Interesting social sciences/Pedagogy. School
My purpose is a comparison of results of the school’s reforms in Russia and in Britain. School’s reform has begun in Britain (in 1988) earlier, then in Russia. School’s reform in Russia has conducted on a sample of new‐conservative school’s reform in Britain, that allow to predict the follow steps of school’s reform in Russia, that to avoid repetition of mistakes in carrying out this reform in Britain.
School reform in Britain
The main goals of the school’s reform in Britain:
- It is necessary to force of schools to compete with each other for the commitment of parents and pupils.
- It is necessary to create for pupils the freedom to choose of schools. It is necessary to create for schools the freedom to choice of quality of pupils.
- It is necessary to orient the attention of school administration to the needs of the economy. It is necessary to orient the attention of school administration to the teaching of the necessary professions. Consultants (major sponsors and local entrepreneurs) have entered to the composition of school boards for this purpose.
Financing sources of schools in Britain after reforms
- There is the state order. Schools begin to receive the money directly from the Ministry of education after reform, bypassing local education agencies in the size of a certain amount of money for each pupil. Than more pupils is educated in school, that more money this school receives from the Ministry of education. As a result some schools by itself were ruined and closed because of falling of the quantity of pupils and the corresponding reduction of money. In fact, the government pays this money for education of rather poor pupils. The meaning of local agencies of education has declined, and it is necessary to close these agencies of education, for example, Department of education of the central region of London was closed, formally – because of the bloated staff, actually – for resistance to reform and for upholding of the position of the equal opportunities in education.
- There is sponsor's help and paid educational services.
The equal right to education, but unequal results of education
Non State private privileged schools are capable to give the highest level of education in Britain, this schools exist on money of parents solely. The British public school acts as “sorting” system named “streaming". Thus, it was eradicated in Britain with a unified State school which was focused on the equality in education. There are no privileges in modern capitalist society, people have equal opportunities, but people have unequal abilities by their nature, therefore people should have unequal incomes and unequal levels of education on justice. Government provides the opportunity to receive higher education at the expense of the state budget for talented, but rather poor pupils, but it is not the sense to give higher education to all pupils. System of “sorting” allows to develop various inclinations at pupils, for example, the inclination to technics, economics or music, system of “sorting” allows to give skills and abilities instead of abstract and often useless education. For example, the privileged schools bring up the elite in Britain, and technical schools bring up the skilled workers. Neo‐conservators consider that the ability to manage by people, adventurousness and business grasp are much more important under advancing on the social ladder than ability to study.
Steps of school reform in Britain:
- Introduction of the national basic program guaranteeing that all pupils study the same important subjects to sixteen-year age.
- Introduction of national testing of knowledge. It is necessary to published the results of these tests that parents were able to compare the level of teaching in different schools.
- Introduction of school boards which distribute incomes of school, for example, school boards are distributing the incomes of schools to the salary of teachers, repair of the room or the book for library.
- Introduction of free reception and expel of pupils from school, irrespective of the residence when the school seeks to achieve the opposite objectives – on the one hand, to expand the number of pupils in school, on the other hand, to improve quality of educational services in this school and to preserve reputation of decent school. Expansion of number of pupils increases the sum of income. But reputation of school suffers because of reception of a bad pupils. The reputation of school suffers because of decrease in results of tests. The reputation of school suffers because of decrease in level of discipline at a lesson. The reputation of school suffers because of decrease of qualities of teaching when good pupils begin to go to other more prestigious schools, and the school needs only to specialize in training of pupils with bad behavior and from poor families. After that the prestige of this school perishes finally. Therefore schools try to expand, whenever possible, number of pupils at the expense of good pupils. Schools compete with each other for involvement of good pupils that to preserve reputation. Reduction of the number of pupils, eventually, leads to closing of school because of financial problems.
Disputes around the school reform in Britain
Method of testing of knowledge has caused the numerous disputes about effectiveness of testing and protests against excessive toughening of difficulties of questions of tests. Method of testing for knowledge has caused protests against the announcement of their results. Teachers claim that tests don't take into account of differences in level of abilities for pupils. Teachers claim that tests are opened for a juggling, that tests require of excessive efforts from teachers for training of pupils to examine, while teachers are so loaded excessively also. Ministers of education, on the other hand, say that tests raise quality of teaching and tests provide information for parents about quality of teaching at each school.
Conclusion: system of the education has turned into a form of business in Britain and this system allowed to improve the quality of teaching.
School reform in Russia
There were a list of problems in system of the Russian school’s education before the reform:
- There were the low level of teaching, when the teacher hasn't interested in improving of the quality for teaching. Private property of the enterprise is more effective than state ownership in any sphere of business, including the education. Market competition is better than the normative distribution of services.
- There were a low level of discipline in the Soviet and Russian school, where the administration of school could not expel of pupil from school for bad behavior and for bad estimations. School administration can’t expel pupil in Russia and today.
Course of carrying out of school reform in Russia.
School reform has begun with development of standards all subjects, then process of licensing and certification of educational institutions has begun. Some schools were able to pass this procedure with the second attempt only. Unified State Exam was conducted in the form of tests in 2003 at first, this examination has shown tha a different quality of teaching exists in different schools. Method of testing, despite all shortcomings, gives an objective picture of the level of teaching, when the teacher is deprived of opportunity to overestimate or to underestimate the estimation for pupil even for bribe or under pressure of administration.
7 schools (№4, 6, 7, 13, 22, 26, 27) from 30 schools and 1 technical school (№ 8) from 9 technical schools were closed down in the town Berezniki of Perm Krai in Russia in recent years, because of reducing of birth rate in the 90th years of the 20th century, but increase of birth rate has began in Russia with 2013. The Ministry of education is going to pay in the near future to the each school for quantity of pupils which learn in this school. Reduction of quantity of pupils has led to a reduction of quantity of teachers in schools already. Administration of schools is forced to gather the money from parents of pupils for repair of school and for protection of pupils, administration of schools is forced to search sponsors, first of all from among rich parents of pupils. There were not cases of closure of local agencies of education in Russia. Some schools have gone to way of improve its reputation with help of specialization on teaching of certain subjects – physics, mathematics or English, with help of creating Cadet classes, with help of creating courses of drivers or courses of informatics. Other schools create paid courses with the purpose to earn additional money. Thus, each school tries to find a own niche on market of educational services.
It is necessary to expect the following steps of school reform by an example of Britain in future in Russia:
- the official establishing of system of “sorting” for pupils and decreasing of the age of possible expel of pupils from school.
- increasing the quantity of private paid schools.
- deepening of process of flourishing some schools and closing of others schools.
- growth of degree for horizontal mobility (growth of frequency of transitions) pupils from one school to another school.
The market of educational services in system of higher education in Russia
The emergence and flourishing of paid education and market of educational services have entered amendments in sistem of vocational secondary education (vocational school and colleges) and higher education in Russia. Almost any higher education is partly paid today. Thus, each university has income from sales of their educational services in addition to income from the state order in Russia today. The nature of relationships between teacher and student has changed in conditions of paid education. If the character of this conditions kept within principle “chief‐subordinate” before education reform, when the teacher could expel of student for bad estimations, that the character of this partnership conditions keeps within principle “seller of knowledge and diplomas - buyer of knowledges and diplomas” today. System of education sells today the goods which have names “knowledge and diplomas”. Good discipline is based here on mutual interests in cooperation between teacher and student, rather than on threat before expel. Client (student) has the right to choose such university, which offers an acceptable quality of teaching for an acceptable price. Diplomas of different educational institutions have varying degrees of prestige on the market of labour. It cannot find a work with diplomas of some educational institutions because of low prestige of this university. Students take into account this fact today, when they enter into university. Demand and supply exist on the market of educational services. Educational institutions strive for to satisfy the agiotage demand as soon as possible on new prestigious and deficient professions, that to be ahead of competitors and to receive the excess profit. For example, such specialities as a lawyer, programmer and economist‐accountant were used by greatest demand in the recent past, but agiotage demand was satisfied completely today, excess profit has disappeared and the consumer continues to choose this specialities only by inertia, while the demand for technical specialities has grown considerably today.
That to bring closer the university to place of residence of consumers and to get rid from competition between universities in large cities, capital universities have begun to open branches in small towns. These branches are not able to provide acceptable quality of teaching often. Therefore, many provincial branches of capital universities were closed by the Ministry of Education of Russia today because of the low level of teaching in these branches. Two steps of education and two types of diplomas (bachelor's degree or master's degree) exist in Russian higher education depending from the number of years of learning and estimations of students in frameworks of the Bologna process. Each university was forced to engage by marketing (study of supply and demand on the market). Each university was forced by advertising of their educational services. Each university was forced to pay taxes from their income in the conditions of intense competition.
Conclusion: the creation of a market of educational services is a global tendency and Russia is at the beginning of this way. Building of education market should improve the quality of education and school discipline.
My pedagogy of conflict against utopia of Anton Makarenko
Pedagogy as science
Pedagogy is pseudoscience in Russia today, pedagogy is sum of useless moral and utopian wishes of Nikolay Nekrasov “to sow the reasonable, the kind, the eternal” in Russia today. Pedagogy is a bird feeder for pseudo-scientists striving to receive the scientific degree without any own scientific contribution in Russia today. Teacher‐communist Anton Makarenko offered to build the penal colony for juvenile criminals and tramps on moral control, self‐government and pressure on colonist with side of small groups. It has appeared in fact that to build the school on utopian ideas of Anton Makarenko is impossible task for real organization. It is necessary to dispel this utopian "dream", it is necessary to deprive a utopia of her charm. It is necessary to look at school without illusions. The serious crisis with discipline has turned out in modern Russian school as a result of application of utopian theory of Anton Makarenko on practice. How is it possible to solve this problem? In what way is this problem solved in the West successfully?
In my opinion, it is impossible in principle to build the any organization on moral control, that it is impossible to build the organization on the threat of use of such moral sanctions as praise or insult. Only such small groups as family or group of friends can be built on moral control instead of organizations. Quantity of members can not exceed 15 people in this small group. Whereas quantity of members in organization can reach several thousands of people sometimes, therefore organization can be built on armed, administrative or economic control only. The teacher was deprived of opportunity to apply any sanctions in relation of the pupil for bad behavior in Russia from 1917 and till now actually. The teacher was deprived of the opportunity to leave of pupil for grade retention for bad estimations The teacher was deprived of opportunity to expel of pupil from school. It is guaranteed the completed secondary education for all pupils, even when the pupil doesn't want to study and the pupil prevents to study of other pupils. Full secondary education is guaranteed even to such pupils who cannot learn it because of their low mental abilities. In fact, these pupils with low mental abilities or school hooligans are given false estimations and a false certificate of the school. Only such pupils can be left on grade retention who didn't attend school at all for months. The administration of school may dismiss the teacher for that this teacher put the many unsatisfactory estimations. Parents may submit a complaint on teachers in higher authorities. In fact, school teacher can not punish to pupils for bad behavior in modern Russian school. Pupils provoke of teachers on conflict using this anarchy in school, pupils scoff of teachers, pupils break a lesson, pupils provoke that teacher beats of pupil, pupils shoot this scene on video and then pupils write the complaint on this teacher to police, that leads to the dismissal of this teacher or this teacher gets to prison even. There were cases when pupils beat and kill of teachers for bad estimations even. Pupils know well their rights today and pupils declare their rights to teacher for each opportunity that teacher has no right to put the unsatisfactory estimations for bad behavior. Administration of school requires from teachers to bring the order with discipline on lesson, but this administration does not give in hands of this teacher the possibility to apply the penalties against the infringers of school discipline. Thus, the teacher gets into the desperate situation. If the leader in the organization is deprived of opportunity to apply the sanctions in relation to the subordinates completely, that this organization begins to collapse directly in front of eyes, where the insuperable conflicts arise between the chiefs and subordinates, subordinates begin to order to chiefs.
If Sir Thomas More has told “sheeps eat up and swallow down of men” in period of enclosure in England, that in my opinion “sheeps order by shepherds” in modern Russian school. Whether we like it or not, but society in general, and any organization in particular, for example school, are constructed on the relations of control and conflict for the power between citizens or employees. Any subordinated man dreams to become by a chief, any subordinated man feels a sense of protest in response to the imposition of negative sanctions to him, therefore such subordinated man aspires to conflict with own chief under any convenient case, when chances on success appear at this subordinated man in this conflict, for example, when chief has not the right to punish of own subordinated man.
The regional authorities in Perm Krai have begun to restore activity of the Сommissions on affairs of minors in response on cases of armed attack of pupils on teachers at schools of Russia. This Сommissions on affairs of minors had wright to send of school hooligans on term of 2 years to colony for attack on the teacher at period of Soviet power.
Conclusion: : The structure of colony of Anton Makarenko were fine at first sight but this structure were art fiction of the great storyteller in reality. Pedagogical science, like any science, should not be based on artistic fiction in the construction of a school. Evidences exist that even Anton Makarenko has met with great difficulties with the organization of real life of colony on one primitive moral stimuluses, Anton Makarenko was exposed to insults in side of ordinary colonists and Anton Makarenko begun to beat of colonists. Moral control is a very ancient and primitive invention of epoch of primitive society and it is impossible to build a modern school on these ancient and primitive sanctions. Anton Makarenko was right that moral pressure on the pupil from small group is a great force, but nobody can guarantee that the norms shown by the teacher will coincide with the norms shown by informal leaders of a class. More often happens that the teacher works in a condition of the conflict with informal leaders in fight for power at a lesson therefore the teacher and the informal leader show opposite norms and opposite psychological pressure to pupils, for example, the teacher tries to reward diligent pupils and the informal leader organizes insulting of diligent pupils. Any self-government on Makarenko's model won't allow so that the teacher can subdue of informal leaders without application of severe sanctions to informal leaders who will never agree to refuse voluntarily from pretension on the power at school.
Conclusion: it is necessary to restore the system of administrative control at the Russian school.
System of sorting of pupils in Britain as a sample for imitation for Russia
School system includes the system of “streaming” in England. The system of “streaming” is a system of the sorting of pupils to four streams. Pupils were sent to four streams at the age of 11 years after fourth class on the basis of tests and presence of money at his parents to four sorts of schools:
- independent school, that is private paid privileged schools (excellent schools),
- grammar schools (good schools),
- secondary modern school (mediocre schools)
- secondary technical schools (bad school).
Secondary technical schools have a low level of teaching and low prestige of certificate. Secondary technical schools in England is an analogue of professional‐technical school in Russia, where the main subject is technology, where pupils are trained to simple working professions but where pupils aren't trained to professions of businessman, polician and other highly skilled professions. Pupil enters to professional‐technical school in Russia after ending of 9 class of school in age of 15 yeas old. If pupil shows the inclination to disobedience to teachers in Secondary technical school in Britain, that administration of Secondary technical school has opportunity to expel of this pupil for bad behavior and to deprive of this pupil of opportunity to receive a simple working profession even and to deprive of this pupil of opportunity to earn on a piece of bread for self. Thus, opportunity appears in the hands of the modern English teacher to apply administrative sanctions to pupil for bad behavior, English teacher can send pupil to school of lowest sort or to deprive of pupil of opportunity to receive of education in general.
The difference between the English schools and Russian schools is the following.
- it is possible to expel from school in 11 years in England, and it isn't possible expel in Russia in general.
- There are four sorts schools In England, and there is not formal system of sorting for schools depending on quality of training in Russia.
- Bad pupil and his parents are forced to look for school in England which will agree to teach this bad pupil, whereas a good teacher are forced to look for school with a acceptable level of discipline in Russia. Ministry of education does not give to school the right to expel of pupil on this reason in Russia because the Ministry of education is afraid of indignation and protests in side of parents. In my opinion, such protests are possible from parents for bad pupils only and parents of good pupils will happy to introduce a similar system of sorting, because parents of good pupils forced to look for the school with good level of discipline today too. Spontaneous process of formation of system of sorting for schools occurs all the same because of transitions of pupils from one school to other school in Russia today. The introduction of system for "streaming" will allow to legalize these spontaneous processes in the Russian school.
The basic theses of my pedagogy of conflict
School has to train to pupils for difficulties of the future life. If human society is constructed on the relations of social conflict and social control, on stratification between rich men and poor men, on division on employers and hired workers, that is necessary to train to this relations of pupils in school already. It is necessary to cultivate at pupils the readiness to submission when it is necessary, and readiness to enter to conflict when chances on success exist in the aspiration to power. My observations show that violators of school discipline have big problems in life due to the lack of this readiness for submission and too high ambitions subsequently. Violators of school discipline are incapable neither to work, nor to study at university subsequently. These violators of school discipline become by violators of labour discipline, unemployed, alcoholics, criminals, drag addict often or as an exception individual entrepreneurs. If parents accused the school in all sins in the past, that this parents receive the huge problems with the employment of their full age children subsequently. The destiny revenges to these parents by such way for complaints on teachers.
Conclusions: Excellent in appearance pedagogical ideas of Anton Makarenko turn out such harmful utopia in practice, as "scientific" communism of Karl Marx. It is necessary to give the right to school to expel of pupils from schools since 11 years in Russia. it is impossible to give to the pupil a guarantee of receiving senior secondary education. It is necessary to construct the system of sorting of pupils ("streaming") in Russia on base of English samples.
The style of teaching of the different personality types of teachers.
The famous russian teacher Victor Nikolaevich Soroka-Rosinsky named four "breeds" of teachers which description very much reminds the description of my four personality types:
- Benthamites (utilitrists),
My observations were collected during 14 years of work at secondary school as the teacher of history and social sciences. I conducted daily observations of characteristics of behavior of the personality types at school. Each personality type has the unique style of teaching, the unique style of establishing of order at a lesson and the unique style of compositions of textbooks. If the director of school know how to determine the personality type of teachers, then director of school can foresee the suitability degree, the strong and weak sides of these teachers previously. If the representative of publishing house knows how to determine the personality type of the author of textbook, thus this representative of publishing house will be able to foresee previously the suitability degree for the teaching of this textbook, which this author is capable to write. Only theorist is capable to create outstanding textbook. It is possible to foresee previously that the hostile relations will arise between the opposite personality types in the school collective.
In my opinion, each personality type has a peculiar style of teaching, style of establishing order at a lesson and style of compositions:
- Teacher-psychologist knows how to create the warm friendly atmosphere in the lesson. Pupils relate to teacher-psychologist as to the prophet. Teacher-psychologist manages with his role of teacher in at elementary school best of all, where the pupils relate to teacher-psychologist as to the mother. Teacher-psychologist is the born tutor. Teacher-psychologist understood psychology of pupil perfectly, but teacher-psychologist is insufficiently exacting. Teacher-psychologist doesn't decide to use administrative sanctions to pupils. Teacher-psychologist doesn't decide to give negative estimates, that leads to such mistake as relations of familiarity, especially in high school, where the pupils‐speakers begin to flirt with teacher-psychologist as with their girlfriend. Teacher-psychologist has a inclination to overestimate of estimates frequently. Teacher-psychologist does not monitoring the cleanliness in the classroom, where the desks start to collapse by the end of the year, because of pupils speakers the sake of a joke have turned out from desks all fixing bolts and nuts. Teacher-psychologist does not know how to use “whip”, but pupils love teacher-psychologist for the kindness and understanding of their problems. Teacher-psychologist knows how to organize the evenings of rest. Teacher-psychologist knows how to dance and to sing soulful songs. Teacher-psychologist does not love teaching method and teacher-psychologist doesn't preparing to conducting of lesson frequently. Teacher-psychologist hopes on the improvisation only, teacher-psychologist does not have a plan of lesson, teacher-psychologist begins his speech and does not know, than he will finish that he wants to prove. There is too much pathos and spirituality in his speech, as if teacher-psychologist “prophesies” not in the class, but in the temple. Teacher-psychologist often takes away conversation thread aside from the studied subject by a method of free associations often. Teacher-psychologist concedes to teacher-theorist in logic, teacher-psychologist concedes to teacher-technician in concretenesses of thinking, teacher-psychologist concedes to teacher-speaker in the presence of the common sense and leadership skills. Pupils cannot answer intelligible on question about that were useful such sciences as praxeology, culturology, ethics or another torn from the life pseudoscience, which the teacher-psychologist taught during half a year. Such pupils have feeling that they have simply wasted time.
- Teacher‐technician watch for pupils carefully. Teacher‐technician suppresses all attempts to engage by extraneous work or to draw on the desk immediately. That to keep purity of school desks, teacher‐technician forces by each pupil to be responsible for own desk, teacher‐technician checks the cleanliness of desks after each lesson. Teacher‐technician loves to speak moral sermon for a long time and to carp at each trifle. Teacher‐technician knows how loudly and with benefit to shout to the pupils on the lesson. Teacher‐technician attains by careful and accurate fulfillment of home works and teacher‐technician isn't sorry to spend a lot of time on checking of this home works. Teacher‐technician prefers to underestimate by estimations and teacher‐technician prefers not to give excellent estimations in general. Teacher‐technician has many conflicts with the pupils, but teacher‐technician copes with a problem of maintenance of discipline in general. Teacher‐technician likes teaching method more than other personality types of teachers, teacher‐technician likes to use different cards of tasks, plans of lessons, tests. Teacher‐technician forces by pupils to write dictionaries of terms, to learn all dates, to learn very long, often outdated definitions and to work with maps. A certain backwardness and the superfluous conservatism of views is main problem of teacher‐technician in the process of the teaching of social sciences. It is very difficult for teacher‐technician that to pass on teaching according to new textbooks, but new textbooks on the history and social sciences appear in in Russia each year today. This teacher‐technician begins to lag behind the life hopeless, teacher‐technician tries to refuse flatly from teaching on the new textbooks; therefore administration of school forced to send this old reactionary to the pension. The reason for this backwardness lies in the fact that teacher‐technician lag in the development of abstract thinking in comparison with the theorists. It is possible to advise by teacher‐technician to select for the teaching such exact science as physics, technical drawing, informatics or chemistry instead of the social sciences. School textbooks don't change by decades in the exact science; therefore it is possible to accumulate tests and cards of tasks entire life. Lectures of teacher-technician are boring and monotonous, there is no improvisation and fantasy in this Lectures of teacher-technician, but teacher‐technician is capable to force by pupils to learn the outdated dogmas. Pupils sleep from the boredom at his lectures often. Teacher‐technician is capable to give good level of knowledge in general. Teacher‐technician knows how to hold distance between themselves and pupils. Teacher‐technician prefers the official style of relations with the subordinates and the chiefs.
- Teacher‐speaker knows how to support the highest level of discipline at the lesson, as teacher‐speaker is the born leader. Pupilss relate to teacher‐speaker as to the father, even if teacher‐speaker is woman. Contrary to the teacher‐theorist, teacher‐speaker is interested by life of its pupils very much. Teacher‐speaker remembers their names always. His main problem is low theoretical level and superficial knowledge, because teacher‐speaker is interested by human relations and teacher‐speaker isn't interested by the content of the theories and books. Clever pupil (theorist) loses time in his lectures simply, what causes natural irritation at this clever pupil. Teacher‐speaker reads any additional literature on the subject never, besides state textbook; therefore teacher‐speaker is capable to retell this textbook word for word at a lesson only, although clever pupil is capable of reading this textbook himself without assistance. This teacher‐speaker seeks to become the head of school or the organizer of scientific conferences. Just teacher‐speaker approaches to these roles better than other personality types, as teacher-speaker is the born leader and teacher‐speaker possesses the widest circle of contacts among these scientists, although scientists relate to teacher-speaker with the certain fraction of contempt because of the inclination of speaker toward the plagiarism. The teacher‐speaker has no inclination to creation of the original ideas, therefore teacher‐speaker is forced to steal them at other authors. The absence of inclination toward the creation of original ideas indicates complete professional unfitness of teacher-speaker to the role of scientist‐theorist, although the teacher-speaker can have the scientific degree, obtained “thanks to acquaintance” nevertheless. Teacher-speaker likes games and exercises in sphere of teaching method. Teacher-speaker passes on teaching according to new textbooks easily, as teacher-speaker had strong beliefs never, for example, if teacher-speaker represented from himself by convinced communist yesterday, then teacher-speaker represents from himself by the convinced supporter of liberalism today. If teacher‐speaker told one yesterday, then teacher‐speaker can tell completely opposite today. Teacher‐speaker has no internal principles, teacher‐speaker is guided on dominating in society and science of belief, the principles, the points of view always and teacher‐speaker likes to trim the sails to the wind.
- Teacher‐theorist knows how to to attract interest to own suject better than others personality types. His lectures are very deep and original in the content, but teacher‐theorist is not interested by his pupils completely, teacher‐theorist doesn't know their names often even. Teacher‐theorist is interested by books and theories more than surrounding people. Teacher‐theorist flying mentally in the space of their ideas and teacher‐theorist doesn't see completely that happens at him near by, teacher‐theorist is too absent-minded person. Teacher‐theorist has excelent domestic library often, and the books are his best friends. Most serious problems with discipline appear at teacher‐theorist in the secondary school in comparison with other personality types of teachers, but these problems disappear under work of teacher‐theorist in university, where students appreciate originality and the usefulness of information more than the degree of contactability and leader’s qualities. The qualification level of secondary school isn't sufficient level for teacher-theorist. Teacher-theorist attempts to compose the tyrannical code of ethics on the lesson for the pupils, where the corresponding punishments are prescribed for the talks on outside themes, delays on the lesson or roughness in relation to teacher, but it isn't enough advantage of this code. Just teacher-theorist is capable to conduct fundamental scientific research. Teacher‐theorist doesn't communicate with colleagues almost. Teacher‐theorist reconstructs to teaching on the new textbooks easily, because teacher‐theorist loves novelty and originality of ideas. Teacher‐theorist prefers extremes in the estimations ‐ either excellent estimations or unsatisfactory estimations. Teacher‐theorist has own original point of view on any question. Teacher‐theorist possesses by encyclopedic knowledge on his subject. His thinking is characterized by paradoxical. His lectures have clear structure, his lectures are divided into the separate points: striking example, biography of thinker, laconic definition, problem, conclusion, classification. Therefore pupil are capable to learn and to remember his lectures easily.
Style of writing of the textbook
Each personality type has own style of compositions, own style of writing of the textbook. For example, the style of the compositions of author-psychologist is sublime, poetic and figurative. Teacher-psychologist uses many myths and descriptions of his own internal experiences, pathos and religious fiction in the text his textbook. A similar text resembles chaotic stream of consciousness and this text has too large a volume. This style is completely suitable for statement of history for the children, but this style is unsuitable for the statement of social sciences. The absence of accuracy and the absence o laconism is shortcomings in the style of the compositions of teacher-psychologist.
The style of compositions of author-technician is boring, there are not striking examples in his textbook, but there are too many figures and dates in his textbook. His textbook is written according to the principle: "If it is more incomprehensible, that it looks wiser". Just such textbooks on the social sciences are unfit for the teaching completely.
The style of the compositions of author-speaker is popular and superficial. A shortcoming of this style is the absence of serious information and inability to state the essence of subject. Pupil finds out after reading such textbook that that this pupil learned nothing essentially new. Author-speaker writes textbook according to the principle: "It is necessary to cut quotes from someone else's books and it is necessary to insert by quotes into the text of own textbook". Style of the author-speaker is suitable for a statement of history and it isn't suitable for statement of a social science completely.
Style of author-theorist is very logical and laconic, teacher-theorist seeks to classify all information. Author-theorist is the generator of the original ideas. Such style is the best for the author of the textbook.
The different personality types choose by different social sciences for the scientific work and for the teaching. Teacher-psychologist chooses by culturology, ethics, aesthetics, psychology or religious studies. Teacher-technician chooses by empirical research in sociology (microsociology). Teacher-speaker chooses the history or economics. Teacher-theorist chooses by logic or macrosociology.
Examples of philosopher‐psychologists is Socrates, Plato, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx.
Philosopher‐technicians is Immanuel Kant and John Locke.
Philosopher‐speakers is Erasmus, Francis Bacon, Friedrich Engels and Vladimir Lenin.
Philosopher‐theorists is Aristotle, René Descartes, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Auguste Comte and Bertrand Russell.
The different personality types choose for the teaching different subjects in Secondary school. Teacher-psychologist chooses music, art, dance, drama, religious education and literature. Teacher-technician chooses chemistry, biology, physics, technical drawing, information and communication technology, animal husbandry, woodwork, design technology and food technology. Speaker chooses health and hygiene, Ancient Greek, history, the Russian language, foreign language, geography, commerce and home economics. Theorist chooses mathematics, sociology and social science.
Teacher-psychologist chooses in university the teaching of art criticism, painting, sculpture and so on. Teacher-technician chooses the teaching of technical sciences ‐ electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and so on. Teacher-speaker chooses the teaching of economic sciences ‐ economics, management and so on. Teacher-theorist chooses further mathematics or philosophical sciences.
Style of training of different personality types of pupils
There is benefit from the skill of teacher to determine the personality type of pupils. This benefit consists of the following:
- First of all, teacher can see in advance the potential instigators of the failure of lesson. This potential instigators of the failure of lesson is speakers. Teacher has the possibility to take preventive measures to this potential instigators of the failure of lesson. For example, teacher can send this potential instigators to the first desks and to place this potential instigators under own strengthened visual supervision, or to give to this potential instigators separate written task at the beginning of lesson in order to neutralize their energy.
- Secondly, teacher can know the preferred or avoided forms of interrogation for each personality type and teacher can change this forms for each pupil individually. For example, pupil-psychologist prefers to answer orally about questions of culture. Pupil-technician prefers the testing in the written form about the dates and the definitions. Pupil-technician prefer to answer on questions of homework only in the form the short answers to questions. Pupil-technician is "swot". Pupil-technician has undeveloped oral speech. Pupil-speaker prefers oral answer at the board in the form of the retelling of the yesterday's lecture of teacher. Pupil-speaker has good hearing memory, although pupil-speaker don't like to write the abstract and to perform homework. Pupil-theorist is afraid to speak before pupils at a board panically. Pupil-theorist prefer conduct analytical work ‐ to set the task, to draw conclusions, to find a mistake in reasonings, to make classification.
- Thirdly, teacher can know in advance the state of the abstract of pupil. Pupil-technician has the best abstract, his abstract has maximum volume and excellent handwriting. The pupil-technician tries to summarize literally as pupil-technician is able to select the main contents in a lecture badly. Pupil-technician tries to summarize literally as pupil-technician is able to select badly the main contents in a lecture. The abstract can be absent at the pupil-speaker in general or the volume of this abstract is minimum, therefore just speaker can submit on check someone else's abstract instead of own abstract. Abstracts are in satisfactory condition at pupil-psychologist and at pupil-theorist, although handwriting of pupil-theorist is bad. Teacher can find in the abstract of the pupil-psychologist many drawings on outside themes, for example, there are many drawings of cats, dogs and portraits of this teacher.
- Fourthly, teacher can foresee the degree of an interest of each personality type in each school subject or to each theme of social sciences. For example, pupil-psychologist prefers to study such themes as “religion”. Pupil-technician prefers to study this theme as “the methods of empirical sociology”. Pupil-speaker prefers to study this theme, as “small groups”. Pupil-speaker is interested in his status in small group very much, and pupil-speaker is proud of experimental confirmation of his leader status in small group very much. Theorist prefers to study such themes as “formal logic” or “academic sociology”.
Each personality type has own inclinations in the training. This inclinations are as follows:
- Pupil-psychologist tries to elicit the good estimations at teacher and pupil-psychologist tries to humiliate before teacher. Pupil-psychologist tries to establish good personal relations with the teacher. Pupil-psychologist tries to use subtle flattery. Pupil-psychologist tries to study and to use human weaknesses of teacher. But teacher should remember that just pupil-psychologist is capable to write denunciation in higher instances to this teacher. Pupil-psychologist has a inclination to visit the theatrical circles. Pupil-psychologist has a inclination toward high sexuality and too early sex, therefore boys begin “to flirt” with the girl‐psychologist in school already. Pupil-psychologist has the peculiar style of answer before blackboard, pupil-psychologist is capable “to mill for hours the wind”. Thus, the pupil-psychologist has well developed speech and a certain deficiency of common sense.
- Pupil-technician has great inclination toward the laboratory works. His technical drawings have high quality. Pupil-technician manifests own "clever fingers" on lesson of technology. A car is his main hobby of pupil-technician. Pupil-technician does not love creative tasks and pupil-technician prefers to routine. Pupil-technician participates in the failure of lesson never. Thus, the pupil-technician deserves encouragement for diligence and good behavior.
- Pupil-speaker does not know how to keep silent entire lesson. To keep silent entire lesson is real torture for pupil-speaker, therefore pupil-speaker begins to talk with the neighbor on the desk on the outside themes and thus pupil-speaker begins to prevent to teacher. There are many pupils-speakers in the class (46%) in Ural, therefore the first desks in the class remind ranks of cages with the trained tigers in the circus often, from where speakers‐tigers watch fixedly for actions of "trainer" (teacher) and speakers‐tigers catch each mistake of teacher, for example, one of the mistakes of teacher is to be turned by back to the speakers. It isn't necessary to do concessions under punishment of the pupil-speaker, so pupil-speaker understand any concession as weakness. The relations of teacher with the speakers represent the relations of the conflict, which fades or erupts with a new force now and again. It is necessary to punish the pupil-speaker periodically. Pupil-speaker is the born nonformal leader, therefore pupil-speaker searches for any possibility to show by teacher, as formal leader, the degree of influence of this pupil-speaker on school class. The successful failure of lesson means that the influence of nonformal leader is more than the influence of formal leader (teacher). Speaker‐organizer of failure of lesson tries to hide behind the back of executors and speaker‐organizer of failure of lesson tries to hide own role under the failure of lesson that to avoid punishment. To reveal this instigator of the failure of lesson is possible with help of sociometry and visual test on personality type. It is possible to reveal the composition of small groups and persons of leaders with help of the sociometry. Attentive visual observation indicates those groups, which took separately active part in of the process of failure the lesson. If ordinary members of small group took active part in process of failure of lesson, that it is possible to assume that ordinary members have received such task from the leader and ordinary members performed this task obediently. Therefore it is necessary to punish not only ordinary performers, but also it is necessary to punish the leader of this revolting group necessary. Pupil-speaker remembers information on the social sciences easily and pupil-speaker is guided in the passable information easily. Pupil-speaker is capable to answer a simple question easily. Pupil-speaker is capable to repeat the point of view of teacher easily. Pupil-speaker possesses a good common sense and excellently developed oral speech s. Pupil-speaker is not inclined to digress. from theme in contrast to the psychologist.
- Pupil-theorist has a inclination toward the study of such abstract subjects as mathematics, social sciences, philosophy, sociology, politology. Pupil-theorist gives preference to the study of those sciences, in which the procedure of a logical conclusion is applied, for example, theorems are output from axioms with help of logical of conclusion in geometry. Pupil-theorist doesn't love descriptive sciences and the study of languages. Pupil-theorist changes the objects of its special interest sometimes after that pupil-theorist understood the main content in the next science. Pupil-theorist doesn't interest fine details and applied researches in contrast to pupil-technician. The hobby of pupil-theorist is chess. Pupil-theorist has very bad handwriting, his public speech is very logical, but this speech has no gloss. Such speech is presented to the listeners as too laconic. Pupil-theorist feels panic fear before public speech. It is possible to find big knowledge in his answer, but pupil-theorist isn't able to give this big knowledge to public. Pupil-theorist is exposed to sneers from superior forces of speakers often. These conditions of constant pressure from the side of pupils-speakers bring up strong and persistent character at pupil-theorist. Pupil-theorist take part in the failure of lessons never. Pupil-theorist is capable to notice and to indicate to a mistake in the teacher's lecture, which causes a certain irritation from the side of this teacher sometimes, this teacher begins to suspect, that this pupil-theorist knows more than this teacher.
Each personality type has own inclination toward reading of the books on different themes:
- Pupil-psychologist prefers to read amorous love stories or fantasy.
- Pupil-technician prefers to read culinary recipes, medical or technical literature like repair of TV or car.
- Pupil-speaker prefers to read entertaining literature, like the detectives or news about high society.
- Pupil-theorist prefers to read scientific literature for for profound studying of a subject to which pupil-theorist has a interest.
Each personality type has own style of the memorization of foreign words and own type of memory:
- Pupil-psychologist has image memory to the foreign words.
- The speaker has inclination to learn foreign languages in the course of direct communication with carriers of this language by immersion on language environment, for example in the international camp.
- The technician has visual memory therefore he learns foreign words by means of repeated recording on paper of these words.
- Pupil-theorist has logical memory; therefore it is necessery for pupil-theorist to construct the semantic chains in the process of learning of foreign words. Pupil-theorist tries to think up and squeeze such Russian word between the foreign word and its Russian translation, which is close to the foreign word in the sounding, and which is close in the sense to the Russian word, for example, english word "admire" ‐ “admiral” ‐ means russian word "восхищаться", "dissolve" ‐ “salt” ‐ means "растворяться".
Different the personality types prefer to do different kind of sports in lesson of physical education:
- Pupil-speaker prefers the command kinds of sport ‐ basketball, football, volleyball and so on, where there is a possibility of wide contact.
- Pupil-theorist prefers such kinds of the sport, where pupil-theorist is possible to avoid contact with the surrounding people. Pupil-theorist prefers to play sports with use of sports equipment. Pupil-theorist prefers chess, olympic weightlifting, track and field athletics.
- Pupil-technician prefers the technical kindss of sport (shooting sport and motorcycle racing).
- Pupil-psychologist prefers kinds of sport, which require the development of artistic abilities ‐ figure skating and artistic gymnastics.
Each personality type has own degree of aspiration toward obtaining of knowledge:
- Pupils-speakers have lowest degree of aspiration toward obtaining of knowledge, therefore just pupils-speakers are the organizers of the failure of lessons and to conflicts with the teacher. Just students-speakers throw studies in the educational institutions voluntarily or students-speakers are expeled as a result academic debts more often than other personality types. Students-speakers obtained the possibility to obtain satisfactory estimations in the exchange for the payment of educational services or with help of the bribe for the teachers under the contemporary conditions for paid education in Russia. Just students-speakers were capable to buy false diploma about the education. Students-speakers learn not for the sake of aspiration to knowledge, but the sake for good estimations and for obtaining of the diploma, which must give to students-speakers desired chance to hold a senior position. The style of training of pupils-speakers is writing off from a сheat sheet or writing off at the neighbor and other forms of fraud in the training, pupils-speakers reach large perfection in this skill. Just pupil-speaker knows how to exploit his friends, whom pupil-speaker forces to give him help under the fulfillment of course works and diploma works. Teacher must consider this inclination of pupil-speaker and teacher must keep by pupil-speaker under strengthened visual control, especially during the examination or the tests. Just pupil-speakers don't love to learn.
- Pupil-theorists, who learn from the soul, manifest the highest degree of aspiration toward the knowledge. Obtaining knowledge is one of the main vital needs of pupil-theorist, for the satisfaction to whom pupil-theorist is ready to overcome any obstacles. For example, theorists Mikhail Lomonosov and Ivan Pavlov arrived into St. Petersburg on foot, after overcoming way into hundreds of kilometers that to enter into the university. Theorist Pitirim Sorokin passed “by hare” because of the absence of money to the ticket in the train half of road to St. Petersburg, where Pitirim Sorokin intended to enter into the university. Many theorists became titans titans of science. Pupil-theorist does not try to attain outstanding estimations on all subjects, so pupil-theorist learns not for the estimations. Pupil-theorist expends all his efforts on the profound study of the separate subjects, which generated his scientific interest, and pupil-theorist has satisfactory or good estimations on the remaining subjects. Thus, the style of the training of pupil-theorist is the profound study of subject.
- Pupil-technician and psychologist have the average degree of aspiration toward the knowledge. Pupil-technician learns for the sake of good estimations and for the sake of obtaining of the applied knowledge, useful in the real life. Style of training pupil-technician is daily rote learning of training material.
- The style of the training of pupil-psychologist is the begging of good estimations at the teacher.
It is possible to improve a little by abilities of pupil in the process of training, but born inclinations of pupil set the specific limitations on the results of his training, expressed in the estimations. Otherwise all pupils could learn to excellent estimations only. Any teacher knows existence of these limitations according to his own experience. The task of teacher consists of the skill to reveal and to develop the natural inclinations of pupil. It is impossible to turn the mediocre pupil into the scientific genius like Charles Darwin or Aristotle.
Conclusion consists that the pupil-theorist is most suitable for training, and pupil-speaker brings the maximum quantity of problems for the teacher in the course of training.
Citations and references.
- Sociology Made Simple by Jane L. Thompson, Judith Priestley Butterworth-Heinemann 1996. 6. Education.