History of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting in Australia/Topical/Publications/Australasian Radio World/Issues/1937 02

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WorldRadioHistory.com's scan of Australasian Radio World - Vol. 01 No. 10 - February 1937 has been utilised to create the partial content for this page and can be downloaded at this link to further extend the content and enable further text correction of this issue: ARW 1937 02

In general, only content which is required for other articles in this Wikibook has been entered here and text corrected. The material has been extensively used, inter alia, for compilation of biographical articles, radio club articles and station articles.

Front Cover[edit]

The Australasian Radio World

Feb 1, 1937; Vol. 1 - No. 10.; Price, 1/-

Registered at the G.P.O., Sydney, for transmission by post as a periodical

Cover Photo: Photo of B.B.C. Broadcasting House (see story on page 8)

Highlighted Contents: New Series of Articles on Amateur Radio; Building a Code Practice Oscillator; 5-metre Push-Pull Transmitter; Fidelity Broadcast Five; Latest World Shortwave News.

Inside Front Cover - Stromberg-Carlson Ad[edit]

F all the important developments that STRO MBERG - CARLSON have ever pioneered, the ACOUSTICAL LABYRINTH is the most miraculous. Definitely, it is the most startling development since the invention of electro-dynamic loudspeakers! In the magnificent new StrombergCarlson CONCERT GRAND the Acoustical Labyrinth makes possible, for the first time, absolutely PERFECT reproduction —no boom, no harshness, no microphonics, no peaked trebles, no muffled bass! Just a clean, firm fidelity —scintillating in the high notes, powerfully smooth and rounded in the bass, equally faithful in every frequency of the tonal range. If you are used to hearing ordinary radios, the CONCERT GRAND will impress you beyond compare. Other marvellous features — all exclusive to Stromberg-Carlson — make it wonder value for only 39 guineas See your nearest Authorised StrombergCarlson Dealer and arrange for a demonstration in your own home.

The Acoustical Labyrinth The Stromberg-Carlson Acoustical Labyrinth is a specially-designed and patented Labyrinth (a) which controls sounds (b) coming from the back of the loudspeaker, prevents them front spreading all over the back of the cabinet, and guides them out of the cabinet through the bottom. (c) When they mingle with the sounds from the FRONT of the loudspeaker they produce a perfect balance of the high and bass notes. For ilustrated literature fully describing the Acoustical Labyrinth, write to Stromberg-Carlson (A'sia) Ltd., Bourke Road, Alexandria, N.S. W.

There is Nothing Finer than a tronierg-Carlson Models fro m 14 guineas

P.01 - Fear's Ad[edit]

Ne w! ... Sensational! . The MICRO MATIC ALL- WAVE TUNER The MICROMATIC ALL- WAVE TUNER represents the greatest single advance made in radio ever since dual-wave receivers came into vogue a few years ago. It definitely means the end of alignment troubles, which cause instability and poor sensitivity. Using the MICROMATIC ALL- WAVE TUNER, you know, before mounting a single component, that the completed receiver will be aligned as accurately as laboratory-built test equipment can make it. Don't risk money on a kit-set NO-ONE could align correctly without expensive test equipment. We GUARANTEE the alignment of any set using the MICROMATIC ALLWAVE TUNER to be perfect. Supplied with completely-wired and aligned r.f. and mixeroscillator stages, with I.F. transformers (one iron-cored type) and accurately - cali- £ 9-1 5- 0 brated all-wave dial. The MICRO MATIC All- Wave Miracle Six Ilustrated above is the "MICROMATIC MIRACLE SIX," a metal-valve al-wave superhe+ of latest design featuring the amazing new Micromatic All-wave Tuner. Seven simple connections to a terminal strip mounted on the Tuner, and what in other sets is the most dificult and critical portion of the wiring is complete ! The remainder of the wiring is simpler than that of a four-valve broadcast set. No coil connections to worry about, no wave-change switch to wire, and best of al, NO ALIGNMENT DIFFICULTIES!

Super-selective, exceptionally powerful, and giving alwave coverage, the "MICROMATIC MIRACLE ALL- WAVE SIX" is a set you'll be proud to own. Complete Kit of Parts less valves and speaker Complete Kit, with valves £ 1 9 1 0 0 and Magnavox speaker - - (Detailed assembly instructions, with photographs and diagrams, art supplied with every kit).

5-METRE PUSH-PULL TRANSMITTER Amateurs ! Join the rush to "five" by building the 5-metre transmitter described in this issue. High out:sot with low cost. KIT OF PARTS (including valves), £6. CODE PRACTICE OSCILLATOR Anyone can become a "ham" —why not YOU? Think of the thrill of owning your own station, of chatting to fellow-amateurs half-way round the globe ! It's not difficult

to get a ticket__it's easy. Follow the series of articles starting this month, and build the code practice oscillator described. KIT OF PARTS (complete with high quality 'phones and key), £3. FIDELITY BROADCAST FIVE The set for the connoisseur. Is selective, extremely powerful, with beautiful tone, while volume is more than ample for home needs. Has provision for pick-up and for attaching a shortwave converter. CO MPLETE KIT OF PARTS (including valves and 12-inch speaker), f13/10/-.

OUTDOOR PORTABLE FOUR Built your "Outdoor Portable" yet? If not, you're missing some wonderful entertainment, at times when you could most enjoy it. Compact, strong, and completely self-contained, it can be taken anywhere. Picnicing, camping, or touring, the "Outdoor" is ready day or night to entertain you. Using four latest type valves in a special reflex circuit, giving tremendous gain with very low battery drain, the "Outdoor" represents exceptional value at £10/5/- for the complete kit of parts. EVERYT HING IS SUPPLIED —NOT HING FURTHER TO BUY! SCOUT BATTERY THREE Country readers wanting the most in radio at the cheapest cost cannot possibly do better than build the "Scout Battery Three," described in the December "Radio World." Special features include latest valves, iron-core coils, adjustable selectivity. Brings in all main Australasian stations at full speaker strength. CO MPLETE KIT OF PARTS (incluiing valves, batteries and speaker), 04/15/-. OUR 1937 CATALOGUE Had your copy of our 1937 Catalogue yet? It's packed from coser to cover with the latest "dope" on the latest parts. Send for your copy now__it's free.

FE A R'S FOR EVERYT HIN G IN RADI O AN ADVERTISEMENT OF F. J. W. FEAR & CO., "The Radio Pioneers," 31 Willis Street, Wellington, New Zealand.

P.02 - Editorial Notes[edit]

Editorial Notes . . .

It is interesting to note that in two of the latest books on television, the authors have not only acknowledged the valuable work already done by amateurs for radio, but also they both in effect predict that the sooner amateurs are enabled to take an active part in television, the faster will this new science develop. In the foreword to his book, "Television Reception," Manfred von Ardenne, a noted German engineer and one of the world's leading authorities on television, states:— "The purpose of this publication is to provide an impulse towards intensive activity on the part of amateurs in the newest and perhaps the most interesting branch of electrical engineering." Across the Atlantic, George H. Eckhardt, in his recently-published "Electronic Television," devotes a page in his introduction to the part the amateur may be expected to play in television. He says:— "The amateur has been a pioneer in the field of radio communication. He explored wave bands that, at the time, had not been particularly useful for other purposes, and then, when other uses were found for those bands, he was forced into bands of shorter and shorter waves. He now stands on the threshold of having the ultrashort wave bands more or less snatched away from him for the advent of electronic television. "For this reason, if for no other, Philo T. Farnsworth feels that the amateur should have a part in the further development of electronic television Many of the present-day radio engineers have come from the ranks of the amateurs, and it does not seem too early to predict that electronic television will have to look to this source for many of the men who will be required in television work in the years ahead." It is certainly a wonderful tribute to amateurs when men whose names will go down through history as pioneers of television, not only commend them on the valuable work they have already done, but also invite them to co-operate in further research on television. And it is a tribute that will be particularly appreciated by the amateur, who is far more accustomed to having his efforts rewarded by restrictions being placed on his activities than to receiving commendation for them.

P.02 - Contents Banner[edit]

THE AUSTRALASIAN RADIO WORLD.

Incorporating the

ALL-WAVE ALL-WORLD DX NEWS.

Managing Editor:

A. EARL READ, B.Sc.

Vol. 1. - FEBRUARY, 1937 - No. 10.

P.02 - Contents[edit]

CONTENTS:

Assembling And Wiring The "Fidelity Broadcast Five" . . . . 3

Radio Ramblings . . . . 6

Building A Code Practice Oscillator . . . . 10

Radio Book Reviews . . . . 13

What's New In Radio . . . . 14

The A.T.R.S. Bulletin . . . . 16

Licensing Of Servicemen Urgently Needed . . . . 16

Nevi Series Of Articles On Amateur Radio . . . . 17

Breaking Into The Amateur Game . . . . 18

Learning The Code . . . . 20

"Getting Out" On Five Metres . . . . 23

First Radio Signal From U.S. Heard In 1923 . . . . 25

5-Metre Push-Pull Oscillator . . . . 26

The Story Of Television (3) . . . . 28

Hints And Tips For DX Beginners . . . . 30

The Lure Of DX Listening . . . . 32

Radio Step By Step (6) . . . . 33

Background Hiss In Superhets . . . . 34

Five-Metre Enthusiasts Asked To Use Superhets . . . . 36

All-Wave All-World DX News . . . . 37

DX Report Forms Save Time And Ensure Replies . . . . 38

Preparing Reports In German And Italian . . . . 39

Times To Listen For World Shortwave Stations . . . . 40

The Month On Shortwave . . . . 41

DX News Flashes . . . . 42

DX Notes And News . . . . 43

VK Amateur Stations — Additions And Amendments . . . . 45

New Range Of Radiokes Power Transformers . . . . 46

World Shortwave Stations (6) . . . . 47

W.I.A. Field Day . . . . 48

P.02 - Publication Notes[edit]

The "Australasian Radio World" is published monthly by Trade Publications Proprietary, Ltd. Editorial offices, 214 George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. Telephone BW6577. Cable address: "Repress," Sydney. Advertisers please note that copy should reach office of publication by 15th of month preceding that specified for insertion.

Subscription rates: 1/- per copy, 10/6 per year ( 12 issues) post free to Australia and New Zealand. Subscribers in New Zealand can remit by Postal Note or Money Order.

Printed by Bridge Printery, 214 George Street, Sydney, N.S.W., for the proprietors of the "Australasian Radio World," 214 George St., Sydney (Footnote P.48)

P.03 - Assembling And Wiring The "Fidelity Broadcast Five"[edit]

P.06 - Radio Ramblings[edit]

P.10 - Building A Code Practice Oscillator[edit]

P.13 - Radio Book Reviews[edit]

A First Course In Wireless. Published originally as a series of articles in the well-known B.B.C. weekly "World Radio," "A First Course In Wireless," by "Decibel," is an inexpensive text-book that can be recommended to beginners in radio. Fundamental principles are explained very carefully and thoroughly, and the theory and design of radio receivers is dealt with step by step, starting with a simple crystal set and leading up to modern multivalve receivers. In clearness and simplicity, "A First Course In Wireless" marks an advance in elementary radio books, and forms an excellent introduction to the more technical books on the subject. ("A First Course in Wireless," by "Decibel." Our copy from Messrs. Angus & Robertson 89 Castlereagh St., Sydney. Price, 5/6; postage 6d.1 1937 Radio Amateur's Handbook Now Available. The new 1937 edition of The Radio Amateur's Handbook, the manual of amateur radio communication published by the American Radio Relay League, surpasses any of the previous editions both in size and quality of practical content. The new edition has a total of 21 chapters with an appendix of miscellaneous practical information, followed by an exceptionally comprehensive topical index which facilitates quick reference. Many important technical developments during the past year and sweeping changes in operating technique and methods have called for enlargement of the book and rewriting of almost all chapters. Some idea of the extent of the revision may be had from the fact that two hundred new ilustrations are included. Special attention has been given to the new developments in noise silencers for short-wave receivers and to the new technical trends in the circuit design. A wealth of new material is added to the wide field of transmitter planning, construction and adjustment. The capabilities of the new valves are exploited to the full in the radiotelegraph and 'phone transmitter designs presented. Extended space is also given to the ever-important subject of aerials, directional systems and the new ideas in coupling methods being treated in particular detail. The ultra-high frequencies come in for a big share of the space also, new and advanced equipment being detailed to ilustrate the latest trends in this rapidly growing field. As in previous editions, full attention has been given to charts and tables of information for the radio enthusiast, the valve tables, for example, occupying seventeen pages. The basic purpose of The Radio Amateur's Handbook is to present a complete treatment of every phase of modern amateur radio communication from elementary theory through advanced practical application, with emphasis always on ideas and methods that have shown their worth in the field. This new edition fulfills this purpose even more efectively than any of its predecessors. (The Radio Amateur's Handbook, Fourteenth (1937) Edition, by the A.R.R.L. Headquarters Staf. 544 pages (including a 112-page catalogue section), with approximately 564 ilustrations; 74 charts and tables and 86 formulas. Obtainable from Messrs. Angus & Robertson, 89 Castlereagh St., Sydney. Price, 7/6; postage 9d.] Oficial Radio Service Handibook. Written by J. T. Bernsley, a noted American writer in the radio service field, the "Oficial Radio Service Handibook" is a book that servicemen will find invaluable. A 1,000- page volume, the book has been written from the practical angle throughout, and, as the author says in the preface, with the single objective always in view of aiding the serviceman in his eforts to perform all repairs as efficiently and quickly as possible. About a third of the book is devoted to operating and design data on American sets, and of course a fair amount of this material is useless to servicemen in this country. At the same time, the operating notes on commonly-encountered faults in specific models make interesting reading, and some very useful hints can be picked up. The remaining 600 pages or so are devoted to theory governing the functioning of circuits, test equipment fundamentals and how to lest use each instrument, balancing and adjustment methods, and generally to servicing as it is practised today. Chapters on the cathode ray oscillograph, auto radio installation, and on noise interference elimination will be of intense interest to the progressive serviceman who realises that all three are rapidly iusuming considerable importance in servicing to-day. Altogether, this new service handbook can be recommended to every established serviceman who 'wants to keep himself in line with latest developments in his field, and to everyone just starting in the profession who wants to obtain a thorough groundwork in modern service procedure. ["Oficial Radio Service Handbook," by J. T. Bernsley. Published by Gernsback Publications, Inc., 99 Hudson St., New York, N.Y.; our copy from Radcraft Publications Inc. (same address).) Radio Field Service Data. Supplies of the second edition of Ghirardi's "Radio Field Service Data," reviewed in the "Radio World" for December last, are now available in Australia. A modern, practical reference book containing many useful troubletracking charts and tables, servicemen will find it invaluable. Those specialising in auto-radio installations will find the book particularly useful, as no less than three sections are devoted to remedies for stubborn automobile ignition interference, electrical wiring diagrams of automobiles, and to battery polarity, breaker-point and spark-gaps, and auto-radio antenna data for American cars. [" Radio Field Service Data," Second Revised Edition, by Alfred A. Ghirardi, E.E., obtainable from Messrs. Angus & Robertson, 89 Castlereagh St., Sydney. Price, 16/-; postage 9d.1 -k Electronic Television. The development of electronic television has progressed rapidly during the past few years, until today it is well past the laboratory stage and is now being tested in the field. Two experimental stations for electronic television transmissions are now operating in America, one in Philadelphia established by Farnsworth Television Incorporated, and the other in New York by the Radio Corporation of America. Two men stand out as pioneers in the new science— Philo T. Farnsworth, of the former company, and Dr. V. K. Zworykin, of the latter. With the emergence of electronic television into the field, it became apparent that an authentic book on the subject was badly needed, and "Electronic Television," by George H. Eckhardt, provides the answer. Both companies mentioned above co-operated in its production, so that the information contained on the systems developed and operated by them was obtained at first-hand. The book is written not for highly trained engineers, but for the average reader possessing perhaps only (continued on page 15).

Radio Book Reviews. (continued from page 13) a smattering of radio knowledge. The fundamentals of electronic television are clearly explained in the opening chapter, and then the Farnsworth and R.C.A. systems of transmission and reception are dealt with in turn, simply and comprehensively. An especially interesting and ingenious device is the Farnsworth cold cathode Multipactor tube, which not only provides the solution to a difficult problem in electronic television, but eventually may displace present-day receiving and transmitting valves. ["Electronic Television," by George H. Eckhardt; publishers, the Go t- Willcox Co., Inc., Chicago. Our copy from Messrs. Angus & Robertson, 89 Castlereagh St., Sydney. Price, 15/-; postage 9d.]

P.14 - What's New In Radio[edit]

P.16 - The A.T.R.S. Bulletin[edit]

From The Secretary's Pen. IVE energetic servicemen are reminded that there are still a few vacancies for membership of our organisation in the metropolitan area. There are also vacancies for country members. With reference to inter-state membership, correspondence is to hand from all over Australia desiring membership. Here is an example of

numerous letters received at our office. "Dear Sir —Being in servicing profession I am very impressed with the idea of the A.T.R.S., which is much needed to build up the prestige that should be given to this profession. The status of the serviceman must be raised, but it never will be as long as unqualified meddlers and so-called super mechanics are dabbling in the profession, endeavouring to service radio sets with a seven and sixpenny voltmeter, a pair of pliers and a soldering iron. Yet they advertise that they have the most elaborate testing equipment under the sun, and quote a price beyond all reason, such as 1/6 or 2/6 per hour. Such a price as this cannot pay any legitimate business. Some can get away with it and fool the unsuspecting public for a while, but they are eventually found out, and the receivers they are supposed to have serviced are then brought to the professional man, who discovers that they are in shocking condition. Yet he is expected to undertake a thorough overhaul at a next-to-nothing price, through the previous influence of the meddler. A well-trained, adequately equipped radio serviceman should be regarded as highly as a doctor, whose fees are an indication of his study, yet the radio serviceman who has studied for many years can rarely command equitable payment for his services. If all reliable professional radio servicemen were to get together and join your organisation, I am sure these dificulties would eventually be overcome and there would be a profitable living in our chosen field in the future. Therefore, I desire to become a member, and you can depend on my assistance if required. Wishing the organisation success, Yours faithfully, G. W. WILSCHEFSKI. Express Radio Service. MARYBOROUGH, QLD. This is spirit which has made our organisation a success so far. We need your co-operation to gain our objective, so join now.

P.16 - Licensing Of Servicemen Urgently Needed[edit]

Licensing of Servicemen Urgently Needed Assessing Service Charges By TEST-PROD HERE are many and varied s&-henies 'or assessing the value of a service call. It does not appear to be good business policy to prepare an elaborate card system on which is shown details of faults, component prices, so much per hour travelling expenses etc. Of course, these items must be taken into account, but one would not expect a grocer, for example, to fill in his bill complete with trade discounts, sales tax and shop rent! Two Hypothetical Cases. In arriving at a solution of this somewhat involved problem, a few hypothetical cases might assist. Serviceman "A" is called to a job in which the radio has gone "dead." Upon testing the receiver he discovers that an electrolytic condenser has developed a short, and as a result the 80 rectifier has joined its ancestors. He informs his client that the job will cost say 27/6. The client is anxious to know what it's all about, so the serviceman points to the ofending "electro" and holds up the valve. The client then pleads financial embarrassment and promises to ring later. That ring never comes. The client has a friend who fixes everything from door knobs to sewing machines for "experience." Asked for assistance, he buys an 80 and an electrolytic at cost, instals them, and everybody is happy, with the exception of Mr. "A." The moral is that this serviceman is not selling his time so much as his knowledge of radio, which is his main asset. Now with regard to the system of charging so much per hour, we will consider the case of "X" and "Y," two mechanics who both charge the same rate. "X" is an experienced technican, "Y" is a "mug" who has hastily read the contents of "How to flecome a Serviceman" and bought an analyser on T.P. They are called out on two sets with identical faults. "X" has his set right in half an hour; "Y" sweats and fumes for three hours, goes home to lunch, and has the receiver finished in time for tea. Assessing costs on a time basis, "Y's" bill is several times greater than "X's," which is obviously anything but fair to "Y's" unfortunate customer, or the genuine serviceman. Licensing Of Servicemen Suggested Now for a few remedies. I am in favour of a Government examination for servicemen on the lines of the A.O.P.C. or P.M.G. certificate: Those who passed would be issued a license. This would in time make radio servicing a recognised profession, and protect the public against unqualified men. The next step is to boycott those firms who sell to the general public at trade prices.

P.17 - New Series Of Articles On Amateur Radio[edit]

ABOUT THE AUTHORS. GEORGE THO MPSON (left), was educated at Wakefield Grammar School, England, and has been keenly interested in amateur radio ever since the war. He operates his own station (VK3TH) on 56 m.c. (5 metres) only, and assists as onerator of VIC3BY, Australia's crack amateur station. 3TH's chief interest these days lies on the • educational side—_he controls the student classes of the W.I.A. in Melbourne. These have proven very successful, and at the last Government exam., a 75 % pass was obtained, constituting a record for Aurtralia. IVOR M ORGAN (VK3DH) is a product of the Melbourne Grammar School and Melbourne University, and is a professional radio consultant as well as a director of Regent Radio Pty. Ltd. He holds a broadcast operator's ticket in addition to an experimental license. 3DH operates his own transmitters on 269, 80, 40, 20, 10, and 5 metres, and is noted for the very high standard of his transmissions. Is a member of the W.I.A., and has been in radio for ten years.

Ne w Series Of Articles On A mateur Radio . . . . . — An Introduction By The Authors M HE series of articles commencing this month in the "Radio World" under the title of "Breaking Into The Amateur Game" is not intended for the advanced amateur who will, or at least should, know the simple lessons as a school child knows its alphabet. Our objective is to supply those in whom the spark of radio has been lately kindled with simplified lessons which, if conscientiously studied, will provide suficient knowledge of the propagation of wireless waves to enable them to pass the examination for the Amateur Operator's Certificate of Proficiency, or as it is known to "hams," the A.O.C.P. Most people whom the radio bug attacks look forward to the time when they will possess a call-sign of their own, and the authors hope to do something to assist in the accomplishment of that worthy ambition. The most elementary principles of electricity as applied to wireless, the real fundamentals, will be dealt with in such manner as will aford their ready absorption by all who possess a reasonable standard of intelligence and who are prepared to devote the necessary time to the study of this very entertaining art. In order to pass the government examination, it is necessary that the candidates obtain not less than 70% in each of the following subjects :— Sending and receiving in code (morse) at a speed of twelve words per minute, 5 letters to constitute a word; a series of questions on theory, usually 10 in number; and a thorough knowledge of the regulations governing amateur transmissions as appearing in the P.M.G.'s handbook. The latter cannot be taught, but the numbers of those necessary will be stated and may be learned leisurely at a convenient time. It will be necessary that each student provide him or herself with a morse key and either an oscillator or buzzer arrangement for the purpose of practice. In all probability some of the advertisers in this journal have simple complete sets available at small cost, but they are simple of construction and are readily assembled. —The Authors.

P.18 - Breaking Into The Amateur Game[edit]

Breaking Into The Amateur Ga me .

The first of a series of articles for beginners in amateur radio, specially written for "Radio World" By GEORGE THO MPSON (N/K3TI-U and IVOR MORGAN (VK3DH)

To be thoroughly conversant with Ohm's Law is the first essential to a sound knon ledge of radio. In the above, if the letter representing the unknown quantity is covered, the way to deal with the other two quantities will be revealed. Thus, by covering up E, I and R are left together and should be multiplied. If I is covered, it becomes obvious that that E should be divided by R. R. GILBERT in the year 1600 published his famous work "De Magnete" on the science of magnetism. A magnet may be termed a solid body possessing the property of attracting to a much greater extent than any other metal. In dealing with any action on this principle, the phenomenon is known as magnetism. Copper and zinc are examples of non-magnetic substances, while nickel and cobalt are readily attracted by a magnet, and are therefore said to be magnetic. Upon experiment it is found that a magnetised bar of iron when suspended to rotate freely in a horizontal plane will definitely come to rest with one end pointing to the earth's geographical North pole. This end

is known as the North-seeking pole, the opposite extremity being the South-seeking pole. Should a magnet in bar form be suspended horizontally at a point half its length from another magnet (fixed), the latter being placed with its South pole nearest to the movable magnet, it will be found that the suspended magnet will swing until its North pole comes to rest close to the South pole of the fixed magnet. From this we get the first law of magnetism: — Unlike Poles Attract, And Like Poles Repel. In the magnetising of a piece of iron or steel, the effect has a limited penetration; therefore by placing together a number of thin magnets, a compound or laminated magnet is formed. By this means we obtain in a limited weight and bulk a magi et greater in strength than one of F i.nilar dimensions that is solid.

An electro-magnet consists fundamentally of either a solid or laminated rod of soft iron, around which is wound a coil of insulated copper wire. When a direct current of electricity is passed through the wire, the iron core becomes an electromagnet, the magnetic properties failing as soon as the current is interrupted. Up to a certain point the strength of the magnet would increase as the current through the coil was increased, until the stage was reached when a further increase of current no longer increased the strength of the magnet. This is a condition known as magnetic saturation. If three bar magnets are placed upon a table with their ends a quarter of an inch apart, in the form of a triangle, their North and South poles being adjacent, a closed magnetic chain is formed. Upon investigation with a compass we find that the magnetic forces are concentrated about the ends of the bars, and practically no field (magnetic) is detected externally. This is a condition known as a closed magnetic field. Magnetic screens are sometimes used in the application of magnetism to radio. These take the form of a bar or sheet of magnetic iron or steel, so placed to change the pattern of a magnetic field. The most perfect form of magnetic screen is a sphere, with the object to be screened placed centrally inside. A Definition Of Permeability. Permeability may be defined as the property, per,sessed in varying degree by magnetic substances, of becoming magnetised when placed in a magnetic field. Electricity, or the evidence of activity of electrons as we know it, is the science upon which depends practically all our radio activities. Atoms And Electrons. Considering first the electron, we usually accept this as being, in conjunction with other electrons, part of the atom. Atoms are divided into classes dependent on the number of

electrons that constitute them. Then we have positive and negative electrons going to make up the nucleus of the atom. The positive electrons are known as protons, and the negative, simply electrons. Atoms make up molecules which in turn go to constitute common substances such as iron, copper, aluminium, etc. To clarify this electron theory we should visualise an atom as a nucleus consisting of protons (positive electrons) und electrons, surrounded by electrons (negative) which rotate around the nucleus in an elliptical fashion. The relative quantity of free electrons determines the conducting properties of the substance. As an example, copper has a large number of free electrons, whereas glass could be said to have practically none. The atoms of most metals will, with very little resistance, part with an electron or two, which will drift in the direction of any positive electric strain. When there is a surplus of electrons at one point and a deficit at another (the two points being joined by a conductor) electric current flows from the former to the latter point, i.e., from negative to positive (— to +). This drift of electrons constitutes an electric current, and is actually the drift of electrons from atoms along a con ductor. As stated earlier, atoms are composed of a nucleus of protons and electrons surrounded by electrons. Normally the condition is a balance electrically, but when an electron is added to or subtracted from a neutral (balanced) atom, we have what is known as an "ion." Therefore ionisation is the process of adding or subtracting an electron from a neutral atom. How A Valve Works. Closely associated with this theory is conduction by thermionic emission of electrons in a vacuum tube. In the simplest form of vacuum tube, there is a metal plate supported close to a cathode, both being enclosed in a vacuum. The cathode consists of a metal filament not unlike that in a common electric lamp. When the filament, or cathode as it should be termed, is heated, electrons are stimulated to fly of from its surface, and they are attracted to the plate when the latter is connected to an external battery. (Positive pole to the plate and negative to the cathode.) A cloud of electrons gathers near the cathode, and is known as the space charge. Thus we have seen that an electron flow can take place within the vacuum tube, the direction being from cathode to plate. The function of the most complicated of multi-element tubes is dependent on this fundamental principle.

Electromotive Force, or E.M.F., is the term used to describe the electrical pressure created between the two poles of a battery by the excessive number of electrons at the negative pole. Common practice in radio is to combine a large number of "dry cells" in series to make a battery. These dry cells usually have a terminal E.M.F. pressure, or voltage, of 1.5v. By connecting the positive terminal of one cell to the negative terminal of the next, and the positive terminal of this to the negative of a third cell, we are adding the voltages of each, and the connection is known as series. Three such cells connected in series would provide a battery of 1.5 X 3 = 4.5 volts.

Again, using our three 1.5v. cells, but this time connecting all the positive terminals together, then all the negatives, we have a battery the terminal voltage of which is still 1.5 volts as compared with 4.5v. of the first battery, but the second battery is capable of delivering three times the current of the first. This "hookup" is termed a parallel connection. Meters for use in these simple circuits would be :—a voltmeter connected in parallel with the supply of unknown voltage, and an ampere meter (ammeter) or milliampere meter (milliammeter) according to current, is connected in series with the circuit where we wish to measure current flowing in the circuit. A milliamp is 1/1,000th of an ampere. Direct And Alternating Currents. Thus far we have discussed only simple direct current circuits. The letters D.C. usually appear on any piece of apparatus which must function only on direct current. Should the D.C. in any circuit be interrupted either regularly or irregularly it is still D.C., since the direction, of flow remains the same. The type of current most commonly in use is known as alternating, or A.C. The fundamental diference between these two types —D.C. and A.C. —is that where the former flows in the same direction at all times, the latter reverses its direction of flow many times per second. The electron flow with alternating current first increases to a maximum, falls to zero, then reverses its direction and rises to maximum, again falls to zero, and so on. In our usual power mains circuits the direction of current flow changes each 1/160th of a second. This means that the complete reversal, or cycle, occupies exactly 1/50th of a second. Hence there are 50 cycles per second, explaining the term 50 cycles A.C. This theory may be applied to many aspects of radio. For instance in a circuit where we are dealing with voice frequencies, the frequency is constantly changing, and in the space of a split second may vary from 100 cycles to 5,000 cycles per second. Coming to frequencies used commonly by wireless transmitters, we have a range covering some 80,000 cycles or 80 kilocycles (a kilocycle being 1,000 cycles) and extending up to 60,000 k.c. or 60 megacycles (a megacycle is 1,000,000 cycles). Unlike D.C., A.C. cannot be produced by batteries, and a rotating machine known as an alternator is used to generate commercial 50-cycle power. In the case of frequencies above 80 k.c., vacuum tubes in appropriate circuits are used to generate A.C. power. Ohm's Law Formulae. Before proceeding further it would be advisable to memorise Ohm's Law, this being the most widely used formula in radio. When R=the resistance in the circuit (measured' in ohms), E=the E.M.F. (in volts), and I=the current (in amperes), then E E Ohm's Law says :—R= —; I= —, and E=IXR. The resistance in the circuit can therefore be found by dividing the voltage by the current, and so on. Resistors are sometimes made

up of resistance wire wound on a former, or of some carbon compound in the case of very high rvalues, where dificulties would arise in the manufacture, since the fineness of the wire would constitute a definite problem. These resistors can be connected, like batteries, in series or parallel. Thus, should we connect a number of resistances of different values in series, the result from end to end would be the sum total of the individual values, but if connected in parallel the nett result in ohms is: - 1 1 1 1

where R is

R, R2 R. the resultant resistance, and Ri, R., and R. the individual resistances. It can be stated here that the cause of heat produced by an overloaded copper wire or resistance wire is the flow of electricity producing molecular friction, resulting in heat. Power Is Rate Of Working. In addition to volts and ohms, we use another expression in simple electrical calculations, namely watts. "Power" is the rate at which work is done —one watt has been expended when one ampere flows between two points having a potential diference of one volt. We have the definition P=E X I, where P is the power in watts, E is the voltage, and I is the current in amperes. Moving electrons produce magnetic fields or lines of magnetic force around the conductor. When a conductor is wound in a coil, the field becomes stronger because there are more lines of force. With the addition of an iron core the magnetic force is increased, and the field is concentrated about the core. Self-Inductance Explained. This brings us to an explanation of "self-inductance." If an alternating current is passed through a coil, the field around the coil will increase and decrease, first in one direction and then the other. The varying field around the coil will induce a varying voltage in the coil, and the current produced by this induced voltage will be in the opposite direction to that of the current originally passed through the wire. Thus the coil tends to prevent any change in the current flowing through it and so limits the amount of A.C. flowing. This property is known as "self induction." The unit of self-inductance is the "Henry" —obtained when a rate of current change of one ampere in one second causes an induced voltage of one volt. Inductances are dealt with in series and parallel in precisely the same way as with resistors. We therefore know that an induc

tance limits the amount of current that an A.C. voltage can send through it, so it follows that with a fixed inductance the flow of high frequency A.C. will be more retarded than low frequency A.C. The combined efect is "reactance." Formula: —XL=27rfl, where "XL" is inductive reactance in ohms, 7r is 3.1416, "f" is frequency in cycles per second, and "1" is the inductance in henries. Fixed And Variable Condensers. Corning now to condensers, when an insulating medium (called dielectric) separates two or more metal plates, we have a condenser. The convenient reference unit of capacity 1 is the microfarad (1,600,000 of a farad). D.C. cannot be passed through a condenser, but it can be regarded that A.C. can. Variable condensers are made so that the relative area of plate material in mutual relationship can be changed, thus varying the capacity of the condenser. A form of condenser slightly different to the fundamental design is the electrolytic condenser. A round pole of aluminium alloy is immersed in a liquid electrolyte. Aluminium oxide is formed on this anode, or positive pole, and an aluminium vessel suitable to hold the liquid becomes the negative pole. Since the sheet of aluminium alloy has this very thin coating of oxide all over its surface in contact with the liquid, we obtain a relatively high capacity in a conveniently small space. The electrolyte, which forms the negative pole of the condenser, is in contact with the container, and so the negative connection is made to the latter. Condensers in parallel are treated the same as resistors in series, that is, we simply add the various capacities to determine the total. Condensers in series will be found by this formula: — • 1 1 1 1 — where Ci, C., and C. C C C. C, are the separate capacities, and C the resultant capacity. Ohm's Law For Alternating Currents E E Z= —, E=IZ, when "E" is the voltage and "I" the current in the circuit, and "Z" the symbol for impedance. If inductances had no resistance we could assume that the current in the coil would be equal to the voltage divided by the reactance, but the coil has resistance, which acts with the reactance in limiting the A.C. The Combined efect of these is termed "impedance," (Z) and is found from the formula:— Z= v1V-FX ("X" being reactance.) Finally, to define the efective or "root mean square" (R.M.S.) value of A.C. This problem is simplified when we take an alternating current as having an efective value of one ampere when it produces heat at the same average rate as one ampere of D.C. in the same resistor. The usual alternating current ammeter or voltmeter gives a reading of the R.M.S. value of current or voltage. Next month we will deal with "Valves and Radio Wave Fundamentals," but in the meantime, as well as studying the first lesson given above, readers should build the code practice oscillator described elsewhere in this issue, and make a start on learning the code by the method now to be outlined.

P.20 - Learning The Code[edit]

Learning The Code Constant Practice Essential

T HE Morse Code is a system of dots and dashes (known as dits and dahs) so arranged that communications can be transmitted in all European languages. The only method by which eficiency can be obtained in this most important branch of an amateur's knowledge is by constant study until the system becomes, like the written alphabet, second nature. There are 26 letters in the English alphabet provided for ,as well as seven further letters known as continental letters, for use only in such languages as German, French, Spanish, etc. They are not used in our language or in examinations by the P.M.G.'s Department for experimental licences, and may be disregarded by students for the time being. How To Group Letters. Definitely there is no short cut to acquiring a knowledge of code, but perhaps a few hints likely to be of help can be ofered. Having learned the alphabet in signals, it will be found advantageous to remember certain groups of letters, each of which have an afinity with the others in the group. First we will take the letters E, I, S and H. These are denoted by dits only, and are respectively,-, - - -

P.21 - Radiotrons Ad[edit]

P.23 - "Getting Out" On Five Metres[edit]

P.25 - First Radio Signal From U.S. Heard In 1923[edit]

First Radio Signal Fro m U.S. Heard In 1923

Week-end Portable Tests Popular: Five- Metre Reports Wanted : Lakemba Radio Club Notes And News . . By W.J.P.

Week-end jaunts to conduct portable tests are proving very popular with Lakemba Radio Club members this summer.

Week-end T-ests Popular. Experimental portable tests are very popular with Lakemba Club members, especially during holiday week-ends, The photo ilustrated shows interested spectators gathered around the operating table listening to "ham" contacts on telephony. Tables and chairs were placed at our disposal, but what is more, the lady in the centre, Mrs. Lawrence of Fairfield, prepared an excellent lunch for the operators. A local dog can also be observed displaying his interest by pulling up our earth wire, but in so doing must have received a shock from the transmitter, because he gave vent to a loud yelp and disappeared across the paddock in a cloud of dust. Five Metre Reports. On several occasions it has been reported that various inter-state signals have been heard on 5 metres. In the majority of cases reports are sent to these stations in order to verify reception, or else to ascertain whether they were operating on a higher wave-band. Complaints have come to hand from amateurs who operate on the ultra high frequencies, on the lack of co-operation and courtesy displayed by many other "hams." On hearing distant 5-metre signals, letters have been sent to the stations concerned requesting information as to the frequency on which they were working. Strange to say, many such reports have been totally ignored. It is quite possible for distant harmonics to be heard on 5 metres, and one is often led to believe that he is hearing something worth while. Therefore, even if a certain station (continued on page 27). Week-end Portable Tests Popular: Five- Metre Reports Wanted : Lakemba Radio Club Notes And News . . was not operating on the ultra-highs, it should not be too much trouble for him to forward advice to this efect. Much has been said of late by short-wave listeners who forward reports and stamps for QSL cards, and never receive replies, but it is certainly reaching a sad state of affairs when "hams" will not co-operate with fellow "hams" in the all-important work on 5 metres, where reports are of exceedingly greater value than on the higher wave-bands. Thirty Years In Amateur Radio (by courtesy of J. Pike.) (continued from last month) With the declaration of war in 1914, all receiving and transmitting apparatus had to be dismantled and handed in to the nearest post ofice. It is well-known that during the war wireless men and materials were supplied in large quantities from Australia. Men were recruited from the commercial services and from the ranks of the experimenters, and were trained for service in the navy, army, transports and air services. After the war it looked as though amateur radio was doomed for all time, as the authorities did not appear too keen to allow licences to be renewed. However, through the eforts of International Amateur bodies, including the early Wireless Institute of Australia, amateur radio continued with renewed vigor. Valves came into use, resulting in greater sensitivity of receivers. In 1923 a world's record was broken in receiving. Mr. Pike, while tuning the dials of his receiver shown in last month's ilustration, received the letters "M-0-T-T" in morse code. Mott was the name of a wellBy W.J.P. known experimenter in America who operated a transmitter. Contact was immediately established by telephone with other experimenters, to ascertain if they could also log this signal. They could; and thus in 1923 the first signal from America was received in Australia. Before concluding these notes, we might just mention a few of the present day activities of Mr. J. Pike, VK2JP. He is employed by the Water Board and has conducted extensive experiments on their behalf on 5 and 8 metres, with a view to providing easy communication between headquarters and the various pipe-sinking works scattered throughout the metropolis. He also invented a radio apparatus which will indicate the exact position of underground pipes, thus saving a considerable amount of time in haphazard sinking before the pipe line is located. We finally departed from 2JP's "shack" after a most enjoyable and instructive evening, and as we drove home we were more or less filled with the desire to do something really useful in the way of radio experimenting. It might easily be argued that there is little more to be accomplished, but the answer can be given in three words, "Ultra-High Frequencies."

P.25 - Among The Old Timers[edit]

Among The Old Timers. (Contributed by VK4DO.) What has happened to old 2CM, Charlie Maclurcan, and 2DS, Jack Davis, early Sydney pioneers who established A2CDM for shortwave tests some years ago? And also to old 3GR (Marks) and 2JM (Marsden) whose 'phone used to romp into Rockhampton 12 years ago? 2RJ, Reg. Fagan, and 2HM, H. A. Marshall, then of Armidale, were always worth listening to in the good old 'phone days of 1924. Then there was Barlow, of Armidale, (2GQ) the first Aussie to work U.S.A. on a 5-watter, not to forget the great pioneering work of 3BQ, Max Howden, at Broken (sic, Box) Hill, who now sells all the crystals I see. 5BG, Harry Kauper, of Adelaide, has not been heard for years. He was the man who invented the gun that shot through a revolving aeroplane propeller. Gone also is 2NS, the enthusiastic man who was responsible for the formation of the old Rag Chewers Club about 1925 — and didn't the gang rag chew in those days! One had to for two hours to become a member. One of the early pioneers always glad to work anyone was 2DG (Campbell) who ten years ago lived in Kyogle but has since passed on. Coming back to my own sunny state, most of the old gang have given up the game. 4AN, is with Philips Ltd., 4RB does talkie work, while 4CM has a station in the observatory tower but is seldom heard. He is with Magna-Coustian Sound equipment in Brisbane, and is giving television the "once over." 4BB. in charge of Chandler's station at Maryborough, is as keen as ever and always after DX still, likewise 4GK, at the Wynnum Fire Station. 4CG, Gold at Toowoomba, seems to have done well for himself through the "ham" years. now has a fine radio business to look after. Of 4NW (Starkie), 4GO (Oxlade) and the other VK4 pioneers, I have lost trace. Of broadcastine, I remember well when 2BL and 2FC first came on the air. Un here we needed four and five valves to hear them well. Then the Pacific was conquered, and reception of KDKA and KGO, San Francisco became almost commonplace_ T need to hear the latter well in 1924 nn one valve. Amateur radio in those days was well worth listening to. all eyrent ,r i-ps. Most of ris had slop Tars. CM_ Ntlfl-rvelo alternator T Txr rvni rantiong. VT ,C jr Por,.a roolrl 1009-volf dvnrn tor, and phii Nola, of 2VT.. P•Prerator that was th n admiration of all

P.26 - 5-Metre Push-Pull Oscillator[edit]

P.28 - The Story Of Television (3)[edit]

P.30 - Hints And Tips For DX Beginners[edit]

Hints and Tips For DX Beginners

The simplest way of ensuring replies from stations reported to is to make the reports as concise and informative as possible. In the article below, some valuable hints are given on the correct methods of keeping a log and of preparing a DX report.

By "VIC HAM"

EA6AM is the call of this Spanish amateur whose home is at Palma de Mallorca, in the Balearic Islands, Spain. He speaks excellent English. and has been heard often on telephony in this part of the world. NY dxer's first necessity is a good log-book —one that is designed by experts who know just what is wanted. The old penny exercise, like most cheap things, is but a poor substitute, and holds the same relationship to a good log-book as the ordinary sheet of notepayer has to an oficial report form. In addition, experienced dxers always provide themselves with a scribbling block and pencil for the purpose of jotting down scraps of information heard during a session at the receiver —and it cannot be stressed too strongly that nothing is unimportant. As soon as a station is tuned in, jot down the time, date, strength and clarity of the received signals. Then take- down details of the transmission, might consist of music (band, organ, etc.), speech, singing (tenor, basso, etc.). Note fading carefully, both as regards depth and period; also any interference by heterodynes, local electrical disturbances, or static. It often happens that owing to fades or interference, some considerable time will elapse before suficient data can be obtained to identify a station, or to obtain information as a basis for a report. The most important item of all, the station's call-sign, has a positively annoying habit of being given just as the worst fade is happening, but providing sufficient information is oh

tam ed for the body of the report, the dxer can aford to be patient, and wait. As soon as identification is assured, again make a note of the exact time. In cases where an uninterrupted signal has been received, the fullest information as to time, strengths and quality should be noted for each individual item and announcement. This method should be adopted right throirgh the listening session, after which the information gained may be neatly entered in the log-book for reference. All good log-books are provided with columns for the correct entering of received signals, and no dificulty will be found. Generally speaking, the advertising stations are particularly keen on By "VIC HA M" specific announcements for proof of reception, and "ads." should be particularly noted. Amateur stations prefer some definite observation such as depth of modulation, or the presence of frequency modulation (mostly beyond the average dxer). in the case of National or Government-owned stations, it will be suficient, in a general way, if a definite item or two are given, but as the programmes of these stations are usually obtainable in the press, it is a good idea to await some special announcement to assure verification. Overseas stations are often transmitting on chain, and in such cases they will not verify dxers' reports unless a special announcement from the station is quoted. The reason for this is obvious. The method used in reporting to stations has a definite bearing on the results obtained, and it is in thi

This building houses the broadcast and shortwave transmitters of stations operated by members • of the Portuguese Radio Club.

direction that particular care should be taken to create a feeling of confidence in your sincerity. In the past, before dxing was the popular pastime it has become to-day, and prior to the eficiency of present day receivers, almost any report was considered good enough by broadcasting stations, and seldom was even the scantiest of reports refused a verification. That time has passed away, and to-day it is necessary to ofer very definite proof of reception, and also to give practical proof of a desire to earn the verification in a practical manner. In commencing your report, the first necessity is to head the form with your name and address, which should in all cases be PRINTED, not written. The reason for this is that our names, both as regards our surnames, streets and towns, are foreign to people who are not very familiar with the nomenclature of Australian and New Zealand natives. As an instance, how would Wàipukurau, Pipiriki, Woolloomooloo or Birreuurra look to our Spanish friends if written in a sprawling backhand? Concise Information is Wanted The body of the report containing particulars of the actual matter received should be as full as possible, but at the same time should be concise. Always give the times of reception both in your country and that in which the broadcast originated. You will have more time to ascertain this information, and it will save the receiving station much work and earn their appreciation. Give your report on the strength, clarity, modulation, fading, and other data truthfully; err rather on the side of a conservative estimate than otherwise. Do not expect a verification per return of post —try to remember that individuals operating or conducting wireless stations will in all probability receive thousands of reports from dxers, and could not possibly reply as quickly as one would wish. -Some dxers commit the unpardonable error of writing impertinent lei Urs to stations whose reply is not as prompt as they expect. This is a feature of the game that does much greater harm than is realised, and if persisted in, will surely kill the hobby: Should your verification be unduly delayed, a courteous note, enclosing a copy of the report, is the sensible method to employ which, if still not attaining the desired result, will not be misunderstood. Owing to the high cost of postages on the many reports that are received, some stations insist on return postage being enclosed, either in the form of stamps or other accepted means. In a few isolated cases a fixed sum is demanded, but this happily is the exception and not the rule. Always enclose an addressed envelope (post-card size) but do not afix the stamps.

P.32 - The Lure Of DX Listening[edit]

The Lure of DX Listening Always Something New By S. Robson* URING the past few years many new words have gradually become part of the everyday speech of all countries, and especially does this apply to some radio terms. Among the many new words that have become common, more especially in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States, are DX and dxing. There are, however, many people who do not know what dxing is, and this article will provide an explanation. "DX" is a ham abbreviation that stands for long distance, and the word dxing as it is now commonly used, stands for the logging of long distance stations. ' Dxing, though a babe in arms compared to the venerable pastime of Isaac Walton, has now firmly established itself as one of the most popular hobbies. There is one thing about dxing that appeals to many people, and that is that it is an all-the-yearround hobby. Another is that, no matter how experienced a dxér may be, there is always something in the way of new stations to try for. Special Receiver Not Necessary Contrary to general opinion, it is not necessary to have special equipment for dxing, for while receiver equipment must be good, that does not necessarily mean that one must have a set with ten or more valves. In fact, most sets with four or five valves are so powerful nowadays that stations in all parts of the world can be picked up at suitable hours without difficulty. By that I do not mean on shortwave receivers, but on sets which bring in stations only on the broadcast or medium wave-band. Another point is that a technical knowledge of radio is not necessary; in fact, I doubt very much whether many dxers have more than a very slight knowledge of the technical side of radio. What is more important is for one to have patience, for without it results cannot be expected. While one may have an up-to-date set and an eficient aerial, this does not mean that a person will just have to switch the set on and turn the dial in order to bring foreign stations tumbling in. This may be done in certain cases, but there is an important factor that explains why some persons can get real DX results while others, with possibly better sets, meet with little or no success. The cause of this is locality, which plays such an important part in dxing that it often means the diference between being able to hear foreign stations and not being able to hear them. In other words, locality can mean that your neighbour next door can get results that you cannot. President N.Z. DX Club. Some S.W. Identification Signals FIQA — The announcement is "Radio Tananarive"; station opens with "Ramona" and ends with "Marsellaise." DFB —The identifying signal for this station is a three-tone whistle at beginning of transmission —D, C, G. COCO—The announcement given out from this station is as follows: "Seh-O-seh-0, Habana, Cooba"; call is also given out in English. COCH is known as "Estacion de onda Corta Seh-O-seh-acha." Announcements are in both English and Spanish,

P.33 - Radio Step By Step (6)[edit]

P.34 - Background Hiss In Superhets[edit]

P.36 - Five-Metre Enthusiasts Asked To Use Superhets[edit]

P.37 - The All-Wave All-World DX News[edit]

The All-Wave All-World DX News

Official Organ of the All-Wave All-World DX Club.

DX Contest: Suggestions Wanted. So far entries for the All- Wave DZ contest have proved disappointing, and from correspondence received it seems evident that this is due mainly to the fact that the contest has been held a little too soon after the formation of the All-Wave All-World DX Club. Members have written in pointing out that the Contest was announced on July 1, two months after the Club was formed. One of the rules stated that verifications had to be dated on or after August 1, 1936, which meant that those who joined the Club immediately it was formed, and who managed to get a batch of reports away just after the Contest was announced, would have an appreciable advantage over members who joined later. For this reason it has been suggested that the closing date of the Contest be extended a few months, but this will depend solely on members themselves. Those interested in competing are invited to write in, giving their views on the suggested postponement.

North Suburban Radio Club Notes. A.O.C.P. Classes Commencing. By "CB — GU" The North Suburban Radio Club is commencing the New Year with a very comprehensive set of lectures covering the theory and regulations necessary for A.O.C.P. The series of lectures, which will occupy three months, have been arranged by VK2NN, and will be given by VK's 2NN, 2GV, 2VG, 2CB and the President, 2BJ. Code Classes are conducted each meeting night by VK2VG from 7.30 to 8.30 p.m. Intending hams or anyone interested in radio, residing on the North Shore, are invited to come along to the Club room next Tuesday night at 7.30 p.m. or Saturday afternoon at 3 p.m. and they will be made welcome. The Club room is situated at the corner of Brown St. and Pacific Highway, Chatswood, on the second floor (Brown St. is the first street north of Victoria Avenue.)

"T" Tone Reports. T1 — Very bad 25-60 cycle A.C. note. T2 — Rough 60 cycle A.C. note. T3 — Poor rough. A.C. note; sounds like no filter. T4 — Fair R.A.C., small filter. T5 — Nearly D.C. note, good filter, but has key thumps, or back-wave, etc. T6 — Nearly D.C. Tone, very good filter, T7 — P.D.C. note, but has key thumps or back-wave, etc. T8 — P.D.C., not equal to T9. T9 — Best, steady, Pure D.C. note. T9x —Steady D.C., crystal controlled note. — Contributed by Eric Webb, (Mitcham Vic.)

Application for Membership[edit]

ALL-WAVE ALL-WORLD DX CLUB

Application for Membership

The Secretary,

All-Wave All-World DX Club,

214 George Street,

Sydney, N.S.W.

Dear Sir,

I am very interested in dxing, and am keen to join your Club.

The details you require are given below:

Name..........................................................

Address.......................................................

[Please print both plainly.] .................................

..............................................................

My set is a...................................................

[Give make or type,

number of valves, and

state whether battery

or mains operated.]............................................

I enclose herewith the Life Membership fee of 3/6 [Postal Notes

or Money Order], for which I will receive, post free, a Club badge and

a Membership Certificate showing my Official Club Number.

(Signed) ...................................................

[Note: Readers who do not want to mutilate their copies of the "Radio World" by

cutting out this form can write out the details required.]

P.38 - DX Report Forms Save Time And Ensure Replies[edit]

DX Report For ms Save Ti me and Ensure Replies When reports to DX stations are being prepared, hours of laborious writing can be avoided if the special QSL forms provided for the use of Club members are used. Also, the fact that an official form is used identifies the sender with an established DX organisation, which helps to ensure a prompt reply. HE official report form of the All- Wave All- World DX Club is designed in such a way that after it has been filled in, al the information the station engineers could possibly require is set out clearly and precisely. The ilustration on this page shows the layout of the form, which is of foolscap size, and printed on high quality paper. Full Addresses Wanted At the head, spaces are provided for the full addresses of the station and sender. Next, the station frequency is filled in (in kilocycles for broadcast band stations and megacycles for shortwave), followed by the wavelength (in metres). If the frequency in kilocycles only is known, or the wavelength in metres, then the unknown figure can be found by dividing the known into 300,000. For example, a station on 300 metres has a frequency of 1,000 k.c.; one on 20 megacycles (20,000 k.c.) has a wavelength of 15 metres. Receiver, Aerial And Earth Next, details of the receiver and aerial and earth system should be given. The make, model, and type of the set —whether A.C. or battery-operated, superhet or t.r.f. —is wanted here. Also state the number of valves used. An example would be "My receiver is a six-valve a.c. Melotone superliet, 1935 model." The length, height, and direction of the aerial should be quoted, and a brief description given of the earth system, such as —"Earth: 6-foot length of iron piping driven into moist soil, with 10-foot earth lead soldered to it." Items and Announcements The next space is provided for the items and announcements heard, with separate columns for times, audibility, and readability. These will be dealt with later. The names of items should be given wherever possible. In cases where they are

not known, or the announcement was missed, then a description will do instead. For example, a "soprand solo with piano accompaniment" might be heard, or a "foxtrot by orchestra, with vocal refrain." Any announcement heard should also be given, and in the case of American and Australian "B" stations, any advertisement quoted. In the case of broadcasts by foreign stations, then descriptions of what is heard should be given as fully as possible, together with times. The exact times items are heard is an important detail. Space is provided for them to be filled in, together with a separate column for equivalent times of the country in which the station is located.

Ulre W A VIi Ml_l_... W CIPt U lip 'A IC IL 11J OFFICI AL REPORT FOR M From . kilocyclaa megacycles( (your dart). EARTH. The following details were noted: Standard Ti m T en M A N N T M » R I MS and A N NOU NCE MENTS In Fading: Weather Conditions: Remarks:.. Quallty• If this report corresponds with poor station log, win you pi fle verify? I hope to report again. "Q" Signals i—v" ..... 1{—. .0.11111.11, e—Extraztelly ebrére, { nab. Yours faithfully, I — rent leir ulà. •••••dalle. QS ,. — READABIL ITV 1.-- V . M I. Mr * eadahla 4—, a, eir....1., ••• ty realable. R at. rebialq. In pe e n f—edecle mt•ty *t ree. egrsaY. S etly troll. m ale I. .. . ..In? e --ca . nre•l.. tirnab. Tn . . mesb -- .«., .. A. ` tIliri .. O M — Ver> a * •Irm .. pr e. . rear/aeols. Member All- Wove All- World DX Club. Offitial call

P.39 - Preparing Reports In German And Italian[edit]

Preparing Reports In Ger man And Italian By DAVID E. EVANS (AW83DX) WHEN reporting to foreign stations, it is a good idea wherever possible to use the language of the country concerned. Here are specimen reports for German and Italian stations. In each case the first portion states that the station has been heard, and asks for a verification to be sent to the sender. Reouest for Verification from German Station Full Postal Address Datu m Har m Haupt-Ingenieur des Kurzwellensenders, Station, City and Country. Ich habe gerade das grosse Vergnuegen gehabt, Ihré w. Station einzuholen und ich erlaude mir Ihnen hierunten eisne Liste einiger Stueeke, die ich gehoert habe, anzugeben. Ich waere Ihnen sehr verbunden, ween Sie mir das Gefallen tun wuerden, die Richtigkeit meiner Liste nachzupruefen und mir davon Bestaetigung su senden. INSERT LOG OF GER MAN TRANS MITTE R H ERE Inde m eh Ihnen su m voraus bestens dauke, ziechne ich. hochachtungsvoll, Signature DESCRIPTION OF ITE MS AND RECEPTION 1. Orchestral Selection -Orchestra - stueck. 2. Piano Selection -Piano. 3. Violin Selection- Violine. 4. Organ Selection -Orgel. 5. Mari mba Selection -Tylophon. 6. Accordeon Selection -Zichhar monika. 7. Man Singing - Solo-Sti m me, Manne. 8. Lady Singing - Solo-Sti m me, Da me. 9. Vocal Chor us--Chor. 10. Classical Music - Klassische Musik. 11. Popular Music -Volkstue mliche. 12. Native Music - V ol ks musi k (Music). 13. Dance Music -Tanz musik. 14. Fox Trot -Fox Trot. 15. March - Marsch. 16. W altz - Waltz. 17. Talking -Gerede. 18. Station Announce ment -Berichte der station. 19. Faint Volu me - Tonstaer k eschlecht. 20. Good Volu me -Tonstaerke-gut. 21. Great Volu me - To nstaer kevertrefflich. 22. Tone Quality -Poor -TonqualitaetschleCht, 23. Tone Quality - Good - Tongue11- taet-gut. 24. At mospheric Conditions Good - At mosphaerische umstaende-gut. 25. At mospheric Conditions Bad - At mosphaerische u mstaendeschlecht. USE T HE "Q" AND "R" M ET HOD AL WAYS Reauest for Verification from Italian Station (Full Postal Address) Data Capo Ing. della, Stazione Radiodifondtrice City and Country. Egregio Signore, Or' ora ho avuto il piacere di udire la vostra stazione e mi per metto d'indicarvi nella present‘. le tte r a pareechia selezioni che ho potuto ascoitaire. Sarei lieto se vi sarebbe possibile di vericare la mira ricezione col'e vostre radiodifusioni cd inviarrni la con fer ma dell' esattezza della rnia ricezione. (INSERT LOG OF ITALIAN TRANS MITTE R H ERE.) Ringraziandovi in anticipo, vi caluto con perfetta sti ma. Signature DESCRIPTION OF ITE MS AND RECEPTION 1. Orchestral Selection -Orchestra. 2. Piano Selection -Piano. 3. Violin Selection -Violino. 4. Organ Selection -Organo. 5. Mari mba Selection -Silufono. 6. Accordeon Selection -Ar monica. 7. Man Singing -Solo vocale, signore. 8. Lady Singing -Solo vocale, donna. 9. Vocal Chorus -Coro. 10. Classical Music - Musica. Classica. 11. Popular Music - Musica Classica. 12. Native Music - Musica Nazionale. 13. Dance Music - Musica da Danza. 14. Fox Trot -Fox Trot. 15. March - Marcia. 16. Waltz -Valzer. 17. Talking -Conversazione, discourse. 18. Station Announce ment -Annuncio della stazione. 19. Faint Volu me -Volu me-debole. 20. Good Volu me -Volu me-buone. 21. Great Volu me -Volu me-forte. 22. Tone Quality -poor - Qualita del suono-cattiva. 23. Tone Quality -good - Qualita del suono-buona. 24. At mospheric Conditions good - Condizioni at mosferiche-buone. 25. At mospheric Conditions bad -Condizioni at mosferiche-cattive. AL WAYS USE THE "Q" AND "R" M ETHOD

P.40 - Times To Listen For World Shortwave Stations[edit]

Times To Listen For W orld Short wave Stations The main shortwave stations of the world, together with the best times to listen for them, are given below. By H. I. JOHNS

A view of the aerial ma sts used by the well-known Vatican shortwave station HVJ.

T HE following hints on what wave1 bands to listen on for the various types of shortwave transmissions will perhaps be interesting, especially to beginners. First of all, the amateur transmitters can be picked up on 21, 40, 75 and 160 metres. The last two bands are only worth listening on at night. The telephony stations which are usually to be found between 13 and 70 metres, are heard better at night during the summer months, and in the day during the winter months. The •broadcast stations are also between 13 and 75 metres and are usually heard on one of the following bands: -16, 19, 25, 31 and 49 metres. Some listeners are not interested in short waves, because they are doubtful of whether they will be able to operate a shortwave receiver. It must be admitted that a few years ago an eficient shortwave set invariably had an imposing array of controls, and needed considerable skill to operate successfully, but today with modern circuits, a shortwave receiver is practically as easy to operate as a broadcast band set. There are four ways of receiving the short waves -by means of an adaptor, a converter, a special shortwave receiver, or a dual or all-wave set. So far as short waves are concerned, the best times to listen in for European stations during the winter are as follows: - 7.30 to 9.00 a.m. for the 25-metre band 6.00 to 8.00 a.m. for the 31-metre band 5.00 to 7.30 a.m, for the 49-metre band 4.00 to 6.30 a.m. for the 31-metre band

In the summer, morning reception from Europe is very unreliable and so it is the night reception that we have to depend on . The best times are as follows: - 9.00 p.m. to 1.00 a.m. for the 16- metre band. 11.30 p.m. to 3.00 a.m. for the 25- metre band 10.30 p.m. to 4.00 a.m. for the 31- metre band 2.00 a.m. to 7 a.m. for the 49- metre band (All times given are A.E.S.T.) Club Seals Now Available Embossed In Blue and Silver Club members who have been inquiring for Club seals to attach to correspondence, Q.S.L. cards etc., are advised that supplies are now available from the Secretary, 214 George Street. Sydney. Slightly larger than the Club badge, the seal is an exact replica of it, embossed in blue and silver. For those having QSL cards printed, the space occupied by the seal is 1} inches across. The price is 1/6 for 5 dozen, post free. It must be remembered that reception can be had at other times not mentioned above, but it is at the times stated that the signals are at their best. Perhaps a few of the main s.w. stations with best times to listen for them, would be of use to listeners who have just installed receivers. RVL5, 70.2 m is an excellent station for those who wish to hear an interesting musical programme consisting in the main of orchestral and vocal items. The station opens round 6.30 p.m., but is best heard from 8 p.m. onwards, and is looked

upon as one of the best evening stations. The Dutch East Indies Stations, better known as the "N.I.R.O.M." group, operate on Sunday evenings from 8.30 p.m. The five stations concerned are YDB, 31.2 m.; PMN, 29.24 m.; PLP, 27.27 m.; YDC, 19.8 m.; and PMH, 44.6 m. The four first-named stations all transmit the same musical programme, while PMH has a programme of native music. Japan has a number of stations operating, but the most consistent one during the evening is JVN, 28.14 m., which opens round 7 p.m. The programmes consist mainly of native music and talks in Japanese; though sometimes modern music may be heard. On 44.44 m., JVT will be heard from 7 p.m. onwards. Volume of both stations is good. The German stations DIN, 31.45 m.; DJA, 31.38 m.; DJB, 19.74 m. and DJE, 15.89 in., provide excellent entertainment from 3 p.m. daily until 8.15 p.m.; DJE being the best station. The above stations are very well received both in Australia and New Zealand, excellent music being transmitted in these programmes. RNE, 25 m., Russia, can be heard on Sundays and Wednesdays from 9 to 10 p.m. with talks in English. The station opens up with the playing of the "International." Our Empire stations, GSB. 31.5 m. and GSO. 19.76 m., are now heard from 6 till 8.15 p.m.; GS0 being the better station. VK2ME, 31.28 m., the experimental station of A. W.A. Ltd., Sydney. operates from 2 till 4 p.m. and 7.30 till 9.30 p.m. on Sundays. The sister tationVK3ME, 21.5 m.. at Melbourne, Vic., operates from Monday to Saturday (inclusive) from 7 till 10 p.m. It may be as well for listeners to watch out for schedules of above stations, as times may be changed at intervals. The programme trans-

mitted by these stations are of first class quality, and very interesting talks on Australia are also given. To anyone who wishes to tune in a foreign station, LZA, 20.04 m., provides an excellent musical programme on Sundays, and can be heard round 3.30 p.m. Sometimes a lady announcer will be heard. PCJ, 19.71 m., Holland, is another good station worth listening to, and can be heard on Tuesday nights from 6 till 9 p.m. Mr. Startz announces in six diferent languages, and alone is well worth hearing. The American stations W2XAF, 31.48 in., and W1XK, 31.35 m., are heard during the afternoons from 2 p.m. onwards, closing round 3.30 p.m. The programmes consist of dance music. As the time in America is then advancing into the late hours of the night, the 48 and 49-metre stations such as W8XK, W9XF, W3X AL and W8XAL can also all be heard during the afternoons from 2 p.m. They close round 4 p.m. (W8XK closing somewhat earlier than the others). South American stations such as XEBT, 50 m., HJ1ABP, 31.20 m., and HJ2ABE, 31.58 m. are all heard round 1.30 p.m. The Cuban station XE WI, 25.2 m., heard on Wednesdays and Saturdays, 1 to 3 p.m., and Sunday noon till 1 p.m., has just recently come on the air. The programmes that have been heard have been of a very high order. COCQ, 30.7 m., Cuba, is another interesting station, and is he ird daily from 2 till 4 p.m. This station has several diferent interval signals. (Nothing similar has ever been heard before from any other s.w. station). The programmes consist mainly of native music and talks in Spanish. COCH, 31.82 m., Cuba, is also heard daily, with native music from midday till 3 p.m. The same may be said of COCD, 48.94 m., and COKG, 48.78 metres.

P.41 - The Month On Shortwave[edit]

General Conditions Fairly Good: le C J Excellent On 19 Metres: W2XAF Best Of 31- Metre A mericans. By ALAN H. GRAHA M Some Frequency Changes. VPD2 has moved from the crowded 31m, band to 8,719 k.c., or 34.4m. where its signals are not so good. CS W has also shifted from 30.3m. to just below the D.E.I. station PLP (approx. 27.1m.). •CS W is heard best in the early mornings calling the Portuguese colonies. OLR, Prague, has moved up to 31.41m. A New Station. Another Dutch station has recently been reported -PGA, Kootwijk on 38.15m. Some African Schedules. A recent report indicates that a new South African s.w. transmitter has lately commenced a series of test transmissions on 5,900 k.c. (50.48m.), using the call-sign ZNB. The station is located in Mafeking, and is operated by the British Bechuanaland Government. Hours of transmission are not entirely regular, but the station is usually on the air on week-days from 4-5 a.m.; and on Sundays from 5-8 p.m. Because of the high noise level on this frequency, and general conditions of reception, ZNB will be hard to log. The Rhodesian stations ZEB, Bulanayo, 48.8m.; and ZEC, Salisbury, 50m., have now begun transmissions on regular schedules -Sundays 6.30- 8 p.m.; Tuesdays 2-3 a.m.; Wednesdays 4.15-6 a.m.; Fridays 1-1.45 a.m. 2-3 a.m.; Saturdays 4.15-6.15 a.m. New Madagascan Station. FRI, operating on 49.92m. should be heard at any time now, for this rather less well-known station was occasionally reported at this period last year. Schedule is 12.45 p.m. - 1.30 a.m. daily. General Conditions Fairly Good. Reception continues on much the same level as in the last weeks of 1936. The high summer noise-level is always troublesome at this time, as it renders the identification of notso-good signals on the lower frequencies a far from easy matter. However, despite this obstacle, listeners will find there are a considerable number of stations audible on all the bands between 10 and 31m.; and above 31m, there are still a few stations which manage to break through the barrage of noise. PCJ Excellent On 19.7 Metres. I9m. is perhaps the most satisfactory band on which to concentrate, for here signals are strong and steady, and not so liable to annoying fading as there is on 13 and 16m. A very old friend in PCJ on 19.7m. has shown a welcome return to form, and its signals now approach something like the strength of those heard in its halcyon days of 1928 and 1929. Very strong signals are heard from Zeesen on this band, through DJB and DJR; while TPA2 is gradually working pp to its best strength. YDC continues steady. Many listeners have not yet logged the Argentine LRU, Buenos Aires, on 19.62m. Perhaps they will be luckier in the future, as this station can occasionally be "caught" now. DX On 25 Metres. For a time the Czecho-Slovakian station in Prague, was one of the best transmitters on the 25m, band, but as mentioned elsewhere, it has now removed to 31.4m. The Mexican, XE WI was heard occasionally towards the end of December, but now seems to have disappeared. Saigon has been heard on both 25 and 31m.; but its best signals come in on 25.7m. PHI is now of course on its summer wavelength of 25.5m., and is to be heard well at 11 p.m. On The 31-Metre Band. On 31m., PRFS has again been reported. Several months back this station was one of the best and most consistent South Americans on the air. ZB W3, Hong Kong, is putting out a strong signal, as is 12R0 in the early mornings. PCJ, RAN and JZI may also be heard. Plenty Of Cubans Audible. The Cuban stations at present on the air make quite a formidable list. Most of the following are audible at good strength: - COCFI (31.82), COCQ (30.7), COCX (26.2), COCD (48.9), COCO (49.9), COKG (48.7) and CO9 WR (47.7). W2XAF Best Of 31M. Americans. Of late the Americans have been a trifle disappointing; and certainly their signals have not been up to the level of recent years. W2XAF is the best of the 31m. trio W1XK and W3XAU being not so good. W8XK on 19.7m. is better than most of the others, but this station is not too good on 25m. W1XAL and W2XE are fairly good on this band, however; while very early risers will find W3XAL on 16.87m.

Some DX For S.W. Fans. Listen for the following, which are of the more regular frequencies. Barcelona (call letters obscure ECNI ? EDN2 ?) on approximately 41.5m. Tenerife, on 28.7m. HS8PJ, Bangkok, Siam on Mondays and Thursdays on 32.09m. PMH, another D.E.I. transmitter on 44.6m. (near JVI 44.4m.) XGOX on 43.89m. Colombo on 49.6m. TIPG after 10.15 p.m. on 46.1m. ORK in the early morning (4.30-6 a.m.) on 29 m.

P.42 - DX News Flashes[edit]

DX Ne ws Flashes All-Continents Hook-Up By D. E. EVANS Call And Location Of Prague, Czecho-Slovakia. Conflicting reports have appeared in the magazine from time to time regarding this station, particularly in respect of the call and location. From a verification received recently I am able to give the following information: — Call is RADIO PRAGUE (pronounced "prak") and the location is Czecho-Slovak Shortwave station, C/o. Radiojournal, Czechoslovenske Zpravodajstvi Radiotelefonicke, Spolecnost S.R.O., Praha, CzechoSlovakia. The verification is a most attractive photograph, and one worth making an attempt for. The transmission I checked was on 19.698 metres at 7.00 a.m. on August 13, and as the card was received at Sydney on December 10, the station wastes no time in replying. Lisbon, Portugal. In spite of statements to the contrary CT1AA is still verifying by card. Card received here on December 24 indicates a schedule on 31.09 metres on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays from 21.00 to 24.00 G.M.T. with an output of 2 k.w. Requests further reports. Address, Estacao Radio CP1AA, Avenue Augusto d'Aguiar, 144, Lisbon, Portugal. Budapest, Hungary-. Recent ven. from this station gives the QRA of HAS3 as Radiolabor, Magyar IÇiralyi Posta, Budapest, Hungary. A very attractive card in three colours, with a centre picture of the bridge which spans the Danube. Berlin, Germany. An interesting test for the selectivity of any receiver is the reporting of the various groups of transmitters working on adjacent frequencies. Reports to DJR, 19.56 metres, DJQ, 19.63 metres, DJB, 19.74 metres and D.TL, 19.85 metres brought a card for each. DJA and DJN on 31.38 and 31.45 metres respectively also verified. Pittsburgh, U.S.A. Verifications are no longer issued by W1XK or by W8XK. In a letter covering my last report on W1XK, the Westinghouse Mfg. Co. state —"As we are furnishing a daily, reliable, worldwide service, we have decided to discontinue the practice of verifying shortwave reports." Moscow, U.S.S.R. Intensive propaganda will be indulged in by the Moscow station this year. Any listener who reports may ask for a copy of the radio talk given by the station, and the writer of every tenth letter opened will receive a copy of the ilustrated journal "U.S.S.R. in Construction." The latter is a prize well worth any trouble. Additionally, every reporter will receive a photograph of a wellknown Soviet leader, postcard views of Moscow and the U.S.S.R.. or scrme of the latest issue of Soviet stamps. A New Amateur Record. Happened to drop in on Frank Nolan of VK4LO, at Brisbnne, and found him glued to his rig conducting an All Continent Round Table Hook-up. Enquiry elicited the information that this was no "fluke," but the fourth of a series of QS0's between VK4LO, Brisbane, W4DLH, Gould, Florida, VU2CQ, Bombay, India, SU1CH, Cairo, Egypt, G5ML, Kenilworth, England and HK1Z, Colombia, South America. A glance through his log showed excellent reports from all stations concerned on December 19, 25, and 28, and as I was present on the 29th, I was able to take their reports myself. Unfortunately VU2CQ sufered a breakdown and dropped out of the QS0, but he was heard working again about an hour after the Round Table had concluded, so it would be certain he would be "in on the game" on the sked arranged for the 30th. Great interest was shown in this "hook-up" by a number of American radio magazines, who lost no time in requesting photographs of all operators and details of their stations. Apparently the new record is to be preserved, as W2IXY at New York is attempting to make a recording of each "over" as a physical check on the authenticity of the undertaking. The reports at midnight E.A.S.T. were: — From VK4LO. W4DLH Q5-R8, SU1CH Q5-R5, HK1Z Q5-R5, G5ML Q5-R5/6. Reports on VK4LO. W4DLH Q5- R7, SU1CH Q3-R3, HK1Z Q4-15, G5ML Q4-R4

RADIO CENTRE, MOSCO W Schedule Of Broadcasts. Time (G.M.T.) Call Sign 1 a.m. -12 noon 3 p.m. -4 p.m. 9 p.m. -10 p.m. 12 mdt. -1 a.m. RNE RNE Corn. & RNE RAN Monday 9 p.m. -10 p.m. Com. & RNE 12 mdt. -1 a.m. RAN Tuesday 12 mdt. -1 a.m. RNE Wednesday .11 a.m. -12 noon RNE 9 p.m. -10 p.m. Corn. & RNE 12 mdt. -1 a.m. RAN 12 mdt. -1 a.m. RAN 9 p.m. -10 p.m. Corn. & RNE 12 mdt. -1 a.m. RAN Saturday 12 mdt. -1 a.m. RAN Thursday Friday Wave Length Metres 25 25 1744 & 50 31.25 1744 & 50 31.25 31.25 25 1744 & 50 31.25 31.25 1744 & 50 31.25 31.25

P.43 - DX Notes And News[edit]

A page for letters from DX readers.

Congratulations From An Old Timer. Being a member of the old brigade when radio enthusiasts were regarded as cranks, I wish to convey my congratulations to you for your splendid efort -the "Radio World." It is a very much needed magazine in Australia, and I am enclosing my membership fee to the All- Wave AllWorld DX Club. -P. G. Mitchell (A W173DX), Moonah, Tas. An Improved "L" Type Aerial I am enclosing a list of stations logged from December 1, 1936. GSG, 16.86; DJE, 16.89; DJR, 19.56; GSP, 19.60; DJQ, 19.63; GSE, 25.29; W2XE, 25.36; DJD, 25.49; GSD, 25.35; COCX, 26.25; COCQ, 30.77; YDB, 31.10; 2ME, 31.23; 3LR, 31.32; DJA, 31.38; DJN, 31.45; GSB, 31.55; PMH, 44.60. I have altered the aerial system since my last letter, and it is indeed a great improvement towards better reception. The system now‘ consists of a total length of 95 feet, 75 feet of which is supported by two 30-foot masts. The main span runs in an East to West direction, and is then bent at right angles at the Eastern end. The remaining 20 feet runs in a northerly direction up to a 35-foot mast. -Cedric W. Marley (A W150- DX), Brisbane, (eland. Has A Nine-Valve S. W. Super. I have built a new receiver, a 9- valve shortwave superhet, and it is the goods. Dozens of people have come to listen to it, and without a doubt it is the best I have heard in my life. Following are recent loggings: - VK2's, MH, TF, AZ, YW, DD, ABD, NO, RV, MD, UB, NQ, ME, TC, BB, GR, VB, RB, EC, ABS, AS, OB, BW, JA, DK, IQ, CG, EL, WJ, NM, UD, FY, OR, XX, AR, ZO, EZ, BN, QY, AP, VV, GC, MV, CE, CP, MV, SA, QK, XS. VK3's, ZZ, GS, XS, ZL, KX, LE, ME, OZ, W W, PL, DT, KR, RE, NA, GS, FB, KO, XM, LO, FE, GS, UZ, DE, VD, PK, CG, BS, CK, LW, GU, NO, FN, FB, CP. VK5's, AI, JC, ET, XJ, KG, DI, PN, DC, KL. SM, MD, FM, AW, FL and 8FC. Foreign stations logged include: - Wl's, GJX, GY, DCX, DJX, CHG, JZH. W2LHI, M2ED W, W3SI. W4's,

  • * *

BYY, CQG, AAH, CDY, LG. W5's, ACF, AHK, DEN, EAH, FMM, EUC. W6's, OLQ, BY W, JYH, LLQ, LTH, ITH, CQG, AM, LI, LLU, GAL, KMO, DNE, DTE, FQ W. WFTU, WFDNT. W8MDU, W8MCD. W9's, RUK, ARA, IZY, CSU, IQ, EMI. K5RJ, K6CMC. KArs, AK, ME, AP, ER, AN. LU1EX, PK1MX, HP9G, W4DLH, VU2CQ, W4DFY, ZNBG, VLZ, LU6KE, PK3SP, G2ZQ, LU7ET, CE1AH, HK1Z, 9MI, CE3B W, GSG, GSB, GSP, GSF, TPA3, DJA, DJB, DJD, W2XAL, W2XAD, W2XE, VE9DN, W2XAF, GSN, VE9CS and CRCX. -C. G. Arnold (A W9DX), Roma, Q'land. Interesting Booklets From 2RO. I am very pleased to note that the Club membership is climbing steadily, and that the "R. W." is still up to its usual high standard; if not better. I recently heard 2R0 state that if anyone would like copies of four booklets, to send for them, including a report, of course. I received in reply the following: - "Roman Roads in Italy," "Sport in Italy," "Art in Italy," and a book on Statistics. These are worth having, as they give one a wonderful insight to An enthusiastic dxer, Mr. K. G. Knight, of Christchurch, N.Z. has a fine collection of "verles." He has just joined the A. W. DX Club. A page for letters from DX readers Italian works. The ilustrations of the first mentioned are very interesting. I believe Moscow does something similar. -G. O. La ' Roche (A W155DX), Sth. Perth, W.A. Americans Heard On B.C. Band. Conditions here are fairly good now, XEPN, KMOX, KGMB, KGU and KFAB being heard with ease this week, and XENT, ZEA W being at full entertainment strength. Though I have only been at the game for 10 months and not have much time for dxing, my log now stands at 93, consisting of the following: - 11(2's; DK, MQ, KS, RB, DL, AP and RO. Also 3RQ, ME, BII, WE; 4HA, BS; 5DC, GF; 7CK, JB; and G6XE, TI3AV, TPA4, DJN, W2XAF, SP W, HP5J, EAQ, PMN, AMBJ (Awatea), 9MI and VPD2. On the broadcast band the following have been logged: - KGU, KFAC, KGMB, WCCO, KGA, XENT, KFI, KOMA, KNX, KPO, KOA, KWJJ and KSL. New Zealand verifications include 1ZM, 1ZB, 2ZO, 2ZF, 2ZH, 3ZR and 4ZM. Australian: 2KO, 2CA, 2TM, 2AD, 2WL, 2CH, 2M0, 2GB, 2HD, 2NR,, 2UE, 2GZ, 2LV (first New Zealander to hear this station), 2GF, 2CO, 2BL, 2FC, 2SM, 2LM, 3KZ, 3GI, 3B0, 3AR, 3SH, 3UZ, 3BA, 3TR, 3HA, 3DB, 3LO, 4QG, 4MB, 4BU, 4BH, 4BC, 4BK, 4AK, 5CL, VK5DC, 5RM, 6WF, 7LA, 7ZL and 7NT. Reports are out to 2KY (9 mths.), 5PI (9 mths.), HJ1ABE, St. Dennis, South Africa, LSX, TPA3, 7H0, JVM, ZB W, W2IRV, W1XK, EVI5, PCJ, KFSG, COCQ, TG WA, and VK's 5J W, 4BB, 5XR, 6R W, 4LO, 2Y W, 2ME (5% mths.), 2BQ (5% mths.), and 2B W. How do you chaps do over there for N.Z. stamps? If you have any dificulty in getting them, send me a P.O. and I will return its value in stamps. Wishing the "R. W." long life and every success. -K. G. S. Wright (A W177DX), 466 Hereford Street, Christchurch, N.Z. S. W. Yenes And Reports. I have been taking the "Australasian Radio World" for some months now, and it sure is the goods for any dxer. I have verifications from every Australian state and also from several W's, and recently from ZS1B, ZS5Z. HS1PJ and KZYL. I also have

reports out to PK1PU, ZE1JR, KA1ME, NY2AE, ZS2X, CE3D W, PK1JR, PK1ZZ, KA1GR, J3EN, KA1BH, K6JLV, KA1PY, V52AK. Best of luck to the Club -Geo. A. Turner (A W183DX), Maryborough, Vic. A Fine All- Wave Log. I have just had my set converted from a dual-wave into an all-wave model, which gives me much greater scope, as I can go down to 10 metres. My chief object is to log as many amateurs as possible. To date my log is as follows: - Broadcast, 3LO, 3AR, 3UZ, 3DB, 3KZ, 3A W, 3AK, 3XY, 3GL, 3GI, 2CO, 3TR, 7UV, 2QN, 7NT, 3BA, 3B0, 3HA, 2FC, 2BL, 4QG, 7BU, 4BC, 4RK, GWF, 5CL, 6ML, 3HS, 5CK, 1YA, 2YA, 2HD, 4AK, 2KY, 2GB, 5AD, 2CA, 2GZ, 2WG, 2U W. Shortwave, GSB, GSC, GSD, GSO, GSH, GSP, W1XAL, W2XAF, W8XK, DJA, DJN, DJO, DJL, PCJ, DILL ZB W, VK2ME, VK3LR, W1XK, VPD2, JZI, PMA. JDA3. Amateurs, VK2's, XL, OJ, M W, VB, CE, JA, CP, JC, BK, HX, KB, XS, BN. VK3's, KE, RV, NM, AS, BA, XA, ZX, Y W, AC, QR, AP, EP, ZB, AP, CA, RE, XD. 4LX, 4LO. VK5's, RL, FN, A W. - W. Faulkhead, (A W110- DX), Melbourne, Vic. Verification From "Radio Nations." My latest verification is from the League of Nations station, in the form of a roneod letter signed by S. T. Cross. "Radio Nations" broadcasts on 26.35 metres. The verification was posted at Geneva on December 11. 1936, and I received it on January 11, the letter taking exactly a month to reach me. The envelope was marked "Exp. Lett." which I took to be "Express Letter." It is rather pleasing to get such prompt service, which tends to show the value of dxing. I have reports out to U.S.A. stations -the shipping strike is evidently holding up replies. I have sent some copies of the "Radio World" to some keen N.Z. dxers, hoping they will join the Club. -Gilbert Hayman (A W109DZ), Brorite, N.S. W. Want To Exchange QSL's. Three enthusiastic dxers who have cards they would like to swop with other Club members are Messrs. A. Green, 16 Chester St., Mt. Eden. S.2., Auckland, N.Z. (A W181DX); W. T. Choppen. 4 Marston Road. Timaru, N.Z. (A W61DX); and Bill Plant, cnr. Union and McQuarie Sts.. Junction, Newcastle, N.S. W. (A W152DX). Excellent Broadcast Band DX. Just after midnight on January 8. I decided to do some broadcast band dicing, and was agreeably surprised with the results. India came in like a local and 'many new Americans came through that I had not previously heard. I give hereunder the principal ones; these should be worth trying for. At 12.50 a.m. KNX, Los Angeles, U.S.A., broadcasting on 1,059 k.c.. with a power of 50 k.w. was heard at 15, QSA4, until 2 a.m. At 1 a.m., KGO, 790 k.c., 7.5 k.w., San Francisco, U.S.A., was tuned in, its fine programme coming in at R5, QSA4. KRO W, Oakland, U.S.A., which broadcasts on 930 k.c., 1 k.w., was tuned in at 1.15 a.m. During news items it was stated that terrific falls of snow were being experienced. Reception was 15, QSA4. On 830 k.c., 50 k.w., KOA, Denver, U.S.A., was heard at 12.20 a m. with music and announcements, coming through at Ra, QSA4. KFI, 640 k.c., 50 k.w., Los Angeles, U.S.A. was heard at 12.45 a.m. at 17, QSA5. At times reception was excellent, but a powerful unrecognised station interfered. At 2 a.m., VUD, Delhi, India, which broadcasts on 882 k.c., 20 k.w., wts received at 18, QSA5. Reception was like a local and he gave news of the world, even the complete results of the Third Test at Melbourne, Vic. The news service closed at 2.15, nothing being missed. Besides the above I logged WL W, 700 k.c.; KZRM, Manila; XMHA, XGOA and MTCY. By the way, I forgot to include KSL, Salt Lake City in the list above. I hear this station so regularly that I overlooked it. I always tune in to him at 11.30 p.m. on 1,130 k.c. (50 k.w. Last night he was very good at 18, QSA5, with a little QRN and slight QRM, caused I think by a Chinese station and 6ML. However, he usually gets the better of all opposition and holds on well once there. This is a very fine station -it gives news of the world at midnight, A.E.S T. - A. R. Jurd (A W166DX), Ingham, Q'land. Stamps For Return Postage, I appreciated details of VIC2CP's "mike" cery much, and your fine mag. is certainly living up to standard. I have four copies and wouldn't give one away for double the price. I am sure there are many listeners who send DX rzports and endow return postage or coupons, whi h I think are dear. Well here's a cheaper and better way. Go to stam ) dealers, who are sure to have soms unused fore'gn stamps, and ask for stamp of right value for return postage. Here are some I have. New Zealand, I.; England, 1% d. ;

America (U.S.A.), 5 cents; Haiti, 5 cents; Canada, 5 cents; India, 2 annas; Lithuania, 10 centi; Japan 10 sen. I alto have obtained stamps for sending to Russia Switzerland, and Austria. I find some of the hints on the "Radio Ramblings" page very god Wishing the Club al the best,- Keith Craig, Stockton, N.S.W.

P.45 - VK Amateur Stations — Additions And Amendments[edit]

VK AMATEUR STATIONS . . . Additions and Amendments CALL SIGN. NAME. ADDRESS. Additions.

5YL -Geis'el, B. A., Charles St., Murray Bridge, SA.

2AEN -Joyce, V. S., 50 Clements St., Five Dock, N.S. W.

4RH -Howe, R., Perry St., Bundaberg, Qld.

3QK -Jenkins, E. H., 415 St. Kilda St., Elwood, 33, Vic.

2ID -Brinkman, S. J. F., Bougainville St., Gri fith, F.C.T.

6FR - Wright, F. H., 18 Pal merston St., Buckland Hill. W.A.

2AEQ -Lever Amateur Radio Club -C/o Lever Bros. Ltd., Reynolds St., Balmain, N.S. W.

2AEZ -Marstella, E. A., 49 Mackie Avenue, New Lambton, Newcastle, N.S. W.

3TS -Speer, T. P., Corop, Vic.

2AES - Wilson, D. D., "Esplanade," Speers Point, N.S. W.

2AET -Havyatt, A., 6 Teicpea St., Wollstonecraft, N.S. W.

6LL -Bishop, C. E., Carew St., Katanning, W.A.

6BF -Burrows, F. H., Queen St., Beverley, W.A.

6C,N -Canavan, J., 196 Bulwer St., Perth, W.A.

2AEV - Mc Murray A., 26 North St., Auburn, N.S. W.

2AE W -Moss N., 19 Fremont St., Concord West, N.S. W.

7LC -Chappell, L. A., Church St., Ross, Tas.

4AX -Denby, H. R., Goulburn St., Kedron, N3, Qld.

2E M -Sutton, A. F. "Warrani" Thornton St., Darling Point, N.S. W.

2AEX -Reddacliff, L.A., 78 Ryde Rd., Gladesville, N.S. W.

2AEY -Eagling, R. W., 149 High Street, Taree. N.S. W.

3CF -Rich-Phillips, J., "Peri," Murraydale, Vic.

2AFA -Gray, H. R., Aveaba St., Teralba. N.S. W.

201 -Bower, G. G., 346 Homer St., Earlwood, N.S. W.

2AFB -Dickson, F. P., 6 Balmain Crescent, Acton, F.C.T.

2AFK -Kenny, F. H., L3 Fullers Avenue, Canterbury, N.S. W.

7E M - Miller, C. H., "Carnac," Douglas St., Bellerive, Tas mania.

4SD -Sharland, A. H. -Boondall, N.E.6, Sandgate Line, Q1d.

Alterations to Call Signs.

2ADJ -Nestrom, O. L., 419 Morgan St.. Broken, Hill. N.S. W. Now VK5RZ. (See also Changes of Address.).

6LR -Reading, L. W., 36 Charles St., Northam, W.A. Now VK3TQ. (See also Changes of Address).

2114 -Millen, D. R., 22 Hume St., Wollstonecraft, N.S. W. Now VK2LQ.

250 -Crowley, C., Cecile St., Parkes. Now VK2AED. (See also Changes of Address).

3MK -Vale. L. H.. 90 Orange Avenue, Mildura, Vic. Now VK2AER. (See also Changes of Address).

5MB -Brown, H. M., C/o Station 5PI, Crystal Brook, S.A. Now VK2Y M. (See also Changes of Address).

6BR -Randell, B. F. H., 15 Lawley Crescent, Mt. Lawley, W.A. Now VK3FT. (See also Changes of Address).

SIGN. NAME. ADDRESS. CALL 2UN -Magee, K. W. M., Royal Military College, Duntroon Wing, Victoria Barracks, Paddington, N.S. W. Now VK3UN. Changes of Address. 2 WJ -Peell, W. J, 48 Robey St., Maroubra, N.S. W.

2QIC -Preston-Smith, C., "Winchcombe," Violet St., Balgowlah,

2I W - Wallace, R. I. G., "Craigielea," Campbell St., Hunters Hill, N.S. W.

2DJ -Nestrom, O. L., 1 Ninth Avenue, St. Peters, S.A. (See also Alterations to Call Signs).

sLA -Atkins, L. M., 16 Lockwood Rd., Erindale, S.A.

5LR -Reading, L. W., 9A Agg St., Newport, W.I5, Vic. (See also Alterations to Call Signs).

2ADL -Kinscher, E. W. D., Cobor St., Nyngan, N.S. W.

6.1E -Elsbury, C. R., 24 Addis St., Kalgoorlie, W.A.

260 -Crowley, C., Chapple St., Broken Hill, N.S. W. (See also Alterations to Call Signs).

3MK -Vale, L. H., Darling St„ Wentworth, N.S. W. (See also Alterations to Call Signs).

3GP -Shields, A. J. E., 22 Ash Grove, East Malvern, S.E.5, Vic

4AG -Greenha m, A. J.. C/o National Bank of A/asia Ltd., bois fail, Qld.

2T0 -Ansell, L. C., 24 Attunga St., Woollahra, N.S. W.

3BK -Baker, S. C., 157 Greville St., Prahran, S.1, Vic.

3DH -Morgan, 1., C/o 3WR, High St., Shepparton, Vic.

5M13 -Brown, H. M., C/o 2BH Broken Hill, N.S. W. (See also Alterations to Call Signs).

613R -Randell, B. F. H., C/o R.A.A.F., Laverton, Vic. (See also Alterations to Call Signs).

4RJ -Delbridge, Rev. R. J. Glebe Rd., Booval, Ipswich, Q1d.

2HH -Sandel, O., 248c Oxford St., Woollahra. N.S. W.

2D G -Rudkin, K., Lismore St., Abermain, N.S. W.

5YK -Eastern District Radio Club, 56 Statenborough St., Burnside, S.A.

5BY - Whitburn, D. R., 77 Wattle St„ Fullerton, S.A.

2UN -Magee, K. W. M., 17 Mason St., Hawthorn, E.2, Vic. (See also Alterations to Call Signs).

Amendments.

2ADE -Miller, C. A., C/o Mrs. Olive, S mpson's Lane, Casino, N.S. W.

4UL -Hubsher, L. P.,

5AL -Lathwell, A. G., 60 Spencer St., Bunbury, W.A. o)3 Com mercial Rd., N.1, Old.

Cancellations.

4KA -Dahl, O. S., Graha m St., Ayr, Old.

4MF - Winterford, D. C., C/o J. Williams, Shakespeare Street, Mackay, Q1d.

4TN -Tunny, T. G., 29 Maryborough St., Bundaberg, Old.

6LA -Ja mieson. J. E., C/o Musgraves Ltd., Hannan St., Kalgoorlie, W.A.

ORD -Dick, I. R., 403 Hay St., Subiaco, W.A.

P.46 - New Range Of Radiokes Power Transformers[edit]

NE W RANGE OF RADIO KES PO WER TRANSFOR MERS . . . Many Attractive Features New "L" Type Level Power Transfor mers For 1937 Radiokes engineers have designed new type power transfor mers for practically every radio purpose. In designing and producing new transfor mers, every possible feature is included to make the units entirely trouble-free. There are so many factors which go to make a good power transfor mer, that considerable laboratory work is necessary before new types are released. The new transfor mers include the following outstanding features: - 1. Power transfor mers are wound with the finest grade materials obtainable. All wire is heavily insulated with ena mel and the insulation used between layers is the finest high test insulating paper. Windings are accurately made on the latest type machines, ensuring perfect layer winding and no crossed turns. Secondaries are wound in two sections, which ensures accurate voltages each side of the centre tap and least likelihood of breakdown. 2. Core la minations are made fro m the finest silicon steel. High per meability material and the shape of the sta mping is such as to ensure excellent regulation with a mini mu m of eddy current loss and flux leakage. The use of this core material enables the transfor mer to run at a 75 % overload for long periods, without ill effects. 3. The use of heavily insulated wire and finest non-hygroscopic insulation make Radiokes transfor mers satisfactory for use in any cli mate no matter how hu mid. 4. All transfor mers are fitted with new type covers, ribbed along all faces, contacting with the core and designed to increase the mechanical strength of these faces and so cla mp the la minations very tightly. All trouble fro m loose core la minations is therefore, eli minated. 5. Type "L" power transfor mers are now entirely universal, having five primary tappings as well as both 6.3 and 2.5 volt fila ment windings. This feature will eli minate many special types and widen the application of any particular transfor mer. All transfor mers are fitted with electrostatic shields. 6. An elaborate syste m of test ensures unifor m quality of Radiokes transfor mers. Each transfor mer is tested at various stages of its manufacture, which eli minates the possibility of faulty units leaving the factory. Each winding is checked for voltage at its full load, with precision meters. One of the new Radiokes type "L" level power transfor mers. Finally, the transfor mer is subjected to heavy load and given a 2,000 volt A.C. insulation test. 7. Every efort is made to keep appearance up to a very high standard. Cores are lacquered black and covers are bright silver finish. 8. Actual figures taken on a 60 m.a. Radiokes transfor mer de monstrate its re markable regulation and power handling qualities: - Lines per square inch Magnetising current ... Full load current Regulation at 40 m.a. 50 m.a. 60 m.a. 70 m.a. 80 m.a. te I/ 7, 60,000 35 m.a. 280 m.a. 388 volts. 386 „ 385 „ 381 „ 370 „ New "V" Type - Vertical Power Transfor mers New upright type power transformers have also been designed for the 1937 season. Particular attention has been paid to the design of these upright units to ensure that they maintain a low te mperature even on high loads. The sa me high standard of quality is maintained in all the materials which go to make the upright units. The sa me elaborate syste m of testing ensures absolutely unifor m quality and great reliability. Radiokes upright transfor mers are finished in black and silver which gives the m an excellent appearance.

Specifications of "L" Type Universal Transformers TYPE PRI MARY Secondary L-60 L-80 L-100 L-125 FILA MENTS M.A. 200/220/230/240/250 385/385 5 volt 2 amp. 6.3 volt 2 amp. 2.5 volt 6 amp. CT 200/220/230/240/250 385/385 5 volt 2 amp. 2.5 volt 2 amp. 6.3 volt 3 amp. 200/220/230/240/250 385/385 5 volt 3 amp. 100 2.5 volt 8 amp. 6.3 volt 3 amp. 200/220/230/240/250 385/385 5 volt 3 amp. 125 2.5 volt 8 amp. 6.3 volt 3 amp. TYPE M V-50 M V-60 LV-60 V-80 V-100 V-125 Specifications of "V" Type Universal Transformers. PRI MARY SECONDARY 220/240/260 385/385 220/240/260 220/240/260 220/240/260 220/240/260 220/240/260 385/385 385/385 385/385 385/385 385/385 60 80 FILA MENTS M.A. 5 volt 2 amp. 50 6.3 volt 2 amp. 2.5 volt 4 amp. CT 5 volt 2 amp. 6.3 volt 2 amp. 2.5 volt 4 amp CT 5 volt 2 amp. 60 6.3 volt 2 amp. 2.5 volt 4 amp. CT 5 volt 2 amp. 80 6.3 volt 2 amp . 2.5 volt 6 amp. CT 5 volt 2 amp. 6.3 volt 3 amp. 2.5 volt 6 amp. CT 5 volt 3 amp. 125 6.3 volt 3 amp. 2.5 volt 8 amp. CT

P.47 - World Shortwave Stations (6)[edit]

European Short wave Stations ea (Part 2) The sixth of a series of articles on world shortwave stations, written for the "Radio World" by . . . . ALAN H. GRAHAM

This card, sent in by the author, is from amateur station LU4DQ, located at Bahia Blanca, Argentine. It is owned by M. Tapiero, who replies to every report with a card and station photo.

Italy The stations of the E.I.A. R. (Ente Italiano Audizioni Radiofonicke), 12R03 and 12R04 have always been well received in Australia. 12R04 (11,810 k.c., 25.4 m.) and 12 R03 (9,635 k.c., 31.13 m.) maintain practically a 24-hour service, except for a break between 1.30 and 3.30 a. m. Regular news services in English are given several times daily. HVJ, the short-wave trans mitter of the Vatican City, trans mits on two wavelengths; 50.26 m. and 19.84 (5,969 k.c.) and 19.84 (15,121 k.c.). Transmissions are very limited in duration —as follow: - 19 m. -1.30 -1.45 a. m. daily except Mondays; and Sundays 1-1.45 a. m. 50 m. -5 -5.15 a. m. daily except Mondays: 8-8.30 p. m. on Sundays. Six languages are used —Italian, Spanish, Ger man, English, French and Dutch. lAC, Radio Coltano, Pisa, calls Italian ship stations on the following wavelengths -23.45, 35.8 and 45.11 m. Belgium OR K, Radio Ruysselede, West Flanders, is the regular Belgian S. W. transmitter, heard so well in the early hours of the morning (4.30 -6 a. m.). Frequency, 10,330 k.c. (29.04 m.) — power, 20 kilowatts. It is reported that a new 85-kilowatt trans mitter is in course of construction at Ruysselede. Another station which may possibly be heard in Australia is ORG (15.62 m.), which 'phones OPL, Leopoldville, Belgian Congo, in the evenings. Holland At Hilversum is located the PHOHI

station (call-letters PHI) of Philips' Radio, which trans mits on 17,775 k.c. (16.88 m.) or 11,730 k.c. (25.57 m.) according to the season. The power used is 20 k.w. P HI's schedules are - 25m. (Summer): Daily except Tuesdays and Wednesdays, 11 p. m. -1 a. m. Saturday and Sunday, 11 p. m. -2 a. m. 19 m. (Winter): Daily except Tuesdays and Wednesdays, 10.30 p. m. -12.30 a. m. Mondays, 4-5 a. m. The other Philips' station PCJ, Eindhoven, also operates on two frequencies: na mely, 15,220 k.c. (19.7 m.) and 9,590 k.c. (31.28 m.). Relaying the progra m mes of PHI, PCJ carries out the following experi mental trans missions - 19 m: 7-9 p. m., Tuesdays; 10 p. m. - 2 a. m., Wednesdays. 31m.: 10 a.m. 1 p. m., Thursdays. Several Dutch 'phone stations are heard regularly in Australia The best of these are PD K (28.8 m.), PCV (16.84m.), and PDV (24.88 m.). These trans mitters are located at Kootwijk, and are used for co m munication with the Dutch East Indies. Norway For so me time past Norway's sole short-wave station has been LI M, Jeloy, operating on 9,525 k.c. (31.49 m.), with a daily schedule fro m 2-9 a. m. and fro m 8-11 p. m. However, Norway has recently taken steps to follow the exa mple of other nations in keeping in touch with their subjects abroad. In the near future the following trans mitters will be on the air: —L KZ (13.95 m.), LKX (16.87 m.), LK W (16.9 m.), LKV (19.78 m.), LKIJ (25.36 m.), LKQ (25.56 m.), LKE (31.34m.), LED (31.41m.), LKJ (31.45 m.), LRC (31A8m.) and LKL (48.94m.).

Switzerland. The League of Nations station at Geneva transmits on a number of wavelengths. The regular weekly broadcast is through HBL (9595 k.c.; 31.27m.) and HBP (7799 k.c.; 38.47- m.). The session, which extends from 8.30-9.15 a.m. every Sunday, is given in three languages (including English and French). During the course of last year the weekly transmission to Australia through station HBO was a feature of Radio Nations' work. These sessions were heard late every Monday afternoon on 26.3m. (11,400 k.c.) In addition to the above regular frequencies, Geneva has also been heard occasionally testing on 14535 k.c. (20.64m.) and on approx. 18,500 k.c. (16.25m.) using the calls FIBJ and HBH respectively. Austria Regular shortwave broadcasts from the city of the waltz are heard through station OER2 on 6,072 k.c. or 49.41m. Power used is 1.5 k.w. This station is on the air from midnight to 8 a.m., and is usually heard best between 7-8 a.m. Address your reports to OER2, Johannesgasse 4b, Vienna. If the writer's experience can be taken as typical, readers should give all times in G.M.T. — for when a report was forwarded with times in A.E.S.T. a reply was received regretting the stations inability to verify. Yet the same report with times in G.M.T. met with better success in the shape of the station card. About a year ago tests were conducted through a sister station OER3 on approx. 25.3m. apparently with the object of commencing regular transmissions on this wavelength. However, nothing came of this. Czecho-Slovakia. Probably the latest European station on the air is the Czecho-

Slovak shortwave station in Prague, which has been making itself heard on the regular s.w. b.c. bands, using the call OLR. Its earliest transmissions were on 19.698m. (15,230 k.c.) and 49.06m. (6,115 k.c.); later it was heard most often on 25.51m. (11,760 k.c.), and finally it appears to have moved to the 31m. band, where it is being heard on 31.41m. (9,550 k.c.) In addition to these frequencies, OLR, "Radio Podebrady," has been allocated the following: — 21,590 k.c. (13.89m.) 15.380 k.c. (19.5m.), 11,870 k.c. (25.26m.), 11,740 k.c. (25:54 m.), 9,505 k.c. (31.57m.) and 6,010 k.c. (49.92m.) The station appreciates reports on its reception as well as suggestions and criticisms of its programmes. Reports are verified with a most attractive card. Hungary. There are two regular transmitters in Budapest —on 19 and 32 metres respectively. The former is HAS3 (15,370 k.c., 19.52m.) which is on the air for only one hour per week; from Sunday midnight till Monday 1 a.m. The other station is HAT4, "Radiolabor" (9,125 k.c., 32.88m.); also on the air only one hour per week, this transmitter may be heard from 9-10 a.m. on Mondays. Its address is Gyali-ut 22, Budapest. ugo-Slavia. Another fairly recent arrival on the air is Radio Belgrade (call letters YTC?), being heard at present on 6,100 k.c. (49.18m.). Power is only 1 kilowatt; and the latest schedule to hand gives the hours of transmission as being 4-8 a.m. daily. Bulgaria. The Sofia station, LZA, caused quite a flutter of excitement among s.w. fans some months ago, when it appeared on 14,970 k.c. (20.04m.) It has been heard at irregular intervals since, and does not appear to have a definite schedule; however it is usually on the air around 6 p.m. on weekdays; and also at 5 a.m. on Mondays.

P.48 - W.I.A. Field Day[edit]

W.I.A. Field Day Variety Of Contests Held. (By the Secretary, Clare Radio Club) FIELD day sponsored by the S.A. Division of the Wireless Institute of Australia was held in December at Christison Park, Clare, 80 miles from Adelaide. About 80 people made the trip from the city, and approximately 55 licensed amateurs were present, coming from Adelaide and suburbs, Port Pine, Narracoorte, Bute, Crystal Brock, Tanunda, Murray Bridge, Wilmington, Kadina and Broken Hill, including the State's first and only YL ham, VK5YL, Miss B. Geisel, of Murray Bridge. Apart from the informal social side of the day, the chief events were a hidden transmitter hunt and code championship contests. A good number of trophies had been presented by amateurs and city firms, and credit must be given Frank Brandon, VK5FX, for the organising work done by him. Two or three of the Adelaide cars and one of the buses were fitted with 5-metre transceivers, and contact was established on the home run. Six or seven parties with a var'ety of directional receivers earched for the hidden transmitter, but only G. Barbour, VK5MV, traced the signals to their source about a mile awiy. Apparently due to the geographical character of the locality, signal strength at times was misleading, and one searcher who went in the opposite direction found the signals stronger at twice the distance! Competition Results. The code contests attracted a fair number pf entries. A tape machine was used for the sending tests, and judging was done by the Radio Inspector. Results were as follows: — First, M. B. Anderson, 5FA, Tanunda. Other events resulted as follows: — Married Men's Race, L. Catford (5LC) 1; W. Govan,2; G. Luxon, 3. Single Men's Race, J. Weddell (5BJ), 1; Finn (5SP), 2; Ring (5KH), 3. Single Ladies Race, Misses Malthouse, 1; Excell, 2; Hughes, 3. Men's 3-legged Race, J. Weddell and R. Bruce (5BJ and 5ZL), 1; A. Heath and W. Burford (5ZX and 5PB), 2. Men's Ball Throw, W. Juttner, 4th operator 5FA. Best D.F. Equipment, Don Reimann. Best 5-metre Equipment, Max Farmer (5GF).