaveholding society, the administrative control was applied in the production’s organizations under the feudalism, economic control is applied in the production’s organizations under capitalism. The market competition between the producers had arisen under capitalism when only effective producer survives instead of the subsistence economy.
• An army. The army was invented in the period of the sunset of primitive society (period of military democracy). The army has function to wage war, to protect the boundaries of national territory from the aggressor and to conquer the strange territory. The army was built on the moral control initially, then army was built on the armed control, and then army is built on the administrative control today.
• Law enforcement agencies (court, police, prison). The law enforcement agencies were invented in the period of slaveholding society. The function of the law enforcement agencies is maintenance of public order that is realizing of armed control of government over citizens, the realization of the system of criminal law. Law enforcement agencies used only corporal punishments in the past. Law enforcement agencies have begun to use administrative and economic sanctions today. The law enforcement agencies are built on the administrative control of the head over their employees. Prison is built on the armed control, when guard has the right to use corporal punishments against the prisoners. The police exists in the conditions of war with the criminal organizations. The criminal organizations are the spare underground center of the power which amplifies in case of temporary weakening of police and legitimate authority of the government. Criminal organizations exists in the conditions of war with each other.
• A bureaucracy. The bureaucracy has a function to gather taxes and to to organize public works sometimes, that is to build channels, dams and so on. This public works under the direction of bureaucracy is the extremely ineffective form of use of labor force in comparison with the system of private enterprise, be built on the economic control. Bureaucracy is built on the administrative control. The hieroglyphic writing and cadastral survey(book of taxpayers) were invented for the realization of the collection of taxes in Ancient Egypt. The bureaucracy was arisen under the slaveholding society.
• A government. The government has a function to control administratively of activity of army, bureaucracy and law enforcement agencies. The government controls the system of education and church sometimes. Theocracy, on the contrary, is a form of government, under which the church controls the government. The government is built on the administrative control of its employees. Supreme power consists from three branches of power (legislative, executive and judicial) today under the conditions of representative democracy, this three branches of power are independent from each other.
• A church and a sect. These religious organizations have a function to comfort the fear of the believers before death and to convince of the believers in the necessity of existence for the system of social control, in the necessity of submission to controllers. Church, as religious organization, was built in Buddhism, Christianity and Islam at first. Church, as religious organization, is built on the administrative control of its employees (priests). The church used the body’s punishments against its enemies (heretics) sometimes. The church organized the religious wars and crusades against the competitors sometimes. The church had arisen in the period of the sunset of slaveholding society. • A system of education. The system of education has a function of the socialization of the growing up generation. The state’s system of education is built on the administrative control of its employees. The system of education had arisen under the slaveholding society.
• A system of public health. The system of public health has a function of the treatment of people. The first doctors had appeared under the slaveholding society. Medical organizations are built on the administrative control.
• An Art, a media and a mass culture. They have a function to satisfy the aesthetical requirements and to inform by people, to carry out the socialization. The media and mass culture exists in the conditions of competition with each other. Correspondents enter into the discussion with each other in the course of struggle for spheres of influence on the spectators. The separate mean of media and mass culture, for example, the separate newspaper or television channel are built on the economic and administrative control of the leader over its employees. The media and mass culture were invented under capitalism.
• A science. The science has a function of the knowledge of truth, of production of inventions and forecasts. The science was invented under the slaveholding society. Scientists compete with each other in the course of scientific discussions.
Main concepts of sociology
Social structure is a system of social groups and organizations, roles and statuses. In the opinion of organicism in macrosociology, society is similar to the human organism; therefore society has needs. Each social organization or group resembles some organ of society and each social organization or group satisfies some need of society, each social organization or group fulfills some function.
In my opinion, society is a progressively developing system of groups and organizations, which is built on the relations of conflict and control between the people.
Small group is a small quantity of people (from 2 to 15 people), between whom are established the relations of moral leadership and moral control.
Society is built on the inequality of statuses of people, because equality between the controller and the object of control doesn't exist in society. In my opinion, the groups of people in the social hierarchy (in the pyramid), located one above another, form strata (layers). Society resembles “layer’s pie”.
Stratification is a layering.
Social mobility is a displacement of people over the social “staircase”.
The vertical mobility is a displacement of people up or down social "staircase" during life depending on their abilities, for example, worker has became by engineer at first, then he has became by the head of enterprise, then he has became by minister, and he has became watchman at the pension age.
Horizontal mobility is a displacement on one step of social staircase without a change of status, for example, pupil has passed from the eighth class of one school to the eighth class of another school.
Socialization of men occurs in the process of the social control. When pupil comes to school, teacher explains to this pupil of the rules of behavior at school. If the pupil doesn't carry out these rules, then the teacher has the right to punish this pupil.
The agents of socialization are certain people, groups and organizations, which teach people and train the person in execution of roles
Main agents of the socialization:
• the media,
• group of teenagers,
• criminal group,
• religious organizations and production organizations, and so on.
Gesture language, the creation of its own image and the exchange by symbols as the methods of the expression of norms and threat of application for sanctions in the course of psychological control
Gesture language is inherited by people from its animal ancestors, therefore man must not be learned to speak on this language.
Animals conflicted and realized the control with help of gesture language. The person hasn't lost up to the end ability to enter in conflict and to realize psychological control with help of a gesture language after the invention of spoken language and written language. We make the gestures involuntary; therefore it impossible to tell lies on the language of gestures. It is possible to learn separate simple gestures in order to deceive interlocutor, but other small involuntary gestures can betray you. The education by gestures language is used under the education of managers today, because it makes it possible to understand the secret intentions of partners in the business. Women understand the gestures language better then men; therefore it is very difficult for husband - to deceive its wife.
In opinion by Allan Pease, it is possible to isolate three basic kinds of the gestures:
• the gestures of flirtation,
• the gestures of lie,
• the gestures of aggression.
The gestures of flirtation for women:
- a gait from the thigh (the woman goes, shaking by buttocks),
- a demonstration of the open palm,
- a extended pupils (eyes “pools”), which indicate excitement;
- long fixed view longer than 10 seconds.
- Woman begins to smarten up before the mirror (“to clean plumes”) on the eyes of man, to repair hair, to color lips.
The defiant gesture of flirtation by men is thumbs in pockets or for the belt, this gesture indicates: “I am man. I rule above you”. Man also can “clean plumes” ‐ to shake off the nonexistent dust, to correct a necktie.
The gestures of lie or distrust:
- the touch of eyelid or ear,
- the touch of neck,
- the extension of collar;
- the hand, which closes mouth. That to disguise the last gesture the liar can cough or scratch a nose falsely.
- The opened palms indicate: “I speak truth”.
- Hands in the pockets are the sign of reserved person. Boredom is expressed in the fact that man props up head by hand.
The gestures of aggression:
- the hands are compressed in fists and rested against a belt.
- The demonstration of thumbs indicates: “I am Boss” or “Everything is all right”.
- Hands back (the gesture of policeman) indicates: “I do not fear to you”.
- The hands, crossed on the breast, indicate protection.
- The round-shouldered back means an inferiority complex.
- Landing astride on a chair when the back of a chair is ahead, means protection:.
- The V-shaped sign fingers when the hand is turned by a palm to the interlocutor, has offensive value – "shut up". When the hand is turned to the interlocutor by the back – "victory".
- Long fixed view in combination with the narrow pupils (“snake” view) indicate rage in prison.
Erving Goffman observed the life of cripples, patients of psychiatric hospitals, visitors of casino in America. According to its observations, the bureaucrat‐representative of middle class is forced to develop his capability for social mimicry, to create his image on the service. Image is social role. Each politician has own image also. It is possible to give examples of the successful images: vice‐President of Russia Boris Yeltsin has image “The father of nation”, the vice‐President of the USA Ronald Reagan was “ordinary guy”. Leader of liberal‐democratic party of Russia Vladimir Zhirinovsky has image “Clown”. Vice-mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov has image “Ordinary guy in the cap”, vice‐Governor general Alexander Lebed has image “Real Colonel”. The actor Alexei Buldakov has played a role of "the real colonel" in the movie "Peculiarities of the National Hunt". The singer Alla Pugacheva has sung the "Real Colonel" song. President Vladimir Putin has image “the creator of order”. leader of party “Union of Right Forces” in Russia Boris Nemtsov has image “curly-haired favorite of women”. Bad image testifies about professional unfitness to the role of elective politician. Ronald Reagan, as the former actor, who played cowboys and superman, used bodybuilding and cosmetic for creating the this image. When husband and wife come to guests, then wife demonstrates respected subordination to the will ofmhusband, although she behaves completely differently at home. If blind person reminds about own misfortunes constantly and thus blind person degrades its merit, then people begin to avoid contact with this blind person, bedause they don't want to have unnecessary problems. It is considered to be that the low cost of a wedding ring demonstrates that the fiancé appreciates the bride a little.
According to Herbert Blumer, interaction is the continuous dialogue, in process of which the people observe, comprehend the intentions of each other and react to them. People play scenes as performances in the miniature in order to deceive, push away, throw into confusion, to offend, humiliate or, on the contrary, to show high opinion about the person. Joseph Stalin loved to be late to the conference in order to show that Joseph Stalin is most important and nothing will begin without Joseph Stalin. Confusion is the sign of error in this game and confusion is the expression of request to repeat the attempt. People, noted “shameful brand”, can experience difficulties in the contact, because it is difficult to produce a good impression for this people. The color of the skin, scar on face, prosthesis,bbirthmark to half of face and so on can become this brand. Such people try to hide their “brand” and they manage it temporarily sometimes.
Harold Garfunkel studied the rules of the communication between the people, which determine that, when it is appropriate to say something or to be silent, to joke or to deviate from sneers, to tie conversation or to end conversation delicately. If man violates the rules of communication, this causes anger and bewilderment. Husband and wife understand each other from the half word and they associate with help of the hints, for example, husband speaks that their son threw the coin into the automatic machine on the parking today, this hint means that their son had grown that their son has so grown up that can reach a cut for coins in the automatic machine.