Interesting social sciences/Ethics
- 1 Socrates as founder of ethics
- 2 “Cynics”
- 3 Hedonism
- 4 Eudemonism
- 5 Ethics of Stoicism
- 6 Four noble truths in ethics of Buddhism:
- 7 Ethics of Friedrich Nietzsche
- 7.1 Biography. of Friedrich Nietzsche
- 7.2 "The blond beast"
- 7.3 Friedrich Nietzsche denies by advantage of morals and religion for the blond beast
- 7.4 Breeding of aristocratic human breed
- 7.5 Critical attitude of Friedrich Nietzsche towards democracy
- 7.6 Сriticism of the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche:
- 8 Existentialism about inner world of the person, about internal freedom and responsibility of the personality
Socrates as founder of ethics
Socrates lived in Ancient Greece, in Athens. Years of his life: 469-399 BC. His father was poor and his father worked as the sculptor. Therefore Socrates was a supporter of democracy. Socrates had ugly "underbred" appearance, a pot-belly and a turned-up nose. Socrates was a psychologist as personality type, as well as all creators of ethical doctrines – Antisthenes, Diogenes, Aristippus and Gautama Buddha. Socrates wasn't able to earn money on life therefore the wife on him grumbled often, but Socrates was indifferent to it, as to an eternal scratch of wheels. Socrates didn't charge a fee from pupils for own lectures therefore Socrates had many pupils - Plato, Antisthenes, Aristippus and others. Socrates liked to go on workshops and the markets, to ask all on what bad or good happened in the house at them , and Socrates liked to teach all men how it is necessary to live by the principle: if you aren't able to live itself, then it is necessary to teach others. Socrates said in the market that he sees here many things without which it is possible to live. Men beat and kicked by Socrates for his morals often, but Socrates didn't take offense as, according to him, it is silly to take offense at donkeys. Socrates was engaged in physical exercises, Socrates conducted a healthy lifestyle and Socrates had good health. Socrates participated in two unsuccessful campaigns of Athens against Sparta where Socrates has proved to be as the firm fighter under retreat of Athenian army.
Death of Socrates
Many philosophers compared heroic death of Socrates with death of Jesus Christ. Some people envied wisdom of Socrates therefore once this people have accused of Socrates that Socrates doesn't honor gods and Socrates brings up youth incorrectly. Law court has sentenced to Socrates on this charge to death. Socrates behaved defiantly in court and Socrates asked to sentence him instead of an execution to participation in a lunch at their expense. Almost all his pupils went to Socrates to prison and this his pupils persuaded to Socrates to make escape from the city, but Socrates has refused as Socrates was already too old for escapes, Socrates was 70 years old already. Besides Socrates believed in Afterlife a where it will be possible to talk to souls of wise people, Eventually, Socrates has told pupils the farewell speech, and then Socrates has drunk poison. His pupil Antisthenes have revenged for Socrates, Antisthenes has pointed by the visitor young men attracted with Socrates's glory to Socrates's accusers and Antisthenes has told that Socrates's accusers have surpassed by Socrates in wisdom. It has caused such indignation of residents of Athens that one accuser of Socrates has been executed, and another accuser of Socrates – is expelled from the city.
Ideas of Socrates
Socrates. was strong in rhetoric (science about eloquence), Socrates has taught this art to own best pupil Platon who wrote the works in the form of dialogues for this reason, and Plato's pupil Aristotle has generalized this art and Aristotle has created formal logic as an example of antique wisdom. Socrates has understood the first that the physical philosophy doesn't interest of ordinary people therefore Socrates has created new branch of philosophy – ethics as science about customs and virtue, that it is good and that it is bad.
Question: Why do people arrive badly?
Socrates's answer: Because it haven't explained to people that it is bad that It can't be done so.
The correct answer which was formulated by Aristotle: Socrates has appeared not the rights as criminals and quick-tempered people know what so can't be done, but they do it contrary to explanations. Quick-tempered people arrive badly therefore that quick-tempered people can't constrain by own emotions. And criminals commit the crimes because criminals were brought up in criminal group where another criminals have inspired that to commit crimes – it is good, criminals were under the influence of a criminal counterculture, or the criminal was born by thief just.
The life purpose, according to Socrates is a moral self-improvement. The dispute has erupted between his pupils and followers of Socrates about sense of life and the purpose in life. This dispute doesn't cease till today. Pupils of Socrates – Antisthenes and Aristippus – answered exactly the opposite on question of sense of life.
The main idea of Cynicism is to make free by themselves
“Cynics” is a contemptuous nickname of representatives for philosophical school of pupils of Antisthenes; this nickname is translated as “dogs”. “Cynics” had received this nickname for despicable lifestyle. The main idea of Cynicism: that to become free and happy, it is necessary to reduce own needs to the minimum level. An example of life for Diogenes of Sinope was life of mouse, which does not need to bed, mouse doesn’t afraid of dark and mouse doesn’t search of imaginary pleasures.
Biography and main ideas of Antisthenes
His years of life were about 435-370 BC Cynics were witty people therefore their many sayings have comical character. On a question what woman it needs to be taken in wives – beautiful or ugly, Antisthenes has answered: "Beautiful woman will be the general property, and ugly woman will be your punishment". On a question what science the most necessary, Antisthenes has answered: "The science to forget unnecessary is the most necessary,". One young man promised to award by Antisthenes when there his ship with salty fish will arrive. Antisthenes has taken this young man to the market, then Antisthenes has taken away a bag of bread from the fishwife and has gone away and when fishwife began to demand by money, Antisthenes has pointed her to this young man and has told: "This young man will pay you when his ship with salty fish will arrive". Antisthenes has died from tuberculosis, and the tuberculosis often is result of bad food and life in the crude room, apparently, such is a payment for freedom in his understanding].
It is possible to draw a conclusion that Antisthenes has died for the sake of the idea. When seriously ill Antisthenes has exclaimed: "Ah, who will save me from sufferings!", his pupil Diogenes has shown a dagger and Diogenes has said: "Here who". Antisthenes has objected: "I have told from sufferings, but not from life". . Antisthenes was more limited after all to simple appeals to a poor way of life, but his pupil Diogenes became an example of Cynic wisdom and Diogenes has realized these councils. Diogenes of Sinope was reduced by own needs to minimum, in fact Diogenes of Sinope was an ideological homeless tramp and trained beggar. Diogenes of Sinope did not have own house in Athens, therefore Diogenes of Sinope decided to live in clay barrel “as Gin”. Diogenes of Sinope hardened own body with help of cold and heat, because it cannot be the heating in barrel, but temperature of air falls below 0th degrees Celsius in winter in Greece often. Diogenes of Sinope nestled to cold bronze statues in winter, Diogenes of Sinope sunbathed on the heated sand in summer with aim of hardening for own body. Diogenes of Sinope ate by waste from the town’s market and asked the alms. Onу man asked to Diogenes of Sinope: “Why are you asking alms at bronze statue?” Diogenes of Sinope answers: “That to accustom itself to refusals”. This begging philosopher had such trainings.
Biography and main ideas of Diogenes
Diogenes: freedom as life purpose.
Diogenes even tried to eat crude meat, but Diogenes of Sinope couldn't digest this meat. Diogenes of Sinope slept in their cloak and Diogenes of Sinope carried the bag everywhere that store food in bag. Any place was suitable for Diogenes of Sinope for food, sleep and conversation. Diogenes of Sinope related to all men with venomous contempt. One rich person has brought by Diogenes of Sinope on a visit and rich man didn’t allow that Diogenes spit to carpet, then Diogenes of Sinope had spat him to face and Diogenes of Sinope said that he did not found by place worse. Plato said that Diogenes of Sinope is a mad Socrates. Diogenes of Sinope replied that Plato doesn’t differ by eloquence, but by insignificant talk. When Alexander the Great came up to Diogenes of Sinope basked in the Sun and Alexander the Great said: “I am Great Alexander, you can ask everything that you want.” The proud Diogenes of Sinope wished: “Go away from me and don’t cover the Sun to me!” Alexander the Great said later: “If I wasn't Alexander, then I would like to be Diogenes of Sinope”.
Conclusions: Diogenes of Sinope didn't want to participate in struggle for power and wealth inevitable in society, Diogenes of Sinope said that people compete in the one who will push off other person with help of kick in a ditch, but nobody compete in the art to be an excellent and good. In my opinion, if man don't wish to participate in conflict for power and wealth under the pretext of preservation of personal freedom, that this man dooms itself beforehand to beggarly and miserable existence. Therefore, most people are forced to participate in conflicts, to fight for power and wealth, to be by controller or object of control. Usual people must strive to have a little of freedom and a little corporal enjoyments, but usual people should not conduct oneself as philosopher Aristippus which crept on his knees before tyrant Dionysius I of Syracuse and usual people does not want to be by beggar like Diogenes of Sinope. it is necessary to avoid these extremes. Man must fight and win by others man in struggle for wealth, prestige and power, for the right to satisfy own needs, including own spiritual needs. Our society is built on the conflict and control, where the “Only the Strongest Will Survive” and the person shouldn't look for himself by pleasures and rest in “Garden of Epicurus”
Aristippus corporal pleasures as life purpose.
Aristippus was born in the city of Cyrene, the Greek policy on the African coast in Libya. Years of his life: 435-355 BC. Aristippus, actually, was an ideological footman. Aristippus was able to adapt to any person, playing own role according to a situation. Aristippus lived at the palace of the tyrant Dionysius I of Syracuse, Diogenes called by Aristippus as "an imperial dog".Dionysius I of Syracuse was that tyrant who has sold by Platon in slavery. Aristippus looked for all pleasures available to him.
Tyrant spat to Aristippus often, and Aristippus tolerated these mockeries. Surrounding people began to laugh at him, and Aristippus has told: "Fishermen tolerate by sea sprays for the sake of a small fish, and I want to catch a golden fish". Once Aristippus crept on a lap before the tyrant, surrounding people began to laugh at ,Aristippus and Aristippus has exclaimed: "How to be if at Dionysius ears grow from legs!". Once Aristippus asked from the tyrant of money, and Dionysius has noticed: "You said earlier that the wise man, it seems, doesn't know needs".Aristippus has interrupted him: "Give money, and then we will sort this question". The tyrant has given him money, then Aristippus has told him: "Here you see, now the wise man doesn't know needs". In a word, it is beautiful to live you won't forbid. Once the dispute between Diogenes and Aristippus has taken place. Aristippus passed on the square by Diogenes who as usual cleaned the vegetables which are picked up in the market, themselves for lunch. Sneering, Diogenes has told: "If you were able to be fed with this, you hadn't to serve by tyrant".Aristippus has answered: "And if you were able to get on with people, then you hadn't to clean by vegetables".
Biography of Epicurus
Years of his life:341–270 BC. In 306 he has arrived to Athens and founded the school which has received the name "Epicurus's Garden", from here the name of epicureans: is "philosophers of Garden". Saying hung over an entrance to the Garden : "The guest, it will be good for you here. Pleasure is the highest blessing here". Epicurus had poor health.Epicurus called for pleasures only in words , and actually Epicurus ate, generally bread and water only, and cheese and wine Epicurus considered by cheese and wine as seldom available luxury
Ideas of Epicurus
Epicurus: the purpose of life is a rest and satisfaction of elementary requirements According to Epicurus, gods live in interworld space, without influencing to fate of people in any way. Subsequently, Epicurus was accused of atheism for these words repeatedly and after the Christianity became the main religion in Europe, works by Epicurus have been forbidden to the publication for a long time . According to Epicurus, pleasure consists in maintaining peace of mind, satisfaction of natural and necessary requirements and leads at first to achievement of peace of mind ("ataraxia"), and then to happiness ("Eudaimonia").
Subsequently, Epicurus's philosophy has received in ordinary consciousness strongly simplified interpretation — the epicurean is the one who seeks to learn all pleasures of life, without stopping before anything, for the sake of receiving corporal pleasures. However such understanding of theory of Epicurus has nothing in common with Epicurus's ideas.
Fears prevent by person to find entire happiness therefore the person has to overcome these fears. Epicurus approved senselessness of fear before death because there is no afterlife, a human soul, being material, is mortal as well as a body, so it isn't necessary to torment itself with thoughts about that will be after death. Epicurus appreciated highly by pleasures of private life, Epicurus called for conscious refusal from public life. Words became the motto of epicureans: "It is necessary to live imperceptibly". The Roman philosopher Lucretius who has informed us about many thoughts of Epicurus in the poetic work "On the Nature of Things".
The main schools and the directions in Ancient Greek ethics:
Asceticism as limit restriction of own requirements. Cunics were ascetics.
Hedonism, as aspiration to corporal pleasures. Pupils of Aristippus were supporters of hedonism.
Eudemonism, as aspiration to happyness. Epicureans were supporters of an.eudemonism.
Conclusion: the ordinary person has to seek to have a little freedom and a few corporal pleasures, but at the same time ordinary person shouldn't be humiliated as Aristippus and not to beg as Diogenes. It isn't necessary to aspire to these extremes. Therefore Epicurus was closest to the truth about the purpose in life, but I don't accept his passivity in lives and asceticism. The person has to struggle with other people and win fight for wealth, prestige and the power. Our society is constructed on the conflicts and control where "the strongest survives", and it is impossible to hide in "Garden of Epicurus" from this fact.
Ethics of Stoicism
Course of world events not depends from the will of human beings. As Seneca the Younger said: “ "It is silly to make plans for the rest of life, without being mister even of tomorrow". External freedom of the person consists only in cooperation with destiny. Seneca the Younger said:"Who agrees, the destiny leads that man by the hand who doesn't agree, the destiny drags that man for a collar". The main thought of Stoicism: “When the Roman Empire fell and strokes of bad luck poured on the person, this person hadn't to fall into despair, but the person had to keep internal calm as nobody could prevent these cataclysms of history”.
Representatives of stoicism: Zeno of Citium, Seneca the Younger, Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Conclusion: I agree that it is necessary to keep calm and not to fall into a hysterics during defeats, but it is even better simply to be able to win the conflict course. Otherwise keeping calm during defeat can be apprehended by people around as a good facial expression undert a bad game
Four noble truths in ethics of Buddhism: 
- Life is suffering. The birth, an old age, a disease, death – all this is suffering.
- The reason of suffering is a thirst of life, thirst of pleasure, thirst of death bringing to all to new regenerations.
- It is necessary to get rid of this thirst of life.
- That to get rid of thirst of life it is necessary to be engaged in meditation, that is auto-suggestion.
It is necessary to reach by conditions of full coolness and indifference, Gautama Buddha named this state as nirvana. This word comes from the word "to extinguish by fire", "pleasure", "eternal rest", "rescue from regenerations" Nirvana is an exit from a circle of regenerations, from a suffering circle.
Conclusion: despite all advantage of a religious consolation, it is possible to be sure that the supporter of the Buddhism is inevitably doomed to defeat in the conflict because the supporter of the Buddhism has no combativity and aspiration to a victory completely. The belief is that life is suffering - it is belief of the loser. In my opinion, life is fight for existence.
Ethics of Friedrich Nietzsche
Biography. of Friedrich Nietzsche
Years of life of Friedrich Nietzsche: 1844-1900. He lived in Germany.
In his biography it is possible to find the following inclinations which are characteristic of psychologists as the personality type:
- literary talent and brilliant poetic style of compositions in the form of aphorisms,
- interest for ancient art, Wagner's music:, figurative thinking,i he composed music and wrote verses in the childhood.
- inclination to social utopias, pensiveness.
Friedrich Nietzsche have inherited from the father by poor health. Friedrich Nietzsche was pursued by severe headaches already in the childhood and all life (there were no means to remove them), semi-unconscious states, the disease of eyes bringing almost to a blindness. These diseases forced him "to stand one leg in a grave Friedrich Nietzsche has completely gone crazy in 1889 when all his compositions have been already published. Friedrich Nietzsche was pupil of Arthur Schopenhauer. The public was unaffected by his scientific creativity during lifetime, similar concealment oppressed strongly by Friedrich Nietzsche . He found hardly by publishers for own books.: However after his Nietzsche's death the public began to consider by Friedrich Nietzsche as one of the most great philosophers of 19 century.
"The blond beast"
"The blond beast " is an image of the born aristocrat to which all is allowed. in fight for power – political murder and the armed seizure of power. Life is a fight for power, fight without rules. That to achieve by power over people, it is necessary to be born by "the blond beast", that is an animal predator, a monster with a lion's mane, the born aristocrat. Friedrich Nietzsche sings of value of the aristocracy in life of society the aristocracy conducts by people from a victory to a victory on the world-wide historical arena. The wild beast, the magnificent blond beast wandering in search of booty and a victory is in base of all noble races. The blond beast disappears in thickets for the sake of rest, then the blond beast comes to the historical arena again . Examples of noble races – the Roman, Arab, German, Japanese nobility, homeric heroes, the Scandinavian Vikings.
Friedrich Nietzsche denies by advantage of morals and religion for the blond beast
The blond beast is a superman. The blond beast shouldn't observe by laws of the good and evil. The blond beast have to be above morals and religion. The moral law isn't written for the blond beast, The blond beast can break laws of morals and religious standards of behavior. It is allowed for superman to commit any crimes in fight for power. Friedrich Nietzsche considered that morals and religion are harmful for mankind because it tame by man-beast with help of morals and religion, as in a menagerie cage. It turn by beast to a sick .beast with help of use of the repressive mechanism of fear, a beating, hunger and pain. The Christian reminds the sick, pathetic, embittered on himself an beast in a cage who hates all strong and happy around. there was a hunting for the finest individuals of "the blond beast " everywhere in the early Middle Ages when the church was, in effect, the menagerie, so it tamed by German nobility.: "The Christianity is a religion anti-Aryan, this is generation of the Judaic soil".
Breeding of aristocratic human breed
Friedrich Nietzsche was one of Adolf Hitler's teachers. Adolf Hitler considered by Germans by race of misters and Adolf Hitler have proclaimed by policy of racial hygiene, that is by policy of artificial selection and extermination of defective people and the nations in gas chambers and concentration camps. Adolf Hitler considered by physical extermination of Jews as final decision of a Jewish problem. Friedrich Nietzsche wasn't so categorical and Friedrich Nietzsche called a caste system as an example for imitation as a way of Breeding of aristocratic breed of people:. The caste system in India is constructed on the basis of religious laws of Manu. Here the task is set, to breed four breeds of people, four castes and to struggle with not purebred men – "chandala" (untouchable) men.
Critical attitude of Friedrich Nietzsche towards democracy
"The blond beast knave", the superman shouldn't be afraid of loneliness because fear of loneliness is a animal spirit. According to Friedrich Nietzsche, democracy is a form of decline of organizing force, Friedrich Nietzsche sings of cruel will and the absolute power of the monarch. When such power exists, then great empires, similar to the Roman Empire or Russian Empire appear. Friedrich Nietzsche considered by Russia as only strong empire from which it is possible to wait for much. Russia is an antipode of poor European fragmentation. and nervousness.
Сriticism of the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche:
In my opinion, the place of "blond beast" is in prison since it is necessary to subject to criminal prosecution for murder and the armed seizure of power of any citizen irrespective of whether he considers himself as born aristocrat or not. Political murder of the governor and the armed seizure of power were admissible and acceptable under tyranny, but the free multi-party elections are only admissible way of fight for power after an invention and establishment of representative democracy . Representative democracy is better than tyranny.
The second mistake of Friedrich Nietzsche consisted in denial of advantage of religion and morals. All people have to observe laws of morals, people feel by contempt to violators of these laws and people apply by moral sanctions to this violators. For example, activity of political tyrants and usurpers of the state power causes by moral censure. The advantage of religion consists in education and a consolation of people. The caste system can't be an example for imitation for modern society since the caste system is constructed on a powder keg, that is the caste system is pregnant with revolution and a rebellion. The caste system switches off process of vertical mobility and the caste system limits by legal forms of the conflict for the power, wealth and the social status between representatives of the highest and lowest castes unreasonably that leads, on the one hand, to a rebellion of the lowest castes, and, on the other hand, to degeneration of the highest castes.
Existentialism about inner world of the person, about internal freedom and responsibility of the personality
Existential (from the English word - "existence") the philosophy has been developed by such European thinkers and writers as Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), Albert Camus (1913-1960). All of them were the psychologists as the personality type far from requirements of real life.
The peak of influence of existentialism falls on years after the end of World War II and proceeds until the end of the 60th. The existentialism was the most influential direction in philosophy at that time among the studying youth and representatives of humanitarian professions – writers, actors, artists. After Europe was shaken by a wave of the left youth movements in the 60th years, influence of existentialism began to fall quickly. Jean-Paul Sartre, for example, directly participated in youth demonstrations and was for youth as peculiar live flag. The Minister of Internal Affairs asked from the President of the country Charles de Gaulle of the sanction for arrest of the aged and sick rebel Jean-Paul Sartre, but has received the worthy answer from Charles de Gaulle: "France doesn't arrest! by Voltaires":
From the point of view of existentialism, each person is unique, completely internally free and independent, his difficult destiny – to be always in way to finding of the meaning of life in this absurd senseless world. The existentialism rejects dependence of the person from the equipment and economy. The protest was expressed in existentialism against timeserving of philistines who became by "small screws" of bureaucratic machinery . The true meaning of life opens to the person during the periods of the deepest shocks, before the face of death, a serious illness, not washed away guilt when the world of his deeply intimate existence opens before him. Each person bears by responsibility for own actions.
It is possible to explain the difficult philosophical ideas of existentialism on the basis of stories and novels by Albert Camus. This philosopher was born in the French colony – Algeria in family of the poor agricultural worker – the time-worker. Albert Camus has died during road accident. Names of his best-known works is "Stranger", "The Myth of Sisyphus", "Misunderstanding" "The Plague", "The Rebel", "The Fall ". The views of Albert Camus developed in conditions when the faith in God and in immortal soul is lost and it has become clear that the person is expected by elimination after death. Thus, the person has lost by meaning of life. His hero Merso is in the novel "Stranger" a small employee who is absolutely indifferent to own career, to own mother, to own wife. But Merso is sincerely in love with the nature – to the sea, to the air and to the sun. This monotonous life was broken once. Merso kills by Arab on the seashore from a revolver for no reason at all. Merso is unanimously sentenced to death in court as Merso isn't similar at all to philistines who judge him. Merso is unaffected by the court verdict.
The same thought repeats in the novel "The Myth of Sisyphus". Gods have sentenced by Sisyphus to useless work. The fate of today's worker reminds Sisyphus's fate.If the person has to die whether then it is worth living? The question about suicide is the most important philosophical question in existentialism. We carry out the monotonous and boring duties day by day at work and at home as automatic machines, but a question arises: "Why I need it?"once. After that consciousness wakens that leads either to suicide, or to recovery.
Action happens in the play "Misunderstanding" in the hotel located in mountains. Business is run in this hotel so that the hostess of hotel and its daughter kill and plunder by all rich lodgers whom has managed to stay at their hotel. The hostess's son was their victim once, this son wasn't at home many years . The daughter of the hostess has managed to convince by wife of the killed son that if each person is doomed to death, then it isn't important when this death comes.the fate of tyrant is represented in the play "Сaligula" . Caligula was very decent young man in the beginning of his life, but the sudden death of his sister and beloved changes his character sharply. The despair opens for him the truth that there is no truth, the good and evil in the world therefore Caligula is free to do anything since the power of the emperor is boundless. Caligula begins to create an arbitrariness and wild mockeries under people. Caligula has been killed by conspirators after several years of the board. Caligula understands before death that he has chosen not that way, "because it is impossible to be free against other people".The scene of action is the city of Oran in the novel "Plague" where cholera epidemic flashes. Troops isolate by the city from the outside world. Small group led by doctor Bernard Rieux begin fight against plague. The priest of local church announces plague as God's penalty and the priest calls to humility. At last, epidemic of plague begins to recede, but she will arise again sometimes.
Conclusion: The existentialism has lifted a problem of meaning of life and admissibility of suicide under the absence of this meaning of life. In my opinion,meaning of life consists in achieving of self-realization. According to the hero from the movie "Kidnapping, Caucasian Style", the meaning of life consists that it need to live. well. Life has no highest sense and can't be. Life is a fight by the principle "Only the Strongest Will Survive" and there is a natural selection among participants of this fight. Suicide is a capitulation of the loser or person of no character in the face of natural problems and difficulties of this fight. Suicideis the first wrong exit from vital problems. The second wrong way to leave fight is the use of drugs by the principle "It need die with pleasure". Therefore both suicide and drugs – it is bad.
My relation to existentialism is skeptical for the reason that this theory became substantiation for various countercultures like hippie, bohemianism and substantiation for extremism in policy. The movement of hippie has stated by protest against a narrow-minded way of life and has the movement of hippie set as the purpose to be closer to the nature, that is to live in a hut in the jungle of India on the ocean coast as "Flower Children", to go naked and with long hair, to use drugs and to listen to psychodelic music. In my opinion, the movement of hippie is the movement of losers who were psychologists as the personality type most often, psychologists can't find the place and a profession within a modern technical civilization and they dream to return to primitive society, but it isn't possible in principle. They dream to organize a senseless revolt in policy as Albert Camus offered .
Jean-Paul Sartre rushed about randomly between the different political movements – Jean-Paul Sartre adjoined to the anti-Communist Revolutionary-democratic movement (middle class), Jean-Paul Sartre has visited the USSR and Jean-Paul Sartre announced Marxism as "philosophy of our time", then Jean-Paul Sartre was fond of the Cuba's communism of Fidel Castro and Mao Zedong's ideas,Jean-Paul Sartre began to oppose against communism of the "Soviet" sample and against "eurocommunism" because the French communists were afraid to organize revolution and a revolt in France. Jean-Paul Sartre urged to organize "cultural" revolution in Europe by an example of China, to burn by picture "Mona Lisa" and to burn by professors of the universities. Thus,Jean-Paul Sartre offered many nonsenses and Jean-Paul Sartre has shown the full incompetence in a political sphere.