Interesting social sciences/Global and environmental issues

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Global problems of the modern world[edit]

Aral sea
Salt dump in Solikamsk
New Orleans, Louisiana, flood during the hurricane Katrina, 2005
Reduction of the area of Arctic ice pack
Dam of Hoover and hydroelectric power station in the USA
Failure in the city of Berezniki at potash plant No.1

Emergence of global society[edit]

Global society is a modern society on all the globe when a uniform world civilization has arisen instead of many isolated local civilizations. This process has begun during Modern history during in Age of Discovery when contacts between various civilizations have begun. Then the European countries have divided rest of the world on colonial empires and European countries have begun to enter the European inventions to other countries. Global society has arisen today. The global parliament - the United Nations - directs this global society today. A global information communication network – the Internet, the system of global migration of population and global tourism, the system of global division of labor between the North and the South, system of global television news service, the system of the global film industry are constructed in global society. English became language of the international communication in this global society. There is a process of deleting of national borders. But there were also global problems which can't be solved by efforts only of one country.

Reports of Club of Rome[edit]

This club has drawn the attention of mankind to global problems for the first time. History of Club of Rome has begun in 1968 when the member of the administrative board of Fiat and the vice-president of the Olivetti company Aurelio Peccei has distributed invitations to gather on a scientific conference to prominent scientists and industrialists. They have limited the structure of a scientific conference to a limit in 100 people. The Club of Rome was engaged in studying of prospects of development of a human civilization by means of development of computer models. They began to hear one report to club annually. Interaction of such factors as the size of the population of Earth, amount of food products, natural resources, the amount of industrial production, state of environment were counted. Scientists warned about the threatening catastrophes in case, if the mankind doesn't change a tendency of own development.

Dennis Meadows has made recommendations that it is necessary to achieve a condition of global balance, that is it is necessary to limit industry growth, but this offer is hardly feasible in practice. Then Eduard Pestel and Mihajlo Mesarovic have suggested not to reach global balance, and to pass to "the organic growth". Jan Tinbergen has studied the conflict between the rich countries and poor countries and Jan Tinbergen has suggested to create a new international order that to achieve of economic equality and Jan Tinbergen has suggested to reduce an abyss between rich countries and poor countries, but full economic equality between rich countries and poor countries is hardly possible.

List of global problems, prospects and ways of their decision:[edit]

  • Danger of nuclear warfare. This danger has decreased considerably after the end of "cold" war between the USA and the USSR when there was economic crash because of a race of arms in the USSR, the collapse of the USSR, economic and political reforms in Russia. Russia has recovered from an economic crisis today and, in response to advance of NATO to Russian borders, Russia begins to develop the armed forces (hypersonic rockets, fighting lasers, tanks T-14 Armata and so on).The USA and NATO has managed to win or subordinate to own influence all countries, except Russia. The USA won't be able to win against Russia in the future as any country in the world couldn't achieve world supremacy in principle. "The nuclear club" included at first only five countries – the USA, the USSR, Britain, France and China which interfered to attempts of other countries to receive the production technology of an atomic or thermonuclear bomb. But tests of nuclear weapons were conducted by India and Pakistan a few years ago, the relations between which are very intense because of disputed territories on border. Work on creation of nuclear weapon is conducted by communist regime in Northern Korea which actions can be absolutely unpredictable. The cardinal solution of this problem in the USA considered creation of a space weapon when it is possible to destroy the opponent's rockets on take-off over others territory by means of orbital lasers, but this project was too expensive.
  • Danger of global terrorism. The USA has undergone the attack from the international terrorists September 11, 2001. two skyscrapers of World Trade Center in New York were destroyed completely and the Pentagon building is damaged with help of passenger planes. The USA have performed in reply the military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Americans have overthrown fundamentalist regime of the Taliban in Afghanistan, Americans have crushed training bases of terrorists in Afghanistan. Americans have managed overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime with small losses in manpower in Iraq, but Americans have big losses in manpower as a result of the guerrilla war and countless acts of terrorism in Iraq today. The operation of the Russian army in Syria has begun in 2015, this operation has allowed to help to Bashar al-Assad's government to beat terrorists of the Islamic State. This operation has allowed Russia to keep the military bases in Syria. The USA has proclaimed the ultimate goal establishment of democracy in the Muslim countries instead of Muaddar Gaddafi's tyranny in Libya and Saddam Husseini's tyranny in Iraq. But terrorists in Muslim countries began to govern as a result of the military operations of the USA and the countries of NATO against these tyrants, Muslim countries have plunged into the abyss of chaos and civil war, the ochlocracy was constructed in Muslim countries instead of democracy. It has turned out that tyranny - it is better, than an ochlocracy. It has turned out that tyranny is lesser of two evils that tyranny is a good form of government for Asia in comparison with an ochlocracy. Operation of the Russian army in Syria has allowed to reduce the number of refugees from Syria to Western Europe and has allowed to finish in Syria terrorists from Chechnya.
  • Danger of new epidemics, such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola virus disease, atypical pneumonia and so on. Danger such "diseases of a civilization", as cancer, allergy, stroke and myocardial infarction. Work on search of new medicines and ways of treatment is conducted today. Prevention of "civilization diseases" is performed by means of development of sport, improvement of ecology, fight against smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction and abortions.
  • Danger of exhaustion of natural resources: oil, natural gas, coal, fresh water, wood, non-ferrous metals, etc. Thanks to the huge undeveloped territory Russia is a seller of many scarce resources traditionally .

Two methods exist of a solution of problem with resources:

  1. economical expenditure of these scarce resources,
  2. search of substitutes to these resources. For example, it is possible to produce furniture not of wood, and of metal or plastic. Methods exist of desalination desalting of salty sea water, but these methods demand considerable expenses of energy. Thefts of wires from aluminum in Russia have in certain cases forced to replace them with wires from steel. Thefts of cables from copper in Russia force to replace them with cables from aluminum.
  • Danger of an energy crisis. Energy costs grow that forces to save energy, to create more economic internal combustion engines. The Chernobyl disaster has shown that nuclear power plants are dangerous objects that has forced to develop projects of safer reactors. Use of alternative energy sources which use energy of the Sun, wind, tide, underground sources of hot water has extended, but all these generators are low-power and depend from climate. The cardinal solution of this problem could become creation of thermonuclear stations which can have an inexhaustible power source, but projects of similar stations are very far from end.
  • Danger of hunger and overpopulation in developing countries against the background of aggravation of problems with obesity and decrease of birth rate in civilized countries. It has caused a migration stream from developing countries to civilized countries, it has caused a need of food aid and growth of dependant moods at developing countries. "Green" revolution is application of irrigation, new agricultural machinery, high-yielding plant varieties and the breeds of the cattle giving high return. "Green" revolution has to solve a problem of hunger. It is necessary that farms have forced out primitive forms of the organization of work of peasants. The problem of high birth rate can be solved with the help of means of restriction of birth rate. For this purpose powers have applied high taxes on the second and subsequent children in China, but these measures lead to appearance of "underground" children in China sometimes.
  • Danger of incompetence of people which leads to a gap between escalating complexity of the world around and a possibility of the person to be guided in the new world. That to solve this problem, it is necessary to develop an education system. But the system of paid education puts insuperable barriers to poor students.

Conclusion consists that all global problems are in a stage of partial permission today. The mankind manages to solve sooner or later any problem then new problems begin to arise. All history of mankind represents an infinite chain of emergence and permission new and emerging problems.

Environmental issues[edit]

Some global environmental problems:[edit]

  • Destruction of an ozone layer of the atmosphere of Earth and warming of climate as a result of pollution of the atmosphere of Earth . The growing emissions of carbon dioxide appear on Earth as a result of growth of amount of the burned organic fuel — oil, gas, coal. The share of carbon dioxide has increased on ¼ from 1850 to today. The ozone layer protects Earth from ultraviolet radiation from Space which causes skin cancer at people. Environmental pollution leads to such diseases as an allergy and cancer. Further environmental pollution can make our planet as unsuitable for life. It is necessary to reduce emissions of waste to the atmosphere, but it threatens by reduction of growth of industrial production. Ozone in the atmosphere is destroyed because of industrial use of gas of the freon applied in refrigerators and in aerosol spray cans. The developed countries try not to apply freon and to replace him with other gases according to the international agreement, but developing countries continue to use this gas.
  • Flooding of huge coastal territories and thawing of polar ices because of warming of climate of Earth. Average temperature on the planet can increase on 1,5-5 degrees to 2100. Ices on poles must melt and global sea level will increase on tens of meters, the coastal cities and territories will appear under water, first of all, Holland, St. Petersburg, and so on.
  • Car exhaust is causing great damage to Earth 's air pool. Producers seek to make in the West today such cars which consume less fuel, that their exhaust gases contain less harmful substances. Use of electric vehicles could become the cardinal solution of this problem, but rather capacious automotive battery isn't invented for electric vehicles so far therefore the power and size of a run of electric vehicles without recharge are left low. . Electric vehicles on solar batteries are created, but they are too low-power and they can work only in the afternoon.

Production has grown in 100 times within the 20th century that has created intolerable load of the nature and has caused degradation of nature. By calculations of ecologists, admissible consumption of primary production of the biosphere — air, water, the woods, production of soils — shouldn't exceed 1%, then the nature can restore damage caused to her. But today the mankind consumes 10% of what is created by the nature. The mankind produces too much garbage than other nature.

Environmental pollution attracts additional expenses on waste disposal (for example, on evacuation and burial of radioactive waste of nuclear power plants), on water purification, lands and air, on treatment of people, for example, after the Chernobyl disaster. The rich countries spend for these purposes about 0,8% — 1,5% of gross national product annually, since 1970. Such expenses appear too expensive for poor countries, and environmental pollution continues in the terrifying scales in poor countries. This problem is particularly acute in Russia today.

Environmental problems of Russia and attempts of their decision:[edit]

  • Danger of radiation environmental pollution. The Chernobyl disaster has shown danger of use of primitive nuclear reactors. The degree of protection of reactors against explosion was increased later. Near-surface atomic explosions were conducted for the solution of the economic purposes in the north of the Perm region near the lake Chusovskoye March 23, 1971. Builders wanted to dig the channel from Pechyora to Kama by means of atomic explosions that to supply by water to the drying Caspian Sea, but nothing came of this attempt. There were three near-surface explosions. As a result, the channel was created with 700 m, and a width of 340 m, a channel depth of 10 to 15 meters filled with radioactive water. Number of cancer patients increased in the north of Perm region.
  • Huge harm to the environment from use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, when their most part gets to rivers together with sewage. It was forbidden to use the most harmful pesticides.
  • Pollution of rivers with help of drains of industrial wastes and sewer drains. That to avoid this, treatment facilities are being built and fresh water is being used in a closed cycle, scientists suggest to pump harmful industrial wastes and sewer drains into mine emptiness.
  • Salinization of the soil as a result of plentiful irrigation by river water. Salinization of the soil has resulted from plentiful irrigation with help of river water in Mesopotamia in the ancient time. Aral Sea has dried up substantially today, and wind carries on vicinities salt from a lake bottom. It has resulted from reduction of drains of the rivers flowing into the lake because a considerable part of water has left from the rivers to irrigation canals. Canals were built in the form of a ditch in sand for the purpose of reduction in cost these construction therefore the lands surrounding of canal have turned into the swamp in the desert. That to reduce loss of water it is necessary to build canals with a reinforced concrete bottom or in the form of a reinforced concrete pipe. Irrigation with help of not distilled river water in the desert leads to salinization of this desert inevitably. That to solve this problem drip irrigation is applied in Israel when watering of vegetables when the plastic tube approaches to each plant from which water exudes "a drop behind a drop".
  • Construction of hydroelectric power stations in low areas which has led to flooding of the most fertile lands. Lands are won from the sea in Netherlands, and the most fertile lands are flooded in Russia. Hydroelectric power stations on Volga and Kama can be as example. That to avoid that, it is recommend to build hydroelectric power stations only in mountains today.
  • Environmental problems in forest industry. Too much of the thrown wood remains when the wood harvest.
  • The crash of tankers with oil or breaks of pipelines. That to avoid it, tankers with the double case are used today.

Environmental problems of the cities of Berezniki and Solikamsk as examples of local environmental problems and methods of their decision:[edit]

  • Poisoning of the water and air basin by waste of chemical and metallurgical industry. The city of Berezniki was given a loud rank during the Soviet era: "the republic of chemistry on Kama River ", "The world center of the potash industry". Settling basin "White Sea" exists in Berezniki near Kama River where the VSMPO-AVISMA Titanium-magnesium plant and the Soda factory merge liquid waste.
  • Huge terricons of spent rock, the main part of which is table salt with impurities, ruin the landscape, and saltwater poison everything around.
  • Enormous emptiness under the city as a result of mine developments which have already led to technogenic earthquakes measuring 4-5 points in Solikamsk in 1995 and to earth failures on the place of mines of the First and Third potash plants in Berezniki. Oil pumping and the pressure of the Kama reservoir increases the probability of man-made earthquakes. Uralkali carried out laying of mine emptiness with help of waste, but this laying costs too expensive. A earth failure happened in the territory of First Potash plant in Berezniki in 2007, there was a flooding of mine emptiness by water. Mines of this First Potash plant exist directly under the city Berezniki that can causes earth failures in the territory of the city and plants. Therefore the city administration and the federal ministry of natural resources have begun construction of houses and resettlement of inhabitants from dangerous districts of the city Berezniki to the residential district "Usolye" on the right coast of Kama River under which there are no mine emptiness. Actually, the new city Berezniki is under construction on the right bank Kama River today as the old city Berezniki on the left river bank Kama collapses gradually because of emptiness under the old city. The EuroChem company has constructed new potash plant in 2018 and this company has turned out finished goods already. The Uralkali company continues to build the Fifth potash plant. Thus two new mines will be built soon instead of two flooded mines (First and Third potash plants). Construction of new and new potash plants will be continued In the city of Berezniki and Solikamsk in the future. The bypass railroad is constructed which has passed far away from the territory of a earth failure.

It is possible to draw a conclusion that separate environmental problems are gradually solved in the world and in Russia, but new environmental problems arise and it is still very far before the final decision of all environmental problems