History of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting in Australia/Topical/Stations/4CK Toowoomba

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Overview[edit]

6ML Perth was the first commercial radio station in Western Australia and commenced broadcasting at the depth of the depression in March 1930. The station was licensed to Musgrove's, Ltd. the leading music warehouse in the State. The principal of the firm was Mandeville D'Oyley Musgrove who had led a varied life, but driven by a love of music in all its forms and with a passion for automated forms of music to bring music to the masses. At the time of commencement of 6ML, the sole alternative local station was 6WF which was dealing with major technical problems resulting from its change from longwave to mediumwave, while the programme suppliers (the Australian Broadcasting Company) were struggling to find their feet in a market which was distinct from the eastern states. Following staff losses to World War 2, the station announced that it was temporarily ceasing broadcasting in 1943, but was never to reopen.

Mandeville D'Oyly ("D'Oyly") Musgrove[edit]

6ML was the brainchild of Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove, then Managing Director of Musgroves, Ltd., Perth's major music warehouse. His first name Mandeville was used solely in official documentation and he was more generally known as D'Oyly. He led a varied life until finding his place in the music world. He was born in 1872 in the south of England and spent much of his youth on the Continent, was educated mainly in Germany, and for a time lived with his parents in Norway. He came to Australia before 1900 and enlisted December 1899 in the Australian Mounted Infantry to serve in the Boer War.[1] He joined the West Australian railways on his return and held various appointments in that service before he left to join Nicholson's Ltd. From the secretaryship of that company he became general manager. But in 1923 he and three others established the company which bears his name.[2] The new company of Musgroves, Ltd. soon flourished establishing itself as the leading music warehouse in the state.[3] Rapid growth necessitated relocation to new premises in Murray St, to be known as Lyric House.[4] It was Lyric House which would later become home to 6ML.[5] After 20 years as Managing Director of Musgroves and more than 40 years in the music industry, D'Oyly retired in December 1943, though he stayed on as Chairman of the Board.[6] He passed suddenly 9 July 1944.[7] D'Oyly was cremated and the ashes interred at a widely attended funeral service buried at Karrakatta Crematorium 12 July 1944.[8]

Horace Benson Jackson[edit]

Bryn Samuel[edit]

Henry Trethowan ("Harry") Simmons[edit]

1923 - Musgrove's Ltd.[edit]

1924 - 6WF - Westralian Farmer's[edit]

1925/29 - Early B Class Proposals[edit]

Western Australia never seemed to develop a strong culture of amateur broadcasting, especially once some of the most prominent amateurs became involved with 6WF itself. The high power permitted for the A Class station enabled a wide reception area even with crystal sets which seemed to take the public's imagination. There were persistent rumours of proposals to establish a B class station in Perth, but nothing eventuated before the 1927 Royal Commission into Wireless which was accompanied by a freeze on B Class allocations Australia Wide. Even after the Royal Commission report was released, Government was uncertain as to a particular future model for Australian broadcasting, effectively extending the freeze on all new licences.[9] In December 1925, local Perth newspapers reported on an unnamed proposal for a B Class service, but there were no details given and nothing further heard.[10] In December 1927 there was another report of a B Class proposal which noted solely that the transmitter would be located at Mt Lawley.[11] In February 1928 there was a flurry of rumours in respect of a number of proposals, with one stated to be in operation in June 1928 with a wavelength of 270 metres and an initial power of 1½ to 2 kilowatts.[12] This latter proposal appears to have been driven by a MrFaraday of North Perth, but yet again, nothing came of it.[13] More substantive was the proposal of an Adelaide group seeking to establish a B Class station in Perth. Mr. A. L. Brown, late manager of Broadcasting Station 5CL Adelaide, visited Perth as representative of the Australian Television Company and the National Musical Federation. While the Brown proposal did not eventuate, it was the National Musical Federation (owner of 5KA Adelaide) which later successfully tendered for installation of the 6ML transmission system. It seems likely that at this visit initial contact was made with Musgroves, Ltd.[14] One final, again unsuccessful, proposal was foreshadowed in the speech by Sir Benjamin Fuller in inaugurating the provision of programming for 6WF by the Australian Broadcasting Company in September 1929 where he declared that his company was also interested in a B Class licence.[15]

1930 - 6ML Licensed[edit]

1930 - Construction[edit]

1930 - Initial Testing[edit]

The first reported test transmissions took place on 3 Mar 1930. The transmitting plant was complete but on-air adjustments needed to be made and the antenna system had not yet been installed. Construction of the aerial system including the cage inverted L radiator and counterpoise was only scheduled to commence 4 Mar 1930. A makeshift antenna was therefore effected by slinging a wire from the control room on the fourth floor of Lyric House across to a neighbouring building. Despite the reduced power of the transmitter and inferior radiation from the makeshift antenna, reports of reception were received of loudspeaker strength as far afield as Fremantle.[16] Following the completion of the antenna system (L antenna, 10 Mar 1930; counterpoise 11 Mar 1930), further test transmissions were made on 13 Mar 1930 with 50 watts power, that is without the final linear amplifier. Tests at full power were anticipated at the end of that week.[17]

1930 - Official Opening[edit]

1930 - Initial Operations[edit]

1930 - Nominal Frequency Change[edit]

Since the commencement of broadcasting in Australia in November 1923, the Postmaster-General's Department had specified operations in terms of wavelength in integral multiples of one metre. The 1927 Washington Conference expressed a preference for use of kilocycles per second (now kiloHertz). Implementation of the preference took some little time in Australia. The Annual Report of the Postmaster-General's Department for the year ended 30 June 1930 was the last (and only) to list stations in terms of wavelength. The station list in the Annual Report for the year ended 30 June 1931 (and all subsequent) were stated in terms frequency and also solely multiples of 5 kHz. The public were even slower to accept kilocycles per second and use of wavelengths was predominant in newspapers until after the second World War. The impact upon 6ML was minimal, but should be recorded. At the time of 6ML's commencement the allocated wavelength was 297 metres equivalent to 1010.1 kHz. At some time around the end of 1930, the local radio inspectors would have been assessing 6ML's operation against the new 5kHz raster frequency of exactly 1010.0 kHz. Practical effect would have been minimal even with 6ML's crystal controlled main oscillator was also temperature controlled and frequency stability within a few tens of Hertz would have been readily achieved. PMG records of the era show that the majority of broadcast station were without crystal control and drifted +/- several kHz.

1931 - Federal Network[edit]

In August 1930 it was announced that the Federal Network had been established comprising stations 6ML Perth, 5AD Adelaide, 3DB Melbourne, 3BA Ballarat, 2GB and 2UW Sydney and 4BC Brisbane. The network was created primarily to pool advertising revenue to fund major relays across the nation. The first relay was the opening programme of member station 5AD which was carried to Melbourne, Ballarat and Sydney. Relays to Perth and Brisbane were precluded until broadcast quality landlines were available.[18]

1931 - Frequency Change[edit]

Soon after 6ML's commencement there were reports in the early evening hours of interference from a foreign language station, nominally allocated to 293 metres (1023.89 kHz) but drifting across 6ML's allocation of 297 metres (1010.1 kHz). These reports soon ceased and no doubt some bilateral co-ordination with the administration concerned was effected. The southwest of Western Australia has always been more susceptible to night-time skywave interference from the Asian region due to the strong over-ocean propagation and shorter propagation paths.[19] In July 1931 it was announced that the Postmaster-General's Department was reviewing AM radio frequencies Australia wide and that it would be necessary for 6ML to operate on a different frequency. Initially it was intended that 6ML operate on 341 metres (880 kHz) and tests were conducted on this frequency after usual station close.[20] Tests were also conducted on 255.5 metres (1174.17 kHz). The local radio inspector sought reports of comparitive reception from competent listeners.[21] Interference on the 880 kHz frequency was experienced, not from 6ML's own transmission but rather from spurious emissions from 6WF.[22] Finally the Department offered 6ML the choice of either 880 kHz or 1135 kHz. The station manager Frederick Charles Kingston relied upon his listeners' preference and 1135 kHz was selected.[23] Permanent transmission on 1135 kHz commenced with the 5.45 pm evening session on 29 July 1931, during that day the station was testing the transmission system and there were no regular programmes. For the first few days following the change, power was reduced but full power was soon achieved.[24]

1931 - Shortwave Simulcast[edit]

For several years, under private ownership, 6WF operated a shortwave simulcast in the 100 metre experimental band (about 3 MHz). Despite a relatively low power the shortwave transmission was quite effective at supplementing 6WF's primary longwave transmission in more remote districts and in regions closer to the transmitter subject to fading. The longwave signals were much more susceptible to atmospheric noise and the longwave radiating system offered no anti-fading properties. Prominent amateur radio operator, Wally Coxon (VK6AG), was 6WF's chief engineer and maintained the shortwave transmitter. But when the Government acquired the 6WF facility, it changed the frequency from longwave to mediumwave and ceased the shortwave simulcast which had been valued by distant listeners. Considerable interest was aroused in the State, therefore, when in July 1931 it was announced that 6ML had approached the Postmaster-General's Department for permission to operate a shortwave simulcast for its own transmissions. 6ML's own chief engineer, Harry Simmons (VK6KX), was another well-known amateur and certainly had the capacity to give practical effect to the proposal. Nothing further was heard of this proposal, although it is likely that individual amateur operators would have relayed the 6ML transmission during the 1930s on an ad hoc basis.[25]

1932 - Aerial Alteration[edit]

The chief engineer, Harry Simmons, had been dissatisfied with 6ML's antenna since inception. Due to the real estate available, the antenna was a compromise cage inverted "L". Even in 1930 it was known that this type of antenna was of lesser efficiency than the then standard Marconi "T"; had less efficient directional radiation pattern characteristics; and was not able to fully take advantage of the counterpoise type earth necessary for roof-top installations. But the frequency change from 1010 kHz to 1135 kHz earlier in July 1931, with consequent shorter wavelength made a Marconi "T" antenna a possibility on the building roof-top. General maintenance of the transmitter and steady upgrades of the entire station initially took precedence. In late February and early March 1932, the necessary alterations to the antenna system to give a cage Marconi "T" were effected and modest coverage increase resulted together with more reliable fringe reception. The better radiating system also enabled subsequent power increases.[26]

1932 - Transmitter Upgrade[edit]

Around December 1932 it was announced that considerable work had been undertaken in rebuilding the 6ML transmitter. The upgrade was with a view to increasing radiated power and improving quality of speech and music output.[27] Reports confirmed that the upgrades had met their objective.[28][29]

1933 - WA Broadcasters[edit]

In March 1933 a new company W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., was established with the stated intention of controlling the operation of the existing station 6ML Perth and a proposed new station 6IX Perth. The company was a joint venture of West Australian Newspapers, Ltd., and Musgrove's, Ltd.[30] Links between B Class broadcasting stations were well established in both the Federal Radio Network (of which 6ML was a member) and the Commonwealth Radio Network. Equally the Melbourne (3AR and 3LO) and Sydney (2FC and 2BL) Class A stations had been strongly encouraged to merge immediately prior to the decision not to renew their licences and establish the National Broadcasting System. However it was unprecedented for two B Class stations to be commonly controlled. Arguably the decision ultimately led to 6ML's demise in 1943 when under limited staff resources available during World War 2, those resources were focussed to 6IX and a temporary closure of 6ML eventually became permanent.

1933 - 6IX Commences[edit]

Immediately prior to the commencement of 6IX in November 1933, the staff of 6ML had been fully integrated into WA Broadcasters, Ltd. The venerable Harry Simmons (VK6KX) had manufactured the 6IX transmitter almost in its entirety. The equipment implemented many of the latest technological innovations, particularly in respect of modulation technique and audio processing. For some weeks, much of the studio and transmitter equipment was located in a display window of 6ML's Lyric House.[31] Indeed it was soon revealed that the majority of 6IX's studios were to be located at Musgrove's Lyric House, co-located with 6ML. Only a small studio for news reporting was located at Newspaper House.[32]

1935 - Power Increase[edit]

At the same time as the Department announced the 1935 restack in Feb 1935, it was announced that 6ML would be permitted to increase power from 300 watts to 500 watts, subject to a progressive increase to permit blanketing impact to be fully evaluated.[33]


The "B" Class Stations. . . . Power Increased at 6ML and 6IX. THE first stage to the increase of power of 6ML and 6IX from 300 to 500 watts unmodulated aerial power took place on Monday night, when the strength of both stations reached 400 watts. A new intermediate "B" class amplifier is now working at 6ML, and it is planned to install another water-cooled valve at 6IX, thus ensuring an ample reserve of power. The management of the stations is anxious to receive reports, particularly from country districts, as to the quality and strength of signals.[34]

1935 - Restack[edit]

In February 1935, the Postmaster General's Department announced a major restack of frequencies in order to enable efficient implementation of several new ABC regional relays and a number of new B Class services. Prior frequencies were based on multiples of 5 kHz, whereas the new frequency raster would be solely multiples of 10 kHz. For most Perth stations there was no proposed frequency change. A few Perth stations were required to make minor changes, in the case of 6ML, this was from 1135 kHz to 1130 kHz.[35]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences[edit]

As early as September 1930 there was mention in the press of the possibility of a new wireless station based at Katanning, even including the callsign 6KA which was used by Musgroves itself prior to the adoption of 6WB. Most likely Musgroves were already holding talks with the Postmaster-General's Department, only 6 months after the commencement of 6ML.[36] Finally in August 1935 it was announced that a licence had been offered for a new B Class station at Katanning. Power was to be 2,000 watts and the frequency 1070 kHz. Licensee was W. A. Broadcasters and programming would be a relay of 6IX by landline from Perth studios.[37] In October 1935 it was announced that field tests of possible sites had been undertaken.[38] Further announcements in January 1936 included the fact that a site had been selected and approved 4½ miles north-west of Katanning; programmes would be sourced from both 6IX and 6ML, as well as locally; the callsign would be 6WB; and that Harry Simmons was in Eastern Australia investigating latest developments in transmission systems and purchase of equipment.[39] In February 1936, Bryn Samuel announced that the equipment for the station had been purchased and installation was proceeding as quickly as possible.[40] There was quite some rivalry between 6WB and the long planned major ABC relay station at Wagin (Minding) as to which station would be first to air.[41] The high transmitter power of 6WB placed great demands on the power plant and construction of the 40 hp diesel plant and building took some considerable time.[42] The impending commencement of 6WB was a driver for a new column "Wireless Whispers" in a local Katanning newspaper. But its first report was to effect that the same major storm which had caused serious damage to the huge 6WA mast, had also caused significant damage to the 6WB radiating system with the newly erected aerial wires a tangled mess. This set back the planned commencement of 6WB, but only by a week.[43] 6WB's official commencement was on 26 September 1936. The official opening ceremony was performed by the chairman of directors of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (Mr. H. B. Jackson), and he was supported by the chairman of the Katanning Road Board (Mr. A. Prosser) and Mr. A. F. Watts, M.L.A. A most professional opening night programme was provided consisting of both Perth and Katanning area entertainers and musicians.[44]

1936/37 - Newspaper Control[edit]

During 1936 and 1937 there was quite some public and political interest in the extent of ownership of Australian broadcasting stations by newspaper groups. That interest was primarily targeted at Murdoch's Herald and Weekly Times group and eventually led to a parliamentary inquiry in 1941 under a Labor Government. W. A. Broadcasters, Ltd. was about 50 per cent. owned by W. A. Newspapers, Ltd. Its network of stations was as extensive as anywhere else in Australia, with two Perth metropolitan stations (6ML and 6IX), 6WB Katanning, and the promise of of a licence for 6MD Merredin. It was unfortunate that the Department was under the impression that WA Newspapers was itself within the realm of Hreald and Weekly Times and it took some time to correct this erroneous impression. The 1941 inquiry eventually led to a raft of legislation relating to Media Ownership and Control which still continues to the present.[45][46][47]

Late 1930s[edit]

1939 - New Transmitter[edit]

Shortly after the commencement of World War 2, in October 1939 it was quietly announced that the installation of a new transmitter for 6ML had been completed. It was stated that the new transmitter was capable of improved audio fidelity, also that the old transmitter had been retained as an emergency standby. In the course of a speech on the evening of 16 October 1939 by Horace Benson Jackson, Chairman of Directors of W. A. Broadcasters, Ltd., Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 was broadcast on the old transmitter, immediately followed by the same item after switchover to the new transmitter. This was to enable comparison of the audio performance of both transmitters by listeners. While unstated in the speech, the availability of two transmitters at the site would have had significant security implications during the war.[48] Following the official opening, a special programme was presented. The local artists who took part in the programme included Austin Ray and his Lyricals, Glen Matson's Harmony Hawaiians and Merv Rowston and his orchestra.[49]

1940 - 10th Anniversary[edit]

Due to the clouds of war, the celebration of 6ML's tenth anniversary was a little subdued. It took the form of a cocktail party at the Palace Hotel. A feature was a table decoration in the form of two model wireless towers about 6 foot high with two wires strung between, one suspending a streamer stating "10 Years Old", and the other "6ML". The guests were received by the manager of the company (Mr. B. Samuel). The chairman of directors (Mr. H. B. Jackson), who is in Sydney, sent a telegram regretting his absence. Other directors present were Messrs. H. J. Lambert (acting-chairman), M. D'O. Musgrove, F. C. Kingston, H. Greig and C. P. Smith. Invited guests included the following: The Acting-Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. J. G. Kilpatrick), the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. G. A. Scott), the Assistant Radio Inspector (Mr. A. Grey).[50]

1941 - 6MD Merredin Commences[edit]

As early as 1936, the Postmaster-General's Department had agreed to licence a station at Merredin to WA Broadcasters and even identified the callsign 6MD, though the licence had not been issued.[51] But finally in June 1940, Bryn Samuel of W.A. Broadcasters announced that the licence had been granted, with power to be 500 watts and a frequency of 1100 kHz. Tests to identify a transmitter site were to commence shortly.[52] Already in August 1940 it was noted that a site had been acquired opposite the Merredin State Experimental Farm on the Great Eastern Highway 4½ miles from Merredin. It was stated that the transmitter building would be lit by a diesel electric light plant. Residences were to be constructed for the technicians and a landline established back to Perth for programme distribution.[53] The official opening of the station was on 5 July 1942 at the Merredin Town Hall with an audience that exceeded seating capacity. Chairman of Directors H. B. Jackson performed the ceremony with most of his board in attendance. Network personalities attended from Perth and local entertainers and musicians were a prominent poart of the programme.[54]

1943 - WW2 Closure[edit]

6ML Perth has the unfortunate distinction of being the second soundly established Australian commercial radio station to close down and surrender its licence. The first was 2BE Sydney in the late 1920s at the depth of the Great Depression. The stated cause for the 6ML closure was staff shortages due to World War 2 enlistments. A portent of the closure came in July 1942 with a delegation from WA commercial broadcasters to the Assistant Minister for the Army (Senator Fraser). Explicit statements were made that WA stations were already in a precarious situation from engineering staff losses and reduced broadcast hours or closures were possible.[55] The closure itself, on 30 May 1943, was only briefly reported and only a few days prior to the event, no doubt due to patriotic concerns.[56][57] Despite the announced temporary closure till the end of the war, the article "Reminiscences of 6ML" was a clear indication that it was gone forever.[58] Only one newspaper, the Midlands Advocate appears to have deplored the station closure in the maelstrom of war.[59] Another commentator in the South Western Advertiser dared to note the weight of Westralia's contribution to the war effort and further that no station in Eastern Australia had been forced to close.[60]

1943 - D'Oyly Musgrove Retires[edit]

After 20 years as Managing Director of Musgroves, Ltd., and more than 40 years in the music industry, Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove retired from that position on 31 December 1943. His brainchild Radio 6ML, had already closed down due to wartime staff difficulties, but he retained his position as Chairman of the Board of Musgroves. The occasion was marked by a gathering of employees and there was a small presentation. D'Oyly's vacated position was filled by long-term friend and business associate, Frederick Charles Kingston. Sadly D'Oyly's retirement was to be a brief one.[61]

1944/46 - Perth Restack[edit]

Following the demise of 6ML, the Postmaster-General's Department waited a decent interval before announcing a reshuffle of the higher Perth commercial frequencies on 26 November 1943.[62] It was intended that each station would slide down to the next lowest frequency, with 6IX going from 1240 kHz to 1130 kHz (the former 6ML frequency), 6PM going from 1320 kHz to 1240 kHz (the present 6IX frequency) and 6KY going from 1430 kHz to 1320 kHz (the present 6PM frequency). The proposal was driven by the WA Broadcasting Advisory Committee, but it would seem that full consultation had not been undertaken.[63] 6KY had always had issues with the 1430 kHz, being relatively close to the old border of the AM broadcast band of 1500 kHz. The upper border had actually been increased from 1500 kHz to 1600 kHz under the terms of the 1938 Cairo Conference, but it would be more than a decade before allocations would be made in this extended range and it avoided metropolitan allocations in the range 1400 kHz to 1500 kHz wherever possible. Thus 6KY would have welcomed the move to 1320 kHz. But for 6IX, there was only a limited benefit from the the better propagation offered on the slightly lower frequency. On the other hand it had only been a few months since the closure of its sister station 6ML and for 6IX to move to 6ML's former frequency would create identity confusion in the minds of its listening audience. 6IX made representations to the Department and it was soon decided that 6IX could retain its existing allocation. 6PM would now shift to the former 6ML frequency.[64] With little fanfare, 6PM Fremantle quietly changed frequency on 6 February 1944.[65] 6KY finally shifted to 1320 kHz on 8 July 1944, completing this minor Perth restack.[66]

1944 - D'Oyly Musgrove Passes[edit]

D'Oyly passed suddenly on 9 July 1944 at his home at Palm Beach, Rockingham.[67] He was cremated on 12 July 1944 and the ashes interred at Karrakatta Crematorium. The funeral was widely attended.[68]

1946 - 6ML Mast Dropped[edit]

For some years after the closure of 6ML, the continued presence of the old antenna on top of Lyric House offered the prospect of a phoenix rising from the ashes. But in July 1946, two workers climbed the roof and masts and completed the dismantling of the antenna and support structures.[69]

1953 - 6BY Bridgetown Commences[edit]

In November 1952 it was announced that the W.A. Broadcasters network was to be further extended with a station at Bridgetown, callsign 6BY. Engineering was driven by the networks own engineers, but the ambitious plan for a sectionalised half-wave radiator on the relatively low frequency of 900 kHz necessitated the involvement of AWA.[70] Construction of the facility proceeded apace and the station officially commenced operation on 24 January 1953. The speech by W.A. Broadcasters' Chairman Sir Ross McDonald acknowledged the network's origins in 6ML, closed almost two decades prior.[71]

List of 6ML Personnel and Management[edit]

Management

  • Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove, Managing Director, Musgroves, Ltd., pre 1930 - 1943, retired (continued as Chairman of the Board, passed 1944)
  • Frederick Charles Kingston, Manager 6ML, 1930 - ?, Director 6ML, -1934 -
  • Robert Douglas Scott, Director, Musgroves, Ltd., 1923 - 1940+
  • Arthur Thomas Gray, Director, Musgroves, Ltd., 1923 - 1940+
  • Horace Benson Jackson[72], Director, Musgroves, Ltd., 1923 - 1940+, passed 1952
  • Bryn Samuel, Administration, 1930 - ?, Manager 6ML and Announcer, -1932[73] - ?
  • H. J. Lambert, Director W.A. Broadcasters, ca 1940
  • H. Grieg, Director W.A. Broadcasters, ca 1940
  • C. P. Smith, Director W.A. Broadcasters, ca 1940
  • Ron Brearley, Advertising Manager and Musical Director, 1930[74] - ?, formerly 3AR

Engineering

  • Edwin Ashwin, Construction Engineer, 1930, National Music Federation (5KA)
  • D. Gooding, Assistant Construction Engineer, 1930, National Music Federation (5KA)
  • Henry Trethowan ("Harry") Simmons (VK6KX), Chief Engineer 6ML, 1930 - 1933; Chief Engineer, WA Broadcasters, 1933 -1943+;
  • Malcolm Stewart Urquhart (VK6MU), Assistant Engineer 6ML, 1931[75] - 1941?, enlisted 1941 at Merredin?
  • Clarence Serl ? (WATVH)
  • Don Wood (WATVH)

Announcing

  • Archie Graham, Chief Announcer 6ML, Mar 1930[76] - Sep 1930[77] (retired), formerly 6WF, 5CL
  • Eric Donald, Chief Announcer 6ML, July 1931[78] - ?, formerly 3UZ
  • Fred Edwards[79], Chief Announcer 6ML, 1938[80] - 1939, later 9AO Borneo, ABC Perth
  • Ned Taylor, Announcer 6ML, circa 1933
  • Joan Allen (Aunt Mary)
  • Laurel Berryman

Administrative

Transcriptions and Notes[edit]

More than 150 key articles relevant to 4CK, mainly from the NLA's Trove Digitised Newspapers have been transcribed for ease of reference here: 4CK Transcriptions and Notes

References[edit]

  1. "THE ENLISTED.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XVII, (7,627): p. 1. 29 December 1899. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article83058721. Retrieved 24 March 2019. 
  2. "MR M. D'O MUSGROVE". The West Australian (Western Australia) 60, (18,096): p. 4. 10 July 1944. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article44815419. Retrieved 30 March 2019. 
  3. "MUSGROVE'S LTD.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLII, (15,182): p. 1 (THIRD EDITION). 17 December 1923. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article82562419. Retrieved 17 March 2019. 
  4. "LYRIC HOUSE". The Sunday Times (Western Australia) (Western Australia) (1395): p. 9. 5 October 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58060302. Retrieved 24 March 2019. 
  5. "NEW BROADCAST STATION.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,657): p. 14. 20 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31068384. Retrieved 20 March 2019. 
  6. "PERSONAL.". The West Australian (Western Australia) 60, (17,934): p. 2. 1 January 1944. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article46780348. Retrieved 30 March 2019. 
  7. "MR M. D'O MUSGROVE". The West Australian (Western Australia) 60, (18,096): p. 4. 10 July 1944. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article44815419. Retrieved 30 March 2019. 
  8. "LATE MR MUSGROVE.". The West Australian (Western Australia) 60, (18,099): p. 4. 13 July 1944. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article44815803. Retrieved 30 March 2019. 
  9. "CONTROL OF WIRELESS". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLVII, (16,540): p. 5 (HOME (FINAL) EDITION). 4 May 1928. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article79491155. Retrieved 16 March 2019. 
  10. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-In Lyrics— Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge". The Sunday Times (Western Australia) (Western Australia) (1457): p. 7 (Second Section). 13 December 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58231862. Retrieved 17 March 2019. 
  11. "Wireless Week by Week". The Sunday Times (Western Australia) (Western Australia) (15[?]9): p. 34. 11 December 1927. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60303106. Retrieved 17 March 2019. 
  12. "Wireless Week by Week". The Sunday Times (Western Australia) (Western Australia) (1569): p. 33. 19 February 1928. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58346814. Retrieved 16 March 2019. 
  13. ""B" STATION LICENCE". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLVII, (16,565): p. 3 (FINAL SPORTING EDITION). 4 June 1928. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article79493004. Retrieved 16 March 2019. 
  14. "RADIO PLEASURES". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLVII, (16,569): p. 1 (HOME (FINAL) EDITION). 8 June 1928. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article79487950. Retrieved 16 March 2019. 
  15. "WIRELESS EXHIBITION". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLVIII, (16,953): p. 6 (HOME FINAL EDITION). 3 September 1929. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article79214244. Retrieved 16 March 2019. 
  16. "NEW WIRELESS STATION.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,643): p. 12. 4 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32401036. Retrieved 20 March 2019. 
  17. "NEW WIRELESS STATION.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,649.): p. 8. 11 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31066524. Retrieved 20 March 2019. 
  18. "FEDERAL NETWORK". The Advertiser (South Australia): p. 14. 9 August 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article30500643. Retrieved 27 March 2019. 
  19. "BROADCASTING.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,680): p. 12. 16 April 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31074763. Retrieved 23 March 2019. 
  20. "6ML'S WAVE LENGTH". The Daily News (Western Australia) L, (17,523): p. 6 (HOME (FINAL) EDITION). 7 July 1931. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article83899100. Retrieved 25 March 2019. 
  21. "BROADCASTING.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVII, (9,059): p. 8. 8 July 1931. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32359593. Retrieved 25 March 2019. 
  22. "THE BROADCASTER". The Daily News (Western Australia) L, (17,528): p. 3 (HOME (FINAL) EDITION). 13 July 1931. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article83895630. Retrieved 25 March 2019. 
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  24. "BROADCASTING.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVII, (9,077): p. 3. 29 July 1931. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32352421. Retrieved 25 March 2019. 
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