Interesting social sciences/Forms of territorial arrangement. Sovereign democracy in Russia
It need to give answers to following questions.
Can State borders and the wars for possession of territory be abolished?
Can unlimited immigration be allowed population in the global world?
Can a system of representative democracy be build on the territory of former empire without the disintegration of it on the parts?
What model of democracy has be chosen by President Vladimir Putin for the Russian Federation?
Classification of forms for territorial arrangement.
There are following forms of the territorial structure:
- Unitary state.
This forms of the territorial structure: differ from each other concerning division of powers and shares of the collected taxes between the center and the periphery, that is between the capital of republic (area, region) and the city (district).
A unitary State
The unitary state is such form of the territorial structure where all amount of the taxes collected in the country and all powers are concentrated in the center, in the capital. The amount of all taxes is distributed in the capital. The cities and areas are forced to give all the tax revenues to the capital, and then to beg this money in the capital ministries on performance of own purposes (on construction of roads, education, and so on). Examples of the unitary state is the Russian Empire and the USSR. USSR was considered as federation according to soviet constitution, the republics had a right for an exit from the USSR on paper even, but USSR was the unitary state in practice.
The federation was invented by "founding fathers" of the constitution of the USA. The history of an invention of federation is as follows. At first North American states were colony of British Empire, that is North American states were as part of the unitary state.
American colonists didn't pay any taxes in favor of Great Britain during almost all colonial period and American colonists didn't receive any military help from Great Britain though the British government called by american colonists on war with the French and Indians from the French Canada continually. When the British parliament has tried to tax of American colonists in favor of Great Britain, that American colonists have treated it as to violation of own birth rights and american colonists have risen against Great Britain.
Americans had the representatives in the English parliament never. Americans have managed to win against Great Britain in American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence). The confederation of states has arisen as result. The first constitution of the USA under the name "Articles of Confederation" were ratified by all states in 1781. This form of the territorial structure hasn't satisfied Americans since the whole country and each state separately began to slide to catastrophe quickly. As a result of inflation continental money began to depreciate quickly, trade has fallen in decline. The American businessmen have begun to demand strengthening of the power of the federal government. As a result the Constitutional Convention was convened by in 1787 in Philadelphia. This Constitutional Convention has issued in 1788 the constitution which became a basis for the federal structure of the USA.
Thus, the confederation of states has turned into federation. The federation is such form of the territorial structure where powers and tax revenues are divided as a result of the budgetary agreement into three parts between the center, the state and the city. The task of "founding fathers" consisted in that, on the one hand, to create the strong federal government, and on the other hand, to keep behind states those rights which to transfer to the center wasn't absolute necessity. The federal structure has allowed to find compromise conditions between large and small states. A hot debate has erupted on Convention on this matter. Conditions of a compromise consisted as follows. The states have to be presented in the United States House of Representatives according to the sizes of the population of this states. This Chamber of the United States Congress has the exclusive right to draft laws on collection of taxes. large states have most of the representatives in this chamber of the United States Congress.
States have equal representation in the Senate (upper chamber of the United States Congress) – on 2 senators from each state, thus, different states have the equal rights in the Senate. The bill has to be approved by both chambers that to become as the law. Small states can collect the votes in the Senate and Small states cann't allow adoption of law which violates their interests. At the same time, large states can put obstacles before an unwelcome bill by combining their votes in the House of Representatives. The federal structure is result of a compromise between the interests of large and small states again. Russia is federation today too. .
The confederation is such form of the territorial arrangement where almost all tax revenues and power remain at the periphery (at national republics), and the center has no almost power and tax revenues. The confederation exists in Switzerland today. Other example of confederation is the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which includes Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and so on. There were disagreements between Russia and Ukraine within Commonwealth of Independent States concerning gas prices, territorial ownership of the Crimea and Sevastopol which is base of the Black Sea Fleet. There were disagreements within Ukraine concerning a course towards accession to the EU or to the Russian Federation. Anti-government protests have begun on the Euromaidan against suspension by Mykola Azarov's government of preparation for signing of the agreement on association between Ukraine and the European Union in 2013 in Ukraine. These protests ended in February 2014 with the removal of Viktor Yanukovych as President of the country. The first actions of the opposition which has come to the power in Kiev have caused protests of the Russian-speaking population in the Crimea. Most of the population of the Crimea has voted on a referendum for Crimea’s unification with Russia. Thus the Crimea and Sevastopol have been returned in structure of the Russian Federation in 2014. Armed conflict has begun in the east of Ukraine in Donbass in 2014, actually, there were civil war between the central power in Kiev and the self-proclaimed Donetsk and Luhansk republics which support unification with Russian Federation. So far this conflict is far from final permission. The new powers of Ukraine have stated that the country begins process of an exit of the Commonwealth of Independent States in 2014. The countries of the West have imposed economic sanctions against the Russian Federation in connections with the Ukrainian events of 2014.
Georgia has declared an exit from the CIS after the war in South Ossetia between Georgia and Russia in 2008. South Ossetia and Abkhazia seek to leave from structure of Georgia and that to enter in structure of the Russian Federation. Probably, this request will be satisfied gradually.
Transnistria seeks to leave structure of Moldova and to enter in structure of the Russian Federation.
Conversations went a long time between Russia and Belarus on creation of the Union State, the president of Russian Federation Vladimir Putin has offered the president of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko that Belarus has to enter to the Russian Federation as the province, but this offer didn't suit by Alexander Lukashenko. An impression is made that the Belarusian leaders seek to receive from Russia cheap gas and oil under cover of Conversations about creation of the Union State. The Confederation of Commonwealth of Independent States should break up into fully independent states or the Confederation of Commonwealth of Independent States should become as federation led by Russia, the third is not given. It is possible that only the part of the republics of Commonwealth of Independent States or their autonomous regions will enter in structure of this future federation. "Time has come to collect stones".
The Russian Federation has imposed response sanctions against the countries of the West. Sanctions of West helped of Russia to increase own agricultural production. Any sanctions of the West is on benefit for Russia. Russia built the bridge to the Crimea through the Kerch Strait today. Russia builds gas pipelines to Western Europe bypassing Ukraine today. Russia builds gas pipelines to Western Europe, bypassing Ukraine today. When pipelines Nord Stream and the Turkish stream will be built, Ukraine won't be able to steal russian gas from the pipeline and Ukraine won't be able to blackmail Russia, but Russia will be able to disconnect gas for the hostile countries. Russia restores the sphere of influence quite so. Confederation turns into federation very often eventually or сonfederation break up into fully independent states. The example of transformation of confederation into federation is a formation of the USA or the European Union. Formation of the European Union happens before our eyes and this process is accompanied with considerable difficulties. The new currency (Euro) is released already, the general parliament is created in the European Union. New members – Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia and so on are accepted to the European Union, but Great Britain conducts negotiations on an exit from the European Union on the basis of a referendum.
- The Russian people like to experiment and Russian people tried to establish all forms of the territorial arrangement in last hundred years.
- Various forms of the territorial arrangement are a result of the relations of the conflict and control between the center and the periphery.
The empire is the country built with help of conquest when the metropole wins colonies with help of force of arms, or metropole wins colonies with help of voluntary accession under the threat of this weapon, or colonies become as part of the empire voluntarily waiting of economic, military and other help. Foreign policy was built on military strength always. Any empire is the unitary state always because any empire is created with help of conquests, that is the metropole wins the colonies with help of force of arms and the metropole forces colonies to pay taxes, first of all, in favor of the metropole. There isn't the question about equality or division of powers between the metropole and the colonies in this case. Therefore the population of colonies dreams about separation from the metropole always and the population of colonies considers any concession of the metropole as an intermediate step to separation from the metropole.
If all powers and taxes belong to the center in the empire as in any unitary state then the center is forced to give a part of money from taxes and part of powers to areas and the cities in federations, that is the share of powers of the center in federation is less, than the share of powers of center in the empire. Examples of empires: Assyrian Empire, Persian Empire, Empire of Alexander the Great, the Roman Empire, Arab caliphate, Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan, Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, Portuguese Empire, Spanish empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, German empire, French colonial empire, British Empire. Сooperation between metropole and colonies is in general mutually advantageous during blossoming of the empire although the population of the colonies raises revolts against the metropole sometimes when that population of the colonies begins to believe that the damage from cooperation outweighs the benefit. Metropole receives a tribute, raw materials, cheap labor from colonies. Colonies receive training of new social inventions and production technologies from the metropole. It is possible to give such fact as proof of mutual benefit of cooperation of colonies and the metropole that Great Britain couldn't conquer Afghanistan therefore Afghanistan is one of the most backward and poor countries of Asia today. Great Britain has managed to conquer India, to construct there the plants, the railroads and the system of representative democracy therefore India is among the developed countries of the World today. Weakening of the metropole in the period of a decline of the empire leads to the fact that colonies begin to take financial means from the metropole already.
Сolonies become weak and backward after disintegration of empires often, sometimes colonies enter to structure of other empires. People from the former colonies, such as Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians damn the former empire in all sins, but the morals consist that if the country became colony, then only own weakness and backwardness is the reason of it.
All empires perished as a result of defeat from stronger external enemy, internal war or a revolt of colonies against the metropole. The British and French empires have broken up as a result of a revolt in colonies against the metropole as a result the European population was expelled from colonies, and then the wide stream of immigrants – Latin Americans, Asians and Africans - has rushed to the former metropoles in a pursuit for the high standard of living. Unlimited immigration of these people to the West is the main problem of the modern western countries. The colonial empires built on conquests have consigned to the past in the modern World. Rivalry between the countries happens not in the form of war often, but in the form of the economic competition in the international market, by means of economic sanctions and the customs duties, in the form of psychological warfare or propaganda in the field of mass culture, dominant positions belong to production of the American Hollywood in this area today.
Colonial empires are a necessary stage in training of the backward countries to great social inventions.
The Mongolian empire has broken up to parts as a result of internal fight and the Mongolian empire was won partially by Grand Duchy of Moscow which has turned into the Russian Empire. Neighbors attacked the first of Grand Duchy of Moscow often and this neighbors became the victims of return strike and fair retaliation. Residents of neighboring countries don't love of Russia sometimes because residents of neighboring countries were the victims of Russian of military prowess in the past often and residents of neighboring countries envy to great military history of Russia. Russia walked on corpses of great empires – the Golden Horde, Great Poland, the Swedish empire, the Ottoman Empire, France empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, Nazi Germany, Empire of Japan. The Russian Empire and the USSR spent enormous forces and funds on education of the people attached to the empire, on protection of these people against the external enemy, on building of the railroads and factories in colonies.
Colonies seek to separate quite often from this metropole which shows the weakness. For example, the USSR has dissolved as a result of aggravation of internal economic, political and national problems of communist regime, as a result of difficulties of the Soviet–Afghan War and Cold War against the USA. The socialist system in the USSR was more backward step of development of society in comparison with a capitalist system. The socialist system has frightened off inhabitants of colonies from this Soviet Union. The backwardness of a socialist system was overcome in the period of government of the president Boris Yeltsin in Russia, the market competition, a private property and representative democracy were entered in Russia under president Boris Yeltsin. The period of counterreforms and a counterrevolution follows after the period of reforms and revolution in the history always when the conservative government led by "the creator of an order" is forced to bring public order in the country. Such task has risen before the president Vladimir Putin. As a result Russia became economically and politically more attractive for neighboring countries today. Russia has passed a nice way from position of the western Ulus of the Golden Horde before creation of the empire and its partial disintegration. The kernel of the Russian Empire was transformed to the Russian Federation. The territorial integrity of any empire was based on three whales - on force of bureaucracy, army, political and criminal police. Representative democracy is the best form of government today. The empire and representative democracy is difficult compatible things because the metropole seeks to suppress resistance of colonies in the empire often and the metropole isn't able to allow, in particular, to inhabitants of colonies to elect of governor, the metropole has to appoint of this governor,. That to keep of empire from dissolution, strong, even the authoritative power is necessary in the center of the empire sometimes, but the authoritarianism as a political regime isn't compatible with representative democracy.
A conclusion follows from all this that creation of representative democracy is very difficult task in the territory of the former empire.
The attempt of the president Mikhail Gorbachev to construct representative democracy in the USSR has resulted in deplorable results – dissolution of the Soviet Union. That to carry out this difficult task, the empire has to or break up completely to the separate national states, in each of which it is necessary to construct the system of representative democracy, or the empire has to choose the most conservative authoritative variant of representative democracy. Such former European metropoles as Britain, France, Austria, Spain, Belgium, Holland, Portugal, Serbia have chosen the first way. Apparently, the president of the Russian Federation.Vladimir Putin has chosen second way, A similar threat of dissolution has arisen in the USA too when contradictions have become aggravated between the North and the South concerning cancellation of slavery of the Afro-Americans that has led at first to attempt of separation of the southern states, and then to bloody American Civil War of 1861-1865. This alternative choice between disintegration of the country and creation of authoritative model of democracy can be explained with the tendency noticed still by Charles Montesquieu that than the size of the territory of the country is more, that political regime is more authoritative in this country. For example, the most democratic parliamentary republic was constructed in the European countries with the average or small territory , but more authoritative presidential republic was constructed in the USA with the big territory.
Some authors believe that colonial empires built on conquests are gone in the modern world. Actually, it 's not quite like that. In fact, we see a picture of the US trying to achieve world domination today, as the US trying to become by world police officer. For this purpose the United States has deployed own military bases around the world. The United States allied with the USSR defeated the German and Japanese empires in World War II and the United States deployed own military bases in those countries. The USSR located own military bases in Eastern Europe (Poland, GDR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Romania), the USSR took from Germany part of eastern Prussia together with Königsberg (Kaliningrad) and the USSR took from Japan - Southern Sakhalin and Kuril Islands. The Cold War began between the United States and the USSR after World War II. Soviet troops were withdrawn from eastern Europe as a result of the "Velvet" Revolutions of 1989 and the United States began to build own military bases in these countries, for example and Poland, the United States began to deploy own missiles directed against Russia in Romania, and the US will start building such a missile base in Poland soon, thus placing the inhabitants of these countries in hostage position in the event of a nuclear war between the United States and the Russian Federation. Governments of those countries where American bases are located cannot pursue independent foreign policy. Only the Russian Federation can now pursue an independent foreign policy independent of the United States. Only the Russian Federation can now confront the United States in the event of war. Dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred in 1991. Dissolution of the Soviet Union left Russia severely weakened but not defeated. The Russian Federation, under President Vladimir Putin, was able to continue the Cold War against the United States. The United States and the Russian Federation are fighting for a sphere of influence today in Syria, Ukraine, and other republics that have left the USSR. Russian forces defeated Moldova forces in 1992, Transnistria withdrew from Moldova and Transnistria entered to the sphere of influence of the Russian Federation. Russian forces defeated Georgia forces in 2008, as a result South Ossetia and Abkhazia withdrew from Georgia and South Ossetia and Abkhazia entered to the sphere of influence of the Russian Federation. Crimea withdrew from Ukraine in 2014 and Crimea joined with Russian Federation. Donbass (part of Donetsk and Lugansk regions) withdrew from Ukraine in 2014 with purpose of joining with the Russian Federation and an armed conflict began there, this armed conflict is ongoing still. The attempt to achieve of world domination placed a heavy burden on the US state budget, resulting in a huge US state budget deficit. On the other hand, the US has begun to give way to China in terms of GDP (gross domestic product). It may be soon that paying for military bases around the world and fighting for world domination is too expensive for the US. Let 's live, see how the US tries to achieve world domination and become a global policeman ends. So far, this idea has failed in world history, neither Alexander the Great, nor Genghis Khan, nor Adolf Hitler.
Citations and references
- David Cushman Coyle.The United States Political System and How It Works. Chapter 1. Sources. Paperback – 1960