Interesting social sciences/Ethnosociology

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Historical forms of ethnoses[edit]

The ethnos is a group of people connected by consanguinity. Historical forms of ethnoses is a genus and a tribe, nationality and the nation. The tribe existed in the period of primitive society, nationality existed in the period of slaveholding and feudalism, the nation existed in the period of capitalism. The general origin from the general ancestor, community of historical destiny, the general traditions, culture, language and the territory unite by people in uniform ethnos. The tribe consists of several genuses.

A tribe is an ethnos which managed to order reproduction of people, to exclude cases of appearance of children with the hereditary diseases caused by incest, to create own dialect and customs, to win the territory.

Unlike the tribe, a nationality is an ethnos which managed to create own state.

A nation is an ethnos which managed to construct capitalist society – the common national market, democracy, a private property, the constitutional state, national culture.

Thus, the tribe, nationality and the nation is three steps of evolution of ethnos. Not each tribe is capable to create the state and to turn to nationality therefore backward tribes are doomed to become dependent from more advanced nationalities and to be assimilated. Not any nationality is capable to construct by capitalist society and to become by nation, backward nationalities and tribes are doomed to become by colony of more advanced nations and risk to be assimilated. It is possible that the mankind enters to the fourth period of evolution of ethnos today – creation of global society where there is a free mixture of various nations of nationalities and tribes. This forecast is disputable.

Genus and tribe[edit]

Lewis H. Morgan
Native Americans

The family is the smallest kinship unit. Several families form a clan. Several genera form the tribe. A group marriage was before emergence of family, count of kinship was kept on the maternal line since it was difficult to establish by child's father. The vice of group marriage is a high probability of incest when close relatives marry. because it is difficult to establish by the child's father An inevitable consequence of incest are hereditary diseases. Marriages between brothers and sisters were encouraged in a dynasty of Pharaohs in Ancient Egypt since it was difficult for Pharaoh to find the bride equal to Pharaoh on the status of origin, but it inevitably led to degeneration of this dynasty.

Our primitive ancestors made the great invention which allowed to protect them from incest. This invention consisted in the invention of the tribal relations. The American ethnographer and the historian Lewis H. Morgan had given for the first time the description of this invention in work "Ancient society". Lewis H. Morgan conducted by field researches among Indians of the tribe of Iroquois. Men of one genus took themselves wives from other genus within the tribe, as a last resort, it was possible to steal by the wife from others tribe, but there was a strict prohibition – a taboo - on marriage with the woman from own genus. Custom to take wives from other genus is named an exogamy. The custom to take wives only inside of the tribe is named an endogamy. Lewis H. Morgan considers the genus at Iroquois League, in particular at the tribe Seneca, the following customs dominate in each genus.

Each genus chooses own sachem (the elder for peace time) and the leader (the military leader). Sachem was the member of council of the tribe of Seneka. Members of genus have to render the help, protection and assistance each other in process of revenge for damage caused by strangers, this custom carried the name of blood feud. Genus could adopt by strangers, for example, prisoners of war, at a solemn ceremony according to the recommendation of certain members of a genus. The genus had common place of a burial. The genus had council – a democratic meeting of all adult members of a genus, the men and women having the equal right to vote. There were two fratriya (brotherhoods) in the tribe of Seneka, each fratriya included four genera. Fratriya represent itself initial genera which broke up later to secondary genera.

What characterized the certain Indian tribe in America:[edit]

  1. Own name and own territory for hunting and fishing which the tribe protected from encroachments. The uninhabited neutral zone was located between possession of two tribes. There were in the tribe Seneca eight genera carrying the name of animals:
  • Wolf,
  • Bear,
  • Turtle,
  • Beaver,
  • Deer,
  • Sandpiper,
  • Heron,
  • Falcon.
  1. Special, only to this tribe peculiar dialect.
  2. The right of the tribe to inaugurate solemnly by the sachems and military leaders chosen by clans and the right to displace them, even contrary to desire of a clan.
  3. Own religious holidays with games and dances.
  4. Own council of the tribe from sachems and military leaders. Council had the right to declare war and to make the peace with other tribe, to send embassy for negotiating. Military performances were organized by certain outstanding soldiers whom the insignificant number of volunteers joined. They arranged military dance, and then acted in a campaign.
  5. There was the Supreme leader from among .sachem sometimes.
  6. Own union of tribes. Iroquois represented itself the union from five tribes. The number of Iroquois exceeded 20000 people never. The average number of the American tribes was less than 2000 people, however, the tribe of Cherokee, largest in the USA, totaled 26000 people. Iroquois existed due to fishing, hunting and primitive farming, Iroquois lived in the State of New York in the villages protected by palings. Five tribes of Iroquois were at war together against other tribes which are forced out by Iroquois from this territory.

Features of the union of tribes of Iroquois:[edit]

  • The eternal union on the basis of full equality between five the tribes connected by consanguinity.
  • Allied council from 50 sachems.
  • All decisions of allied council had to be made unanimously.
  • Meetings of council took place in the presence of the people, each Iroquois could take the floor, but the decision was made only by council.
  • The union of tribes had 2 highest military leaders with equal powers.

Genera and the tribes in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome[edit]

Spartans had two tsars, and Romans have 2 consuls like Iroquois.

Ancient Greeks had in Attica four tribes, in each of them on three fratriya, in each fratriya on thirty genera. The higher authority belonged to people's assembly where the decision was made by a raising of hands. There was a military leader (basileus) who had priestly and judicial powers at the same time.

The people of Rome arose from three tribes or Tribes:

  • Sabines
  • Latins
  • Etruscans

There were 30 curia (fratriya) in Rome. One curia exposed 100 pedestrian soldiers and 10 horse soldiers during war. There were 100 genera originally in Rome, and then there were 300 genera. Each gens had a name, for example, such names as Yuli, Emily, Horace, Faby, Valerius. The clan consisted of patriarchal families (familia) including 3-4 generations.

Evolution of the Russian ethnos[edit]

The union of tribes turns into nationality together with emergence of the state which unites the extensive territory. For example, the Old Russian nationality arose under association of such Slavic tribes as Polans, Drevlyans, Dregovichs, Radimichs, Vyatichs, Krivichs, Slovens, Dulebes (later known as Volhynians and Buzhans), White Croats, Severians, Ulichs, and Tivertsi. There was a mixture of Slavs to the Finnish and Turkic tribes already at an early stage. Slavic tribes came to Dnieper from the Carpathians. The Finno-Ugric tribes lived on Volga before Slavs. Examples of the Finno-Ugric tribes are the Merya, the Muromians, and the Meshchera. Turkic tribes are Pechenegs, Cumans, Tataro Mongols. Russia was from the very beginning of the history as "a national copper" where various tribes mixed up. The Old Russian nationality broke up to parts in the 12th century on three close ethnoses – Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians. The Russian nation was formed in 15-17 centuries in the course of collecting of lands around Moscow. Russia became the empire under Peter the Great at the beginning of the 18th century.

National psychology[edit]

Nikolai Berdyaev

Nikolai Berdyaev had given the description of four national characters in work "the Fate of Russia. Experiments on psychology of war and nationality", written in 1918:

  • The Frenchmen were tired from catastrophes, revolutions and wars. The modern Frenchman is too refined, relaxed by thirst of pleasures and love to the woman, France endured already militant period, France dominated over Europe already and France is not terrible military force any more:nowadays.
  • The main thing is a reason and will for the German, my debt and an iron order, German wants to remake the whole world according to own plan and to establish world supremacy. As a result Germany lost two world wars in 20 century, Germany lost 1/3 own territories therefore ambition degree was reduced at Germans...:
  • The Pole is a knight, the aristocrat and the individualist before morbidity. The Russian and the Pole are relatives by origin and to language, but the Russian and the Pole are contrasts on culture. The Pole professes Catholic culture, and Russian professes orthodox culture. The Russian is struck and pushed away in the Polish character by bad arrogance, love to gesture, elegance, delightful speeches, sense of superiority and contempt for other people. Russians were at war with Poles two hundred years, as a result Poland nearly died, became colony of Russia for hundred years, and Russia turned into the empire.
  • Russian is an ordinary, direct and artless person, the excited pathos and aristocratic arrogance are alien for Russian. The lack of the Russian national character is a lack of organization and smartness, The lack of the Russian national character is inclination to fall and to sin. The Russian is capable to go through fire and water (war and hunger), but The Russian is not capable to pass test by glory – "brass trumpet". The Russian is not able to use reached..

Conclusion: each national character has bad and good features of character therefore there is no best nation and "the highest race".

History of ethnos life[edit]

Lev Gumilyov. Photo of 1934.

Lev Gumilyov was the author of the theory about cycles in life of ethnos. As the personality Lev Gumilyov was a psychologist therefore the correct thoughts are combined at Lev Gumilyov with myths and utopias. The example of a utopia is an explanation of the reasons of appearance of passional ethnos as result of a micromutation because of rigid space radiation. Poets Nikolay Gumilyov and Anna Akhmatova were parents of Lev Gumilyov. Bolsheviks shot Nikolay Gumilyov in 1921. The authorities forbade Anna Akhmatova to publish the verses. Lev Gumilev was imprisoned three times, in total 13 years – for the father and for mother, Lev Gumilev worked at Belomorkanal and at mines of Norilsk. Lev Gumilev participated in storm of Berlin as a part of penal battalion. Its object of research in science – history of Huns and Mongols. Lev Gumilev wrote the doctoral dissertation on brown paper in prison. Lev Gumilev worked at institute of geography, and Lev Gumilev spent summer months on the Lower Volga where ancient Khazaria was located. The authorities forbade to publish its works, the authorities reproached by Lev Gumilev for exaggeration of a role of foreigners in the history of Russia, but Lev Gumilev managed to endure by own censors and a communistic system, Lev Gumilev managed to publish all the works at the end of life.

The essence of ideas of Lev Gumilev is as follows. The passionarity is a passion, the passionarity is will to live, the passionarity is strength of character. Examples of passional leaders is Alexander the Great, Napoleon, Genghis Khan, Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Yermak Timofeyevich, Alexander Suvorov and other heroes of history. Ethnoses are born, win by neighbors, blossom, and then fall into decay and perish.

Maximum term of life of ethnos is of 1200-1500 years by Gumilyov's calculations,. The vast majority of representatives of ethnos are passionariers at the beginning of ethnos life, and then there is a gradual decrease in a share of passionariers that leads to death, eventually, of old ethnos in war with younger ethnoses. In my opinion, speakers and theorists possess the highest degree of passionarity.

International conflicts[edit]

Ethnoses enter the conflict with each other inevitably because of rivalry for the territory and natural resources. Other reason of the international conflicts are cultural, economic and political rivalry between ethnoses. These international conflicts are shown in the form of war, the market competition and rivalry with the sphere of mass culture. An example of cultural rivalry are religious conflicts, for example, the conflicts between Christians and Muslims in the form of crusades, between Catholics and Protestants, between Catholics and Orthodox Christians, between Shia and Sunni in Islam, between Hindus and Muslims, between Christians and pagans in the form of gain by Europeans of America. Resources, because of which wars began, are minerals – oil, gold and silver, for example, Spaniards conquered Central and South America because of gold and silver deposits which were found there.

The won territory served as hunting grounds for Indians of North America. The won territory served as an exit to the Baltic and Black seas for Russia in the period of government of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. The won territory served as an agriculture zone in America for natives of Europe. The Arab-Israeli conflict, wars of Chechens against Russia, the Indo-Pakistani conflict, war between Indians of North America and the European immigrants are examples of the international conflicts for territoty. There is a market competition between the countries for sales markets and sources of raw materials today, for example, Japan pressed by the USA in many industries – in the sphere of consumer electronics and computers, productions of cars, steel, ships. Cultural rivalry in the modern global world is shown in influence of the American mass culture on the rest of the world when the whole world watches the movies made in Hollywood, news of the American TV channels other countries try to oppose to this influence own movies and own news, for example, the Brazilian series, the Indian melodramas, news "Rossiya Today" etc.

Classification of people of the world[edit]

Contemporary distribution (2005 map) of the world's major language families (in some cases geographic groups of families).

It is difficult to present this full classification because of a lack of the place therefore it is necessary to be limited to statement of this question in the reduced option, at the same time the emphasis will be placed on instructions of the nations and nationalities living in the territory of Europe and Russia.

People of the world are divided into three main races: Caucasian, Mongoloid and Negroid, some researchers mark out also Australoid race. Contact races were formed as a result of mixture between races. People of the world can be divided on the basis of language relationship into the following families:

1) Indo-European family which unites 45% of the population of the Globe.

  • Slavs: Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Serbs. Balts: Lithuanians and Latvians.
  • Germans: Germans, Dutch people, English people, Swedes, Norwegians, Danes.
  • Celts: Irish people.
  • Romance group of peoples: Italians, French, Spaniards, Portuguese people, Romanians, Moldavians.
  • Albanians.
  • Greeks.
  • Armenians.
  • Iranian peoples: Persian people, Kurds, Tajiks, Ossetians..
  • Indian people and Romani people.

2). Afroasiatic family of people which unites 5% of world's population.

  • Semitic people: Arabs and Jews.

3). Kartvelian family of people which unites 0.1% of world's population.

  • Georgians.

4). The Uralic family of people which unites 0.5% of world's population.

  • Finno-Ugric people: Finns, Karelians, Estonians, Mordvins, Mari people, Udmurt people, Komi peoples , Hungarians, Khanty, Mansi people.

5). The Altai family of peoples which unites 6% of world's population.

  • Turkic group of people: Turkish people, Azerbaijanis,, Turkmens, Tatars, Bashkirs, Kazakhs,Kyrgyz people, Uzbeks, Yakuts, Chuvash people.
  • Mongolian group of people: Mongols, Kalmyks, Buryats.
  • Tungus-manchu group of people: Evenks, Manchu people.
  • Koreans
  • Japanese people.

6). The North Caucasian family of people which unites 0.1% of world's populations.

  • Abkhazians, Kabardians, Adyghe people, Circassians, Chechens, Ingush people, Avars.

7). Sino-Tibetan family of people:which unites 23% of world's population.

  • Chinese people and Tibetan people.

A some people of the world holds in the language relation the isolated position, for example, Basques in Spain, Ainu people in Japan.