Pests and Diseases
The European Cornel (Cornus mas) is a species of dogwood native to southern Europe and southwest Asia. It is a medium to large deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–12 m tall, with dark brown branches and greenish twigs. The leaves are opposite, 4–10 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, with an ovate to oblong shape and an entire margin. The flowers are small (5–10 mm diameter), with four yellow petals, produced in clusters of 10-25 together in the late winter, well before the leaves appear. The fruit is an oblong red drupe 2 cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter, containing a single seed.
The fruit is edible, with an acidic flavour; it is mainly used for making jam, but also can be eaten dried. In Armenia, the fruit is used for distilling vodka. In Turkey it is eaten with salt as a snack in summer. Cultivars selected for fruit production in the Ukraine have fruit up to 4 cm long. The species is also grown as an ornamental plant for its late winter flowers.
Its wood is denser than water. A dye can be produced from its bark and tannin is produced from its leaves.