History of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting in Australia/Topical/Biographies/William Tamillas Stephen Crawford/Notes

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William Tamillas Stephen Crawford – Transcriptions and notes[edit | edit source]

Key article copies[edit | edit source]

Brief but useful autobiography obtained by Launceston reporter while Crawford visiting his brother there

Television In Aust. Likely By 1956 PROVIDING THE present rate of development in wireless was maintained, television should be in operation in Melbourne and Sydney for the 1956 Olympic Games, said Mr. W. T. S. Crawford at Launceston yesterday. MR. CRAWFORD, a brother of Mr. F. C. Crawford, former Town Clerk, arrived at Launceston on Saturday and returned to Melbourne by air yesterday. Mr. Crawford, who retired in 1945 and resides in Sydney, was superintendent of wireless for N.S.W. in the P.M.G.'s Department and spent much of his early life in Tasmania. He came to Tasmania in 1896 and worked as a telegraph operator in the Eastern Extension Cable Co. at George Town for three years. Then he joined the Federal department as a telegraphist, working at Queenstown, Hobart and Launceston. In 1910 he was appointed postmaster and testing officer of the Bass Strait cables at George Town and in 1912 took charge of the coastal wireless station at Hobart. He was later transferred to the Melbourne coastal station, which was taken over by the Royal Australian Radio Service branch during the First World War, and appointed radio inspec-tor for Victoria. In 1918 he was transferred to Sydney and stationed at the Garden Island naval base where he worked until his retirement. A keen rifleman, Mr. Crawford visited Melbourne last week to take part in the Victorian Rifle Association's King's Prize meeting at Williamstown. In 1948 he visited England and was at Bisley when the Australians won the King's Cup. Mr Crawford took a prominent part in the early development of broadcasting and is a fellow of the Institute of Radio Engineers. During his visit to England he made a study of television and said great advances had been made since the end of the war. "The first provincial station was opened recently and in probably two years the whole of the United Kingdom will have a 90 per cent. television coverage," added Mr. Crawford.[1]

Non-chronological material[edit | edit source]

1880s[edit | edit source]

1883[edit | edit source]

1883 08[edit | edit source]

Death notice for Crawford's uncle Charles Crawford

DEATH. On the 10th of August, at his residence, Olinda-street, Quarry Hill, Sandhurst, Charles Crawford, aged 64 years.[2]

1885[edit | edit source]

1885 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford's father successful in his application for the transfer of publican's licence for Montague Hotel

THE DAY'S NEWS. . . . At the South Melbourne Court to-day Mr Alley, P.M., sat as a licensing magistrate, and granted the following application for a transfer of a publican's license:— Phoebe E. Kemp to George H. Crawford, for the Montague Hotel, Montague street.[3]

1885 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford's father charged with Sunday trading but summons dismissed on the evidence

HOTEL CASES. . . . South Melbourne. At the South Melbourne Court today, Constable Carter proceeded against the following publicans for permitting liquor to be sold on their premises on Sunday, the 11th inst, and in each case the defendants were fined £5, viz.:— Thomas Phelan, of the Glasgow Arms Hotel, Clarendon street; William Leehey, licensee of the Victoria Hotel, York street, and Martin Brogan, of the Britannia Hotel, Clarendon street. George Henry Crawford, licensee of the Montague Hotel, Park street, was similarly charged. Mr Moloney appeared for the defence. The evidence in this case was very conflicting, and after hearing a number of witnesses, the Bench dismissed the summons.[4]

As previous, further detail

SUNDAY TRADING AT SOUTH MELBOURNE. A number of hotelkeepers were summoned before the South Melbourne bench yesterday for breaches of the law against Sunday trading. The first case was that against George Crawford. licensee of the Montague Hotel, at the corner of Park and Montague streets, who was charged with having permitted liquor to be consumed on his premises on a Sunday. The evidence was of a very conflicting nature. Two constables swore that on entering the hotel on the 11th inst., they saw a gentleman in the bar, and some glasses of liquor on the counter. Several of the witnesses who were called for the defence swore that the gentleman who had been seen in the bar was a commercial traveller, who had called for an umbrella which he had left at the hotel on the previous day, and that the landlord invited him to take a glass of ale before leaving. The gentleman, instead of accepting a glass of ale, took a glass of ginger ale, for which no money was paid. The case was dismissed. Thomas Phelan, of the Glasgow Arms Hotel, Clarendon-street; C. Brogan, of the Britannia Hotel, Clarendon-street; and William Leehy, of the Victoria Hotel, were also summoned for Sunday trading, and, as the charges were proved to the satisfaction of the bench, they were each fined £5.[5]

1886[edit | edit source]

1886 04[edit | edit source]

Crawford's father advertises for a youth to assist at hotel

YOUTH, mark billiards and make himself generally useful. G. Crawford, Montague Hotel, Park-st. S. Melbourne.[6]

1886 07[edit | edit source]

Birth notice for Crawford's brother John Alfred Eric Crawford

BIRTHS, MARRIAGES AND DEATHS. BIRTHS. . . . CRAWFORD.— On the 26th June, at the Montague Hotel, South Melbourne, the wife of Mr. G. H. Crawford of a son.[7]

1888[edit | edit source]

1888 01[edit | edit source]

Crawford's father again charged with Sunday Trading and this time charges proven

NEWS OF THE DAY. . . . The Metropolitan Licensing Court, consisting of Judge Chomley and Messrs. C. A. D. Pascoe and C. Mollison, P.M.'s, sat yesterday for the first time this year for the purpose of hearing a number of applications under the Licensing Act. Transfers of licences from Sophia Gallagher, of the Court House Hotel, North Melbourne, to John Thomas, and from William Carrodus, of the Prince of Wales Hotel, Church-street, Richmond, to Edmund Stephens, were granted. Permission was granted to Elise Jerome, of Clark's Hotel, Swanston-street, to change the name to Jerome's Hotel. Stephen Home, licensee, of the Park View Hotel, Windsor. was adjudged guilty of having sold liquor on Sunday, 25th December last year, and as it was his second offence he was fined £10. For a similar offence fines of £7 were indicted on Bernard Murphy, New Constitution Hotel, Carlton; Martin Inten, King's Arms Hotel, Hotham; Helen Setter, Cricketers' Arms Hotel, Fitzroy; Charles Impott, George Hotel, Fitzroy; John William Gibbons, Carlton Imperial Hotel; George Henry Crawford, Montague Hotel, South Melbourne; and John Westaway, Freemason's Hotel, Port Melbourne. Fines of £2 were inflicted in the case of Samuel Rainsbury, of the Exchange Hotel, Melbourne; and Martin Hawkins, Exchange Hotel, Hotham. The charges of Sunday trading brought against William Kelleher, Commercial Hotel, Carlton; James Fitzgerald, Eglington Castle Hotel, Fitzroy; John Reid, Customs House Hotel, Port Melbourne; and John Stephens, Shannon and Shamrock Hotel, Hotham, were dismissed, and the conrt adjourned until 10 o'clock this morning.[8]

1888 03[edit | edit source]

Montague Hotel, South Melbourne, leased by Crawford's father is put up for auction

SATURDAY, MARCH 24. CITY OF SOUTH MELBOURNE. EXTENSIVE SALE. Of VALUABLE FREEHOLD PROPERTY In MONTAGUE, PARK, and CECIL STREETS, and NELSON-ROAD, On SATURDAY, MARCH 24, Commencing at Three O'Clock, At the Corner of Montague and Park Streets. M. LARKIN, instructed by Charles B. Counsel, Esq, administrator of the estate of the late Catherine Counsel, of South Melbourne, will be sold by PUBLIC AUCTION, as above. Lot 1. The Montague Hotel is now in the occupation of Mr. G. H. Crawford at £208 per annum, whose lease will expire on the 6th day of October, 1891; and the adjoining shop, occupied by Mr. J. Holdoway as a baker's shop at an annual rental of £117. The hotel, which is substantially built on solid bluestone foundations, contains 14 rooms, a large billiard-room, and first-class cellar accommodation. The shop, which is of similar construction, containing six rooms, shop, bakehouse and large oven. The land has a frontage of 67ft. 6in. to Park-street, by a depth of 90ft. 6in. along Montague-street to a right-of-way at rear.[9]

1888 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford's father again charged and fined for Sunday trading

SOME HARD SWEARING. At the South Melbourne Police Court today George Henry Crawford, licensee of the Montague Hotel, at the corner of Park and Montague streets, was charged with selling liquor on Sunday, the 3rd instant. The defendant was also charged with not having his bar door locked on that date. Mr Daly appeared for the defence. The evidence was to the effect that the police saw two men and a woman knock at the side door, and gain admittance. Whilst Constable Moore watched this door Sergeant Reardon entered by another door, and saw a man drinking in the passage. On seeing the officer, he let the glass drop. It contained ale. The bar window was open, the door leading from the bar to the parlor was open, and there was a female in the bar. For the defence three persons boarding at the hotel, and another witness, stated that when the police came there was nobody drinking in the passage and the bar door was not open. Inspector Acton said that the defendant had been previously fined for selling liquor on Sunday. Mr Daley asked for proof of such conviction, and made the remark, "I never saw such a court," when he was taken to task by the Bench. The chairman (Cr Stead) said that this was the second time he had insulted the Bench) (once by hinting at their partiality), and they would not permit it. Mr Daley said he was very sorry, and withdrew the expression. The defendant was fined L10 for the first offence, and L5 on the second charge.[10]

1889[edit | edit source]

1889 11[edit | edit source]

Licence for Montague Hotel transferred from Robert Wilson to Selina M. Crawford (would seem Crawford lost his publican's licence)

METROPOLITAN LICENSING COURT. WEDNESDAY, NOV. 6. (Before His Honour Judge Molesworth, chairman, Mr. Call, P.M., and Mr. Shuter, P.M.) LICENCES TRANSFERRED. The following licenses were transferred: — Courthouse Hotel, Johnston-street, Collingwood, from Thomas Jones to M. J. Lafonta; Wheatsheaf Hotel, Brunswick-street, Fitzroy, from Kate Stephens to Mary Wedel; Carlton Club Hotel, Fitzroy, from William Kaye to Daniel McLennan; Montague Hotel, Montague-street, South Melbourne, from Robert Wilson to Selina M. Crawford; Lady Franklin Hotel, Wellington-street, Collingwood, from James J. Parsell to John V. Costello; Four Courts Hotel, William-street, from R. S. Wishart to Emanuel Hensley; Elms's Hotel, Spring-street, from William Poppins to Charles Keatings; Bayview Hotel, King-street, from Francis O'Connor to Daniel O'Dowd; George Hotel, George-street, Fitzroy, from George W. Harold to Peter Mayne; Elsternwick Hotel, Brighton-road, Elsternwick, from James Cannon to Andrew Y. Oastler; Royal Mail Hotel, Wellington-street, Windsor, from Catherine Murray to John McInerney.[11]

1890s[edit | edit source]

1891[edit | edit source]

1891 07[edit | edit source]

Crawford's mother involved in a forgery matter

CHARGE OF FORGERY. A young German named Carl Von Gerhardt was brought before the South Melbourne police court on Tuesday, charged with forging and uttering a cheque for £3 10s. on Selina Crawford, wife of Mr. G. H. Crawford, licensee of the Montague Hotel, Montague-street, on Saturday, the 21st February last. The cheque purported to be signed by James S. Thomson, M.D. It appears that the prisoner had been in Dr. Thomson's employ as a canvasser for the South Melbourne Provident Medical Society, and Mrs. Crawford knowing Dr. Thomson readily cashed the cheque. On the 8th of May Gerhardt was arrested by Detectives Ward and Macmanamy on a charge of obtaining money by means of a forged cheque on Mr. E. Zox, M.L.A., for which offence he is now serving a sentence of two years imprisonment, and he how appeared before the court on magistrate's order. Mrs. Crawford gave evidence to the effect that on the day named the prisoner came to the hotel and asked her to cash the cheque, saying it had been drawn by Dr. Thomson. The cheque was returned from the London Chartered Bank marked, "Signature not known." The prisoner' made no defence and was committed for trial at the Criminal Sessions to be held on the 15th July.[12]

1893[edit | edit source]

1893 07[edit | edit source]

Crawford's mother attempts to have her name place on the electoral roll but is subjected to scrutiny

SOUTH MELBOURNE REVISION COURT. Alleged Attempt at Roll Stuffing. A court for the revision of the Voters' Roll, was held at the South Melbourne Town Hall, on Tuesday. There were present, the Mayor (Cr. T. A. Thistlethwaite) and the whole of the council, with the exception of Cr. Boyd. A large number of ratepayers were in attendance and took great interest in the proceedings. A number of objections were allowed and the proceedings were of a very tame character until: Mr. James Page, ex-valuer, applied to have the name of Selina Crawford, licensee of the Montague Hotel, Montague-street, placed on the roll of ratepaying electors. Mr. Henry, city valuer, objected to the application being granted. Mr. Crawford, applicant's husband, was on the roll and he contended that without it could be shown that parties have a joint interest in the hotel business, Mrs. Crawford's name could not be legally placed on the list of ratepaying electors. Cr. Gittus, was of opinion that the objection was vaiid. Before Mrs. Crawford could obtain a vote for the hotel premises, irrespective of her husband, it must be proved that the husband and wife had a joint interest in the business concern. Cr. White, M.L.A., said Mrs. Crawford was licensee of the hotel and she was entitled to have a vote and that her claim should not be prejudiced by the fact that her husband had a vote for the same premises. Cr. Neville reminded the court that last year similar applications were refused. After some remarks by Cr. Stead, it was decided to summon Mr. and Mrs. Crawford to appear before the court next day and give evidence re their business relations.[13]

1895[edit | edit source]

1895 12[edit | edit source]

Death notice for Crawford's father

THE FAMILY CIRCLE. DEATHS. CRAWFORD.— On the 4th December, at his late residence, Montague Hotel, Montague street, South Melbourne, G. H. Crawford, the dearly loved husband of S. M. Crawford, after Iong suffering. Aged 54.[14]

Death notice & brief obituary for Crawford's father

Death of an ex-Bendigonian.— News was received yesterday by his relatives in Bendigo of the death of Mr George Hunter Crawford, who has been licensee for nearly 20 years past of the Montague Hotel, South Melbourne. Mr Crawford, who was highly respected by a large circle of friends, both in Melbourne and Bendigo, was the youngest brother of the late Messrs Charles and William Crawford, of Bendigo, and before going into the hotel business worked with them in Bendigo as a building contractor. He was about 57 years of age. The immediate cause of death was asthma and bronchitis, but he had been in indifferent health for a long time past. He leaves a widow, a grown up married daughter, and three young sons. The interment will take place in Melbourne, and will be attended by the Messrs Crawford, of Bendigo (the deceased's nephews) and the Messrs Forster (cousins).[15]

As previous, a little more detail

Death of a Former Resident of Bendigo.— Last evening news was received of the death of Mr. G. H. Crawford, a former resident of Bendigo. The deceased gentleman, who was the licensee of the Montague hotel, South Mel-bourne, had been for some time past suffering from asthma and bronchitis. Some years ago he was the licensee of the Coach and Horses hotel, and old Bendigonians will remember him, as he was the youngest brother of the late Mr. Charles Crawford of the Bath hotel, Charing Cross. The deceased gentleman was held in high respect by all who knew him. He leaves a widow and grown-up family of five sons and a daughter, who is married to Mr. C. Duke, one of the proprietors of Duke's dock, Melbourne. The Messrs. Crawford brothers and Forster brothers of this city are his nephews.[16]

Funeral notice for Crawford's father

FUNERAL NOTICES. THE Friends of the late Mr. GEORGE HUNTER CRAWFORD are respectfully invited to follow his remains to the place of interment, the St. Kilda Cemetery. The funeral will leave his late residence, Montague Hotel, corner of Montague and Park streets, South Melbourne, THIS DAY (Friday), 6th December, 1895, at 3 o'clock. JOHN ALLISON, Undertaker and Embalmer, Head office, Simpson's-road, Richmond (telephone 1003); Sydney-road, Brunswick (telephone 1105); and at Bridport and Merton streets, South Melbourne. The Lodge of Emerald Hill, No. 81, W.V.C.— The Officers and Brethren of the above Lodge are respectfully requested to follow the remains of our late brother, G. H. CRAWFORD, to the place of interment, the Melbourne General Cemetery. The funeral will leave his late residence, Montague Hotel, Montague-street, South Melbourne, THIS DAY (Friday), 6th inst., at 3 o'clock. Z. GRAY, Secretary.[17]

Crawford's mother applies for probate

LAW NOTICES. APPLICATION for PROBATE.— Notice is hereby given that after the expiration of fourteen days from the publication hereof Application will be made to the Supreme Court, in its probate jurisdiction, that Probate of the WILL of GEORGE HUNTER CRAWFORD, late of Montague-street, South Melbourne, in Victoria, Licensed Victualler, deceased, may be GRANTED to Selina Mary Crawford, of the said address, widow, being the executrix appointed by the said will. Dated this 12th day of December, 1895.[18]

1896[edit | edit source]

1896 02[edit | edit source]

Probate granted on the estate of Crawford's father

PROBATES AND LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION. The registrar of probates has granted pro-bate of the wills of . . . George Hunter Crawford, £220;[19]

1899[edit | edit source]

1899 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford's mother asks South Melbourne City Council to install a street lamp outside her Montague Hotel

SOUTH MELBOURNE CITY COUNCIL. ORDINARY MEETING. Wednesday, May 10, 1899. The ordinary meeting of the South Melbourne City Council was held on Wednesday evening last, when there were present:— His Worship the Mayor (Cr. Cockbill), Crs. Baragwanath, Baster, Major, Mountain, Cameron, McArthur, Craine, Mills, Palmer, Stead, Owen, Sloss and Ashworth. Apology for non-attendance from Cr. White. THE MINUTES of the previous meeting were read by the Town Clerk (Mr. F. G. Miles) and duly confirmed. CORRESPONDENCE RECEIVED. . . . From S. M. Crawford, Montague Hotel, asking that a lamp be erected at the corner of Montague and Park streets.— Referred to Lighting Committee.[20]

1900s[edit | edit source]

1900[edit | edit source]

1900 03[edit | edit source]

Crawford contributes to the Examiner Imperial Patriotic Fund (Boer War)

"EXAMINER" IMPERIAL PATRIOTIC FUND. Already acknowledged ..... £346 16 6 From three Tasmanian-born children of Captain W. Kelly, late of Launceston and Ulverstone ... 3 3 0 Proceeds of second patriotic concert at George Town ................... 3 2 0 Monthly subscriptions from George Town, per Mr. W. A. Huxtable .......... 5 19 5 £359 0 11 The names of the monthly subscribers at Tamar Heads and George Town are as follow:— S. Axup, 2s; C. L. Bladen, 5s; Mr. Edwards, 2s; A. Geale, 1s; J. K. James, 5s; W. A. Huxtable, 1s; J. Mears, 6s; T. Quinn, 2s; E. Rodman, 2s; G. W. Planck, 2s 6d; A. Stephens, 2s 6d; W. Woodberry, 2s; H. K. Harris, 2s; F. Woods, 1s; W. S. T. Crawford, 1s; H. Flannagan, 2s; E. Brown, 1s 9d; W. Daymon, 1s; Rev. Spink, 1s; John Garrett, 2s; Jas. Garrett, 1s; Mr. Harley, 2s; E. Day, 1s; D. J. Knox, 1s; Jas. Stephens, 1s; Albt. Daniels, 2s; Mrs. Fox, 1s; Miss Walsh, 1s; H. Weight, 2s; J. Remington, 1s; T. Clifton, 1s; Warren and Sons, 2s 6d; A. Jenkins, 2s; Geo. Jenner, 2s; Jimmy Ah Hung, 1s; Boots, 1s; M. Callaghan, 1s; J. Griffiths, 1s; R. E. Mead, 2s 6d; E. Calcraft, 1s; Mr. Driscoll, 2s; T. H. Simpson, 5s; H. Daniels, 2s; W. Weight, 2s; T. V. Brown, 2s; T. Tiffen, 1s; Mrs. Allen, 1s; Mr. O'Brien, 1s; S. Andrews, 1s; A. McKenzie, 1s; H. J. E. Lawrence, 4s 2d; per J. Meers (name forgotten), 1s; C. Stephenson, 2s; E. Daniels, 4s; W. Parish, 1s; W. Petrie, 1s; M. Simpson, 1s; collected by Mrs. Westrope, 8s 6d; C. Goff, 1s.[21]

1900 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford subscribes a shilling to the Examiner Imperial Patriotic Fund (Boer War)

"EXAMINER" IMPERIAL PATRIOTIC FUND". Already acknowledged . . . . £538 15s 2d, Monthly subscription from George Town, per Mr. J. K. James, as per list . . . . £3 6s 6d, Total £542 1s 8d. . . . GEORGE TOWN LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. S. Axup, 2s; L. Bladen, 5s; A. H. Edwards, 2s; A. Geale, 2s; C. Goff, 1s; H. K. Harris, 4s; J. K. James, 5s; W. Huxtable, 6s; J. Mears, 6s; T. Quinn, 2s; G. Planck, 1s; W. Woodberry, 2s; F. Woods, 1s; W. T. S. Crawford, 1s; H. Flannagan, 1s; E. Brown, 2s; J. Garrett, 2s; — Harley, 2s; A. Daniels, 2s; E. Daniel's, 2s; Mrs. Fox, 1s; Miss Walsh, 1s; T. Clifton, 2s; Jas. Garrett, 1s; H. Weight, 2s; Warren and Sons, 2s 6d; A. Jenkins, 2s; J. Remington, 1s; W. Weight. 2s; S. Andrews, jun., 1s. Total, £3 6s 6d.[22][23]

1900 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford elected Hon. Secretary, Committee Member, Match Committee at annual general meeting of the George Town Cricket Club

GEORGE TOWN CLUB. The annual meeting of the George Town Club was held recently, when satisfaction was expressed at the state of affairs disclosed by the report and balance-sheet. Mr. J. K. James was appointed to the chair. The report showed that eight matches had been played last season, resulting in four being won, three lost, and one drawn. In batting E. L. James topped the list with the highest individual and aggregate score. He had the fine average of 72.5 runs. In bowling, H. Campbell and J. H. Remington tied with an average of 6.4 runs per wicket. The laying of the cement pitch was the great event of the season. The election of office-bearers for the ensuing season resulted as follows: Patrons, Messrs. C. Dempster and T. H. Walduck, M.H.A.; president, Mr. A. Evans; vice-president, Rev. E. C. Spink, Dr. Morris, Messrs. C. Macpherson, R. Darby, J. Garrett, and T. V. Brown; captain, Mr. E. W. Day; vice-captain, Mr. A. Campbell; hon. secretary, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford; hon. treasurer, Mr. C. L. Baden; committee, Messrs. E. W. Day, A. Campbell, W. T. S. Crawford, C. L. Baden, J. K. James, E. Clark, and A. Jenkins; match committee, Messrs. E. W. Day. A. Campbell, and W. T. S. Crawford. A bat has been presented by Mr. C. Dempster for the highest batting average. A concert under the auspices of the above club was held in the Public Hall, George Town, on Wednesday evening. The attendance was moderate, and the Rev. E. C. Spink occupied the chair. A long and varied programme, consisting of vocal and instrumental selections, readings, and tableaux, was safely negotiated. A gramophone, kindly lent for the occasion by Messrs. A. W. Birchall and Son, and a few special records by Messrs. Munnew and Findlay, of Launceston, were much appreciated. Great praise is due to Mrs. Woodberry for the able manner in which she arranged the tableaux. The evening's entertainment was closed by the chairman calling for a vote of thanks for the performers, which was heartily responded to. The concert was a financial success, and the club will benefit considerably.[24]

1900 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford's bowling in a cricket match against the Beaconsfield Miners described as "deadly"

CRICKET. . . . GEORGE TOWN ASSOCIATION. . . . On Saturday, the 10th, the Miners, a Beaconsfield team, journeyed to George Town and played their opening match. The scoring on both sides was low, owing to the wind and boisterous weather. The Miners had first use of the wicket, but were all disposed of for 16. The bowling of Campbell and Crawford was very deadly, especially Campbell's. George Town in their first innings could only raise 42, Simpson and Armstrong doing the trundling. In the second innings the Miners pulled themselves together, making 71 for five wickets down, S. Wellington (15 not out), Parish (18), and Armstrong (11) being the principal scorers. George Town had five down for 25 when time was called, leaving them victors by 26 on the first innings. The Miners and George Town both fielded well, Bomford, the wicket keeper of the former, being exceptionally good. The result of the match would probably have been different if the steamer had not been almost an hour late at Beauty Point unloading, which delayed the arrival of the team at George Town.[25]

1900 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford again plays well for George Town Cricket Association

GEORGE TOWN ASSOCIATION. . . . On Saturday the final match of the first rond was played at Beaconsfield between George Town and the B.C.C., resulting in a win for the latter by 69 runs on the first innings. The B.C.C. batted first, and made 164, of which W. Ellis contributed. by sound cricket 84 not out. His innings was well worth watching, his play all round the wicket being exceptionally brilliant. Others to reach double figures were F. Borne (16), J. Tresize (14), and W. Tregaskis (11). The bowling for George Town was done by Jenkins (three for 47), Campbell (two for 31), Gladstone (two for 36), Petrie (one for 16), and Day (one for 20). George Town in their first attempt were disposed of for 97, E. Day being .responsible for 33, obtained by careful cricket. Planck batted vigorously for 18, whilst Crawford (12) and Jenkins (11) also reached double figures. In bowling, D. Herbert (two for 8), H. Walduck (two for 11), J. Tresize (four for 48), and J. Robinson (one for 27) were successful. George Town in their follow on had seven wickets down for 42, Planck (14) again hitting well. In bowling, W. Tregaskis, a very promising all-round colt, obtained three for 16, his trundling being even better than it appears. J. Robinson (two for 18) and Tresize (two for 3) obtained the other wickets. There was a marked improvement in the B.C.C. fielding, whilst that of George Town was not up to its usual standard.[26]

1901[edit | edit source]

1901 03[edit | edit source]

Crawford again plays well against Beaconsfield

CRICKET. . . . A correspondent writes:— On the Beaconsfield Reserve on Saturday the George Town and Beaconsfield clubs met for a third time, when, after an exciting finish, the latter won by 86 runs. In the absence of G. Caldwell, H. Walduck was elected captain of the Beaconsfield team. He lost the toss with E. Day, of George Town, and went to the wickets. With one wicket down for 19, H. Walduck joined F. Borne, who was playing effective cricket. Things now became lively, H. Walduck scoring off the first five balls sent his way no less than 16. Eight bowlers were tried, but without effect, until the score had reached 103, when F. Borne, who had 51 to his credit, was well caught by Fisher. Borne hit eleven 3's, and was never seen to better advantage. H. Walduck was caught next ball, with 45 to his credit, which score included eight 3's and one 4. The next partnership was between R. Wood and J. Tregaskis, the latter making 63 in great style; in fact, it seemed like the cricket of days gone by, when A. J. Hocking and others were with us. Too much credit cannot be bestowed upon the all-round display of J. Tregaskis, the only drawback being his inability to run well, by which R. Wood, who took over an hour to compile 15, suffered considerably. I might state that R. Wood is noted for his partnerships. At 5 o'clock the innings was closed, with seven wickets down for 195, leaving the visitors exactly one hour and a half to wipe off the score. In bowling for George Town, A. Jenkins was the most successful, obtaining five wickets for 77, whilst Huxtable got one for 37. George Town opened their account with Patterson and Huxtable, but no stand was made until Jenkins (32) and Crawford (21) got together, when some fine cricket was shown. Campbell (13) also batted freely. The innings closed at 27 minutes past 6 for 109, leaving the B.C.C. victors by 86. In bowling, J. Tresize (five for 44) trundled well, keeping a good length throughout the game, and bowling the two last wickets five minutes before time. F. Borne (three for 34) and H. Walduck (one for 7) obtained the remaining wickets. The fielding was only moderate, but the George Town men must be complimented for their untiring zeal.[27]

1901 04[edit | edit source]

First reference to Crawford's participation in rifle shooting, Crawford would appear also to be in the citizen's military force

RIFLE SHOOTING. Following is the result of the third and final competition in rine shooting by the George Town detachment for prizes, including gold and silver medals:— Third Competition.

  • 200 300 400 yds. yds. yds. Hdp. Tl.
  • Cpl. Bladen ........ 21 .. 17 .. 20 .. sc .. 58
  • Pte. Crawford ... 19 .. 15 .. 16 .. 7 .. 57
  • Lieut. Huxtable .. 17 .. 15 .. 19 .. sc .. 51
  • Pte. Clarke ....... 10 .. 12 .. 8 .. 15 .. 51
  • Col.-Sgt. Harris ..... 14 .. 13 .. 19 .. sc .. 46
  • Pte. Quinn .......... 10 .. 12 .. 9 .. 15 .. 46
  • Pte. Brown ....... 7 .. 6 .. 8 .. 25 .. 46
  • Pte. Clifton ...... 19 .. 12 .. 12 .. sc .. 43[28]

As a result of the previous round, Crawford takes out Gold Medal in the detachment competition

RIFLE SHOOTING. Result of third and final competition in rifle shooting by the George Town detatchment for prizes, including gold and silver medals. Third Competition:

  • 200 300 400 yds. yds. yds. Hdp. Tl. Aggregate for 3 Competitions
  • Pte. Crawford ... 19 .. 15 .. 16 .. 7 .. 57 .. 16?
  • Cpl. Bladen ........ 21 .. 17 .. 20 .. sc .. 58 .. 160
  • Pte. Clarke ....... 10 .. 12 .. 8 .. 15 .. 51 .. 159
  • Col.-Sgt. Harris ..... 14 .. 13 .. 19 .. sc .. 46 .. 147
  • Pte. Clifton ...... 19 .. 12 .. 12 .. sc .. 43 .. 14?
  • Lieut. Huxtable .. 17 .. 15 .. 19 .. sc .. 51 .. 140
  • Pte. Quinn .......... 10 .. 12 .. 9 .. 15 .. 46 .. -
  • Pte. Brown ....... 7 .. 6 .. 8 .. 25 .. 46 .. 134


1901 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford transfers from George Town cable station (Eastern and Australian Extension Telegraph Company) to PMGD Queenstown in the operating room (telegraphist)

QUEENSTOWN NEWS. . . . POSTAL STAFF APPOINTMENTS.— Mr E. C. Weatherhead, of the Queenstown Post Office, has been transferred from the telegraphic to the postal branch. The vacancy thus caused in the operating room has been filled by the appointment of Mr W. T. S. Crawford, of the Cable Station, George Town. Master Frank Weston has been appointed operating probationer, vice Master A. Seabrook, resigned. Master Tasman Farr has been appointed letter carrier, vice Mr J. Ingles, resigned, whilst the vacancy thus caused in the ranks of the messengers have been filled by the appointment of Masters Athol Smith and William Albert Dawson.[30]

Crawford hires the local George Town Hall as a farewell to his friends in George Town

GEORGETOWN. On Wednesday, the 8th inst. the most enjoyable social of the season was held at the George Town Hall. The friends of Mr W. Crawford, who is leaving the cable company's service to join the Government service, thought it.would be the most satisfactory way for him to bid his friends farewell. Both ladies and: gentlemen worked hard to make the evening a decided success. The supper, thanks to the ladies, was all that could be desired. Dancing commenced about 8 p.m., and continued until about 2 a.m. the next day. Miss Alice Grant contributed two songs, Mrs Woodberry one, and Miss Rosale Walker contributed several pianoforte selections, which were much appreciated. Much regret is expressed at the departure of Mr Crawford, who has taken a lively interest in anything that promoted the welfare of George Town. He was always ready with both money and real hard work, to help, and all wish him success in his new career.[31]

Crawford also farewelled at the Pier Hotel

CURRENT TOPICS. . . . A Farewell.— A correspondent writes to say that a public meeting was held at the Pier Hotel, George Town, on Monday evening for the purpose of presenting Mr. W. Crawford with a small souvenir of his residence in the district. The members of the George Town Quadrille Assembly also entertained Mr. Crawford at a dance prior to his leaving the township for the West Coast.[32]

As previous, further detail

GEORGETOWN. On Monday evening a public meeting was held at the Pier Hotel, George Town, for the purpose of presenting Mr W. Crawford with a small souvenir, in recognition of services rendered during his sojourn in the township. Owing to the inclemency of the weather the attendance was small. Much regret was expressed at his departure. He has always taken a prominent part in the cricket and rifle clubs, as well as willingly giving his time and service in aid of concerts and entertainments of all kinds. His departure will, therefore, leave a vacancy which will require some filling. The residents hope that through the medium of the press they may hear of him again in these capacities. The presentation, which took the form of a clock, was made by Mr E. Day (captain of the cricket team), who, in a few words expressed the sentiments of the company present. Mr Crawford replied suitably thanking all for the useful present they had given him. His health was then proposed by Mr J. Paterson, which was heartily responded to. Songs were rendered during the evening, and a most enjoyable time was spent.[33]

1901 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford's wife and mother attend South Melbourne Mayoral reception

THE MAYORAL RECEPTION. The reception held by the Mayoress of South Melbourne in the Town Hall on Wednesday afternoon was a brilliant success in every way, all the leading citizens of the district being present, and a large number of visitors. The hall was beautifully decorated with foliage, pot plants, etc., the platform being a mass of greenery, behind which Ryan's string orchestra discoursed popular operatic airs during the afternoon. An efficient musical programme was rendered by Miss Mabel Mattingly, Miss Marion Jones, Miss Lillian Reid, and Messrs H. McKinery and C. Potter. The catering was in the hands of Mr. H. Skinner. The Mayoress received on a dais in front of the platform, and wore black corded silk with white lace and sequins, black hat relieved with white chiffon; Lady Gillott, black spotted silk voile, trimmed with jet, black toque trimmed with cream; . . . Mrs Crawford, black broche dress, sealette cape, black and white bonnet; . . . Mrs G. H. Crawford, Mrs W. T. S. Crawford,[34]

1901 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford's appointment as operator (telegraphist) Queenstown with PMGD is confirmed, effective 7 June 1901 (no doubt after conclusion of 6 month probationary period)

Commonwealth of Australia. Postmaster-General's Department, 29th November, 1901. TASMANIA. HIS Excellency the Governor-General in and over the Commonwealth of Australia, by and with the advice of the Executive Council thereof, has been pleased to approve of the following appointments, transfers, &c., in the Postmaster-General's Department in the State of Tasmania to take effect from the date set opposite the respective names:— Appointments. . . . W. T. S. Crawford, Operator, Queenstown, 7th June, 1901.[35]

Crawford listed in annual Index to Commonwealth Public Service

Crawford, W. T. S., Tas. P.M.G.'s Dept., appointed operator, Queenstown, 262.[36]

1903[edit | edit source]

1903 01[edit | edit source]

Birth notice for Crawford's first child Alice Beryl

BIRTHS. . . . CRAWFORD.—On the 29th November, at 357 Park-street, South Melbourne, the wife of W. T. S. Crawford — a daughter.[37]

1903 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford transferred at level (Operator = Telegraphist) within the PMGD from Queenstown to Launceston

Commonwealth of Australia. Postmaster-General's Department, 26th August, 1903. THE following transfers have been approved, and resignations accepted, in accordance with the provisions of the Commonwealth Public Service Act 1902 and Regulations there-under, namely:— . . . TASMANIA. W. T. S. Crawford, Operator, Queenstown, to be Operator, Launceston. P. O. FYSH, Postmaster-General.[38]

1903 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford transferred at level (Operator = Telegraphist) within the PMGD from Queenstown to Launceston (as previous)

"Commonwealth Gazette" notices, August 29: Australian Garrison Artillery (Volunteers), No. 1 Tasmanian Company, Lieutenant Edwin Herbert Webster resigns his commission. First Tasmanian Infantry Regiment, Captain Edward George Innes, to the Unattached List. The position of clerk (telephone attendant) at Gormanston abolished, and the position of clerk (telephone attendant) at Hobart created in lieu thereof. W. T. S. Crawford, operator, Queenstown, to be operator, Launceston.[39]

1903 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford's transfer in Aug 1903, listed in annual index of Commonwealth Gazette

Crawford, W. T. S., operator, P.M.G.'s Dept., Tas., transfer, 483.[40]

1904[edit | edit source]

1904 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford, along with every Commonwealth public servant has his position reviewed, position renamed Operator to Telegraphist, salary increased

Classification of the Commonwealth Public Service.

  • Postmaster-General's Department, Telegraph Branch, Launceston
  • Page No.: 55
  • Name.: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth.: 14.12.80
  • Particulars of Service, &c.
    • Under State.
      • Office.: N/A
      • Date of First Appointment. N/A
      • Division.: N/A
      • Salary.: N/A
    • Under Commonwealth.
      • Office.: Operator
      • Date of Appointment or of Transfer.: 7.6.01
      • Total Service in Years, State and Commonwealth.: 2
      • Salary.: L140 0s 0d
      • Deduction for Rent.: N/A
      • Allowances.: N/A
        • District.:
        • Miscellaneous.:
  • Classification.
    • Work.
      • Office.: Telegraphist
      • Division.: C
      • Class or Grade.: 5
    • Officer.
      • Class or Grade.: 5
      • Subdivision.: 6
      • Salary (including Rent).: L160
      • Deduction for Rent.: N/A
      • Allowances. N/A
        • District.: N/A
        • Miscellaneous.: N/A[41]
1904 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford's wife attends Mayoral reception in Launceston

MAYORAL RECEPTION. BY SYLVIA. The reception given by the Mayor and Mayoress (Alderman J. W. Pepper and Mrs. Pepper) at the Albert Hall, yesterday afternoon, to welcome the Governor (Sir Gerald Strickland) and Lady Edeline Strickland to Launceston, was one of the pleasantest functions that has taken place in the city for some time. The weather was delightful, and the attendance of ladies and gentlemen very large. The hall had been lavishly decorated for the occasion, and arranged as a drawing-room. The centre, where the Mayor and Mayoress received, was made beautiful with masses of cream and pink roses, trailing in graceful sprays, in baskets, bowls, and wicker stands, large bowls of arum lilies and white peonies, and numerous foliage plants giving a charming effect. Throughout the hall there were quantities of beautiful flowers and plants. A number of very fine oil paintings, resting upon draped easels, kindly lent by Mrs. G. Collins, an artist who has recently opened a studio in Launceston, were seen to great advantage as part of the tasteful furnishing. Afternoon tea, with all kinds of dainties, as well as strawberries and cream, were served during the afternoon. A programme of music, under the direction of the city organist (Mr. W. W. Thornthwaite) was given as follows:— . . . "THE DRESSES" . . . "THE CARDS" The following is a complete list of the cards presented:—. . . Mrs. W. T. S. Crawford, . . .[42][43][44]

1906[edit | edit source]

1906 04[edit | edit source]

Crawford, details included in list of all Commonwealth public servants, as at 19 Apr 1906

Postmaster-General's Department, Tasmania.

  • Launceston. Grade II.
  • Page No.: 34
  • Name.: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth.: 14.12.80
  • Particulars of Service, &c.
    • Under State.
      • Office.: N/A
      • Date of First Appointment.: N/A
      • Division.: N/A
      • Salary.: N/A
    • Under Commonwealth.
      • Office.: Telegraphist
      • Date of Appointment or of Transfer.: 7.6.01
      • Total Service in Years, State and Commonwealth.: 4
      • Salary.: L160 0s 0d
      • Deduction for Rent.: N/A
      • Allowances.: N/A
        • District.:
        • Miscellaneous.:
  • Classification.
    • Work.
      • Office.: Telegraphist
      • Division.: C
      • Class or Grade.: 5
    • Officer.
      • Class or Grade.: 5
      • Subdivision.: 6
      • Salary (including Rent).: L160
      • Deduction for Rent.: N/A
      • Allowances. N/A
        • District.: N/A
        • Miscellaneous.: N/A[45]

1907[edit | edit source]

1907 01[edit | edit source]

Crawford, details included in list of all Commonwealth public servants, as at 1 January 1907

Postmaster-General's Department, Tasmania.

  • Launceston. Grade II.
  • Page No.: 18
  • Name.: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth.: 14.12.80
  • Particulars of Service, &c.
    • Under State.
      • Office.: N/A
      • Date of First Appointment.: N/A
      • Division.: N/A
      • Salary.: N/A
    • Under Commonwealth.
      • Date of Appointment or of Transfer.: 7.6.01
      • Work
        • Office.: Telegraphist
        • Division: C
        • Class or Grade: 5
      • Officer.
        • Class or Grade.: 5
        • Subdivision.: 6
        • Salary (including Rent).: L160
        • Deduction for Rent.: N/A
        • Allowances. N/A
          • District.: N/A
          • Miscellaneous.: N/A[46]

1909[edit | edit source]

1909 03[edit | edit source]

Crawford receives a long service salary increment

Postmaster-General's Department, Ex. Min. 40. 19th March, 1909. HIS Excellency the Governfir-General, by and with the advice of the Federal Executive Council, has approved that the following staff changes, &c., be made in the Postmaster-General's Department, namely: . . . Tasmania . . . Long Service Increment to Officers. The undermentioned officers of the Fifth Class, Clerical Division, have been granted a long service increment at the rates shown opposite their respective names, as from 1st July, 1908, viz.:— . . . W. T. S. Crawford, Launceston, £10 per annum. R. W. Moves, Launceston, £10 per annum. JOSIAH THOMAS, Postmaster-General.[47]

1909 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford included in index to Commonwealth Gazette for his earlier long-service increment

Crawford, W. T. S., P.M.G.'s Dept., Tas., long-service increment, 891.[48]

1910s[edit | edit source]

1910[edit | edit source]

1910 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford, details included in list of all Commonwealth public servants, as at 1 January 1910

Postmaster-General's Department, Tasmania.

  • Launceston. Grade II.
  • Page No.: 19
  • Name: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth: 14.12.80
  • Particulars of Service, &c.
    • Under State.
      • Office: N/A
      • Date of First Appointment: N/A
      • Division: N/A
      • Salary on Transfer to Commonwealth: N/A
    • Under Commonwealth.
      • Date of Appointment or of Transfer: 7.6.01
      • Work
        • Office.: Telegraphist
        • Division: C
        • Class or Grade: 5
      • Officer.
        • Class or Grade.: 5
        • Subdivision.: 6
        • Salary (including Rent).: L170
        • Deduction for Rent.: N/A
        • Allowances. N/A
          • District.: N/A
          • Miscellaneous.: N/A
        • Present Salary received from: 1.7.08[49]
1910 07[edit | edit source]

Crawford from telegraphist Launceston to postmaster George Town

THE COMMONWEALTH. ("Daily Telegraph" Special Copyright.) POSTAL CHANGES. MELBOURNE, Sunday.— The following postal changes, promotion, and transfers have been made:— William Tamillas Stephen Crawford, telegraphist, in fifth class, Launceston, to be postmaster in grade 4 at George Town. . . .[50]

1911[edit | edit source]

1911 01[edit | edit source]

Crawford, at George Town, a member of the Australian Natives Association, is interviewed by its Launceston branch secretary

The A.N.A.— The first meeting in the New Year of the Australian Natives' Association was held on Thursday evening in the classroom of the Mechanics' Institute, the president, Mr. A. C. Mathers, being in the chair. The newly elected committee first met, and transacted several matters of importance to the branch, and the president seized the opportunity of welcoming Mr. W. J. Bird, who suitably replied. Messrs. W. Farmer, C. Thomas, and W. J. Crossin were appointed permanent scrutineers. There were two propositions received for candidature as full benefit members. Two matters of considerable interest were placed on the agenda paper for discussion at the next conference. An address recently delivered by Sir George Reid eulogising the resources of Australia was tabled for persual. After several other subjects of branch importance had been discussed, the secretary reported interviews he had had with country members — Messrs. W. T. S. Crawford and J. W. Murray — during the holidays. The resignation of Mr. R. S. Jowett from the committee was received with regret.[51]

1911 03[edit | edit source]

H. A. Livermore, who is fined in June 1916 for possession of illegal wireless apparatus, shares a hobby interest in rifle shooting with Crawford

RIFLE NOTES. The points for last Saturday's shoot are:— . . . H. A. Livermore 5,49,54 . . .[52]

1911 12[edit | edit source]

Commonwealth decides to advertise for OICs and 2ICs for new wireless stations, including VIH Hobart

OFFICERS FOR WIRELESS STATIONS. In view of the decision of the Federal Government to establish wireless telegraphy stations at Hobart, Thursday Island, and Port Moresby, the Public Service Commissioner is inviting applications for the positions of officer in charge at each of these places, and of assistant operator. In addition an assistant operator is required for Melbourne. The salary attached to the position of officer in charge will range from £210 to £300 a year.[53]

1912[edit | edit source]

1912 02[edit | edit source]

VIM failed to communicate with HMS Drake at Hobart on its opening day, but situation rectified the following day

NEWS OF THE DAY. . . . Officers of the Central Postal administration do not hide their disappointment at the failure of the Melbourne wireless station to communicate with Hobart during the aftcrnoon of the opening day, but their doubts about the capacity of the station have been removed by successful tests made yesterday. The officer in charge reported to the Postmaster-General that the station was working with complete success, and that he had been transmitting test messages "all round the place." Mr. Frazer is now preparing a new scale of charges, which will considerably cheapen the service to the public. He stated yesterday that he hoped to announce the changes shortly. As he cannot go higher than the international maximum now charged, this must mean a reduction from the 10d. rate. When Dr. Mawson left for the Antarctic seas he hoped that a small power wireless station he was installing at Macquarie Island would keep him in constant communication with civilisation. Unfortunately no word has been heard from Macquarie Island, showing that the station is not strong enough to communicate with the mainland or even with vessels in Hobart harbor. It was suggested yesterday that the Federal Government might come to the aid of the Macquarie Island station with the loan of more powerful equipment, but Mr. Frazer replied that the Government could not establish a station there at present. Unless the Postmaster-General will go to Dr. Mawson's assistance, his elaborate and expensive arrangements for communicating expedition and weather news from the Antarctic via Macquarie Island will break down.[54]

1912 03[edit | edit source]

Initial operating hours for VIH announced (blocks of 4 hours midday and evening), times to be reviewed after a fortnights' operation

HOBART WIRELESS STATION. TO BE READY IN A FORTNIGHT. DETAILS OF THE PLANT. Good progress is being made with the work of constructing the wireless station on the Domain, and it is expected that the installation of the plant will be completed in about two weeks' time. Mr. J. G. Balsillie, the Commonwealth wireless expert, who arrived in Hobart on Tuesday night for the purpose of supervising the work, explained to a reporter of "The Daily Post" yesterday that the station would be of the same size as that recently erected in Melbourne, which is the standard type of those to be installed throughout Australia by the Postmaster-General. The Hobart station is the second of the series that is to be laid down in various parts of the Commonwealth, and when it is completed, Mr Balsillie intends to make preparations for the construction of stations at Port Moresby (Papua) and Thursday Island. The station at Hobart, which is primarily intended to communicate direct with Melbourne, will be capable of transmitting messages over a distance of 500 miles in the day time, and 1500 miles at night. The mast that is to be erected for the purpose of carrying the aerial wires will have a height of 184ft., and will be raised on the cantilever principle by means of a jury mast about 70ft. high. At present 16 men are employed at the site of the station, and within the next day or two the number will be increased to 40. It is hoped that the permanent mast will be in position not later than Wednesday next. The engine to be fitted up at the station will be driven by electricity, to be obtained from the local supply. A maximum of 15 horsepower will be available, but only a portion of it will be required for the transmission of messages. Two operators will be employed, and the hours of service will be from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m., and from 7 p.m. to 11 p.m., but after the plant has been in operation for a fortnight, these hours will be extended, and altered to suit the conditions of business. The charges for messages at present are sixpence per word land stations, and fourpence per word ship stations, plus the ordinary land line charges. Replying to a question, Mr Balsillie said he understood that the Postmaster-General had under consideration the question of the advisability of reducing these rates in the near future. Mr. Balsillie added that the station recently erected on the Domain at Melbourne was working most satisfactorily, and handling a large amount of business.[55]

Crawford announced as the operator in charge of VIH the new Hobart Coastal Wireless Station

THE WIRELESS STATION. An event that created great interest in Hobart yesterday was the raising of the mast which is to support the aerials for Hobart's first wireless station. The situation of the station is on the highest point of the Domain just opposite the gates facing the New Town road, and the mast can be seen from all over Hobart. Last night to those who viewed it side on it was seen to be leaning to the north-west at an angle of 25 degrees. By this evening, however, it will be perpendicular and in readiness for the commencement of operations. The work of erection was no small order, for the mast is 184 feet in length and weighs 16 tons. In order to raise it from the ground the men, under the eye of Mr. Balsillie (Commonwealth wireless expert) carried out their duties in excellent fashion. The method employed in raising the mast was to rig a jury mast 60 feet high at the foot of the main mast. The two were then connected, forming the two sides of right angled triangle. Tackle was then run from the top of the jury mast to a huge hand winch, and to which eight men then hove on. As the ropes took the tremendous strain they creaked ominously, but held, and gradually the jury mast came over towards the capstan. This action raised the main-mast and as it did the foot was slipped into the deep concrete bed which has been prepared. Progress was slow, but as the mast became nearer the perpendicular work became easier, and four men were all that were required to work the winch. Operations ceased for the day at 6 p.m., and the mast was then standing at an angle of 25 degrees. Mr. Baisillie expects to have the mast in position by this evening. It is expected that the station will be in working order by Saturday next, but whether or not there will be an official opening has not yet been decided. The station will be tuned to the pitch of the one in Melbourne, and the first message will be despatched to the Victorian capital. Both the plants mentioned are of the same power, viz., 5 kilowatts, and are powerful enough to send messages 500 miles by day and 1000 miles by night. Portion of the Hobart station's gear arrived by the s.s. Wainui from Melbourne on Friday, and the work of setting it up is proceeding. Mr. Crawford, who has until lately been in charge of the cable department at Low Head, will be the operator-in-chief, and Mr. King, late of the s.s. Westralia, assistant operator.[56]

As previous

ABOUT PEOPLE. . . . Mr. W. Crawford, who has been in charge of the cable department at George Town, has been appointed operator in chief of the Hobart wireless station.[57]

Crawford on duty and reported assisting Don Macdonald and the remaining VIH construction staff in preparing the station for operation

THE HOBART WIRELESS STATION. Most of the staff who have been employed, under the superintendence of Mr. D. McDonald, of the Home Affairs Department, in erecting the wireless station on the Domain, return to Melbourne today, in order to prepare for the erection of the next of the Commonwealth stations. The next two to be erected are at Thursday Island and at Port Moresby, in Papua, but it is not yet decided which of the two is to be taken first. A couple of men are remaining behind, and Mr. Crawford and Mr. King, who are to be in charge of the station, are also lending a hand in the work of preparation which remains to be done. The transformers, which are to get the necessary power for operating the station, have not yet arrived from Melbourne, but they are expected to be here shortly. Meantime, the work is being steadily proceeded with, and as soon as the power is made available the station will be ready for work. It is probable that a little later on something in the nature of a formal opening will be arranged.[58]

Examiner's George Town correspondent notes Crawford leaving for Hobart and will be much missed

ABOUT PEOPLE. . . . On Monday the former post and telegraph official at George Town, Mr. Crawford, took his departure for Hobart, to assume charge of the wireless telegraph station there. He will be very much missed, says our correspondent, both officially and socially. We wish him all prosperity in his new career.[59]

Official opening of POH/VIH set as 13 April with Crawford as OIC

OPENING OF WIRELESS STATION. The wireless telegraph station on the Domain will be opened for the transaction of business on April 13 next. At first the office hours will be from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. and from 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. Messages for transmission by wireless should be handed in at the General Post Office like ordinary telegrams, and they will then be forwarded by telegraph or telephone to the Domain station. The rates for messages will be 6d. per word for shore stations and 4d. per word for ship stations, plus the usual land line charges, with a minimum charge per message of 8/4. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, lately postmaster at George Town, will be in charge of the station, and will be assisted by Mr. C. King, formerly wireless operator on s.s. Westralia.[60]

1912 06[edit | edit source]


The Hobart wireless station was in communication with the following wireless stations yesterday:— Macquarie Island; s.s. Maunganui, Bluff to Hobart; and R.M.S. Tainui, London to Hobart.[61]

1912 07[edit | edit source]


WIRELESS SPEAKINGS. The Hobart wireless station was yesterday in communication with the following:— Dusseldorf, s.s.; Levuka, s.s.; Riverina, s.s.; Themistocles, s.s.; Maunganui, s.s. Sydney to Auckland; Adelaide, s.s.; Albury, s.s.; Marmora, R.M.S.; Moana, s.s.; Grantala, s.s.; Cooma, s.s.; Bombala, s.s.; Macquarie Island.[62]

1912 08[edit | edit source]


WIRELESS SPEAKINGS. The Hobart wireless station was in touch with the following vessels yesterday:— Osterlew, R.M.S., Melbourne to Sydney; Moeraki, s.s., Bluff to Hobart; Maloja, R.M.S., Melbourne to Adelaide; Mannheim, s.s., left Port Pirie yesterday; Warrimo, s.s., Melbourne to Hobart; Riverina, s.s., Macquarie Island.[63]

1912 09[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station reports having yesterday communicated with the following ships:— Karoola, Ulimaroa, Orama, Orsova, Moeraki, Mooltan, Argyleshire, Waimara, Athenic; and with the land station at Macquarie Island.[64]

Crawford, not mentioned by name but clearly involved in a debate about efficacy of VIH

HOBART WIRELESS STATION. QUESTION OF ITS EFFICIENCY. DISCUSSION BY THE MARINE BOARD. The question of the efficiency of the Hobart wireless telegraph station was brought before the Hobart Marine Board at its meeting yesterday by Hon. J. W. Evans, M.H.A. In introducing the question, Mr. Evans said the working of the Hobart wireless station had not been a success by any means. The local agents had no chance of getting any knowledge of the whereabouts of their vessels when they got within a radius of 500 or 600 miles of the coast from the reports of the station. Vessels coming from the Cape could not be picked up within that radius, and also the vessels on the run down from Sydney were lost touch of when they got to the coast. In fact, the station could not pick the vessels up. The value of wireless for shipping purposes had been proved beyond a doubt and the companies recognising its advantages had consequently gone to considerable expense in fitting up their ships with the apparatus. It was therefore a great pity that the local station was not being made to work successfully. He would like to refer the matter to the Wharves Committee, with the object of bringing it under the notice of the right authorities, and have the work of the station made a greater success than at present. He had spoken to the local operator, who had said the difficulty was caused by the site of the station lying amongst the hills. He thought the station would give much better results if it were erected on an area of flat country, with a good space between it and the hills. Many of the sea boats were able to pick up the station, when it was not able to pick them up, even though they were close in to the coast. Mr. L. Piesse: Is not that the fault of inferior apparatus on the ships? Mr. Evans: No. It is the fault of the land station, which can pick up a vessel 800 miles away, and one not so easily only 500 miles distant. Mr. T. Murdoch: That is one of the peculiarities of the system. Mr. J. G. Turner seconded the motion that the question be referred to the Wharves Committee, which was carried. Subsequently Mr. Turner stated that two amateurs, who had a receiving station near the wharf, were frequently stopped from operating by the Hobart station till the latter had picked up its message.[65]

As previous, more detail

HOBART WIRELESS STATION. ALLEGED DEFECTIVE SYSTEM. MARINE BOARD DEBATE. At yesterday's meeting of the Hobart Marine Board, Warden Evans complained of the wireless system installed at Hobart. He thought that the Marine Board should make it their duty to bring under the notice of the authorities that the wireless station at Hobart was not working satisfactorily, and was not a success. There was no possible chance of getting into communication, or even into touch, with the steamers from London via Capetown when they were any great distance from port. They were sometimes within 300 miles of Hobart and could not be "spoken." The same remarks were applicable to the inter-state vessels, and he knew that time after time the wireless station had tried, but failed, to pick up the Westralia when she was off the Tasmanian coast. Warden Piesse — I heard that the reason they cannot pick up the inter-State vessels is because the ships have not sufficient range. The Acting Warden — I have heard that also, and I believe that you can speak to a ship 800 miles away, and yet cannot communicate with her 500 miles away. Warden Gray — That shows the defectiveness of the system. Continuing, Warden Evans stated that he had spoken to the Hobart wireless operator on the matter, and he was of opinion that the hills around made it impossible to transmit messages to Iong distances. He thought that if the station was placed on level country the waves could be transmitted to a greater distance. Warden Murdoch —We read in the paper every morning of vessels being in touch, and Macquarie Island also. Warden Evans — Yes, they are in touch, but no communication can be held. On the motion of Warden Evans, it was decided to refer the matter to the wharf committee to deal with.[66]

Balsillie responds to the criticism levelled at VIH

WIRELESS COMPLAINTS. Hobart and Fremantle. Experts' Explanations. Mr J. G. Balsillie replied today to criticisms, of the Hobart and Fremantle wireless stations. Captain Evans, speaking at the Hobart Marine Board yesterday, said that the Hobart wireless station had not been a success, and that steamers 50 miles off the coast were frequently missed. The Federal Wireless Director said that the Hobart station had a range of 350 miles right through the eastern quadrant from N.N.E. to S.W. by S. The zone lying due west to the middle of Tasmania was covered by the Melbourne station in the day time. The night range of the Hobart station, taken from the logs, was 1500 miles in all directions, excepting a line through Mount Welllngton, which was due west, or slightly west by south. That was the section that was covered by Melbourne. The effective working of Hobart was proven by its sending to and receiving from Macquarie Island each evening, even through the atmospheric disturbances that were now prevailing. A standard station of Commonwealth type had a guaranteed range of 250 miles over land or sea, and the relative positions of the other stations in the Federal chain covered any decrease in range caused by proximity of big mountains. The range through mountains was very variable. For instance, at night time Hobart had communicated with vessels at Albany through Mount Wellington, a distance of 1800 miles. The complaint from Fremantle was that people had rung up the wireless station at Applecross to discover the whereabouts of two mail steamers, and were informed that the station was not in use. Mr Balsillie said that he was leaving today for Fremantle to inspect the wireless station preparatory to the Commonwealth taking it over from the contractors, if it compiled with the technical conditions. As a fact Fremantle had been transacting business unofficially for some time. If the persons referred to desired to find out the whereabouts of the mail steamers they could have lodged a wire in the ordinary way with prepaid reply, and the message would have been sent to the vessels if they were in range. The arrangement under which the movements of steamers were recorded by the wireless stations was with the shipping companies, who paid 6d a call, and was not open to ordinary inquirers. The Adelaide wireless station will be opened by Mr Balsillie tomorrow. Pennant Hills, which recently had a breakdown in its machinery, is now working satisfactorily.[67]

Oxenham responds to the criticism levelled at VIH

HOBART WIRELESS STATION: THE COMPLAINTS OF ITS INEFFICIENCY. MELBOURNE, September 18. The complaint made by Captain Evans to the Marine Board at Hobart yesterday, to the effect that the Hobart wireless station was unsuccessful in picking up many steamers which were near the coast was today referred to by the secretary of the Postmaster-General's Department (Mr Oxenham). He said the Melbourne station had no difficulty in communicating with Hobart, and Hobart also readily picked up Melbourne. Sometimes the Melbourne operators had heard Hobart communicating with the Bluff, New Zealand, and Hobart spoke with Macquarie Island each evening, and had communicated with Albany, 1,800 miles distant, at night. The Melbourne station was supplementary to Hobart in the day time, and covered the western half of Tasmania. Mountains tended to shorten the effective range of a station, and Mount Wellington might thus interfere with the western range of the Hobart station in the day time. Interference, however was very variable, and the Commonwealth's stations were to be constructed in such localities that they would be complementary to one another.[68]

D'Emden also responds to the criticism of VIH

HOBART WIRELESS STATION. MARINE BOARD'S CRITICISM. REPLY BY DEPUTY POSTMASTER-GENERAL. "Tell Captain Evans to hand in a message, and see if it is not duly transmitted and received all right by the people to whom it is addressed. That is the true test of the efficiency of the Hobart wireless station." This was the reply made to a reporter of "The Daily Post" yesterday by the Deputy Postmaster-General (Mr. H. L. D'Emden, when his attention was drawn to the discussion upon the Hobart wireless station, which took place on Wednesday afternoon at the meeting of the Hobart Marine Board. Mr. D'Emden pointed out that the Hobart station received weather reports every day from Macquarie Island, and therefore there was no justification for Captain Evans' assertion that "no communication can be held" with that station. Mr. D'Emden went on to say that the Hobart station was frequently in communication with Melbourne, Sydney, and New Zealand, and occasionally with Fiji. The station here also received messages daily from vessels at sea, some of them being at a distance of from 500 to 1000 miles from this port. The only difficulty experienced was with vessels that hugged the eastern coast of the island. Messages transmitted to vessels under these circumstances were sometimes interfered with by the intervening hills, but no such difficulty was met with when a steamier stood five miles or so off the coast.[69]

Crawford, details included in list of all Tasmanian Commonwealth public servants, as at September 1912

Postmaster-General's Department, Tasmania.

  • George Town, Grade VI.
  • Page No.: 12
  • Name: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth: 14.12.80
  • Particulars of Service, &c.
    • Under State.
      • Office: N/A
      • Date of First Appointment: N/A
      • Division: N/A
      • Salary on Transfer to Commonwealth: N/A
    • Under Commonwealth.
      • Date of Appointment or of Transfer: 7.6.01
      • Work
        • Office.: Postmaster
        • Division: C
        • Class or Grade: 4
      • Officer.
        • Class or Grade.: 4
        • Subdivision.: 1
        • Salary (including Rent).: L210
        • Deduction for Rent.: 21
        • Allowances.
          • District.: N/A
          • Miscellaneous.: N/A
        • Present Salary received from: 1.7.11[70]
1912 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford's Hobart wireless station quickly establishes communication with the new Adelaide station upon its opening

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN WIRELESS STATION. THE OPENING CEREMONY. ADELAIDE, October 1. The wireless station, which is situated about a mile out of Port Adelaide, was officially opened for business without ceremony today. The station is worked on the Balsillie system, and should prove a great convenience in connection with the movements of shipping. It is in charge of Mr. F. J. Burgoyne and two operators. It is connected by telephone and the ordinary land telegraph with the General Post Office. A preliminary trial with electric current, which was switched on at 5.30 p.m. on Monday, proved satisfactory, and the station was in communication with the wireless stations at Sydney, Melbourne, and Hobart.[71]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station reported last night having been in touch with the following ships:— Afric, Kanowna, Manuka, Manapouri, Arawa (Hobart to Wellington), DimbooIa, Ulimaroa (Wellington to Sydney), Maunganui (Bluff to Hobart), Port Lincoln, Atua, Moeraki (Bluff to Dunedin), and with the land station at Macquarie Island.[72]

1912 11[edit | edit source]


WIRELESS SPEAKINGS. The Hobart wireless station was in touch last night with the steamers Marmora, Maheno, Seydlitz, Orvieto, Otranto, Persic, Anchises, Warrimoo, Moeraki, and Macquarie Island land station.[73]

1912 12[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station re-ported last night that the following ships were within range:— Mongolia, Orama, Birkenfells, Manuka, Runic, Kyarra, Karoola, Moana, Colmar, Maunganui, and the land station at Macquarle Island was communicated with.[74]

1913[edit | edit source]

1913 01[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station reported last night that the following ships were within range:— Ulimaroa, Cambrian (H.M.S.), Karoola, Orsova, Moeraki, Dimboola, Wimmera, Makarina; and the land station at Macquarie Island was communicated with.[75]

1913 02[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station reported last night that the following ships were within range:— Ulimaroa, Manuka, Ventura, Australia, Riverina, Remuera, Matatua, and the land station at Macquarle Island was communicated with.[76]

1913 03[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station reported last night that the following ships were within range:— Ruahine, Maunganui, Afric, the German warship Cormoran, Levuka, Friederlch der Grosse, Alsass, Grantala, Sydney, Moldavia, Riverina, Wimmera, Waimara, and the land station at Macquarie Island was communicated with.[77]

1913 04[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station report-ed last night that the following ships were within range:— Moeraki, Levuka, Ulimaroa, Warila, Themistocles, Manuka, Tahiti, Wilcannia, and the land station at Macquarie Island was communicated with.[78]

1913 05[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station report-ed last night that the following ships were within range:— Maunganui, Warrimoo, Fiona, Canberra, Victoria, Ruapehu, Maheno, Grantala, Indarra, Willochra, Rimutake, and the land station at Macquarie Island was communicated with.[79]

1913 06[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station report-ed last night that the following ships were within range:— Indrapura, Geelong, Morea, Warilda, Cooma, Westralia, Fiona, Ulimaroa, Niwaru, Ventura, Ganelong, Georgic, Mataran, Kanowna, Moeraki (arrives Bluff this morning), Miltiades, Port Macquarie, Maunganui, Rowitta, Medic, Corinthic (720 miles south-west of Adelaide), Indarra, Wandilla, Fremantle, Otway, Karoola, Zealandia. Communication was also obtained with the land sta-tion at Macquarie Island.[80]

1913 07[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station reported last night that the following ships were within range:— Ulimaroa, Indarra, Willochra, Irishman, Maunganui, Anchises, Sonoma, Arawa, Manuka, and Makura. Communication was also established with the land station at Macquarie Island.[81]

1913 08[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station reported last night that the following ships were within range:— Moeraki, Ulimaroa, Mataran, Victoria, Marama, Tasman, Matunga, Star of Scotland, Pacifique, and Macedonia. Commu­nication was also established with the land station at Macquarie Island.[82]

Crawford, details included in list of all Central Office staff Commonwealth public servants, as at August 1913 ?

Postmaster-General's Department, Tasmania.

  • (Wireless Telegraph Stations) – continued. Tasmania
  • Page No.: 1
  • Name: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth: 14.12.80
  • Particulars of Service, &c.
    • Under State.
      • Office: N/A
      • Date of First Appointment: N/A
      • Division: N/A
      • Salary on Transfer to Commonwealth: N/A
    • Under Commonwealth.
      • Date of Appointment or of Transfer: 7.6.01
      • Work
        • Office.: Officer-in-charge (stationed at Hobart)
        • Division: C
        • Class or Grade: 4
      • Officer.
        • Class or Grade.: 4
        • Subdivision.: 1
        • Salary (including Rent).: L210
        • Deduction for Rent.: 21
        • Allowances.
          • District.: N/A
          • Miscellaneous.: N/A
        • Present Salary received from: 1.7.11[83]
1913 09[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station reported last night that the following ships were within range:— Orsova, Canberra, Kyarra, Willcannia, Persic, Maunganui, Sumatra, Pacific, Manuka, Mooltan, Marathon, Aeneas Paloona (arrives 4 p.m. Monday). Communication was also established with the land station at Macquarie Island.[84]

1913 10[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station was in touch last night with the steamers Tasman, Nerehana, Ulimaroa (Bluff to Hobart), Kaituna, Victoria, Maunganui, Riverina, Durnbea, Gobern, Runic, Serebic, Manuka, Moeraki, Westralia, Cufic, Bombala, Ruaphu, Maital; and Macquarie Island land station.[85]

1913 11[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart Wireless Station last night reported having been in communication with the steamers Riverina, Meviatal, Wahakaroe, Posen, Paloona, Manuka, Ulimaroa, Ville de la Ciotat, and with the land station at Macquarie Island.[86]

1913 12[edit | edit source]


HOBART WIRELESS STATION. The Hobart wireless station reported last night having been in communication with the steamers Paloona, Afric, Paparoa, Zealandia; and with the land station at Macquarie Island.[87]

1914[edit | edit source]

1914 01[edit | edit source]


WIRELESS SPEAKINGS. The Hobart wireless station was in touch last night with the steamers Victoria, Willochra (Melbourne to Hobart), Montoro, Warilda, Canberra, Maunganui, St. Albans and Macquarie Island land station.[88]

1914 02[edit | edit source]


WIRELESS SPEAKINGS. The Hobart wireless station was in touch last night with the steamers Manuka, Argyllshire, and Indarra.[89]

1914 03[edit | edit source]


WIRELESS SPEAKINGS. The Hobart wireless station reports having been in touch last night with the fol-lowing vessels:— Willochra (Bluff to Hobart), Ceramic (Hobart to Adelaide), Riverina, Atua, Zealandia, Tahiti, Victoria, Moeraki, Wandilla, Port Lincoln, Runic, Melbourne, and Macquarie Island land station.[90]

1914 04[edit | edit source]


WIRELESS SPEAKINGS. The Hobart wireless station was in touch last night with the steamers Ulimaroa (Bluff to Hobart), Pakeha, Riverina, Anchises, Patrol, Fiona, and Macquarie Island land station.[91]

1914 05[edit | edit source]


The Hobart wireless station reported last night that the following vessels were within range:— Rimutaka, Maital, Star of Scotland, Mooltan, Neston, Whakarua, Omrah, Manuka, Riverina, Indarra, Orontes, Aornagi, Houtman, Wiltshire, Afric, Maunganui, Bombala, Wandilla, Cooma, Karoola, Orvieto, Morea and the land station at Macquarie Island.[92]

1914 06[edit | edit source]


WIRELESS CALLS. The Hobart wireless station was in touch with the following vessels last evening:— Mokoia, Canberra, Peshawar, Australind, Maunganui, Makura, Waiwera, Durham, Sebara, Essen, Ulimaroa, Perthshire, Dusseldorf, Maitai.[93]

Crawford promoted from OIC VIH to OIC VIM (note both VIH & VIM transmitter sites name "The Domain")

The Record. Mr. W. Crawford, brother of Mr. F. C. Crawford, assistant town clerk, has been appointed officer in charge of the wireless station in the Domain. Mr. Crawford was previously in charge of the station at Hobart, Tasmania.[94]

Crawford's position at VIH is upgraded to Professional Division effective 1 January 1914

Melbourne, 18th June, 1914. . . . Postmaster-General's Department, Ex. Mins. Nos. 324, 325, 326, 330, 331, 332, 333, 335, T.243, T.252, T.257, T.261, T.266. GENERAL. Classification of Wireless Telegraph Stations. THE classification of Wireless Telegraph Stations throughout the Commonwealth to be as indicated in the following Schedule:— Postmaster-General's Department. Classification of Wireless Telegraph Stations. Classification of Wireless Telegraph Stations through-out the Commonwealth, showing division into classes and grades, and the rates of salary applicable to each grade —

  • Division. Professional, Professional, Professional
  • Class. D, E, E
  • Grade of Station. A, B, C
  • Annual Salary. £ 336 — 372, 264 — 312, 216 — 240

(a) An officer in charge of a Station shall receive the salary of such subdivision of his class, within the limits of the grade of the Station, as may be determined by the Commissioner. (b) When required by altering conditions of business, the Commissioner may raise or lower the grade of any Station within a class. The Wireless Telegraph Stations at Broome, Brisbane, Darwin (Low Power), Melbourne, Port Moresby, Perth, Thursday Island, and Townsville, to be in Grade B of the Classification of Wireless Telegraph Stations. The Wireless Telegraph Stations at Adelaide, Cook-town, Esperance, Flinders Island, Geraldton, Hobart, Mt. Gambier, Rockhampton, Roebourne, Sydney, and Wyndham, to be in Grade C of the Classification of Wireless Telegraph Stations. . . . William Tamillas Stephen Crawford, Officer in Charge, 4th Class, Clerical Division, Wireless Telegraph Station, Hobart, salary £235, to be transferred to the Professional Division, with salary of £240, from 1st January, 1914.[95]

1914 08[edit | edit source]

War precautionary measures include VIM, guards posted at station, tents and stretchers located in station, and barbed wire placed around facility

AUSTRALIAN ARMY ASTIR. FULL PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES. GUARDS POSTED AT VULNERABLE POINTS. GARRISON TROOPS FOR QUEENSCLIFF. OFFICERS' LEAVE CANCELLED. Elaborate precautions are being taken by the military authorities to place the de-fences on a war footing. Officers have been busy working on the details for a mobilisation of the forces should the call come. Guards are placed at all points of vantage, and the strictest secrecy is being observed as to the movements of men and officers. Before dawn yesterday morning the remainder of the men in the Victoria Barracks belonging to the Royal Australian Garrison Artillery, numbering about 70, left for Queenscliff and the Port Phillip Heads, where they are to man the forts. Already squads of men had been detailed for guards at the wireless station and the various Government factories and depots. The barracks are now deserted, as far as permanent troops are concerned. Militia officers who are liable to act in the precautionary stages of mobilisation have taken up their quarters at the barracks. Stretchers and army blankets have been issued, and the officers, messengers and orderlies are sleeping by their desks. The doors are closed against strangers. All day there has been a constant stream of vehicles into the barracks square, which are being used as transport. Arrangements are proceeding smoothly for the issue of rations and relief of guards. Tents and stretchers have been issued, and have arrived at the wireless station at the Domain, and also at the cordite factory and the ammunition station on the Maribyrnong River. All approaches are being guarded day and night. The powder magazine at Laverton, where the Government and private supplies of powder are stored, is being guarded by a strong guard. Details for the maintenance of this guard have kept the district staff busy. Orders were given early yesterday morning for the placing of barbed wire entanglements round the wireless station at the Domain, and this work was proceeding during the day. Strangers are not allowed to approach within anything but hail of the station, nor are they permitted any nearer to the remount depot and cordite factories. Steps have been taken to guard the cable stations on the New South Wales coast. Produce firms are forwarding, according to Government instruction, information regarding the supplies they have available, and motor companies have given details of vehicles. The number of vehicles and their capacity for transport purposes is already known by the defence authorities. The rifle club office is particularly active. Certain militiamen will be communicated with direct by the authorities to assume the various duties required at the precautionary stage of mobilisation. Commanding officers are waiting the necessary message from their head quarters in regard to taking the first steps. All officers on leave have been recalled, and there were officers on the Sydney express that left Melbourne last evening for Sydney, where they are required to take up duty immediately. Officers again last evening were taking different shifts. Those who possess motor cars have been covering long distances, and have been communicating with militia officers. Old militiamen are inquiring at district head quarters as to the opportunity of being called out. Officers are anxious to join the expeditionary force. MINISTER OF DEFENCE ARRIVES. CONFERENCE WITH OFFICERS. The Minister of Defence arrived in Melbourne by the Sydney express, and immediately conferred with officers of the Military Board. Subsequent to the Cabinet meeting Colonel Selheim, the Adjutant-General, and Major White conferred with Mr. Bright, Acting Secretary to the Postal department. As there is an immense amount of defence communications to handle during the course of the next few days, special arrangements have been made. This step will be essential should a mobilisation be determined upon. Further conferences between the military authorities and the Minister were proceeding last evening up till a late hour. The Minister of Defence has taken an office in the Commonwealth-buildings at the corner of Spring and Collins streets.[96]

As previous, also messages to be censored

DOMAIN WIRELESS STATION. WIRE ENTANGLEMENTS. Messages for despatch by wireless from Australian stations are to be subject to strict censorship from now on, but that is not the only precaution to be taken. At the wireless station in the Domain armed guards were on duty throughout Sunday and yesterday, and they will remain in constant attendance. As an additional safeguard barbed wire entanglements were yesterday erected around the reserve in which the installation is situated, and only those officially connected with the radiotelegraph branch of the Postal department are in future to be allowed within that barrier.[97]

As previous

CITIZEN GUARDS. ACTIVE SERVICE EXPERIENCE. When the word was given to place the fortresses on a war footing, all the members of the Royal Australian Garrison Artillery were withdrawn from other duty, such as guarding Government House, the barracks, and the gold reserve, and their places have since been taken by members of the citizen forces who have been called to the flag. At the Central Defence Administration Offices yesterday young infantrymen were on sentry go with fixed bayonets, and there was a citizen soldier force in the guard-rooms at both the northern and southern gates. The young soldiers took their duty very seriously, and are stated to have acquitted themselves quite as well as the permanent men whom they had relieved. Every stranger wishing to enter the walled enclosure was formally challenged, and was only permitted to pass on giving his name and the nature of his business. At the Domain wireless station it is stated that some daring spirit, with a view to testing the efficiency of the guard which had been established there, undertook to pass the barbed wire entanglements under cover of darkness on Wednesday night, but he was quickly detected, and found himself face to face with a row of bayonets.[98]

Following start of WW1, rifle ranges are closed to sport shooters, such as Crawford, and reserved for military uses

RIFLE SHOOTING. EFFECTS OF THE WAR. CANCELLATION OF ENGAGEMENTS. The great struggle at present going on between the armies and navies of England and Europe has seriously disorganised all arrangements in connection with ordinary rifle shooting competitions. With commendable readiness members of rifle clubs have shown hearty sympathy with the military authorities, and have thrown in their lot wholeheartedly with other defenders of their country, placing their services unreservedly at disposal for use wherever they may be most required. Acting in the spirit of a suggestion that was made in "The Age" last week, all practice with .303 ammunition has, temporarily, been suspended. This is not in view of any likely shortage of ammunition but simply with the idea of conserving all stock for us in actual combat should the necessity arise. With the facilities that we have for the manufacture of cartridges locally there is no probability of supplies running short. It is felt, however, that this is no time for firing away cartridges, in mere practice by expert shots. The Williamstown and Port Melbourne rifle ranges were closed to ordinary practice on Saturday. About 1000 cadets, however, put in musketry exercise, with the small bore rifles, at Williamstown, and a few lads similarly exercised at Port Melbourne. The monthly match of No. 19 Union, which was to have been fired at Port Melbourne, was cancelled. Most of the metropolitan clubs have been notified to prepare for mobilisation orders, and the captains and secretaries are taking the necessary steps to be ready immediately for any emergency. Without waiting for orders rifle club members are freely offering their services. A contingent from the Fitzroy club is already "in harness" at the cable station at Flinders, where they have joined the soldiers on guard. Detachments from other metropolitan clubs will probably be despatched to other military stations during the ensuing week. Reports from various country clubs show that members are anxious to "join the colors." While the clubs already in existence are offering for duty, new clubs are being formed. The rifle club started by the Overseas Club last week is growing in members, over 100 being already enrolled. Steps will probably be taken during this week to form a club in connection with the Liberal Workers' Institute. If the war continues for any lengthy period it is likely to interfere seriously with the annual prize meeting's of the various State rifle associa-tions. Indeed, the probability is looming large of all these being cancelled, as well as the Commonwealth match, which is fixed to take place in Adelaide next month. The executive of the Victorian association is considering the advisability of calling a special meeting of the council to deal with the matter, as it affects its interests, and some notification may be made during the current week. A special extraordinary meeting of the council of No. 19 union is called for tonight, 10th August, at the Queen's Arms Hotel, Swanston-street. . . .[99]

As previous

RIFLEMEN READY. MEN NUMBER 50,000. Speaking at the annual dinner of the Eastern Suburbs Rifle Club, Sydney, Captain W. McCallum, who presided, said that there were 50,000 riflemen in the Commonwealth, and at least 60 per cent. would be found to be physically fit and willing to take the field at a moment's notice. The remaining 40 per cent. could be relied on to render a service equally as good as the general body of the militia. Mr T. L. Westbrook, president of the Metropolitan District Union, declared that when the call came, riflemen would answer to a man. Every man called on would render a service that would be a benefit. At the annual dinner of the Sydney Rifle Club, it was mentioned that the past year of training meant much to riflemen as a whole, as the present crisis would probably result in the National Rifle Association's annual prize meeting being either postponed or cancelled. The closing of the ranges at the present time might be regarded as a hardship, but, on the whole, riflemen recognised that the situation was such as to compel the authorities to adopt measures that made for the general good of the country.[100]

Further details of impact and responses to WW1 closures of rifle ranges for sports shooters, likely Crawford also a volunteer rifle instructor

The Rifle. EFFECTS OF THE WAR. MEETINGS CANCELLED. PATRIOTIC SERVICE. BY CLIFTON WILSON. Rifle shooting as a sport is non-existent in Australia at the present time, and it is quite apparent that it will be so for months to come. Riflemen from all parts of Victoria and other States were looking forward to the great annual gathering at Williamstown in October next, the time when the "cracks" were ranged against each other for pride of place; the time when friendships of happy past meetings were renewed on the firing mounds and the time when the timid young beginner, with the fear in his mind of a dozen fines for breaches of various regulations, came forward to test "his luck." On this occasion the heightened importance of the meeting was manifest, inasmuch as the great Empire match was to be decided at Melbourne. The pick of the Empire's sharp shooters were to be matched against one another in the King's Prize match, and many ardent enthusiasts, if not so fortunate in their shooting capabilities, would gain satisfaction, if nothing more substantial, in the ability to say that they shot in the match with the great shot So-and-So. INSTRUCTIONS RECEIVED. For fifty-three years, the Victorian Rifle Association has regularly held their annual prize rifle meetings. This year the arrangements for the forthcoming gathering were well in hand, and a record entry was anticipated by the untiring secretary, Lieutenant P. Fargher. Last week, however, the secretary received a communication from the Defence authorities to the effect that preparations for all rifle meetings or matches were to be at once cancelled for this year. Riflemen everywhere, while naturally disappointed, will willingly forego their pleasures at this time, when every assistance and precaution is needed for the well-being of the Empire. IN OTHER STATES. All other State and district association unions are affected in precisely the same manner as the Victorian, which will mean a complete cessation of all the prospective competitions, which prize money throughout Australia this year totalled close on £22,000. COMMONWEALTH MATCH. The Commonwealth match was to have been fired at Adelaide this year. Already the first test competition for the selection of Victoria's representatives had taken place, the next being intended to have taken place at the end of this month. Unfortunately many team candidates will have to forego their anticipations until some future occasion, as this match will likewise be abandoned. CLUB COMPETITIONS. Many club championships and other matches will be greatly upset, and members will not be sorry when operations can be renewed under more peaceful conditions, which, it is hoped, will reign ere long. M.R.C.A. ANNUAL MEETING. Tomorrow night the annual meeting of the Metropolitan Rifle Clubs' Association, No. 19 Union, will be held at Champion's Town Hall Hotel, Swanston street. As some important business is to be discussed, a good attendance is desired. The No. 21 Rifle Club's Union, Williamstown, hold their annual meeting on Monday, August 31, at the Town Hall Hotel. Members of clubs affiliated to this Union are requested to keep this date vacant, as a full muster is required. Mr Stan. Edwards left Melbourne on Saturday, for Sydney, on a holiday trip. At this season of the year, his business as a rifle expert is always flourishing, but consequent on the cancellation of the prize meetings, the future promises to be exceedingly dull. This is generally the time when the rifle shot decides on a new barrel or sight, but this year one will not require them, probably ready cash will be far handier. WELSHPOOL CLUB The fourteenth annual general meeting of the Welshpool Rifle Club was held in the Welshpool Hall last Wednesday week, a large number of members attending. The affairs of the club are on a good footing, and much enthusiasm is being shown by members generally. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year:— President, F. Tindale; Captain, C. C. Rossiter; Vice-Captain, W. T. Daff; Secretary, T. M. Crouch; Treasurer, B. Tindale; Committee, Messrs H. Kerr, J. Morgan, and E. Mousney. The club has now the splendid membership total of 109. DANDENONG CLUB. The Dandenong club fired a handicap match for the Union gold medal last Saturday week. The competition proved most keen, and considering the weather conditions, the scoring was excellent. The results showed V. Potter, a popular young member, to be in the winning position, with a total, with handicaps, of one point short of the possible. The conditions were ten shots each at 300, 500 and 600 yards. The three leading men were:— Name. 300 yds. 500 yds. 600 yds. Tl. V. Potter .. .. .. 48(5)50 : 45(5)50 : 42(7)49 — 149 J. Fisher .. .. .. 44(3)17 : 49(2)50 : 46(3)49 — 146 J. L. Fisher .. .. .. 44(3)47 : 49(2)50 : 42(3)45 — 142 RIFLE SHOOTING INSTRUCTION Riflemen have now an opportunity to render valuable aid to the Defence Department and to their country, by helping in the instruction in musketry of the members of the Anstralian Imperial Expeditionary Force, which is shortly to leave Australia. The Commandant is inviting riflemen through Lieutenant P. Fargher, the V.R.A. secretary, to send their names in promptly, who can attend one or two days a week at Williamstown ranges to help in this manner. All who can should answer this appeal quickly, and show their worth in this time of necessity. Lieutenant P. Fargher expects to have fully one hundred and fifty ready in a few days, as the training is to begin at once. RIFLE CLUBS' BRIGADE. Never was the occasion more opportune than the present for the formation of a Rifle Clubs' Brigade. It is practically certain that the pick of the metropolitan club shots would enroll, and so provide a specially skilled body of sharpshooters, on whom safe reliance could be placed in time of emergency to prove themselves worthy of their best traditions. Many riflemen have written asking that this matter should be brought forward as requiring urgent consideration by those in authority, believing it would be of great benefit to the Defence Forces of the Commonwealth, and at the same time have a stimulating effect on the ranks of rifle club men. Many are anxious to take some active part in home defence work, judging by the interest being taken in this project. At the present time, of course, every club is attached to regiments in the various areas, and are likely to be called out under mobilisation orders at any time. Nevertheless, the proposed brigade need not clash with these arrangements, seeing that it is likely that only a fair number of each club would enlist in the volunteer rifle brigade. NEW .RIFLE CLUBS FORMED. The existing great war will no doubt leave imprints of much benefit to rifle-shooting practice generally. It stimulates the desire to be able to take one's proper place in the defending of one's country, and to do so in a capable manner one must have a knowledge of rifle-shooting. To become proficient in the use of the rifle one next looks to rifle clubs to pro-vide that instruction, and it behoves all able-bodied Australians at the present time to take every opportunity to acquire at least some elementary knowledge of the rifle. The Overseas Club was alive to the necessity of forming a rifle corps, and have matters so far advanced that the inauguration will be celebrated tomorrow night at a great patriotic meeting at the Town Hall. With such a large body of members, the club should take its place eventually in the front rank of Victorian rifle clubs. The Liberal Workers' Institute is also forming a band of rifle-shots, and members can enroll daily at the institute rooms, Bradshaw's Buildings, Flinders street. A LADY SHOT'S FINE PERFORMANCE. At the Richmond miniature rifle range last Friday evening, shooting in connection with a competition, Mrs J. R. Sadler, wife of the popular Richmond captain, scored fourteen successive bullseyes on the half-inch bull at 25 yards. Mrs Sadler then retired without scoring a lower value shot, owing to some misunderstanding, otherwise possibly the total number would have been much higher than fourteen. As it is, this surely is magnificent marksmanship for a lady shot. RIFLEMEN TO THE FRONT. Most of the rifle clubs, country and town, are contributing members to the Expeditionary Force, to leave eventually for Europe. While their presence here will be missed, they add much to the strength of the body of men leaving Australia, and all join in hoping that their patriotism will be rewarded by a safe and speedy return to the former ranks of their clubs.[101]

Victorian riflement hold major patriotic gathering

The Rifle. CLUBS' RALLY. TONIGHT'S GREAT MEETING. ALL RIFLEMEN ATTEND. BY CLIFTON WILSON. All rifle club members and supporters of rifle shooting are specially requested to be present at tonight's monster patriotic meeting of riflemen, in the Guild Hall, Swanston street, city. It is being held under the auspices of the combined Rifle Club Unions, No. 19 and No. 21, to express the loyalty of Victorian riflemen at this very unsettled time, when the British Empire is involved in serious strife with two great European Powers. GOOD PROGRAMME Every rifle shot should make it a point of attending, and show his sympathy with the object in view. The programme is not at all likely to be dull; besides stirring speeches by prominent statesmen, some fine songs and recitations will be rendered. Invitations have been issued to His Excellency the Governor-General, His Excellency the Governor of Victoria, Senator Millen, Minister of Defence, Senator Pearce, Sir Alexander Peacock, Premier of Victoria, Lord Mayor, Alderman D. V. Hennessy, Dr. Barrett and many others. ADMISSION FREE Admission will be free, and no collection, so there is no reason why the Guild Hall should not be filled to overflowing tonight, at eight o'clock. The secretary of the No. 19 Rifle Clubs' Union, Mr P. Barnet, and Mr T. Douglas, of the No. 21 Union are acting as joint hon. secretaries, and have put forward great efforts to ensure a meeting which will live in the memory of riflemen for many years.[102]

Crawford, details included in list of all Central Office staff Commonwealth public servants, as at August 1914 ?

Postmaster-General's Department, Central Staff.

  • (Wireless Telegraph Stations) – continued. Tasmania
  • Page No.: 21
  • Name: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth: 14.12.80
  • Date of First Appointment: 7.6.01
  • Office.: Officer-in-charge (stationed at Hobart)
  • Division: P
  • Class or Grade: E
  • Salary (including Rent).: L240
  • Deduction for Rent.: N/A
  • Allowances.
    • District.: N/A
    • Miscellaneous.: N/A
  • Present Salary received from: 1.1.14[103]
1914 12[edit | edit source]

Index entry in Commonwealth Gazette for Crawford's Transfer 18 June 1914

Public Service — continued. Transfers — . . . Crawford, W. T. S., 1073.[104]

1915[edit | edit source]

1915 04[edit | edit source]

Rifle Club Regulations further amended to include miniature rifle clubs

RIFLE SHOOTING. RIFLE CLUB REGULATIONS. BY CORDITE. The Defence authorities have recently introduced some amendments to the rifle clubs' regulations, with the view of bringing them into harmony with latest developments. One of the amendments is to bring miniature rifle clubs under their operation as well as ordinary clubs. It is provided that the office of supervisor of rifle clubs shall be held by the chief clerk of the rifle clubs' office at head quarters, and that he will be responsible for the carrying out of all regulations and instructions issued from time to time in connection with rifle associations, unions and clubs. The status and rates of pay of cable guards are specified, and it is set out that such guards shall be entitled to all the privileges and concessions of other active members of clubs. If more than 20 per cent. of a cable guard should be non-efficient after the first year of formation, such guard may be disbanded. It is provided that all correspondence from clubs shall be addressed to the "Supervisor of Rifle Clubs, District Head Quarters." The captain and committee of a club are held responsible for the observance of the regulations by members, and the care of all mobilisation orders, which are to be held ready for inspection whenever required. Clubs which have erected miniature ranges are empowered to allow any other miniature club affiliated to the district miniature rifle club union to hold competitions theron under conditions fixed by the by laws of such clubs. Members of clubs who qualify as marksmen" are, by a modification to rule 544, entitled to receive either a badge or marksman's certificate. Rule 515 provides for the statutory declaration required of club captains as to the correctness and veracity of musketry returns sent in by them. Clubs, which though neglect or delay of their officers, do not get efficient grants in the ordinary course, will not be entitled to make application therefor after the close of the financial year. A section of clauses is introduced to provide for the constitution of the Commonwealth, Council of Rifle Associations, State rifle associations and district unions. Each of the two State associations in Queensland is entitled to send one delegate to the Commonwealth council, the other State associations sending two each. In a final clause, military officers are instructed to use their best endeavors to promote the success of annual rifle competitions held from time to time by the State rifle associations. Much inconvenience is still felt at the Port Melbourne ranges on Saturday owing to the demand for targets being in excess of the supply. A suggestion emanating from the ranger, Sergt.-Major Quayle, is to the effect that the many clubs patronising the Port ranges be divided into two sections, each to shoot on alternate Saturdays. If this were done clubs which now hold weekly competitions would feel it a handicap to have to shoot only once a fortnight. Originally many clubs only held fortnightly competitions; but most of them now shoot every week. It seems strange that while at Port Melbourne there is an unpleasant congestion every Saturday, at the Williamstown ranges many targets are standing idle. As has before been pointed out in this column, the present situation is caused partly by clubs being allotted to No. 19 Union which should in all fairness be allotted to No. 21 Union. The Defence department should lose no time in transferring at least half a dozen clubs that now shoot with the Port Melbourne Union to the Williamstown Union.[105]

1915 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford, details included in list of all Central Office staff Commonwealth public servants, as at August 1915 ?

Postmaster-General's Department, Central Staff.

  • (Wireless Telegraph Stations) Victoria.
  • Page No.: 8
  • Name: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth: 14.12.80
  • Date of First Appointment: 7.6.01
  • Office.: Officer-in-charge (stationed at Melbourne)
  • Division: P
  • Class or Grade: E
  • Salary (including Rent).: L264
  • Deduction for Rent.: N/A
  • Allowances.
    • District.: N/A
    • Miscellaneous.: N/A
  • Present Salary received from: 22.7.14[106]

1916[edit | edit source]

1916 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford, in his role as acting radio inspector, attends a premise with illegal wireless apparatus, offender is fined

TOY WIRELESS APPARATUS. HAPLESS OWNER PILLORIED WITH PENALTY OF £15/15/-. Henry Albert Livermore, engineer, of 239 Nicholson street, was fined £10, with £5 5s costs, at Footscray Court on Thursday for having in his possession, contrary to the War Precautions Act, certain parts of a wireless telegraph apparatus. Wm. T. S. Crawford, Radio Inspector for the Mail Department, found in a shed at Livermore's place certain wireless apparatus customarily used by an amateur for demonstration purposes. It would be possible with the parts there to transmit messages for a distance of 100 yards, but not to receive them. The P.M. in imposing the fine, said the times were too serious to have wireless plant left lying round, and the penalty was just to emphasise the point that possession of wireless plant must be reported and a licence obtained. The P.M. excused defendant of any illicit dealing. Livermore had, further, to enter into a recognisance of £25 to comply with the regulations.[107]

As previous, further detail

WIRELESS DISCOVERED. MAN FINED £15/5/-. At the Footscray Court on Thursday a young man, Henry Alfred Livermore, 25, describing himself as an engineer, was fined by Mr. Goldsmith, P.M., £10, with £5/5/- costs, for having had a wireless plant on March 25. Mr, Hotchen, instructed by the Solicitor-General, appeared to prosecute. Accused, who was undefended, practically pleaded guilty. Proceedings were taken under Regulation 25 of the War Precautions Act, which makes it an offence for an unlicensed person to be in possession of the whole or portion of any set of wireless apparatus. Constable Siggerty, attached to the military district, gave certain brief evidence. W. T. S. Crawford, acting radio inspector, said that on March 28 last, from, information received, he visited certain premises at 239 Nicholson street. While there he was shown the yard. In a shed at the back, which was quite open, he found certain wireless apparatus. A portion was on the floor, and another portion on a box. It comprised as accessories dry cells, wire, ignition coil, jars, etc. The apparatus could be set up for small power; perhaps with a radius of five miles. It would be such as would be ordinarily used by an amateur. Its range of transmission was thus small, but it could not receive. It had no detectors and no aerials. Having obtained a constable's assistance, witness brought it to the police station. Accused had no wireless license. Accused: I admit the facts are correct. Constable Carey, deposed that, on March 28, he had visited the premises described with Mr. Crawford. Sergt. J. H. Ryan stated that, after the apparatus arrived at the police station, he saw Livermore, who admitted the ownership of the instruments produced. Mr. Goldsmith: You have shown great folly in leaving these things about. I don't think you had any malignant intent. You will be fined £10, with £5/5/- costs, and allowed a week in which to pay.[108]

As previous, further detail

War Precautions Act Prosecution. Henry Albert Livermore, engineer, residing at Nicholson St, Footscray, was charged at the Footscray Court on Thursday with having on March 28, been in possession of apparatus for the transmission of wireless messages, in contravention to the War Precautions Act. A fine of £10 with £5/5/- costs was imposed. Mr W. T. T. Crawford, radio Inspector of the Navy Department said he visited defendant's residence on March 28. In a shed in the yard he found on the ground apparatus that could be used for the sending of wireless messages. There was no "detector." The material was taken to the police-station where accused claimed it as his property. Accused did not have a license. Accused said he made the instrument to help, in experiments, a friend in Government employ. Some of the parts were missing and it would not be possible to receive a message. Mr Goldsmith, P.M., said it was folly on defendant's part to leave such apparatus lying about. Any one could of secured them and erected an ariel. Nobody should have such apparatus in their possession, even if parts were missing. On accused's behalf it must be said there was no evidence, of elicit intent.[109]

As previous, further detail

A WIRELESS APPARATUS. Engineer Fined £10. At Footscray on Thursday, Henry Alfred Livermore, describing himself as an engineer, was cited to answer a charge under Regulation 23 of the War Precautions Act, for being the possessor of wireless apparatus without licence. Accused, a young man, 25 years of age, practically admitted the charge. W. T. S. Crawford, acting radio inspector for the Defence department, stated that on 28th March, from information received, he went to 239 Nicholson-street, Footscray, and in a shed at the back found certain wireless apparatus. It was of small power, only usable for transmission, such as would be set up by an ordinary amateur. There were no aerials or detectors, and the apparatus would not receive. Its power would be about five miles. Accused said the apparatus had been originally assembled by him to help a young friend in studying wireless telegraphy, and it was afterwards sold to a soldier who was proceeding to the front; but, the soldier tiring of it, it again fell into his (Livermore's) possession. Mr. Goldsmith, P.M., in fining Livermore £10, with £5 5/ costs, dilated upon the folly defendant had shown in leaving these things about. He acquitted him of malignant intent. But in times like these he would not allow to anybody unlicensed possession of apparatus of a type that could be unlawfully used. In addition to the fine, defendant must enter into a bond of £25, as demanded by the War Precautions Act. Defendant was allowed ten days in which to pay the fine.[110]

1916 07[edit | edit source]

Livermore is jailed for not paying fine

"SPARKS." . . . Some time ago, H. A. Livermore was fined £10, with £5 costs, for failing to notify the Defence Department of a wireless installation he owned. The fine not having been paid, defendant, at Thursday's court, was sentenced to 14 days' imprisonment in default of payment.[111]

1916 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford, details included in list of all Central Office staff Commonwealth public servants, as at August 1916 ?

Postmaster-General's Department, Central Staff.

  • (Wireless Telegraph Stations) Victoria.
  • Page No.: 8
  • Name: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth: 14.12.80
  • Date of First Appointment: 7.6.01
  • Office.: Officer-in-charge (stationed at Melbourne)
  • Division: P
  • Class or Grade: E
  • Salary (including Rent).: L288
  • Deduction for Rent.: N/A
  • Allowances.
    • District.: N/A
    • Miscellaneous.: N/A
  • Present Salary received from: 1.8.15[112]
1916 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford resigns from the Public Service, no doubt to take up an appointment with the RANRS

POSTMASTER-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. Ex. Mins. Nos. 375, 376, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384. Central Staff. Services Terminated. W. T. S. Crawford, Officer in Charge, Wireless Telegraph Station, Melbourne, from 30th June, 1916.[113]

1916 12[edit | edit source]

Index to Crawford's resignation, together with much of the Radiotelegraph Branch required in order to join the Royal Australian Naval Radio Service

Services Terminated — . . . Postmaster-General's Department and Branches — Central Staff. . . . Brown, E. O., 2550, 2590. Burgoyne, F. J., 3193. Chapman, W. G., 1740. Chilton, G. F., 3407. Coffey, H. F., 1988. Crawford, W. T. S., 2590. Griffin, M., 1400. Hodson, V., 3195. Holloway, W. H., 1632. King, C. C., 1945. Leslie, J., 2950. Martin, J. M., 3195. Mayger, N. H., 2550. Meredith, C. G. B., 1988. Mortimer, M., 1945. O'Kelly, J., 2590. Pope, M. G., 3195. Reader, D. H., 1945. Scott, G. A., 1740. Taylor, E., 1826. Weston, G. J., 2550.[114]

1917[edit | edit source]

1917 01[edit | edit source]

The newly established Royal Australian Naval Radio Service is populated, primarily from the PMGD Radio Telegraph Branch, including Crawford, effective 1 July 1916

Department of the Navy. Ex. Min. No. 1. Melbourne, 11th January, 1917. NAVAL FORCES OF THE COMMONWEALTH. Royal Australian Naval Radio Service. Appointments, &c. HIS Excellency the Governor-General, acting with the advice of the Federal Executive Council, has been pleased to approve of the following appointments being made to the Permanent Naval Forces of the Common-wealth (Royal Australian Naval Radio Service), as from 1st July, 1916:—

  • Position; Seniority in rank.
  • To be Radio Commander —
    • Engineer Lieutenant Frank Gillespie Cresswell, R.A.N.; 1/7/1916.
  • To be Radio Lieutenants —
    • Arthur Frederick Newman; 1/7/1916.
    • George James Weston; 1/7/1916.
  • To be Commissioned Telegraphists—
    • William Tamillas Stephen Crawford; 1/7/1912.
    • Walter Moss Sweeney; 1/7/1912.
    • George Archibald Scott; 1/7/1914.
    • John Michael Martin; 1/7/1914.
    • Charles Edward Tapp; 1/7/1914.
    • Julian Leslie; 1/7/1914.
    • George Frederick Chilton; 1/7/1914.
    • Francis James Burgoyne; 1/7/1914.
  • To be Warrant Telegraphists —
    • James Joseph Wiseman Lamb; 1/7/1916.
    • Henry Freeman Coffey; 1/7/1916.
    • Sydney Trim; 1/7/1916.
    • Maitland Glen Pope; 1/7/1916.
    • Mark Mortimer; 1/7/1916.
    • William Hart Holloway; 1/7/1916.
    • D'Arcy Harold Reader; 1/7/1916.
    • William George Chapman; 1/7/1916.
    • Victor Hodson; 1/7/1916.
    • Neil Hubert Mayger; 1/7/1916.
    • Clement George Benger Meredith; 1/7/1916.
    • Frank John Claude Bridges; 1/7/1916.
    • Gerald Willis Walters; 1/7/1916.
    • Frederick James Henderson; 1/7/1916.
  • The following are appointed for temporary service:—
    • Name; Seniority in rank.
  • To be Commissioned Telegraphist —
    • William George Clarke; 1/7/1914.
  • To be Warrant Telegraphists —
    • Gordon George Phillips; 1/7/1916.
    • Ellis Henry Smellie; 1/7/1916.

Payment to Officers whilst Acting in Higher Rank.

  • James Joseph Wiseman Lamb, Warrant Telegraphist, and
  • D'Arcy Harold Reader, Warrant Telegraphist,
  • each to be paid rates of pay and allowances as for Commissioned Telegraphist on appointment, whilst temporarily acting in that rank; to date from 1st July, 1916.

Promotions. The following promotions are made in connexion with the Permanent Naval Forces of the Commonwealth (Royal Australian Naval Radio Service):—

  • Name; Seniority in rank.
  • To be Warrant Telegraphists (Acting) —
    • Charles Calvert King; Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist; 1/7/1916.
    • Sydney Claude Cusack; Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist; 1/7/1916.
    • Frederick Charles Mulligan; Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist; 8/9/1916.
    • Joseph Murray Johnson; Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist; 11/9/1916.
    • George Bailey; Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist; 11/9/1916.

J. A. JENSEN, Minister of State for the Navy.[115]

Crawford appointed to the permanent Royal Australian Naval Radio Service as a Commissioned Telegraphist, noted in the Age

AUSTRALIAN NAVAL WIRELESS. APPOINTMENTS AND PROMOTIONS. The following appointments to the permanent Royal Australian Naval Radio Service were announced yesterday in the "Commonwealth Gazette":— To be Radio Commander.— Engineer Lieut. Frank Gillespie Creswell, R.A.N. To be Radio Lieutenants.— Arthur Frederick Newman, George James Weston. To be Commissioned Telegraphists.— William T. S. Crawford, Walter M. Sweeney, George A. Scott, John M. Martin, Charles E. Tapp, Julian Leslie, George F. Chilton, Francis J. Burgoyne. To be Warrant Telegraphists.— James J. W. Lamb, Henry F. Coffey, Sydney Trim, Maitland G. Pope, Mark Mortimer, William H. Holloway, d'Arcy H. Reader, William G. Chapman, Victor Hodson, Neil H. Mayger, Clement G. B. Meredith; Frank J. C. Bridges, Gerald W. Walters, Frederick J. Henderson. The following promotions in the service were also announced:— To be Warrant Telegraphists (Acting).— Chief Petty Officer Telegraphists Charles C. King, Sydney C. Cusack, Frederick C. Mulligan, Joseph M. Johnson, George Bailey.[116]

1917 12[edit | edit source]

Index to Commonwealth Gazette – Crawford's appointment to RANRS

Defence Department and Branches —continued. . . . Naval— . . . Crawford, W. T. S., Commissioned Telegraphist, 37. . . . Permanent Forces and Civil Staff — Appointments, Promotions, &c.[117]

1918[edit | edit source]

1918 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford is promoted within the RANRS as Radio Lieutenant, effective 1 January 1918

ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVAL RADIO SERVICE. Promotion. To be Radio Lieutenant — Commissioned Telegraphist William Tamillas Stephen Crawford. Dated 1st January, 1918.[118]

1918 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford again reported rifle shooting, now with Randwick Naval Wireless Club

RIFLE SHOOTING. CLUBS AT RANDWICK. Northern Suburbs Grade Matches. Another stiff nor'-easter greeted marks-men at Randwick yesterday. Twenty-six clubs were allotted targets, with the result that very few were able to get more than two targets each. Most of the shooting was done at the 600 and 1000 yards. Details:— . . . RANDWICK NAVAL WIRELESS CLUB.— Club shoot: 14 shots at 300 yards:— D. Mitchell 47, T. Sullivan 41, R. Pethbridge 40, R. Seale 39, T. Aitken 37, — McDonald 36, L. Morton 36, L. Thompson 34, L. Crawford 31, W. Josephs 28, H. T. Downie 23, W. Finch 22, W. Padgen 8.[119]

1918 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford's Naval Wireless Rifle Club win competitions due to good handicap

THE RIFLE GRADE CHAMPIONSHIP. By RANGE-FINDER. If the form shown in the opening round is indicative of what may be expected in the subsequent shoots, competitors in the Metropolitan championships are in for an interesting time of it. Of course, as everyone knows, wider margins are almost inevitable when the shooters reach the long and more flukey ranges, but it is nevertheless pleasant to those who love a close contest to see four out of the six competitors covered by a matter of four points. . . . The winner of the round, however, was the Randwick Naval Wireless Club, a new institution concerning which the handicapper had apparently been unable to arrive at an entirely reliable estimate. This team started off the limit mark with an allowance of 85 points, and the automatic increase based on its off-rifle score of 451 brought the grand total up to the maximum of 560 points.[120]

1919[edit | edit source]

1919 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford wins a £1 prize in the rifle shoot at Randwick rifle range

THE RIFLEMEN. WET DAY AT RANDWICK. Yesterday the whole of the elements seemed to have combined to make the day as difficult and unpleasant as possible for the marksmen at the N.R.A. prize meeting at Randwick. It is a rule of the association that matches must not be postponed on account of the weather, so that, despite the rain, the matches yesterday were fired. From the commencement of the "Referee," at 8 a.m., until long after the finish of the "Newmarch," a drizzly, misty rain drenched the competitors, whilst the chilly atmospheric conditions added to the discomfort. Finally, to swell the marksman's sea of troubles, the light was bad, and so, consequently, the shooting suffered. As an effect of the rain most of the targets, became discoloured, and patches beneath their surface showed out. This gave them a camouflaged appearance, which puzzled the shooters. . . . £1 Prizes: . . . W. T. S. Crawford (R.A.N.)[121]

1920s[edit | edit source]

1920[edit | edit source]

1920 01[edit | edit source]
1920 02[edit | edit source]
1920 03[edit | edit source]
1920 04[edit | edit source]

Crawford wins another L1 prize at Randwick rifle range competition

THE RIFLE. Metropolitan Prize Meeting: The B Series. (By BINOCULAR.) On Saturday last the eighth annual prize meet-ing under the auspices of the Metropolitan Dis-trict Rifle Clubs' Union was continued at Rand-wick, when the B series of matches were decided. The series consisted of the Concord (300yds), the Windsor (500yds), and the Penrith (600yds), the scores from these matches constituting the Cum-berland Aggregate. In addition the Westbrook and Coombes service matches (compulsory on all competitors at the meeting) were advanced an-other stage, and continuous matches at 300 and 900 yards attracted a good entry. Weather conditions were not too good, the wind being puffy from the sou'-sou'-west, whilst the light was not what it might have been. The arrangements in the hands of Mr. P. H. Part-ridge, the hon. sec. worked smoothly. The chief prize-winners were:— THE B SERIES. THE CONCORD. Ten shots at 300 yards; open to members of the Metropolitan District Rifle Clubs' Union who have not won an individual cash prize exceed-ing £3: £4 — G. W. Pulford (Lands Department) .. 48 £3 — G. Johnston (North Sydney) .. 47 £2 — P. S. Box (Sydney) .. 47 £2 — D. Scott (Sydney) .. 47 Nine prizes of £1 each: G. Arnold (Police), G. Ransom (Sydney), K. Makinson (Parramatta), G. V. Thomas (Bankstown), F. W. L. Travers (Mosman-Neutral Bay), A. V. Dale (Auburn), C. J. Stiff (South Sydney), 47; C. Williamson (Cockatoo Dockyard), C. E. Long (Eastern Sub-urbs), W. T. S. Crawford (Randwick Wireless), 46 (5 5). . . .[122]

1920 05[edit | edit source]
1920 06[edit | edit source]
1920 07[edit | edit source]
1920 08[edit | edit source]
1920 09[edit | edit source]
1920 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford upon disbandment of RANRS, returns to the federal public service, appointed to PMGD as Inspector 3rd Class

COMMONWEALTH PUBLIC SERVICE. Melbourne, 28th October, 1920. THE undermentioned notifications of Staff changes, &c., are made in accordance with the Commonwealth Public Service Act and Regulations:— . . . POSTMASTER-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. Central Staff. Ex. Min. No. 451. . . . The following persons have been appointed, without examination or probation, as shown hereunder, the appointments to take effect from the 28th October, 1920:— William Tamillias Stephen Crawford, Inspector 3rd Class, Clerical Division, £400 per annum, plus allowance of £45 per annum; . . .[123]

1920 11[edit | edit source]

RANRS disbanded and Crawford terminated

DISBANDMENT OF R.A.N. RADIO SERVICE. THE Governor-General in Council has approved of that portion of the Permanent Naval Forces of the Commonwealth (Auxiliary Services), known as the Royal Australian Naval Radio Service, being disbanded on 28th October, 1920. Further, the appointments of the following officers of the Royal Australian Naval Radio Service are terminated on the disbandment of the Force:— Radio Commander Frank Gillespie Cresswell; Radio Lieutenants Arthur Frederick Newman, (Acting Radio Lieutenant-Commander) George James Weston, Donald Macdonald (Retired List), William Tamillas Stephen Crawford, and George Archibald Scott; Commissioned Telegraphists William George Clarke, John Michael Martin, Charles Edward Tapp, Julian Leslie, George Frederick Chilton, Francis James Burgoyne, Jack Bickley Stoyle, James Joseph Wiseman Lamb, Henry Freeman Coffey, Maitland Glen Pope, and Sydney Trim; Warrant Telegraphists Mark Mortimer, (Acting Commissioned Telegraphist) William Hart Holloway, Harold D'Arcy Reader, William George Chapman, Arthur Montague Howlett, Gordon George Phillips, Ellis Henry Smellie, (Acting Commissioned Telegraphist) Frank John Claude Bridges, Charles Edward Lemmon, Gerald Willis Walters, (Acting Commissioned Telegraphist) Charles Calvert King, Frederick Charles Mulligan, Joseph Murray Johnson, Austin Fletcher, Leonard Mowlem, Sydney Rolls, Ernest Richard McDonough, Allen Grafton Cox, John Henry Leverett, Hamilton Bennett Wolfe, William James John Wing, Louis Alfred Fontaine, Griffith Benjamin Evans, George Foot, William Jessop, George Henry Brown, and (Acting) Harold Roy Deneen. W. H. LAIRD SMITH, Minister for the Navy. (Ex. Min. No. 71.)[124]

1920 12[edit | edit source]

Index to Crawford's RANRS termination Oct 1920

Navy Department — continued. Permanent Forces and Civil Staff — continued. Appointments, Promotions, &c.— continued. . . . Crawford, Radio-Lieut. W. T. S., 2066.[125]

Index to Crawford's PMGD appointment Oct 1920

Public Service Act— continued, Allowances, Appointments, Appointments Confirmed, Furlough, Leave of Absence, Sick Leave, Probations Ewtended, &c.—continued. . . . Crawford, W. T. S., 2018.[126]

1921[edit | edit source]

1921 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford appointed as Commissioners for Declarations (along with several other senior inspectors)

Statutory Declarations Act 1911. IT is hereby notified, for public information, that the undermentioned persons have this day been appointed by me to be Commissioners for Declarations under the above Act. R. R. GARRAN, Solicitor-General. 9th August, 1921. Postmaster-General's Department. James Malone, Esquire, Radio Service, Collins House, Melbourne, Victoria. William Tamillas Stephen Crawford, Esquire, care of State Engineer, General Post Office, Sydney, New South Wales. George Frederick Chilton, Esquire, Radio Station, Pinkenba, Brisbane, Queensland. George Archibald Scott, Esquire, Post Office, Fremantle, Western Australia. James Joseph Wiseman Lamb, Esquire, Radio Station, Townsville, Queensland. Julian Leslie, Esquire, Radio Station, Alberton, Adelaide, South Australia.[127]

1921 12[edit | edit source]

Index to Crawford's appointment as Commissioner for Declarations, August 1921

Declarations, Commissioners for — continued. Appointments, Retirements, &c.— continued. POSTMASTER-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT — continued. . . . Crawford, W. T. S., 1217.[128]

1922[edit | edit source]

1922 11[edit | edit source]

Brief obituary for Crawford's mother who had remarried

OBITUARY. Mrs. Cowen, a resident of South Melbourne for many years, died on Sunday at the residence of her son-in-law, Mr. A. A. Duke, "Pinefield," St. Vincent place. The widow of the late Thomas Cowen, she leaves two sons, Messrs. W. T. and F. C. Crawford, and two stepdaughters, Mesdames I'Anson and Mrs. Neilson, and a third stepchild, A. Cowen. J. A. E. Crawford, a son, who predeceased her, was a chemist. He enlisted in the war, but died on the way to England. Mr. F. C. Crawford was formerly assistant town clerk in South Melbourne, and is now city treasurer in Launceston. Mr. W. Crawford is connected with the Commonwealth wireless service.[129]

Crawford scores well in miniature rifle shooting as member of Mosman-Neutral Bay club with other former RANRS colleagues

MINIATURE SHOOTING. Sensational Scoring. The first round of the Metropolitan Miniature Union's annual A grade matches was fired on the central range, Victoria Bar-racks, and provided some remarkably high scoring and close finishes. It is claimed that the shooting creates a record in miniature contests for the Commonwealth. Details of the scores are as follow:— Sydney A.— Battishall 80, A. N. Pye 80, D. S. Dalmazzo 79, F. McGrath 79, S. J. Jackson 78 — total 396. Mosman-Neutral Bay, A. — F. J. Burgoyne 79, W. T. S. Crawford 79, C. H. Cromack 79, D. S. Macdonald 79, F. W. L. Travers 79 — total 395.[130]

Crawford relocates his offices from the GPO to Macdonell House

THE MAGIC SPARK. Radio Notes & News. ANOTHER PROMISE. BY DOT DASH. . . . RADIO INSPECTOR MOVES The popular Sydney Radio Inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, has moved from his office at the G.P.O., and is now located in Macdonell House, Pitt-street, City. When writing to him, the following address should be used: The Radio lnspector, care of P.M.G.'s Department, Construction Branch, Macdonell House, Pitt-street, Sydney.[131]

1923[edit | edit source]

1923 04[edit | edit source]

Interesting insight into the work and difficulties of Crawford and other radio inspectors and a partial solution in honorary radio inspectors

WIRELESS. Amateurs' Difficulties. Interesting Proposals. (By "RADIOPHONE.") An arrangement has been completed under which interesting wireless news will be regularly communicated, to "The Daily Telegraph" by "Radiophone," which is the nom de plume of a well-known amateur. Since the new regulations under the Wireless Telegraph Act were issued last December, the radio authorities have found it extremely difficult to administer the Act and regulations, and at the same time inspect experimenters' stations, to check their apparatus, and also to catch others who may be using wireless apparatus without a license and paid their fee of 10/. It is a very difficult task to expect one radio inspector and his single and only assistant (recently appointed) to examine the wireless installation of each ship that enters the port, examine students for marine operators' tickets, and at the same time patrol the streets in an endeavor to stop the illicit usage of vacuum tube or other receiving sets. In these days of very sensitive apparatus, such as will permit of a few turns of wire wound about a frame of from 2 to 4 feet diameter, or put around the inside of a door, acting as an aerial (and when connected to two or more valves, music and signals can be picked up), it is practically impossible to guard against the use without a license of such sets. The radio authorities have suggested to the Radio Association of New South Wales (which is an association of all clubs in New South Wales) and the Wireless Institute of Australia, that honorary radio inspectors should be nominated by those bodies, to examine existing licensed stations, and the equipment in use, and see if it complies with the license issued. "Listeners-in" any night will hear, especially in such areas as the western suburbs and the eastern suburbs, noises and squeals, caused by the wrong manipulation of valve receiving-sets. The wireless art is so young so far as its general application in this country is concerned, and the attendant difficulties associated with the obtaining of a license so great, that many people — boys and adults— are installing the apparatus without applying for a license and without knowing how to manipulate the intricate apparatus. In other cases a "crystal" license is applied for and granted, but after a week or two of experience, a keen desire is promoted to install such apparatus as will amplify to a marked degree the received music and speech, so that the whole family can hear without having to use the uncomfortable head telephones. These persons know that if they apply for a license to use valves they will be refused, on the grounds that they cannot manipulate the apparatus. This matter was dealt with at a meeting of the Radio Association of New South Wales, held in Sydney on Tuesday night. It was decided, "That the Radio Association is in entire accord with the wish of the chief manager of Wireless and Telegraphs in respect to the appointing of honorary radio inspectors, and that it will use its every endeavor to assist in making the scheme successful." AMATEUR TRANSMITTERS' DIFFICULTIES. A meeting of all amateurs holding radio experimental transmitting licenses under the Wireless Act was held the same evening. It was suggested by one experimenter that all transmitters should so organise themselves as to minimise interference (Q.R.M. in radio abbreviations), especially in view of the ever increasing number of amateur transmitters. He stated that he could hear five, or six sets of music all about the one wavelength, and this rendered reception impossible. Several other prominent license holders spoke on the subject, and one speaker suggested that the following points should be observed:— (1) That the actual times of experimental transmission should be regulated. (2) All those so engaged should observe the regulations in the method of procedure, which lays down that ten minutes' actual transmission, followed by three minutes' interval, during which the amateur should listen in on the wave length he had been transmitting on, so that he could hear any reports, in case he was interfering with others. (3) That the correct power should be adhered to, and only sufficient power should be used to enable communications to be carried on with the receiving station. (4) It was very necessary for all those possessing an experimental transmission license to be connected by land telephone. (5) That the upper band of wave lengths, 400 to 425 metres, should be reserved for clubs and a few others. (6) The systematic allotment of wave lengths in different areas. (7) Each transmitting station should possess a wavemeter, which had been calibrated from a standard. This would enable the owner to periodically test his apparatus. All the above suggestions were well received, and deemed worthy of attention, especially by the radio authorities. REGULAR NIGHTLY TRANSMISSIONS. Those possessing receiving sets will now be able to listen to good experimental transmissions from 8 to 10 o'clock every night, as the meeting decided to mutually arrange that only one experimenter would transmit at a time, and for no longer than half an hour. All those listening-in might render valuable assistance to these keen experimenters by reporting to "Radiophone," c/o "The Daily Telegraph," Sydney, who will see that the experimenter concerned will be advised, and the information published in those columns.[132]

Further insights into the work of the radio inspector

RADIO BUREAU. (By RADIOPHONE.) It is the intention of this bureau to educate the public into understanding exactly what all this "wireless" and '"radio" means. In the first place, the meaning of these terms might be explained so as to avoid confusion. Before the war the term "wireless" was used generally throughout the world, but of late years it has been universally conceded that the term "radio" was more applicable to this branch of science. This was because, when signals were sent out by a radio transmitting station, the signals were radiated into space in every direction and to every point of the compass, hence the decision to coin the term "radio", and use it throughout the world. Some people are under the wrong impression that "wireless", indicates communication by Morse code only, and "radio" communication by speech, etc. The fact is that "radio-telephony" means radiation of telephony into space, and radio-telegraphy wireless transmission by the Morse code. The situation existing in Australia for the control of all radio matters is set out in detail for the guidance of those interested. The chief manager, Telegraphs and Wireless, P.M.G.'s Department, is the head of the wireless branch of the P.M.G.'s Department, and is located at Flinders Lane, Melbourne. This gentleman is in charge of all wireless matters in the Commonwealth. He administers the Wireless Telegraph Act, and the regulations issued in December last. The regulations provide for several forms of licenses, but the only license available to the average person is that of an experimental (receiving, and/or transmitting) nature. This experimental license is obtained in the following red-tape manner:— A form is obtained either from the Radio-Inspector, Macdonell House, Pitt Street, Sydney, or at any radio shop. All particulars have to be filled in, and the form posted to the Chief Manager, Telegraphs and Wireless, P.M.G.'s Department Melbourne, where it receives attention in the course of a month or two, if one is lucky. In due course the letter is acknowledged, and, if you are fortunate, a statutory declaration form is enclosed for the applicant to fill in and sign. The applicant is required to send £1 as annual transmitting and receiving fee, or 10/ for annual receiving fee only. After the forms have been sent to Melbourne nothing further is heard for some weeks, but when the reply does come to hand the letter contains two license forms, which must be signed and witnessed. It is necessary to return these license forms to Melbourne. Then, in "due course" again, the applicant receives final permission. Officially, the applicant is not supposed to do any work with his apparatus, pending the finalisation of his application. Amateurs would be well advised to obtain a copy of the wireless regulations from the Inquiry Officer, Commonwealth Bank Buildings, Sydney. The cost is 1/3 per copy. When filling in the application form referred to, particular attention must be paid to the question, in which the applicant is asked, "What experiments are you desirous of carrying out?" No license will be granted, if it is stated that the applicant desires to listen to music, etc. The applicant must state his intention to study the art, and endeavor to master the intricacies of wireless. The reason for this is that, under the regulations, there are several kinds of licenses: (1) Coast station license, (2) ship station license, (3) land station license, (4) broadcasting station license, (5) experimental (transmitting and receiving) license, (6) experimental (receiving only) license, (7) portable station license, (8) aircraft station license. Except with special consent, a license will not be granted to any person who is not a natural-born British subject, or whose father was not a natural-born British subject at the date of the applicant's birth, or whose mother was at any time a subject of a State with which his Majesty was at war during the period 1914–1919. The only licenses that concern the average person, at present desiring a license are numbers 5, 6, and 7, and of these No. 7 is the most general. At present, no licenses are issued to persons who merely want to listen-in. The issue of such licenses, however, will come with the introduction of official broadcasting. The "experimental receiving license" will be issued to any person who can comply with the regulations. If a crystal set is used, not much experience is necessary, but if a valve is used the applicant must possess some knowledge of the. manipulation and action of the apparatus. Persons who are interested will gain a fair knowledge of the elementary principles of wireless, by purchasing some good books on the subject. Indeed, they would be well advised to join a radio club in their locality, if one should exist. Country enthusiasts would be well advised to join clubs. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. "G.D.H.," Hurstville, writes asking particulars of license fees, and how to obtain the necessary. Answer: Your wishes were anticipated, and the information asked for is published above. "M.W.B.," West Maitland, asked for address of Wireless Institute. Answer: The address of the secretary of the Wireless Institute of Australia (N.S.W. division), is Box 3120, G.P.O., Sydney, who will be only too pleased to supply you with particulars, etc. "A.C.M.," Parramatta, asked (1) if there is any danger in using the electric light wires as an aerial, if he places a piece of tinfoil around the lamp while it is burning, and connecting the wireless set to the piece of tin foil. (2) Is this method efficient? Answer: (1) No danger, providing you do not interfere with or touch the actual e.I. wires. (2) Not very efficient, but depends upon the apparatus used, and the skill of the operator. Questions will be dealt with in this column every Thursday.[133]

Crawford's position as Inspector, 3rd Class, Clerical Division, Radio Telegraphs and Telephones with Prime Minister's Department is abolished

COMMONWEALTH PUBLIC SERVICE. Melbourne, 26th April, 1923. THE undermentioned notifications of Staff changes, &c., are made in accordance with the Commonwealth Public Service Act and Regulation:— . . . PRIME MINISTER'S DEPARTMENT AND DEPARTMENT OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS. . . . Abolition of Positions — Radio Telegraphs and Telephones.— Inspector, 3rd Class, Clerical Division, occupied by W. T. S. Crawford (stationed at Sydney); Inspector, 3rd Class, Clerical Division, occupied by G. A. Scott (stationed at Perth); Inspector, 3rd Class, Clerical Division, occupied by J. M. Martin; Assistant Inspector, 4th Class, Clerical Division, occupied by T. Armstrong (stationed at Sydney); Clerk, 4th Class, Clerical Division, occupied by J. O'Kelly; Clerk, 5th Class, Clerical Division, occupied by W. R. R. Langford; Typist, General Division, occupied by Lelia B. G. Maclaren; Messenger, General Division, occupied by S. J. Williams.[134]

1923 05[edit | edit source]

Malone appoints honorary radio inspectors (2CM, 2CX, 2BB, 4SP) from amongst the amateur ranks to assist Crawford in policing the amateurs

WIRELESS. HONORARY INSPECTORS APPOINTED. When the amended wireless regulations were issued by the Commonwealth authorities some little time ago, it was decided, owing to the rapid growth of the amateur movement, to appoint honorary radio inspectors in each State. Those inspectors were to be selected from the ranks of the experimenters, and were to assist the radio inspector in each State to administer the regulations as applied to amateur stations. The appointments for New South Wales have been made by the chief manager of the telegraphs and wireless branch (Mr. Malone), who has selected the following:— Messrs. D. Maclurcan, H. E. Stowe, E. B. Crocker, and J. W. Robinson. Those honorary inspectors will assist Mr. Crawford, State radio inspector, and will visit amateur stations in various districts. Control of wireless is now in the hands of the Postmaster-General's Department, and steps have been taken to employ the postal organisation for the detection of unlicensed stations. With this end in view, letter carriers have been asked to report to the department all stations observed on their rounds. By this means it is hoped to check the erection and maintenance of unauthorised apparatus.[135]

1923 06[edit | edit source]

SS Sumatra founders in gale, Crawford had certified its wireless equipment

BODIES WASHED ASHORE. POLICE SEARCHING FOR WRECKAGE. KEMPSEY, Friday. Yesterday afternoon the body, which had been found in the surf at Crescent Head, was brought to Kempsey. A further examination of the body showed that the man had "Hands Across the Sea" tattooed on one arm, while there were also tattoo marks on the other arm. Eight pound notes were found in the pockets, and also two small handkerchiefs, but there were no papers by which he could be identified. Police are patrolling the beach for traces of wreckage, but a search by civilians yesterday failed to locate anything. The clothing on the body was examined, and a tailor's notice was discovered inside the trousers as follows:— "S. Fewtrell, No. 823, Date, 1919. Made by Peapes and Co., Sydney." The name corresponds with the initials on the signet ring found on the little finger of the body. The police are delaying the funeral till tomorrow in the hope of discovering some of the dead man's relatives. Word has just been brought to town that another body has been washed up on the beach between Hat Head and McGuire's Crossing, about six or seven miles from where the first body was found. The police have gone to investigate. ALL SHIPPING NOTIFIED. Regularly throughout the night, wireless messages were broadcasted to shipping from the Sydney Radio Station at Pennant Hills to all shipping to look out for the Sumatra. Calls to the Sumatra failed to elicit any response, and early this morning no word had been received from any ship that had seen the Sumatra after she left Sydney Heads. THE LOST VESSEL. Before the war the Sumatra was the property of the Nord Deutscher Lloyd, and was used for that company's operations in the German Archipelago. After the outbreak of war she was captured by the Australian forces and was taken over by the Commonwealth Government. Later she was transferred to the New Guinea Administration. Built at Kiel in 1889, the Sumatra is a steel single-screw one-deck steamer of 584 tons gross register, and was fitted with wireless. Her dimensions were:— Length 171.4 feet, beam 27.2 feet, and depth 12.1 feet. She was equipped with triple-expansion engines capable of developing 61 nominal horse power. THE SYDNEY AGENT. The agent of the vessel in Sydney was the New Guinea Trading Agency, which has its offices in the Commonwealth Bank-chambers, and it controlled by Mr. W. C. Harvey. The cargo was loaded by Burns, Philp, and Co., Limited, but boyond the actual loading Burns, Philp, and Co., Limited, had nothing to do with the vessel.[136]

1923 07[edit | edit source]

Details of the wireless gear on the SS Sumatra that Crawford inspected and certified

THE WIRELESS GEAR. Mr. T. E. Dunster, of Sydney, who has travelled extensively through the islands inspecting the various wireless stations, stated on Saturday that the aerials of the Sumatra were mounted on high topmasts in order to increase the range of the set. The installation was of low power, being only a half-kilowatt set. It was constructed at the Royal Australian naval workshops at Randwick during the war. In 1917 Mr. Dunster recalled that Wireless-operator, Twycross, then on the Sumatra, had spoken with Sydney from off the Woodlark Islands, a distance of about 1500 miles. Mr. Dunster stated that the Sumatra was a fairly good sea boat, but it was noticeable that she rolled a great deal. This was shown by a clock hanging on a hook in the wireless room, which, through the continual rolling of the ship, had worn a considerable arc of a circle on the wall. Although Mr. Dunster travelled on the vessel for many voyages between 1919 and 1921 totalling many thousands of miles, she had never encountered any really rough weather such as that recently experienced off the coast. Ordinarily she was in sight of land and able to take refuge, and it was rare for the vessel to be out of sight of land for more than 12 hours at a time. As to her speed, it stated that in 1921, after overhaul, the vessel was able to steam at nine knots.[137]

A little information about Oswald Ega, the wireless officer on the SS Sumatra

SUMATRA'S WIRELESS OPERATOR. Yesterday it was ascertained that Mr. A. McIntosh, who was wireless officer on the Sumatra on the inward voyage, had not been lost on the vessel, but that his place had been filled prior to sailing by another operator, Oswald Egan. The wireless operator, it was stated yesterday, was supplied by the Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia), Limited, and all that the master of the Sumatra knew a few days before sailing was that a man was coming over from Tasmania, but he did not then know his name. McIntosh, who was wireless officer on the Sumatra prior to her last sailing, had received leave, and was away from Sydney. THE LATE MR. OSWALD EGAN. The wireless officer who sailed with the vessel, Mr. Oswald Egan, came to the mainland from Stanley, Tasmania, where his parents resided. He went to Rabaul in May, 1919, from the telegraph office at Burnie, and had been attached to the radio station at Bita-paka. Some time ago he returned to Australia on furlough, and was returning to Rabaul when the diaster overtook the Sumatra.[138]

A moving tribute to wireless telegraphy, in the context of the loss of the SS Sumatra

THE DIVINE SPARK. WIRELESS AND HUMANITY. (By 2. R. N.) It had been blowing hard from the south and south-east during the week, and Sydney was filled with the sorry tidings of the storm. Inside the harbour ferry traffic had been disorganised, and along the coasts small vessels had been forced to run for shelter. Even big liners had been buffeted by the gale, and with decks awash had been hove-to for hours on end awaiting the abatement of the storm's wild play. Ashore, a chill wind blew along every wet street, and all who were able had sought the shelter of their homes and the comfort of their firesides. A lull had come at last, and the little colliers, which eke out an existence by dodging up and down the coasts in a never-ending procession, had once more ventured out of the shelter of the ports. Sydney was beginning to congratulate itself on the manner in which fortune had smiled, had smiled so that no valuable lives had been lost. And while the city's inhabitants were thus settling down after two days of mild sensation those who control the movements of shipping along the coasts were flinching at a rumour which was spreading like wildfire alone the waterfront. One little vessel which had dared to risk the fury of the elements had not been spoken for two days, and was believed to have been lost. Those who know the sea and its ways were shaking their heads. A body had been washed ashore further north, so the land line telegraph had said, and among the ships the questions were asked, "From what vessel had it come?" Where was the Sumatra, the little island vessel which five weeks previously had made the voyage from Rabaul to Sydney for repairs, and four days ago had cleared the Heads bound north? She was fitted with wireless, and shortly after leaving had reported herself to a coast station, but after that there had been an ominous silence. Why had she failed to communicate for three days? A north coaster, too, was somewhat overdue. Had anything happened to her? And then to allay fears for this vessel the land line clicked again, and reported her arrival at one of the river ports. But still the Sumatra was unspoken, and her strange silence seemed to forecast that something had happened to the ship and her crew. Later in the night, when seamen along the waterfront spoke of her almost in whispers, the land lines informed Sydney that the body which had come ashore had been identified as that of the Sumatra's chief officer, and that wreckage from the vessel had been cast up on the beaches. It was shortly after 8 o'clock, and many owners of private wireless stations had settled down to enjoy a musical programme, which was being transmitted from a Sydney station. The night was almost perfect for reception, and through the ether came some splendidly transmitted vocal and instrumental items. Suddenly, however, breaking through most of the amateur stations' low tuning, came the sharp, ringing note of the Sydney Radio Station. In short dots and dashes the "all stations" call was given, and those who were listening to the concert, after reflecting upon the disadvantages of maintaining a receiver close to a high-powered commercial station, waited for the morse transmission to cease. A weather report was despatched through the vast expanse of space, and then came a moment's pause, which allowed the strains of wireless music to reach the ears of listeners. Sydney Radio had concluded, it was thankfully thought by the amateurs, but a moment later back carne the ringing note of the big land station. This time it was not the general call, nor was it the ordinary call to any ship, but loudly, clearly, and sent by a determined hand came the special wreckage warning to all stations within range. There was no mistaking the steady, evenly spaced series of dashes, which indicated that a message, which spelled danger to some vessel, was about to follow. And then, slowly, with every word transmitted twice, came the special warning to all ships, informing them that the little Sumatra, which had not been heard of, was supposed to have been lost in the gale, and requesting masters to report when they had last spoken her. Sydney Radio morsed out the end-of-transmission symbol, and after a period of silence the humming notes of ship stations could be heard calling back to the land stations. The music still came through the ether, but somehow or other it seemed to have lost its charm. The vision of a little ship engulfed in a mighty sea seemed to be conjured up by the warning message. It might be too late, but all ships in the vicinity of the tragedy knew that something had happened, and scores of sailormen were ready to stand by if anything could be done. A fox trot, well played, sped through the ether, but it seemed wrong to listen to it. Wireless had done so much in the past to succour humans in distress, and once again, off our own coast this time, its magic notes had flashed out, travelling with the speed of light. Music seemed to be out of place. Many an amateur closed down his station with a sigh for those who unfortunately were even then beyond human aid. And while the music still played the divine spark again shot forth as other coast stations reported the warning calls.[139]

Thomas Armstrong gives evidence on the SS Sumatra's wireless in the absence of Crawford in Qld

WAS SHE SEAWORTHY? FOUNDERING OF THE SUMATRA. ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY. SOME SAY "YES" AND SOME SAY "NO" IF it is considered that the Sumatra was lost, what was the probable cause of her loss? Was the vessel properly and sufficiently manned? Was the vessel adequately provided with life-saving appliances and equipment? Was she in a good and seaworthy condition? Was the cargo a safe and proper one? Was the cargo properly stowed? Was the vessel overladen? THE ROYAL COMMISSION of Inquiry into the loss of the steamer Sumatra commenced its sittings on No. 1 District Court today and asked for answers to the questions set out above. The Commission was constituted as follows: Judge Cohen to ???? Captain Vine Hall and Captain Chudleigh. . . . "IDEAL FOR HAWKESBURY." "She would have made an ideal ship for going up the Hawkesbury." added wltness. But I would not mind going to sea in her. People who go to sea take what's going." Norman Campbell of the Australasian Wireless Company said the wireless equipment of the Sumatra was overhauled before she left Sydney. When she left it was in as good order as it was possible to put it. In reply to Mr. Toombs, witness said he believed the vessel had been in wireless communication with the Pennant Hills station on the night she left Sydney. WIRELESS ALL RIGHT. Thomas Armstrong, assistant radio inspector at the G.P.O., said Mr. Crawford, an officer of the department, had made an inspection of the Sumatra's wireless in June last. He gave the certificate produced that the installation was in order, and that there were no defects in the apparatus. John Stanley Colhoun, master mariner, said he took over the Sumatra from Captain Willis in March, 1916. He saw or heard nothing of the Sumatra having sunk at the wharf at Rabaul. At the time witness took charge the Sumatra's' hull was in good condition. Dr. Brissenden: Is it a fact that the bulkhead was in such a condition that you could put your boot through it?— No. Was the vessel seaworthy?— I have been in her in bad weather, and found her seaworthy and a good sea boat. Mr. Tombs: You say the vessel was in a seaworthy condition. On whose recommendation was it that £7982 was spent on repairs to the ship at Brisbane in 1917?— I could not say. But I know repairs had to be carried out. Witness said that when the vessel shipped seas the water always got away slowly, but without doing any damage.[140]

Crawford in Brisbane conducting examinations for proficiency certificates and inspecting ship wireless facility

GENERAL NOTES. Wireless Inspections. The radio inspector for New South Wales and Queensland, Mr. W. T. Crawford, is at present on an official visit to Brisbane, and has been conducting examinations for wireless operators proficiency certificates, and also inspecting the wireless equipment of vessels which do not trade south of Brisbane.[141]

The Inquiry into the loss of the SS Sumatra commences in Sydney

LOSS OF SUMATRA. INQUIRY OPENED. Conflicting Evidence. The Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the loss of the steamer Sumatra, a steamer of 581 tons gross register, belonging to the New Guinea Administration, in a storm off the North Coast of New South Wales last month, sat in No. 1 District Court yesterday morning. The commission consisted of Judge Cohen (chairman) and Captains Vine Hall and Chudleigh. Mr. Brian Clancy (instructed by Mr. C. P. White) appeared to watch the interests of Mr. Louis Henry Paul, legal personal representative of the late Mr. A. P. Kennedy, chief engineer of the Sumatra. Mr. S. Toombs, representing the Radio Telegraphists' Institute, appeared on behalf of the late Mr. Egan, wireless operator of the Sumatra. Mr. W. A. H. Rogers appeared to assist Captain Newton, State Superintendent of Navigation; Mr. R. N. Henderson, for the widow of the late Captain Bell, master of the Sumatra; and Dr. Brissenden, K.C. (instructed by the Commonwealth Crown Solicitor), to assist the Commission with evidence. The terms of the Commission were to inquire as to:— (a) When and where was the steamer Sumatra last heard of. (b) Is it considered on the evidence available that she was lost at sea, and on or about what date was she lost? (c) If it is considered that she was lost, what was the probable cause of her loss? (d) When the Sumatra left Sydney on June 25, 1923. (1) What was the total number of persons employed on board her, and what were their names and respective ratings? (2) What other persons were carried? (e) Was the vessel properly and sufficiently manned? (f) Was the vessel adequately provided with life-saving appliances and equipment. (g) Was the vessel when she left Sydney in a good and seaworthy condition, and particularly, (1) was the cargo a safe and proper one? (2) Was the cargo properly stowed? (3) Was the vessel overladen? Dr. Brissenden said that evidence would be given that the vessel was in good condition when she left; that her life-saving equipment was satisfactory; and that her cargo was well stowed. He suggested that the fact that only two bodies were found, and no wreckage, would indicate that the two officers who were found were the only ones on deck at the time of the disaster. He also suggested that the disaster had occurred suddenly, and that the possibility of a sudden casualty was not unforeseen by the officers. The first witness called was Valentine Arthur Buchanan Willis, who stated that while serving with the naval and military expedition to New Guinea, he had been placed in charge of the Sumatra in April, 1916. The vessel was in such a condition when he took her over that when told at first to do so, he had refused. He had been 3000 or 4000 miles in her, but it had been a case of necessity. To his knowledge nothing had been done to the vessel since she was captured, and when he took her over he could put his foot through the bulkheads down below. The engines were in a bad state, and it was very difficult to get the vessel to go astern. To Dr. Brissenden witness said he considered it would have been possible to put the vessel into good order, but not for work anywhere, because she was not constructed for bad weather in the way she was fitted up. Witness explained that owing to the narrow alleyways between the deck houses and the way they were constructed, it was difficult for the vessel to get rid of the water when she shipped a heavy sea. William Colquhoun, at present superintendent stevedore for Messrs. Burns, Philp, and Co., said he had charge of the Sumatra at Rabaul from March, 1916, to December, 1919, except for a period of six months. The vessel was all right when he took her over. He disagreed with Mr. Willis as to her condition. Her hull was all right, and he never had much trouble with her. Her engines were not very good, and he had trouble going astern. He did not remember the vessel sinking at the wharf at Rabaul. The vessel had never given him any anxiety as to her seaworthiness when he had her. He saw the work carried out on the vessel at Garden Island in 1918. They had then practically put in a new main deck and another iron deck underneath it. On that occasion the vessel was overhauled in her engines, boilers, auxiliary engines, bulkheads, and all interior equipment. Everything witness, as master, had asked to be done was done. At Cockatoo Dock, after she had been at Garden Island, her plates were tested, and in no case had any plates to be replaced. Captain Hugh McPhee, who had command of the Sumatra in 1919–20, said the vessel was as seaworthy as any other vessel of her size. He had frequently been in bad weather with her. Stanley Frederick Douglas, who at one time was second engineer, for six months, of the Sumatra, said that from his experience the ship was a good one as far as seaworthiness was concerned. He and the late Mr. Kennedy had examined her engine and found only one defect, in the Kingston valve, which caused difficulty in going astern. William Snellgrove, superintending engineer for Burns, Philp, and Co., stated he had inspected the vessel on behalf of the Administrator of Rabaul, when she was placed in Mort's Dock, in 1922. The ship was then in fair condition for a vessel of her age. She had some thin plates which had to be renewed, and other repairs were also carried out. When the vessel left the dock she was fit to go anywhere as far as her strength was concerned. David Henry Walker, assistant foreman boilermaker at Mort's Dock, gave evidence as to repairs carried out to the Sumatra in 1923. The work was being superintended by the late Captain Bell, and the late Mr. Kennedy. There were some indents in the vessel's bottom, which had been pulled out and riveted. The engine-room bulkhead had been repaired on that occasion, and other repairs had also been effected. John Livingstone King, foreman engineer at Mort's Dock, gave evidence that in May, 1923, the engines of the Sumatra had been completely overhauled. After that the engines were in thoroughly good order. When tested, the boilers were holding a steam pressure of 180 lb. Expert evidence was given that the vessel's wireless apparatus was in good condition when she left Sydney. Captain John Stanley Colhoun said that when he took over command of the Sumatra from Captain Willis in July, 1915, the latter did not make any comment on the condition of the vessel. He inspected the ship fore and aft. The hull was in good condition, but the awning fittings were not. It was not a fact that the bulkheads were in such a condition that a man could put his boot through them. The steering gear was not in very good order. He continued in command till March, 1916, during which time he had cruised thousands of miles in her, travelling from the British Solomons to Rabaul. The vessel was seaworthy, and a good sea boat. He had encountered rough weather, when the Sumatra had shipped water on the deck, but he had not experienced any anxiety about her getting rid of it. He had read in the newspapers that the Sumatra sank at the wharf two days after Captain Willis left her. He was on the ship from the time of taking her over, and know nothing of her sinking, nor could he advance any reason for Captain Willis making such a statement. Edwin Button, supervising stevedore for Messrs. Burns, Philp, and Co., said he loaded the Sumatra on her last trip, and he interviewed Captain Bell on the matter. Whon the cargo was all stowed the Plimsoll mark was 1½ inch clear. Evidence that a severe cyclonic storm was operating off the coast at the time the Sumatra disappeared was given by Mr. D. J. Mares, State Meteorologist. After other evidence had been given as to the Sumatra having come to Sydney the last time for repairs necessitated through the vessel having run ashore on a coral reef, and as to the ship's loading and life-saving gear having been inspected subsequently by Mr. Benjamin Palmer, of the Navigation Department and found to be satisfactory. Judge Cohen intimated that it was the duty of anyone who could possibly give evidence before the commission, or throw the slightest light on the questions before them, to do so. Anyone who could give information should communicate with the secretary or the Commonwealth Solicitor-General. The Commission adjourned until 10 a.m. this morning.[142]

George Augustine Taylor gives kudos to Gibson, Malone and Crawford in the Wireless Weekly as release of Wireless Regulations 1923 is imminent

AN INTERVIEW. "This week is a history-making period in Australian Wireless, as it will see the gazettal of the Regulations for Australian Broadcasting,” said Mr. George A. Taylor, President of the Association for the Development of Wireless in Australia, New Zealand and Fiji, in the course of a chat with our representative. "It will be specially important to Australia as it will bring the blessings of wireless over the whole of our Continent. Already a number of companies are arranging to broadcast information as well as musical and other entertaining items, the Broadcasting Regulations giving them every facility for efficient working. "In this respect much credit must be given to the Postmaster-General, the Hon. W. G. Gibson, for the open-handed way that he has invited those best qualified to draw up efficient regulations; and when the story of the success of Australian wireless comes to be written, Mr. Gibson should be given considerable credit for it. "It should also be mentioned that there is another important individual behind Australian wireless, Mr. J. Malone, Chief Manager of Wireless and Telegraphs, who is most enthusiastic about all that pertains to the best development of wireless, and whose valuable assistance, those interested in wireless in Australia are ready to acknowledge. The officials connected with wireless, including Mr. Crawford, are also to be well-wished, as they have been ever ready to give help to investigators, and in the administration of the Regulations, it is hoped that every consideration will be given the officials who will have no easy task in satisfying so many and so varied an army of enthusiasts that the new epoch in Australian Wireless will develop." The inauguration of official broadcasting in Australia will be an interesting event in the history of Australia, hence it will be celebrated by special messages being forwarded. A special wave length will be announced in the daily press, on which the special messages will be transmitted, and on the same wavelength, particularly appropriate musical programmes will be rendered by which all "listeners-in" can be entertained. . . . (Start Photo Caption) MR. W. T. S. CRAWFORD. (End Photo Caption) Radio Inspector, P.M.G’s. Department, who holds the 2nd highest position as a Government official in the Wireless Administration of the Commonwealth. Mr Crawford hails from Bendigo, Victoria, and has been connected with Cable, Telegraph and Wireless services since 1897. During the war, and until 1920, he was a Radio Lieutenant in the R.A.N. Radio Service. The position he now holds as Radio Inspector for New South Wales and Queensland entails the inspection of ships’ wireless stations, examining of operators for their tickets, control of experimenters in N.S.W. and Queensland and when they come into force, administration of broadcasting regulations. In these duties he is ably assisted by Mr. T. Armstrong (A. R. I.) Mr Crawford, as we have previously stated in these columns, holds the admiration and respect of all those engaged in wireless both professionally and experimentally, and has given quite a lot of his valuable time in assisting experimenters with their technical difficulties.[143]

The Inquiry continues, reveals that no wireless licence had been issued to the SS Sumatra

LOSS OF SUMATRA. ROYAL COMMISSION. Last Sight of the Vessel. The Royal Commission which is inquiring into the loss of the steamer Sumatra, a vessel of 584 tons gross register, which disappeared in the big storm last month on the North Coast ot New South Wales, continued the hearing of evidence yesterday. Mr. Brian Clancy and with him Mr. M. F. Loxton (instructed by Mr. C. P. White) appeared to watch the interests of Mr. Louis Henry Paul, legal personal representative of the late Mr. A. P. Kennedy, chief engineer of the Sumatra. Mr. S. Toombs, representing the Radio Telegraphists' Institute, appeared on behalf of the late Mr. Egan, wireless operator of the Sumatra. Mr. W. A. H. Rogers appeared to assist Captain Newton, State Superintendent of Navigation; Mr. R. N. Henderson, for the widow of the late Captain Bell, master of the Sumatra; and Dr. Brissenden, K.C. (instructed by the Commonwealth Crown Solicitor), to assist the Commission with evidence. Captain Frederick William Merrett, master of the steamer Macquarie, which was the last vessel to sight the Sumatra before she foundered, said he saw the Sumatra on June 26 last, about seven miles east of Cape Hawke, about 12.20 p.m. The Sumatra was sailing about north-half east, about four miles from the Macquarie. Witness's vessel was inside the Sumatra, and there was a strong westerly wind blowing at the time, with thick rain. He lost sight of the Sumatra shortly afterwards. At the time the Sumatra seemed to be in no trouble. It continued to blow a hard westerly, with southerly seas making all the time. Shortly after he saw the Sumatra, he noticed a hurricane coming along from the south south-east. The seas were running before it like a tidal wave. The sea soon after became the worst he had seen in 32 years on the coast. Witness decided to take shelter, as it was impossible for him to continue, and he ran under Cape Hawke, where he stayed until six o'clock on the fol-lowing Thursday morning (June 28). The bad weather lasted till about noon on June 27, when the seas began to moderate. Mr. Loxton: The Sumatra was a vessel of 500 odd tons, I believe. Do you think a ship of 500 tons would be able to cope with a sea of that size? Witness: It would depend on the ship. There are ships of 500 tons which would be able to make fine weather of it. To Mr. Toombs : The vessel would have no chance of making for shelter from where she was. The nearest shelter to her would be in Trial Bay. Commander George James Banks stated that in 1920 he had been a staff officer in charge of the expeditionary force in New Guinea. Under his instructions, the Sumatra had been sent down to Sydney and docked at Cockatoo. He had been instructed to have the vessel thoroughly repaired. Witness had appointed a consulting engineer (Mr. Anderson) to advise on the repairs necessary to the ship, and in addition had had her surveyed and a report supplied as to her hull. The repairs were carried out to the satisfaction of both the consulting engineer and the surveyor. Robert Alexander Anderson, consulting marine engineer, stated he had been called in to advise what repairs were required on the Sumatra in 1920. Witness and the surveyor (Captain Green) had assessed her value at £18,000. There was no restriction placed on the expenditure for repairs to the vessel. In reply to Mr. Toombs, witness said that no suggestion had been made to him by the master or the chief engineer of the Sumatra that the wash ports were insufficient to carry off the water. Captain Charles Green corroborated the evidence of Mr. Anderson regarding the repairs to the Sumatra in 1920. George Pickford Gay, accountant at Cockatoo, produced a statement of the account for repairs effected to the Sumatra at Cockatoo in 1920. The total amount was £9016/5/11. Valentine Arthur Buchanan Willis, who was master of the Sumatra in 1916, recalled at his own request, said that, as there seemed to be some doubt as to his statement that the vessel had settled on the bottom while alongside the wharf at Rabaul, he would like to say that the man who was acting as King's Harbour Master at Rabaul at the time was a Mr. James Grady, a retired naval officer, who could confirm his statement, as he was the man who pumped the vessel out. Witness also produced a copy of a report which he had made to the Commissioner at Rabaul, in which he stated that, while the Sumatra was a good seaboat, she was not fit to carry deck passengers, as they were liable to be washed overboard. William Harvey, trade agent in New South Wales for the Administration of New Guinea, gave evidence as to the instructions he had received from the Administrator regarding the repairs to the Sumatra on arrival from her last trip from Rabaul to Sydney. The Administrator had fixed the cost of repairs not to exceed £1500, but Captain Bell (the ship's rnaster) had told witness that this was to cover general repairs quite apart from the repairs necessary as the result of the grounding of the ship on a reef. The total cost of repairs, not including a wireless set installed, was £2663/9/4. Witness knew that a wireless license had been refused the vessel. Captain Colquhoun, recalled, in reply to a question from Dr. Brissenden, said that he did not think that the presence of a second mate on the vessel would have made any difference in the circumstances. Objection was taken by Mr. Loxton and Mr. Toombs to a letter from Captain Richardson, the previous master of the Sumatra, being put in as evidence, as it referred to evidence given by Mr. Willis as to the condition of the ship in 1915. Judge Cohen said a lot of the evidence given regarding the state of the vessel in 1915 was of little value, unless it transpired that no repairs had been made to the vessel since that time. He did not uphold the objection. John H. Spencer said that on one occasion when he was a passenger on the Sumatra, she went through a typhoon for five hours off the north-west coast of German New Guinea. His experience of her was that she was a splendid sea boat. He had heard it said that the structural alterations made to the vessel in Brisbane — the substitution of a wooden for a canvas awning — had made her top-heavy. Captain Colhoun, recalled, said he did not think that the structural alterations made to the vessel in 1917 affected her seaworthiness. This concluded the evidence, and the representatives of the parties interested then addressed the Commission. Mr. Toombs said that while the ship might have been thoroughly seaworthy for certain trades, he thought she was not adapted for the trade she was in at this time of the year. He thought that the vessel should have had a wireless license, ensuring that the operator should be on duty at certain hours to pick up messages. From a deck officer's point of view the vessel was undermanned. It was a practice in the trade to carry 50 per cent. more officers than allowed for under the Navigation Act, and this particular vessel was actually carrying less than was provided for under the Act. They would not have done that had she not been a King's ship. In reply to Judge Cohen, Mr. Toombs said that the number of officers would allow only one side of the ship to be worked with the life-saving appliances in case of disaster. He considered it called for a recommendation from the commission that King's ships should not be allowed to evade the regulations or the common practice of the trade they were engaged in. For the reason that she was a King's ship she also escaped the Seamen's Compensation Act, and he considered something should be done in similar cases to protect the interests of the crew and their dependents. Dr. Brissenden submitted that it had been amply proved that the vessel was thoroughly seaworthy at the time of her departure, and that no pains nor expense had been spared to make her so. He contended that in a sea such as was raging at the time of the wreck the slightest mishap to the vessel might have led to disaster. Whatever the cause of the wreck, he submitted that it was only an inevitable accident of the sea, and due to no lack of care on the part of those responsible for the vessel. In her ordinary trade the vessel had carried only two officers, and he submitted that that had nothing to do with the disaster. The Court was exempt from considering the question of the Act, because the vessel did not come under the Act. Regarding the evidence of Mr Willis, he said that boiled down to the fact that he had reported that the ship was seaworthy, but unsafe for deck passengers. The whole necessity for the commission had grown out of the story that the ship was unseaworthy, because she sank at her moorings at Rabaul. The Commission adjourned until 10 a.m. on Monday.[144]

Crawford, on a visit to Brisbane, calibrates the WIA Qld broadcast station 4AE

WIRELESS INSTITUTE. CALIBRATING THE RADIO-PHONE. A council meeting of the Queensland Wireless Institute was held on Friday night, Mr. Monkhouse presiding. After the general business the broadcasting committee furnished their report. Radio Inspector Crawford (Commonwealth) visited the station on Tuesday evening and calibrated the radiophone, which was found to have a wave length of 662 metres. This has to be reduced to 250 metres. On Tuesday evening next the broadcast will only be for about 30 minutes, from 8.0 to 8.30 p.m., which will allow amateurs to calibrate their sets to a definite wave length . . . i.e., 662. Further notice will be given when alterations have been completed. Drawing for a new receiving set and wave meter were passed by the council, the construction to be proceeded with immediately. All amateur transmissions in the future will be wave lengths of 100 to 250 metres.[145]

Royal Commission on SS Sumatra concludes its hearings

LOST SUMATRA. EVIDENCE CONCLUDED. The final sitting of the Royal Commission which has been inquiring into the loss of the steamer Sumatra off the north coast in the big storm last month was held yesterday. The commission consists of Judge Cohen and Captains Vine Hall and Chudleigh. The evidence taken was of a formal nature. Captain Williams, deputy director the Commonwealth Navigation Service, was called to identify the signature of Captain Richardson, a former master of the Sumatra, who had submitted to the tribunal a letter dealing with the seaworthiness of the vessel. Some argument was heard as to the obligation of the ship to secure a wireless license. In reply to a question from Judge Cohen, Captain Williams said that as far as he was aware the safety of the ship was not affected by not having been granted a license. Mr. Evans, who appeared in place of Dr. Brissenden, said the only effect of the non-licensing of the wireless was that the operator kept the hours the master of the ship ordered, and not those prescribed in the Government regulations. Captain Toombs said that if the ship were unlicensed she would have no call letter, and could not be called up if she were wanted. Evidence was given that the wireless apparatus carried by the Sumatra was in excellent order, and was capable of transmitting 500 miles by day and considerably further by night. The commission will now prepare its report.[146]

1923 08[edit | edit source]

The Royal Commission on the loss of the Sumatra reports briefly and quickly

SUMATRA. SEAWORTHY CONDITION. COMMISSION'S FINDING. MELBOURNE, Friday. The report of the Royal Commission appointed recently to inquire into the loss of the vessel off the New South Wales coast in the latter days of June was presented to the Federal Parliament today. The report states that after careful consideration of the evidence of the thorough and costly repairs effected in 1917, 1918, 1920, 1922, and 1923, under competent supervision and without restriction as to expense, and the opinions expressed by marine engineers and surveyors and other responsible persons engaged in carrying out such repairs, the Commissioners came to the conclusion that the Sumatra was in a seaworthy condition when she left Sydney on June 25 last.[147]

Robinson (then 2RN) reports on the new Wireless Regulations and reports glowingly on the relationship between the NSW amateurs and the radio inspector Crawford

WIRELESS. BROADCASTING REGULATIONS. HOW THE AMATEUR STANDS. (BY 2 R. N.) The regulations governing broadcasting in Australia which were drafted at a conference held in Melbourne some little time ago have now been approved of by the Government, and have become law. Those who are interested in wireless telegraphy and telephony, and also many who know but little of the science, are now asking when a start will be made with the actual broadcasting of speech and music, and just what the procedure and charges will be. In order to fully understand the position, the whole question of broadcasting must be grasped. As most people are aware, broadcasting originated in America, where commercial radio companies found that it paid them to provide entertainments by wireless, the public interest in the science which resulted from this transmission benefiting them in the shape of an increased sale of instruments. In England one company was formed, consisting of all radio dealers, and was financed partly by royalties on the sale of receivers, and partly by fees paid by license holders. From the point of view of a variety of entertainment, the American system was doubtless the best, but in this fact lay its main drawback. So great was the variety that within a very short space of time chaos ruled supreme in the ether, and it has taken months and months of work on the part of those in charge to do away with some of this discord. The English system also has its drawbacks, the revenue which was produced being found to be very much lower than was needed. Australia's position, both geographically and in regard to population, has prevented either the American or English system of broadcasting being employed. The number of persons likely to be interested in wireless reception in Australia is so small that it has been considered highly improbable that it would pay any company to transmit and look to increased sales and the profits which would result from bigger business to cover the cost of the station. Australia's area is so great that a large company would not be able to raise the revenue to maintain stations which would allow everybody within the Commonwealth to hear the concerts. The difficulty in regard to broadcasting prevented any definite action being taken in Australia for some time, but during May last a conference of those interested was called by the Postmaster-General and discussed the matter. The suggestions which were put forward by this conference were adopted with a few modifications, and have now become law. Details regarding them have been made public, and it will be remembered that they provide for the competitive broadcasting of entertainments. Certain wave lengths will be allotted to persons who wish to broadcast in a commercial manner, and all transmission will take place on these wave lengths. The person who wishes to receive a broadcast entertainment will determine which service he will patronise, and will then buy a receiver so constructed as to receive on the wave length used by that company only. If he desires to construct his own receiver he may do so, but he must satisfy the authorities that it will receive on one wave length only, and will not cover a wide field of wave lengths. The charge by the Government will be 10/ per annum for a license, and the charge by the company will be a matter to be decided by the company itself. Thus broadcasting will become a ser-vice rendered by a company, which may be subscribed to by any person who may desire to receive it. If various entertainments are being transmitted nightly any citizen who wishes to entertain his family will, by making inquiries, find just which sort of entertainment will suit him best, and will then negotiate with the company, paying them for their service and paying the nominal fee to the Government. It will not be compulsory for any charge to be made by the companies. For instance, if radio dealers decide that they can form a company to broadcast, and that they will derive sufficient financial benefit from transmission by the sale of sets, there is nothing in the regulations to prevent them making the service a free one. If such were done, however, only those who bought receivers suitable for that service would be able to listen in. While broadcasting on an established and commercial basis has been noticeably absent from everyday life in Australia the transmission of speech and music has not been neglected, but has been carried on by amateurs. Many experimenters in various parts of the Commonwealth own transmitting stations and for months past have been treating their fellow-experimenters to wireless entertainments. While the broadcasting regulations were being discussed it was thought by many experimenters that this transmission would be stopped by the authorities. Such a course, it was claimed, would not have been a fair one to adopt, and the authorities have viewed the matter from the generally accepted amateur standpoint as far as this aspect is concerned. Experimenters who were addressed by Mr. Malone, chief manager for wireless and telegraphs, some time ago, were more than delighted to hear him announce that the Government would not interfere with this transmission, and that when broadcasting was in full swing amateurs holding transmitting licenses would be free to entertain their fellow amateurs with speech and music. Such transmission cannot harm the broadcasting companies because the wave lengths allotted to amateurs will not be the same as those allotted to broadcasting and consequently the broadcast license and receiver owners will not be able to listen-in to the amateur music. The amateurs generally are more than pleased with the manner in which the Federal authorities have safeguarded their interests. In the past any person who applied for a license was granted an experimental license. Now, however, no experimental license will be granted until the applicant can prove that he is a genuine experimenter and can indicate the lines along which he desires to conduct his experiments. The genuine experimenter's interests are not confined to speech and music, but he wishes to touch every branch of the science. The view is held that this class of wireless enthusiast is so valuable an asset to the country that it would be wrong to curtail his activities, providing, of course, that he does not interfere with the operations of any of the already established wireless conveniences of the Commonwealth. It will be readily seen that it is necessary that a strict control be placed on the issue of experimental licenses in the future be-cause the amateur's license will give him freedom to work on all wave lengths. If these licenses were issued indiscriminately many persons who are not interested in wireless from a scientific point of view, but who merely wish to hear music, would secure licenses under the guise of experimenters, and would use them simply to listen to the broadcast services without the payments of the necessary broadcast fees. The possession of an experimental license will, in the future, be a matter for pride. Such a license will not be issued without full inquiries, and the holder of one will have the full right to "listen-in" on any wave length. Of course amateurs will be able to listen to the broad-cast services, but this can hardly be avoided. It may be safely said, however, that the great majority of amateurs have no desire whatever to poach on broadcast services. The holder of an experimental license will be a man regarding whom careful inquiries have been made, and his interest in the science will be so great as to prevent there being any possibility of his merely desiring to listen to a service without paying for it. The harmonious relations which have lately existed between the amateurs and the authorities have done much to make the gazetting of new regulations possible. Those controlling wireless have taken the amateurs into their confidence, and have made experimen-ters feel that the Government wishes to look after their interests. Mr. Malone's reception at a recent meeting of experimenters proved that such was the case. In New South Wales the State radio inspector (Mr, Craw-ford) and the assistant inspector (Mr. Armstrong) have at all times assisted the experimenters, and in return have been granted their assistance. During the past few months there has been much anxiety in the ranks of the amateurs re-garding their probable position with the advent of broadcasting, but Mr. Malone's remarks when defining the regulations have set at ease any misgivings which were previously held. It is safe to state that the amateurs of New South Wales are fully satisfied with the manner in which the Government has treated them.[148]

Crawford delegates 2CM Maclurcan, as honorary radio inspector, to calibrate amateur broadcast frequencies to minimise interference

THE MAGIC SPARK. RADIO NOTES & NEWS. Checking Wavelengths. BV DOT DASH. A certain amount of confusion and interference between experimental transmitting stations has occurred recently, mainly due to the fact that many station owners either make a guess at their wavelength or measure it inaccurately. It is very desirable that all wavelengths should be checked and the checking done on wavemeter only, so that, even if this meter has an error, all stations would be in the same relation to each other and there would be much less chance of one station heterodyning another station. This checking of wavelengths is, of course, a job for the radio inspector, but as the departmental station is not yet available, Mr. Malone has arranged for Mr. Maclurcan to undertake this work till Mr. Crawford's station is ready. Mr. Maclurcan's Heterodyne wavemeter has been calibrated from Mr. Crawford's standard instrument and can be taken as accurate within one per cent. All wavelengths will be measured at the receiving station 2CM, and any licensee requiring his transmitted wavelength to be measured need only call up 2CM by radio or land 'phone and make arrangements with Mr Maclurcan for the checking. Should it be found that two or more stations on the same wavelength are close enough to interfere or heterodyne each other, Mr. Maclurcan will explain the matter to the radio inspector, who will arrange for slight alterations to be made within a metre or two so as to rectify the trouble. If any experimenter is interfered with in this way he is requested to notify Mr. Maclurcan. Mr. Malone is anxious to see all licensees avail themselves of this opportunity, and trusts cordial co-operation will be given.[149]

John William Robinson (@RN) expounds on the nature of regeneration and how the new regulations (to be regulated by Crawford) are designed to curtail howling

WIRELESS. A NEW VALVE REGULATION. REGENERATIVE CIRCUITS PROHIBITED. (BY 2 R.N.) An important ruling regarding the use of certain forms of apparatus by wireless experimenters has been given by the Federal authorities, and promises to have far-reaching effects on amateur wireless operations in Australia. This ruling is to the effect that in future, the use of any circuit which directly energises the aerial is prohibited within a radius of 20 miles of any commercial, defence, or broadcasting station, and is also prohibited in any town, the population of which exceeds one thousand people, or within a radius of 20 miles of such town or city. Receivers employing valves which do not react upon the aerial may be used without the owner of the station providing any proof of his ability to receive morse signals at a speed of 12 words per minute. Exceptions may be made to the rule, but in any case where permission is applied for to use a circuit to react on the aerial, special reasons must be given and the applicant must definitely prove that he possesses practically the qualifications of a second-class commercial operator before permission will be granted. In order to fully grasp the meaning of this regulation the position with regard to the use of wireless receivers must be understood. At the present time, reception of wireless signals is made possible by the use of many types of detectors, but the two sorts in most general use comprise the simple crystal detector and the thermionic valve detector. The crystal detector works on a very simple plan, and cannot cause any interference beween stations. When oscillations are induced in a receiving aerial by a wave or waves emitted from a transmitting station, they are "tuned" by portion of the apparatus, and are then passed through the crystal detector. The crystal possesses the peculiar property of allowing the oscillations to pass in one direction, but not to return. Thus, when an oscillating current, which, as the name implies, is rapidly oscillating or changing the direction of its flow, passes through a crystal it is rectified. It will be seen, therefore, that it is really converted into a unidirectional current, and when this current is passed through the telephone receivers it acts on them and causes an audible sound. The valve receiver is, however, very much more complicated. In modern valves an electronic current flows in a vacuum tube. One of the elements in the tube is connected to a battery, which in turn is joined to the telephones. The vacuum tube contains a filament, which is heated to brilliancy, and the current flows through the vacuum in the tube. A third electrode known as a grid is inserted, and to this grid are led the incoming oscillations, via, of course, the tuning apparatus. In actual practice many complicated instruments are used in connection with the valve, but it may be said that briefly what happens is that the incoming oscillations acting on the grid interfere with the current flowing in the vacuum tube, and thus interfere with the current which flows from the external battery connected to the plate of the valve. This interference with the current flow results in audible signals in the telephones. Wireless signals are despatched in three broad ways. They are transmitted in some cases by the spark method in symbols of the Morse code, and when this is done the waves emitted are said to be "damped." In other words, their height gradually diminishes as they move outwards at a rapid speed from the transmitting station. Damped waves may be received on either a crystal or a valve. When speech and music are transmitted from a station the sound waves are transformed into electrical currents, and are superimposed on continuous waves, which are created by an arrangement of apparatus, and which are "undamped," or, in other words, which maintain their height or amplitude. The third method consists of the despatch of Morse signals by the use of this type of wave. Instead of the voice being impinged on the wave the waves themselves are varied, as dots or dashes, in the form of the code symbols., Speech and music may be likened to spark signals, inasmuch as they can be received on a crystal detector. When, however, it is desired to receive continuous wave code signals a more complicated method must be used. The waves being constant in height, will not make any appreciable difference in the telephone receiver if a crystal is used, or if a valve is insorted in the receiving circuit in much the same way as a crystal is inserted. It is necessary, then, to make some arrangement of the instruments, and use them in such a way that the continuous wave signals may be interrupted. The thermionic valve is used for this purpose. It is possible to create continuous waves by means of a valve by simply causing the current in it to oscillate rapidly. In this fact lies the secret of the reception of continuous wave telegraphy. In receiving such wireless messages the valve is made to oscillate, and thus local oscillatory currents are produced in the receiver. These local oscillations are made to interfere with the incoming oscillations, and from the resultant difference in frequency of oscillation the true note of the sending station is collected. A special coil is generally inserted in the plate circuit of the valve, and is termed the reaction coil. In this coil the local oscillations are produced, and it is so arranged that it can be varied in position in regard to the other tuning coils, and thus the amount of reaction used can be regulated. If this method of the use of valves is borne in mind, it will readily be seen how a valve can cause interference. If, for instance, the local oscillations are produced too strongly, they will react on the aerial to such an extent that reradiation will result, and nearby stations will hear the "howl" of the receiving valve which is being badly handled. Even an expert operator, in receiving continuous wave telegraphy, must cause his valve to oscillate slightly, and must to a certain extent cause interference. With the rapid advance of wireless, many amateurs have been using thermionic valves for reception, and of late a good deal of interference has resulted. The authorities in the past have attempted to prevent this by requiring all users of valves to produce evidence to the effect that they can receive Morse code at a speed of 12 words per minute. It has been considered that an amateur possessing this qualification firstly has had a certain amount of experience, and, secondly, that he would be able to read a message from a commercial station asking him to cease operations if interference became too strong. However, in spite of this regulation, much interference has resulted. Now that broadcasting regulations have been framed it is only natural that the new regulation prohibiting the use of circuits which react on the aerial should have been issued. The broadcast receivers will be constructed so as not to cause interference, and it is only fair that those who subscribe to broadcasting services should be protected from interference by badly handled experimental valves. The use of reaction is not altogether banned by the authorities. Although in most cases the reaction coil is coupled so as to directly excite the aerial, it is quite possible to secure the effects of reaction without interfering with the aerial circuit to any great extent. One method of achieving reaction without reradiation in the aerial consists of placing the reaction coil in some internal position in the receiver so that instead of reacting on the aerial itself it will react on the actual oscillations which have been induced, but which have been led or passed to another portion of the set. This may be done by placing the reaction coil in close proximity to one of the transformers, which are used where amplification of the signals at a radio frequency or time period is used. The new rule does, however, seriously affect the amateurs who have been using one valve, and who have, with that valve, used the reaction or regenerative method of reception. They in future will be compelled to either make their circuits non-regenerative, or to add another valve as an amplifier with the reaction coil acting on the internal portion of the set itself. The State radio inspector has received information from Melbourne asking him to give effect to the regulations, and the honorary radio inspectors, who were appointed some little time ago from the ranks of the experimenters, have also been asked to see that amateurs arrange their apparatus in accordance with the new ruling. Most experimenters endorse the action of the authorities in framing the regulation. The genuine amateur will experience very little difficulty in rearranging his station, because he will simply have to alter the position of one of his tuning coils — not a difficult feat for an experimenter. If the rule is strictly administered it should do away with a good deal of discord which at present exists in the ether, while at the same time it will not in any manner impair the efficiency of amateur receivers. The matter has already been discussed by a number of the leading experimenters of this State, and the view which has been expressed by most of them is to the effect that the authorities have framed a rule which will be of much assistance to the amateurs themselves. While comparatively few experimenters are at all interested in broadcasting, the vast majority of them are highly desirous of doing their utmost to see that the broadcasting companies are accorded every assistance in the carrying out of their transmission. The experimenters, while wishing to carry out their own tests in an uninterrupted manner, realise that a grave injustice would be done to those commercially interested in broadcasting were the use of regenerative receivers generally permitted.[150]

1923 09[edit | edit source]

2DS Jack Davis announced as the winner of the NSW-NZ Test, Crawford to present prizes

THE MAGIC SPARK. RADIO NOTES & NEWS. . . . A TEST CHAMPION. There is considerable speculation among amateur radio men as to the results of the recent N.S.W.-New Zealand Wireless Tests. Though the committee of the Metropolitan Radio Club under whose auspices the tests were conducted, has made no declaration. It is learned that young Jack Davis (2DS) has romped home an easy winner. Jack is the youngest experimenter to hold a Government transmitting license, and his station at Vaucluse is one of the most efficient of amateur stations in Australia. The second and third prizewinners in the test have, it is understood, not yet been selected. Many of the competitors sent in very complete logs, and the committee is having no easy task to select the best. The prizewinners will be officially announced at a social to be held at Miss Bishop's, Queen Victoria Buildings, City, on Monday, September 10. The State Radio Inspector, Mr. Crawford, will be there to present the prizes. THE ORGANISER. The work of organising a wireless test is, to say the least, hard. Everything must be tuned down to the minute, and competitors, as in everything else, have to be carefully watched and prompted. However, the N.S.W.-New Zealand tests went with a swing that is most unsual with these things and this was in large measure due to the organising secretary. Mr. D. McIntyre. He resided in New Zealand before coming to this State, and was able to use his knowledge of the Dominion to advantage in organising the amateurs there.[151]

Crawford attends Metropolitan Radio Club function and presents prizes to winners in the NSW-NZ test

THE MAGIC SPARK. AMATEUR RADIO NOTES. BY DOT DASH. . . . METRO CLUB'S SOCIAL. The social evening of the Metropolitan Radio Club, on Monday, was a big success. There were about 120 amateurs and friends present, including Mr. Crawford, State Radio Inspector, and Mr. C. Maclurcan. During the evening the former presented the prizes won in the recent N.S.W.-New Zealand tests, the successful competitors being Mr. Jack Davis (first) and Mr. C. W. Slade (second). During the ceremony Mr. Crawford uttered a warning to those who allowed their valves to "howl." He said, in effect, that if they did not stop the nuisance the authorities would have to take steps to do so. Messrs. R. C. Marsden, president of the club, Maclurcan, Perry and Mann also spoke. The music for the evening was supplied by the Leichhardt and District Radio Club Band, and Mr. Prince gave an exhibition of conjuring.[152]

As previous

SPARKS FROM RADIOLAND. BOY SPEAKS TO NEW ZEALAND. QUESTION OF FREE BROADCASTING. Howling Valve Nuisance. The achievement of a young lad, Jack Davis, of Vaucluse, in speaking to New Zealand, and also in receiving New Zealand's signals, while using only as much power as would suffice to light the tail-lamp of a motor car, earned for him the first prize for a test recently organised by the Metropolitan Radio Club. The prizes were awarded at a wireless function during the week, at which Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, State Radio Inspector, paid an eloquent tribute to the work of the first and second prize-winners. N.S. Wales — New Zealand Test The remarkable success achieved by Jack Davis, a 15-year-old youngster from Vaucluse, in the recent N.S.W.-N.Z. radio test, indicates the possibilities of long-distance radio telegraphy on low power. Young Davis transmitted C.W. signals to New Zealand — an airline distance of approximately 1000 miles — using only .8 of a watt. This power is just about sufficient to light the tail-lamp of a motor car. The prizes to the two successful competitors in the test were presented, at a largely attended social gathering in Sydney, on Monday evening last. The presentation was made by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, State Radio Inspector, who paid a glowing tribute to the performances of the first and second prize winners, Master Davis and Mr. Slade. Mr. Slade's log was only slightly less efficient than that of young Davis, who, in addition to his excellent low-power transmission feat, also received N. Zealand signals on 14 out of the 15 nights during which the test was proceeding. The Metropolitan Radio Club, which is about the third oldest wireless club in N.S.W., organised the test, and deserves every credit for its practical efforts to further radio experimental work in Australia. Howling Valves. Interference caused by howling valves is a complaint common to every State in Australia, and, probably, in the world, where radio experimenting is carried out. It is due mainly to lack of care and experience in the operation of valve receivers. Inspector Crawford had a tilt at those responsible for the trouble, when speaking at a social function in Sydney a few nights ago. "Every radio experimenter should make up his mind to put down the howling valve trouble," said Mr. Crawford. "If something is not done within the next six months, the position will be serious. For the general good of the radio movement, I hope experimenters and the Press will combine in an effort to stamp out the trouble." It is to be hoped Mr. Crawford's words will not be lost on those experimenters who are so careless, or inexperienced, in the handling of their valves, as to cause the trouble referred to. The authorities have been generous towards experimenters in Australia, and it would indeed be a pity if the inexcusable actions of a few were to prejudice their freedom.[153]

Crawford demonstrates the procedure for sealing sets under the Wireless Regulations 1923

WIRELESS. The Broadcasting Position. SEALING OF RECEIVERS. The statement made by the Federal authorities to the effect that a method had been found of sealing receivers suitable for use in connection with broadcasting arrangements, should now leave the way clear for definite movement towards the inauguration of broadcast services in Australia. It will be remembered that when the question of broadcasting was first considered, a conference of those interested was called by the Postmaster-General, under whose control wireless in Australia is placed. This conference was attended by representatives of interests concerned, was presided over by Mr. George A. Taylor, and after considerable discussion, adopted a set of rules which it was considered would enable broadcasting to be established in the Commonwealth. Briefly these rules provided for the allotment of certain wave lengths to companies wishing to broadcast, and the sale of receivers sealed so as to respond only to the wave length of the service for which they were designed. Thus, if a company or firm decided to broadcast, it would, after being approved of by the Government, and furnishing a guarantee of continuity of service for a period of five years, be allotted a wave length on which to transmit its programmes. It is generally known, even by those with very little or no technical knowledge that all wireless transmission is effected on electromagnetic waves. The length of these waves can be varied by adjusting certain portions of the transmitter, and a message will be audible in a receiver only if that receiver is adjusted so that its electrical properties coincide with the electrical properties of the apparatus at the sending station. Any company which decides to transmit broadcast programmes does so on the wave length allotted by the Government and sells receivers which are "tuned" or adjusted to respond to that wave length, and then sealed so that no other programme may be "tuned-in." The company may then charge fees for its programmes. Broadcasting under these regulations becomes therefore a matter for the providing of a service in a commercial manner. Several applications have already been made, and in some cases stations are working. Some companies have decided to charge no fees, looking to the profits on the sale of apparatus to furnish them with revenue; others have notified that they will make a charge. In order to gain revenue to maintain their programmes. Some difficulty has been experienced in regard to the sealing of the receivers. To the uninitiated there seems to be no difficulty in achieving such an object, but to the experienced wireless man it is difficult to effect such a feat. For many months past no finality has been reached, but at last week's demonstration in Melbourne, the chief manager of wireless and telegraphs, Mr. J. Malone, was able to test and seal receivers in accordance with the regulations. Prior to this decision being made manufacturers' operations were greatly hampered and radio dealers were not in a position to meet any demands on the part of the public. The announcement has, however, cleared away a grave obstacle, and those commercially interested are now free to go ahead with their schemes. A demonstration of the method adopted in sealing sets will be given in Sydney on Thursday at the office of the radio inspector (Mr. Crawford), Macdonell House. The aerial of the big Sydney broadcasting station, which is being constructed at Northbridge, was erected yesterday, and should be complete by the end of the week. The towers supporting the wires are 200 feet high, and the power of the plant will be 5 kilowatts. Mr. E. T. Fisk (managing director of Amalgamated Wireless) stated yesterday that it will be the largest broadcast station in the world, the British stations being 1½ kilowatt only. Its normal range, he added, will be 500 miles, covering the whole of New South Wales and part of Victoria, although actually the speech and music transmitted from it will be received over longer distances, and may possibly be heard across the Pacific. The whole of the material employed has been made at the Amalgamated Wireless factories. Two other stations are now being erected in Sydney, and one each in Perth, Adelaide, and Brisbane.[154]

1923 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford included in photos of the 3 most important people in NSW wireless administration at the time

(Start Photo Captions) J. MALONE, M.I.R.E., Etc., Chief Manager for Wireless in Australia. W. T. S. CRAWFORD, Federal Wireless Representative in N.S.W. F. BASIL COOKE, F.R.A.S., Vice-President of the Wireless Institute. (End Photo Captions)[155]

Crawford issues a special licence to L. R. Stephens for the purpose of testing a receiver in a motor vehicle, identifies showdowing due to high buildings and enhancement due to overhead trolley wires

WIRELESS ON A MOTOR CAR. Achievement of Mr. L. R. Stephens (ILLUSTRATION ON THIS PAGE.) To Mr. L. R. Stephens, of 26 Cammeray Avenue, North Sydney, one of our most enterprising and successful radio devotees, must be given the palm for being the first — as far as is known — to carry out tests with an experimental set affixed to a motor car. For his experiments Mr. Stephens has been given a temporary permit by Mr. W. Crawford, State Radio Inspector. The station is 2IW, and the circuit used S.T. 76 (three valve), reflex. The aerial is a two-feet loop. Here are the noted results of the first try-out made, of course, at night time: "Received 2.G.R., C.W. and 'phone from Suspension Bridge, North Sydney; strength fair. Altered taps on loop in punt, and heard 2.G.R. (last item, closing down); strength excellent. Plenty of amateur C.W. and all the howling valves in the Commonwealth. If I missed any — they weren't howling. Stopped in Phillip-street to find correct adjustment for 350 metres, and got them! Drove all around the city and near suburbs and listened in while running. No general decrease in signal strength was noticed, but a few very marked spots were struck where signals faded when passing between tall buildings. A very noticeable phenomenon was the marked increase in signal strength when passing under the overhead trolley wires. At all other times loud speaker results were obtained, using a single Telefunken receiver without a mouthpiece or horn of any description. The only noticeable difference between receiving when running and whilst stationary was slight induction from the magneto of the car." Mr. Stephens' set is completely homemade, including the cutting condenser plates and winding honeycomb coils from 25 to 1000 turns. The car used was a Dodge standard, kindly lent for the tests by Mr. G. Bolt, of Neutral Bay.[156]

George Augustine Taylor in his journal, dismisses L. R. Stephens claim as being the first with wireless in a motor car

In the Sydney "Sunday Times" of the 9th instant it is stated that Mr. L. R. Stephens, of North Sydney, was the first to carry out tests with an experimental wireless set fixed to a motor car. He is not the first by a long period, as Mr. J. I. Carroll, of New System Telephones Pty. Ltd., has had his motor car fitted with an experimental set and has been receiving messages with it for over four months past. It is a pity that enquiries are not made before the insertion of such paragraphs, as historical data in wireless development is of particular value just at present, and Mr. Carroll's success is well known throughout wireless circles.[157]

A reader is directed to Crawford for details on how to obtain an experimenter's licence

WIRELESS EXPERIMENTERS' LICENSES. "Wireless," writes from Forbes, asking the qualifications necessary to obtain a wireless experimenter's license, and the fees that are demanded. The fees are 10/ per annum for a receiving license, and 25/ for a receiving and transmuting license; but any applicant for a license must prove to the inspector that he intends to carry out experiments on definite lines towards a stated object. Mere "listening-in" is not sufficient. Mr. Crawford, the radio inspector, will inform applicants as to the qualifications that are necessary to obtain an experimenter's license. His address is Macdonell House, Pitt Street, Sydney.[158]

1924[edit | edit source]

1924 01[edit | edit source]

Early report of electrocution of Frank Moore, Crawford will appear at Inquest

ELECTROCUTED. Man Killed at Haberfield. TRAGIC WIRELESS EXPERIMENT. Wife's Plucky Action. Grasping a live electric wire in his hand at his home at Haberfield yesterday, Francis Leonard Moore, aged 29, received a terrible shock, and died a few minutes later. It was a tragic ending to a wireless experiment. His wife, at great risk of being electrocuted herself, pulled her husband from the wire. Her plucky action, however, was of no avail. The power of the current can be gauged from the fact that the fingers of Moore's hands were burnt to the bone in the minute or so he had hold of the wire. HORRIFIED WITNESSES. Mrs. Moore and her daughter Neda, who is only 8 years of age, were both horrified witnesses of the tragedy. Moore, who was employed at the Haberfield Picture Theatre as cinema operator, lived in Dalhousie Street, Haberfield. He had a radio outfit installed in a room set aside for the purpose, and was engaged in an experiment of some sort at about 3 o'clock, when he received the fatal current. His little girl always assisted him in his wireless work, and yesterday his wife also happened to be in the room. He said to his wife: "You stay in here until I am finished. You never know when I might fall across this thing. Little did he realise, however, how true his words would prove. Moore was working under a table at the time, on which the plant is fitted, and he told his daughter to switch on the current. BURNING FLESH. The moment she had done so Mrs. Moore heard her husband cry out, and, writhing in agony, he fell back on his side. His hands were tightly clutching one of the wires, and she could see the flesh burning. Displaying wonderful presence of mind, Mrs. Moore grabbed a coat, and, wrapping it around her hands, pulled her husband away from the wires. He was unconscious, and Dr. Daley, of Haberfield, and Dr. Taylor, of Five Dock, found him to be dead when they arrived. Exactly what caused the fatality is hard to say but evidently Moore's hand came in contact with an electric light wire. With a receiving plant only a local battery is needed, and there is no danger, but with a transmitting outfit current from the main is sometimes used, and Moore perhaps was engaged in building up the voltage when he was electrocuted. He was by no means an amateur at wireless work. For many years he had been conducting experiments, and had recently been engaged in transmitting tests. The electricity supplied by the mains is of 240 volts, but by the use of a transformer up to 1000 volts can be obtained, and Moore possibly might have received this current.[159]

As previous

WIRELESS TRAGEDY. "Making Adjustment." EXPERIMENTER'S DEATH. "If Moore had switched on the current himself the fatality would not have occurred," said an electrician and wireless experimenter today, referring to the electrocution of Francis Leonard Moore at his home at Haberfield while conducting a wireless experiment. "This, I think, is what happened: Moore asked his little daughter to switch on the current. While she went away to do so he noticed something that required adjustment, and was just fixing it when the current was turned on. Perhaps he thought he would have had time to do what was necessary before the little girl arrived at the switch." According to electricians, 200 milliampres, or point 2 of an ampere, is sufficient, under pressure, to kill a man. The electricity supplied by the mains from which Moore got his current is of 240 volts, but by the use of a transformer up to 1000 volts can be obtained. A wireless experimenter who was spoken to today said that at his home he can get up to 1000 volts by the use of transformers, each showing 6.5 amperes, or 13 amperes altogether. As point 2 of an ampere is sufficient to cause death, it is easy, he said, to see what happened to Moore. It is pointed out that with an ordinary receiving set there is absolutely no danger, as the voltage would be not more than 80 it varies from 40 to 80. "Moore was a great experimenter — an enthusiast," said one of the police who went to the scene of the tragedy yesterday. WIRES EVERYWHERE "The room where the body lay," he said, "was full of wires. There must have been 40 wires altogether. Wires led from everywhere. They looked like twine, and many of them appeared to me to be uncovered. Moore was working under a table when the fatality occurred. There were wires from one table to another, down the sides, and underneath. It is easy to imagine how Moore met his death. He came in contact with the wires after the current was turned on. It would have been hard to keep away from the wires — they met you everywhere. I hadn't seen so many wires before and although the current was turned off when the police arrived, they couldn't be blamed for exercising care, because it was difficult to dodge the wires."[160]

1924 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford gives evidence at the inquest into death of Frank Moore

"SEARED & BURNT." DEAD MAN'S HANDS. Wireless Tragedy. Accidental death was the verdict of the Parramatta District Coroner (Mr. H. Richardson Clark), in the case of Francis Leonard Moore, 29, who was electrocuted while experimenting with a wireless set in his home at Haberfield on January 21. Mrs. Barbara Moore widow of the deceased, told a tragic story of the happening, of which she, with her 8 year-old daughter Neda was a witness. She said that her husband was testing a wireless set, which his firm, the United Distributing Co., was preparing for the Government. His little daughter was working the switches for him. Witness came into the room about 3 o'clock to remind her husband that he had an appointment with a dentist. "All right," he replied. "I Just want to finish this, but you stay here with me until I am finished, as you never know when I might fall across these wires." She sat down on a chair alongside him, and he stooped down to do something under the table with his pliers. BURNING FLESH. "Suddenly," witness continued, "he said, "Oh!" and rolled over on to his left side. I could see one hand clutching a live wire. The hand was burning as if on fire." Witness added she rushed into the hall, and, grabbing a coat, rushed back again, and pulled her husband off the wires. He was muttering inarticulately. Dr. Daley, of Haberfield, said that, when he examined deceased, he found his right thumb and index finger seared and burnt to the bone. He also had burns on his chest, and on his left finger and thumb. William Crawford, radio-inspector of the wireless branch of the P.M.G.'s Department, said that Moore had had considerable experience in electrical work. "It was not necessary," he added, "to use high voltage to test the set. A dry cell would have done." In a report submitted to his department, and produced in Court, witness said: "I can only assume that he, while holding the earthed wire, caught hold of one or the 600 volt wires."[161]

Funeral notice and obituary for Frank Moore (Crawford gave evidence at Inquest)

The Late Frank Moore. The funeral of the late Francis Leonard Moore, aged 30 years, who was accidentally electrocuted at his home, 84 Dalhousie-street, Haberfield, took place in the Church of England portion of the Rookwood cemetery. The burial service, with address, was conducted by the Rev. W. Newmarch, of St. Oswald's C.E., Haberfield. The chief mourners were Messrs. T. J. White (stepfather), A. Veitch (father-in-law), F. W. Drew, Leon and Will Moore (uncles), W. Paton and H. Judd (brothers-in-law), Frank G. Moore (brother), was unable to be present, owing to his absence in Perth, W.A. Letters and telegrams of sympathy were received from almost every centre in Australia, to which wireless has penetrated. Among the floral tributes were those sent by The Wireless lnstitute (in the form of a radio station about 3ft in height), Director of Amateur Wireless of New Zealand, his brother wireless experimenters. the association for developing of wireless in Australia, New Zealand and Fiji, the 10 Matters Club and other amateur experimenters, J. S. Marks, 2 G.R., President, the United Distributing Co.'s office staff, the United Distributing Co.'s Radio Factory, the Leichhardt and District Radio Society, the Five Dock Theatre Co., the staff of Haberfield Theatre, J. Patience, Haberfield Model Pictures, Radio House, 619 George-st., C. V. Stevenson, Donald Anderson, Paling and Co., Ltd. Francis Leonard Moore (Frank), will, no doubt, be remembered by many, as the eldest son of the late George Moore, of Globe Buildings, West Maitland. He had had a most successful career as a radio expert, having been employed by Father Shaw (later Maritime Wireless), Amalgamated Wireless, Australia, Ltd., and latterly had ob-tained the position of radio expert to the United Distributing Co., of Sydney.[162]

1924 03[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends a farewell luncheon for George Augustine Taylor, together with many Sydney luminaries

WIRELESS. MR. G. A. TAYLOR'S INVENTIONS. COMPLIMENTARY LUNCHEON. Mr. George A. Taylor was given a farewell luncheon at the Ambassadors yesterday by the Association for Developing Wireless in Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji, of which he is president, and many compliments were paid to his work as an inventor in aviation and wireless, and also to his patriotic work in the A.I.F. The Lord Mayor (Alderman Gilpin), in proposing the toast of the guest, said that Mr. Taylor was a native of Sydney, and had proved himself a very worthy citizen. He had been one of the most active and enterprising of inventors, and was always to the fore with ideas and help when it was needed. He had given him (the Lord Mayor) invaluable assistance from time to time; and everyone of them wished him and Mrs. Taylor a profitable and pleasant time abroad. As Lord Mayor of Sydney he had given Mr. Taylor a letter of introduction, and commendation to the Lord Mayor of London, and he believed it would help him in his mission. Mr. Taylor and his wife were great advocates of and workers for the peace of the world, and they were going to Geneva to attend the great conference in that regard. (Photo) MR. G. A. TAYLOR. (End photo caption) Mr. Ball (Minister for Works) complimented Mr. Taylor on the assistance he had given the Government in regard to the tenders for the North Shore bridge, and said that the tender that had been accepted had turned out to be not only the lowest but actually the best Australian tender that could have been adopted, and it would be "a wireless bridge," despite the "wirepulling" there had been to get the suspension design adopted, which would have meant the use of millions of wires. General Sir Granville Ryrie, M.P., praised the work that was done by Mr. Taylor as his clubmate in the A.I.F. He said that now he was not a member of the Federal Government he was free to criticise the Government's proposals, and, in his opinion, the restrictions the Government had placed on the use of wireless receiving sets should be immediately removed. Mr. George A. Taylor, thanking the association, said that his work, was merely the continuation of that of other pioneers in Australia, though the work they had done had been credited to other nations. Mr. Marr, M.P., in proposing the toast "Success to Wireless," said that prior to leaving Melbourne on the previous day he had a conversation with Mr. Gibson, the Postmaster-General, and he had expressed his willingness to have another conference on the subject of the wireless receiving sets, and it was almost certain if the Postmaster-General was now officially approached by the association he would grant such a conference. When the present regulations were drawn up by the last conference the members had not much experience in the administration of wireless regulations. Now they had experience of how the regulations were working, and he was satisfied that they were not working at all satisfactorily, and they should be altered so that they would better meet the requirements of Australia, and lead to the development, rather than the retarding, of wireless in Australia, as at present. Professor Sir Edgeworth David, in support, said that Mr. Taylor had been associated with Lawrence Hargreaves in the early experiments which led to practical aviation. Mr. Taylor flew with an aeroplane without an engine in 1909. He was the first to send wireless messages to a moving train, and before the war he fired a gun by wireless. He was the pioneer in the sending of pictures by wireless, and now he had invented a process for the sending of colour photography by wireless, which would enable the sending of the actual colour of the photograph instantaneously for many thousands of miles through the air. Mr. Taylor, in the course of a subsequent address, with lantern slides and the apparatus for the preparation of the wireless three-colour blocks for printing, showed how the sending of pictures by wireless had been developed within the past ten years. The science was only in its infancy, he said, and most wonderful developments, bordering almost on the infinite, might be expected within the next few years. Amongst those present were:— Mr. D. H. Scott, (vicepresident), who presided, Mr. R. Burgin (vice-president), the Lord Mayor (Alderman D. Gilpin), Mr. Ludowici (president of the Chamber of Manufactures), Mr. Justly Rawlings (president of Master Retailers' Association), Mr. C. Lloyd Jones, Mr. W. T. Crawford, Mr. T. B. Cooper (Under-Secretary, Public Works), Mr. C. Brunsdon Fletcher, Major C. W. C. Marr, and Mr. James Nangle (Director of Technical Education).[163]

Fund established for the family of the late Frank Moore (Crawford gave evidence at the Inquest)

WIRELESS WORLD. The Moore Fund. (By "JOULE VOLT.") The Radio Club are responding to the appeal for subscriptions for the widow of Mr. Moore, the well-known amateur, who met his death from a high tension wire while experimenting. The Wireless Institute has also made a special appeal to traders. Contributions may be forwarded to Mr. Phil Renshaw, Box 3120. G.P.O., Sydney. The board of trustees for the allotment of the fund has been appointed — Messrs. Basil Cooke, Phil Renshaw, and J. W. Robinson. Much of the apparatus belonging to Mr. Moores' plant is on sale at Miss Wallace's, Royal Arcade. Every piece sold adds to the fund.[164]

1924 04[edit | edit source]

Crawford officially visits Woolongong, unlicensed listeners identified as well as general apathy to wireless in the district

VISIT OF RADIO INSPECTOR. The Radio Inspector was active in Wollongong last week. Since his inspection several aerials have disappeared, and several receivers were found which did not comply with the regulations. The inspector was greatly surprised at the lack of interest in radio locally. The public are warned against dealing indiscriminately in wireless material, and should be advised by licensed dealers.[165]

1924 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends annual dinner of WIA NSW, in speech notes amateur standard improving, but that if gramophone records monopolised the ether, they would have to be suppressed

WIRELESS. Low-power Wonders. MR. MACLURCAN'S WORK. Results Announced. The achievement by a Sydney experimenter of the "impossible" in wireless was announced at the annual dinner of the New South Wales division of the Wireless Institute of Australia at the Wentworth Hotel last night, when Mr. C. D. Maclurcan, who, accompanied by young Jack Davis, recently crossed the Pacific on work in low-power transmission, gave the results of his experiments. When 5385 miles out from Sydney and two days' sailing from San Francisco, Mr. Maclurcan clearly received signals sent from his own station at Strathfleld. This operating on an 8-watt set. The signals from the 180-watt set were received 5900 miles. Mr. Maclurcan assured the enthusiastic gathering of experimenters that signals from both sets would have been readily received while the ship was actually in San Francisco Harbor, but for the bad weather and the heavy induction caused by local submarine mains. Even with those handicaps, however, he and Davis had been able to make out the Strathfield signals, but were unable to pick up the code. TALKING TO BRITAIN. Discussing the possibility of regular two-way wireless communication between Australia and America, Mr. Maclurcan advised that it would be necessary to "shoot over" more powerful signals; to adopt wave lengths to overcome local interference on the other side; and to persuade American experimenters to adopt radio frequency amplification. As a whole, the American experimenters were really disappointing, he said. Their much-boasted latest receiving set had not given him and Davis as good results as their own "tin-pot contrivance," Australians undoubtedly led the Americans in long-distance receiving. Mr. Maclurcan explained that his trans-Pacific experiments were governed by a code supplied daily by Amalgamated Wireless, Ltd.— which met the whole of the cost of the expedition — and consisted of three words, of 10 letters each, which, on being received, had to agree with those already in the possession of the senior wireless operator aboard. He firmly believed that communication could be established between English and Australian amateurs, with the low power now in use. THE SEALED SET. Mr. S. E. Tatham, submitting the toast of "The Institute," appealed to experimenters to make their work more widely known; it equalled anything in any other part of the world. Mr. F. B. Cooke responded. Mr. W. P. Renshaw, proposing "The Visitors," predicted that the sealed set difficulty would continue to disturb experimenters for another 12 months. The possibilities of wireless, he added, must sooner or later impress themselves on the authorities. Master Jack Davis indicated that he was ready to undertake any similar trip to that across the Pacific with Mr. Maclurcan. Mr. W. T. Crawford (Government wireless inspector) mentioned that there was a general improvement in experimental work, but intimated that experimenters who nightly monopolised the ether with gramophone records would have to be suppressed. That wireless experimenters would have to fight for their existence was the view of Mr. Malcolm Perry, who proposed the "Affiliated Societies." Experimenters, he observed, were being asked to pay for service they did not require. Mr. R. C. Marsden. replying, appealed for closer all-round co-operation. COMMERCIAL INTERESTS. Mr. F. T. S. O'Donnell, who proposed the health of the foundation members, pointed out that it would be a great mistake to permit commercial interests to destroy the good work of the experimenters. Mr. H. A. Stowe responded. Mr. J. P. Wyatt submitted the toast of the chairman, and was supported by Mr. O. F. Mingay, who emphasised that the results achieved by Mr. Maclurcan easily exceeded those of any other known experimenter. They were something that outshone all the things that the Americans so loudly proclaimed, and merited the fullest pride on the part of Australians.[166]

1924 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford addresses the first meeting of the NSW Postal Institute Radio Club in Sydney

THE MAGIC SPARK. RADIO NOTES & NEWS. . . . BY DOT DASH. . . . NEW CLUB. A radio club has been formed in connection with the N.S.W. Postal Institute. One or the objects of this new body is to bring together all members of the Commonwealth Public Service in this State who are interested in wireless. Though only six weeks old the club has a membership of 30, and this number will probably be increased each week. The first meeting was addressed by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, State Radio Inspector, and Mr. Basil Cooke and Mr. Malcolm Perry have given technical talks to members. A class of instruction for beginners is to be held on each alternate Tuesday evening at the club-rooms, Haymarket Post Office. The hon. secretary is Mr. J. F. Nichol, Telephone Workshops, Pier-street, Sydney.[167]

1924 07[edit | edit source]

Introduction of new Wireless Regulations expected to increase workload for Crawford and other radio inspectors

EFFECTIVE TODAY. Radio Regulations Melbourne Firms Protest. MELBOURNE, Wednesday. The new wireless broadcasting regulations take effect from today. When they received the approval of the Federal Executive Council, they were forwarded today to the Governor-General, who is in Sydney, for his signature. The regulations will not be gazetted until they have been printed and are ready to issue to the public over Post Office counters in the various States. The Director of Postal Services (Mr. Brown), said today that he hoped to have this accomplished by the end of the week. The protest of Sydney firms against broadcasting arrangements was echoed today by the Melbourne firms concerned — New Systems Telephones, Harrington's Ltd., members of the Associated Radio Company. The managing director of the New Systems Telephones (Mr. Holloway), concurred with the Sydney protest regarding the discrepancy between the power limit of the two rival companies. Mr. Holloway said he could not understand how the Government should have fixed a maximum limit. It would be fair to fix a minimum power to ensure proper service, but why prevent us installing a plant of more than 1500 watts. For some unaccountable reason, the Government had shown distinct favoritism, he said. Questioned on the methods by which the department would police the new regulations, the Director of Postal Services (Mr. Brown) said the present staff of radio inspectors in all States would continue to make certain that illicit listening-in was not indulged in. "Such is the reasonableness of the provision, however," he declared, "that we have gone out of our way to give great freedom to all users of all wireless receiving apparatus, and there is little or no excuse for breaches of the regulations." Mr. Brown explained that the zoning system had been instituted so that the service would be less costly to the listener-in who was so far from broadcasting stations that he would require an expensive instrument, and would be more subject to interruptions from atmospherics.[168]

1924 08[edit | edit source]

Following the adoption of the Wireless Regulations of 1924, Crawford kept busy identifying locations and zones, forecast few applications for experimental licences

WIRELESS & RADIO. Conducted by Alan Burrows. . . . RUSH FOR LICENSES. Nearly every post office official is busy now selling licenses to the huge number of prospective enthusiasts. Well over a hundred were sold one day last week at the G.P.O. alone, and altogether the number is reaching the thousand mark, which is not bad going, considering they have only been on sale for a week. Some quick work was put in by the N.S.W. radio officials when the licenses came to hand. Arriving in Sydney on the Thursday after the regulations were made known, they were distributed to the different post offices on the following day, and were being sold on Saturday. Since then there has scarcely been a break in the demand for them. Mr. W. Crawford, State Radio Inspector, has his hands full with the work following upon the popularity of wireless. There were the zones, for instance, which had to be decided; and this rather intricate matter being settled, every postmaster in the State had to be supplied with a copy of the boundaries, so there could be no doubt concerning which zone they occupied. "It would be as well to emphasise," said Mr. Crawford, "that no postmaster has the power to refuse to grant a broadcasting licence, although he may ask that the applicant go to the post office nearest to where he lives. This is merely to facilitate the renewal of licences when the time comes, as it will probably cause confusion if an application is made for renewal at a different office from where it was originally issued." Mr. Crawford was very definite concerning regenerative sets. All owners of noisy sets will be warned once, after which they will be delicensed and fined if they still persist in annoying their neighbors. However, the radio inspector pointed out that it would probably be simply a matter of educating the public, as no set, when it is oscillating sufficiently to cause interference, can reproduce music or speech without distortion. It would be in a listener's-in own interests to be instructed in the manipulating of his set. EXPERIMENTERS "No applications have been made yet for experimental licenses," said Mr. Crawford. "Nor do we expect many, as the difference in the cost of the two licenses is only 15s, it is not likely that a great number will go to the trouble of sitting for an examination. For that matter, very few would have a chance of passing it, as a big proportion of so-called experimenters were really only broadcast-listeners. On the other hand, there are a few in Sydney who, when their present licenses expire, will be granted an experimenter's status without question. These, however, are very few." Quite a number of people state that they find as much pleasure in listening to amateurs' transmission as they do to that of regular broadcasters.[169]

Crawford appointed to the first council of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Australia

COMPANY NEWS. . . . The Institution of Radio Engineers, Australia, Incorporated, has been formed to advance the interest of those engaged in radio telegraphy and radio-telephony, and to promote the science and practice of the profession. The first council consists of the following:— E. T. Fisk, M.I.R.E. (first president), Professor Sir Thomas Lyle, Professor T. Laby, F. Leverrier, K.C., J. Malone, Commander F. G. Cresswell, R.A.N., G. J. Weston, L. A. Hooke, W. T. S. Crawford, J. L. Mulholland, A. S. McDonald, G. Apperley, J. G. Reed, and S. Toombs, J.P. (first secretary).[170]

As previous, some further detail

NEW COMPANIES. The following new companies have been registered:— . . . Institute of Radio Engineers, Australia. Objects are to further the interests of the profession of radio telegraphy and telephony. The first council consists of the following:— E. T. Fisk. Prof. T. Lahy [sic], F. Leverrier, L. A. Hooke, J. Malone, F. G. Cresswell, G. J. Weston, S. McDonald, W. T. S. Crawford, J. L. Mulholland, G. Apperly, J. G. Reed, and S. Toombs. The first president will be E. T. Fisk. Registered office, Sydney. Date of registration, August 16.[171]

1924 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford provides his opinion on the future of radio in the coming year, fairly accurate compared to his earlier prediction on AOCPs

WIRELESS & RADIO. (Conducted by Alan Burrows) VALUE OF TUNING. Bright Future Predicted for Wireless. . . FUTURE OF WIRELESS. Inquiries made amongst some of Sydney's prominent wireless men on this question show many different shades of opinion, although all are unanimous on one point — that radio has firmly taken its place as a factor in the life of Australia. "Crystal sets will sell at the present rate until the beginning of next winter," said the manager of a wholesale house. "A small proportion, of course, may remain content with a crystal set, or perhaps a few will give up the game altogether. The great majority, however, desiring something better, will go in for valve sets, and there will probably be as big a demand for valve sets as there is now for crystals. Next year will undoubtedly be a valve year." Others expressed the opinion that, while it is hardly possible that the demand will maintain its present pitch, the trade, after about a year's boom, will settle down to a steady business, which will equal a boom period in any other line. The unofficial opinion of Mr. W. Crawford, radio inspector, is that the fillip wireless is now receiving will see it over the summer and through next winter, after which it will find its level, which should be very little below that which it is maintaining at present. A wireless set, in time, will be a recognised educational factor in every home, just as a piano is now. Evidence from abroad bears out most of these opinions. In America broadcasting, as an industry, threatens to rival the movies, and no house or flat, it appears, is considered complete without its wireless set. The same can be said of England, and it is worthy of note that a traveller who has just returned, remarks that although a greater variety of broadcasting programmes is available in England, the standard of the British Broadcasting Company is generally lower than the programmes offered here, nor can Australia be shown many points in actual transmission.[172]

1924 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford responds to criticism that the AOCP examination is too difficult

WIRELESS & RADIO. (Conducted by AIan Burrows). . . What Constitutes an "Experimenter"? . . . EXPERIMENTAL LICENSES. Last week was published on this page a motion carried at a recent meeting of delegates from the clubs affiliated with the Wireless Institute. It said, in effect, that the authorities should be approached with the request that the present examination set for those desiring experimental licenses be made more applicable for the purpose for which it is held — which, presumably, consists of maintaining a certain technical standard of those wanting experimental licenses. Particular reference was made to the theory paper, in which some of the questions were considered irrelevant. Some discontent appears to be evident amongst amateurs generally concerning this matter, a few going so far as to maintain that the Government is purposely endeavouring to stifle the experimental movement by tightening the requirements for admission into its ranks. That an ordinary broadcast listener's license allows any sort of experimenting is not considered sufficient; most amateurs wish to hold the title of "experimenter." Asked for an expression of opinion, the local authorities said that so far, they had received only a very few individual complaints; many, on the other hand, considered the exam quite fair. The State Radio Inspector, Mr. W. Crawford, pointed out that the alleged stiffness of the theory paper was answered by the fact that, of those who failed, the majority fell short in the Morse test, and not in this paper. Prominent experimenters, such as Mr. C. Maclurcan, Mr. Basil Cooke, and Mr. J. C. Marsden, had all endorsed the fairness of the questions. "We never apply a rigid method," said Mr. Crawford. "All we require is sufficient assurance that the applicant has the requisite knowledge to experiment on the lines which he himself lays down. He names his own purpose of experiment, and so far as we can manage, he is examined accordingly. There are no 'catch' questions." A specimen paper shown by Mr. Crawford bore out these remarks, although some of the questions were certainly not intended for anyone but advanced experimenters. It all appears to revolve around the point as to whether experimenters wish their standing to be exclusive, or to be opened to the rank and file of radio fans.[173]

1924 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends meeting WIA NSW, more positive about amateur broadcasting and experimenting

CLUB ACTIVITIES. . . . WIRELESS INSTITUTE. The last general meeting of the Wireless Institute for this year will be held on December 4, when Mr. R. Burt will read a paper on "Radio Communication." There will be no general meeting in January on account of the holidays. The first meeting in the New Year will be on February 5, and will be a practical demonstration of apparatus arranged by Mr. A. N. Stephens. Any experimenter is welcomed at these meetings, and membership forms may be obtained from the hon. secretary at Harrington's, or assistant secretary, at Watson, Ferguson's. The question of experimental licenses was considered at an executive council meeting of the New South Wales Division, at which Mr. Crawford, the radio inspector, was present by invitation. The whole matter was gone into carefully, and Mr. Crawford was definite in his assurance that the Government would give the experimenter every consideration. He also stated definitely that no application for a transmitting license would be turned down if it was genuine. As the outcome of this meeting, certain council re recommendations will be forwarded to the authorities, and it is expected that the position will be much clearer in the future. As an indication of the improved status of the institute may be mentioned the fact that the New South Wales Division is now located in the Royal Societies' House, Elizabeth-street, Sydney, the home of the leading scientific bodies of the Commonwealth. Although in Queensland we have no outstanding character like Mr. Charles Maclurcan, there are in the various clubs now quite a number of real genuine experimenters who would form a body which could hold its own with those in the Southern States. It seems as if the advent of local broadcasting is the only means of separating the wheat from the chaff, and how long are we going to wait in Queensland for this?[174]

1925[edit | edit source]

1925 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford's position reclassified (with other Radio Inspectors) with associated salary increase


  • No.: 2
  • Name: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Classification under Commonwealth Public Service Act 1922–1924.
    • Radio Inspector, Grade 4 (b)
    • Division: III
    • Scale: £528-600
    • Salary: £528
    • Next Increment Payable: N/A

Scales of Salary. For general conditions as to payment of salary within the classified scales see Public Service Regulation No. 105. Printed and Published for the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia by H. J. Green, Government Printer for the State of Victoria.[175]

Crawford enables a message from G2OD to 2DS to be released to the press

NEW MILE-POST. Wireless Message to "The Sun." AMATEUR SENDS FROM ENGLAND. Signals Reach Sydney at Dawn. "Tell 'The Sun' that the Y.A.L. boys have visited Notre Dame." In a fraction of a second this message, in dots and dashes, was wirelessed from Buckinghamshire at daybreak (Sydney time) today, and picked up by Mr. J. R. Davis, of Vaucluse. "Young Jack Davis, of Vaucluse," as he is known to wireless experimenters all over Australia, has been responsible for some fine radio feats during the past year or two. Although still only a boy, he is an expert at both transmitting and receiving, and is able to show the way to many experimenters older and more experienced than himself. Last night was not the first time he had been in communication with England, he having performed the feat some months ago. LONDON, February 15. Mr. W. E. Simmonds, the well-known wireless amateur, of Gerard's Cross, Bucks, England, heard, at 7.25 p.m., Jack Davis, of Vaucluse, calling England. Mr. Simmonds, in the presence of "The Sun" representative, Morsed, asking Davis to take a message for "The Sun" that the Y.A.L. boys had visited Notre Dame. Davis instantly replied, "Good morning. Received message O.K. Will tell 'Sun.' " This is the first amateur experimental wireless press message between England and Australia. Mr. Simmonds was disappointed that he could not hear Mr. Howden, of Melbourne, by telephone, for which he had made arrangements previously. "Message Came Through Very Well" "I got the message for 'The Sun,' " said Mr. J. R. Davis, whose experimental station is in Fisher-avenue, Vaucluse, this morning. "But we are not supposed to handle any traffic at all, and before I can give it to you I will have to find out from the radio inspector, Mr. Crawford whether I can do so. We have to protect ourselves, and, under the regulations, if we were to give out messages like that, we would be liable to have our licenses cancelled." Mr. Crawford was 'phoned, but delayed his answer while he looked through the regulations to see what he could do. The message was later released by Mr. Crawford. The message to "The Sun" sent to Mr. Davis by Mr. Simmonds at the request of the special representative, of "The Sun" in London, was as follows: — "Today the Young Australia League boys visited Notre Dame. A band played there for the first time in history." Mr. Davis received the message at 5.25 a.m. today. It came through very well, he stated.[176]

1925 04[edit | edit source]

Maclurcan, President of the WIA NSW, gives his report at the AGM, kudos to Crawford for assistance offered all amateurs

Wireless Institute of Australia, N.S.W. Div. Inc. Incorporating the Affiliated Societies and The Australian Radio Relay League. HEADQUARTERS: Royal Society's House, 5 Elizabeth St., SYDNEY, N.S.W.; Phil. Renshaw, Hon. Sec., Box 3120 G.P.O. Sydney, Phone 82235; A. H. Perrett, Publicity Officer. NEW SOUTH WALES DIVISION. ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. THE annual general meeting of the Wireless Institute of Australia, New South Wales Division, was held at the Royal Society’s Hall, 5 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, on Thursday, April 16, 1925. Two new members were unanimously elected, and this division certainly feels stronger by the addition to its roll of Messrs. R. C. Allsopp and J. W. M. Cottrell. The outstanding feature of the evening was the presidential report. Mr. Maclurcan gave a very interesting and detailed account of the work of the Institute during the past twelve months, but it would not be fitting if reference were not first made to Mr. Maclurcan’s latest success in communicating with England on low wave lengths during daylight hours. Congratulations of members were offered to Mr. Maclurcan, and were of a most enthusiastic nature. Mr. Maclurcan then read the presidential report, which was as follows: Again we have concluded a most satisfactory year for this division of the Institute, and we commence the year 1925–26 with confidence in our ability to make an even better showing than we have done in the past twelve months. It has been a great pleasure to me to work with such a fine team of officers as it has been my good fortune to be associated with in the past twelve months, and it is my earnest hope that whoever are elected to control the coming year’s destinies will preserve the happy concord that has existed throughout in the last period. The class of new members being attracted to our Institute is one of the most pleasing features, and we confidently expect a very substantial membership increase this coming year. We have now on our roll 80 members and 29 associate members, making a total of 109. Elections during the year comprised 24 members and 8 associate members. . . . I must refer to the generous treatment we have received during the past twelve months from Mr. J. Malone, chief manager of telegraphs and wireless, Melbourne, and Mr W. T. S. Crawford as radio officer in Sydney. They have shown the utmost tact and skill in administering a most difficult department, and it stands to their credit that radio is in the position it is today in Australia. Much credit is also due to Mr. Brown, secretary to the Postmaster General, in his efficient handling of many difficult situations and his consideration for the experimental activities of this country.[177]

1925 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford receives a pat on the back from Smith's Weekly

SMITHS RADIO CLUB. . . . A "Head" and a Man. W. Crawford, radio inspector, Sydney, is one of the big men of Australian radio. A Victorian by birth, he controls the wireless destinies of N.S.W. and the ships visiting Sydney. In performing this task, his evenhanded justice has won him the esteem and respect of both commercial and experimental operators. Crawford's experience dates back to the beginning of the science, and in turn he has been in charge of most of our important stations. He served as Radio Lieutenant in the R.A.N. throughout the war. His hobbies are rifle shooting and wireless.[178]

Crawford refers correspondence on fees to Malone

Official Correspondence. . . . Sir,— Your communication with regard to fees charged for Broadcast Listener's Licences for Public Schools has been forwarded to the Chief Manager, Telegraph and Wireless, Melbourne, for his attention. Yours faithfully, W. T. S. CRAWFORD, Radio Inspector.[179]

1925 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford clarifies a statement about the AOCP in a previous issue of Wireless Weekly

A CORRECTION. To the Editor. Dear Sir,— With reference to your sub-leader, headed “Amateur Operators’ Certificate,” appearing in the issue of “Wireless Weekly” of 29th May, 1925, I would like to correct a slight inaccuracy contained in para. 3:— "An experimental license may be issued to qualified persons for the purpose of research, and for instructions in schools or teaching institutions. This license can be endorsed for transmitting, and before consideration is given for endorsement the licensee should hold an amateur operator’s certificate of proficiency." The possession of this certificate does not necessarily entitle the holder to have his experimental license so endorsed. Each application for transmitting endorsement is dealt with on its merits. The holder of an amateur operator’s certificate of proficiency may also be authorised to operate a portable station and a radio dealer’s demonstration transmitter. Yours, etc., W. T. S. CRAWFORD, Radio Inspector.[180]

After an appeal process, classifications of most inspectors increased, Crawford revised from Radio Inspector Grade 4 to Grade 5

APPROVAL OF CLASSIFICATION UNDER SECTION 27, "PUBLIC SERVICE ACT 1922-1924." THE Public Service Board of Commissioners hereby notifies for the information of officers concerned the following amendments of the Classification as published in Gazette No. 10 of 4th February, 1925, in respect of Radio Inspectors in the Postmaster-General's Department, such amendments having been made by the Board following upon determination of appeals. The Classification so published, and the amendments of Classification as set forth hereunder, have received the approval of the Governor-General in pursuance of the provisions of Section 27 of the Public Service Act 1922–1924, C. B. B. WHITE, Chairman, W. J. SKEWES, W. J. CLEMENS, Deputy Commissioner. Board of Commissioners. Melbourne, 10th June, 1925. POSTMASTER-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. AMENDMENTS OF CLASSIFICATION OF RADIO INSPECTORS. . . .

  • Number in Classification: 2
  • Officer.
    • Name: Crawford, W. T. S.
    • Office: Radio Inspector, Grade 5 (Sydney)
  • Classification as amended.
    • Scale: £528-£600
    • Salary: £528
  • Next Increment Payable: 1.7.25[181]
1925 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford's 2IC is promoted to Radio Inspector, Qld

APPOINTED TO BRISBANE. Mr. T. Armstrong, who for over two years was attached to the radio inspector's office (Sydney), has been transferred to Brisbane as radio inspector. Prior to his departure a presentation was made to him by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford (radio inspector, Sydney), on behalf of the radio inspector's staff and friends connected with the telephone engineering branch. During Mr. Armstrong's sojourn in Sydney, he was lecturer and instructor to the wireless section of the postal institute. He was extremely popular amongst commercial operators, experimenters, and dealers, and earned by his courteous attention to all matters, and by his pleasant personality, the very high esteem of all who came into contact with him. Mr. Armstrong (remarks "Wireless Weekly") has the secret of the perpetual smile, and Brisbane is fortunate in securing so popular a radio inspector.[182]

1925 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford stands firm on use of amateur radio for third party messages

RADIO REPLIES. TO AMERICAN MESSAGES. FEDERAL REGULATION. The Lord Mayor stated yesterday that he was the recipient of a radio message from the Mayor of Vancouver (Alderman L. D. Taylor), through the amateur stations of 5GO, Vancouver, and 2LO, Sydney, operated by Mr. L. Schultz, in which greetings were offered from the Mayor and people of Vancouver to the Lord Mayor and citizens of Sydney, and a reply by radio was requested. The Lord Mayor asked Mr. Schultz to convey to the Mayor of Vancouver reciprocal good wishes for the future advancement and prosperity of the city. Mr. Schultz stated last night that he had been informed that the Postmaster-General objected to such reciprocal messages being sent from Australia, and he could not convey the Lord Mayor's greetings to the Mayor of Vancouver. Mr. Schultz said the sending of such messages from America by members of the American Radio Relay League was encouraged by the American Government as an aid to the advancement of broadcasting on low wave lengths, but the postal authorities were objecting to the sending of reply messages from Australia, and this was retarding the work of radio communication between Australia and the United States.[183]

As previous

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION. The Federal Wireless Inspector at Sydney (Mr. Crawford) stated last night that Mr. Schultz had informed him of the reception of the message after he had conveyed it to the Lord Mayor. He (Mr. Crawford) had intimated that to transmit a reply was prohibited by Government regulation, and, therefore, he must disallow the sending of any message by Mr. Schultz. Mr. Crawford explained that it was necessary strictly to administer the regulation to avoid the promiscous use of wireless by certain individuals at the people's expense. The Minister, however, had power to grant permission to experimenters to transmit messages, but this was done only in most exceptional circumstances. It was not true, added Mr. Crawford, that in this case the Minister had refused permission.[184]

Crawford guides the Country Press Association in its desire to distribute press news by radio

Radio News. APPLICATION FOR STATION. The establishment of a "land station" in Sydney for the transmission by radio of news to country news papers by the Country Press Association is a likelihood of the near future. On behalf of the Country Press Association, Mr. T. M. Shakespeare has made application to the Post-master-General for permission to establish such a station and an early reply awaited. It was first thought that the type of station required was a "B. class," but a conference be-tween Mr. C. C. Faulkner of the Radio Broadcast Bureau (who has been acting for the Country Press Association) and Mr. Crawford, radio inspector, revealed that the station required is known in the wireless regulations as a land station. The matter will be discussed at the annual conference of the Country Press Association, the opening ses-sion of which on October 20 will be broadcast by station 2 F.C.[185]

1925 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford and Malone to attend the official opening of the WIA NSW broadcast station 2WI

Wireless Institute. The new transmitter of the New South Wales division of the Wireless Institute of Australia will be officially opened on November 9. The ceremony will take place at the residence of Mr. H. A. Stowe, Royal-street, Chatswood, at 8 p.m. Among those present will be the Controller of Telegraphs and Wireless (Mr. Malone) and the Radio Inspector for New South Wales (Mr. Crawford). During the evening the addresses, will be broadcast. The transmitter will work under the call signal A2WI and the power will be 250 watts. On the night of the opening ceremony the wave length will be 200 metres, but subsequently it will be variable, as the transmitter has been specially designed for experimentation, research work, and the transmission of the standard frequency calibration signals of the division.[186]

As previous, report of opening

WIRELESS. TRANSMISSION STATION. CO-OPERATION IN TESTS. The official transmission station of the Wireless Institute of Australia was opened on Monday evening. The station, the call sign of which is 2WI, is at present situated at the residence of Mr. H. A. Stowe, vice-president of the institute, at Royal-street, Chatswood, and will be used solely for experimental work. There was a large gathering of those interested in wireless, including Mr. James Malone (chief manager of Telegraphs and Wireless), Mr. W. T. S. Crawford (State Radio Inspector), Coxon (president of the Western Australian Institute), and members of the council of delegates' committee of the New South Wales branch of the institute. The transmitter was officially handed over by Mr. Stowe, and accepted by Mr. C. D. Maclurcan, president of the New South Wales Institute. After supper several short speeches were delivered though the transmitter.[187]

As previous, greater detail including Crawford's speech

Wireless Institute of Australia, N.S.W. Div. Inc. Incorporating the Affiliated Societies and The Australian Radio Relay League. HEADQUARTERS: Royal Society's House, 5 Elizabeth St., SYDNEY, N.S.W.; W. L. Carter, Hon. Sec., Box 3120, G.P.O., Sydney – Phone B2235, A. H. Perrett, Publicity Officer. Official Opening of 2WI. THE new transmitter of the Wireless Institute of Australia, New South Wales Division, was officially opened on Monday, November 9, 1925. The scene of the ceremony was the residence of Mr. H. A. Stowe, 2CX, and the following were, present:— Messrs. James Malone, Chief Manager, Telegraphs and Wireless; W. T. S. Crawford, Radio Inspector; W. E. Coxon, Manager of 6WF; Charles D. Maclurcan, President of the Institute; H. A. Stowe, F. B. Cooke, Vice-Presidents; W. L. Carter, Hon. Secretary; L. C. Presdee, Hon. Treasurer; A. H. Perrett, Chairman, Delegates’ Council, and Publicity Officer; G. A. Taylor, W. P. Renshaw, H. E. B. Turner, members of the Executive Council; H. K. James, constructor of the set; W. H. Barker, Concord Amateur Radio Club; J. B. Davies, Strathfield Radio Club; W. D. Graham, C. A. Gorman, Illawarra Radio Club; L. Nordstrom, Leichhardt; E. C. Crouch, Mosman; and Ross A. Hull, Hon. Secretary, Federal Executive Council. The proceedings were opened by Mr. Renshaw, who acted as Master of Ceremonies, who called upon Mr. Stowe, on behalf of the constructors, to officially hand over the set to the President. The speeches were broadcast by special permission on a wavelength of 200 metres. Mr. Stowe, in handing ever the transmitter, briefly outlined the history of the movement to obtain a transmitting set. Mr. Maclurcan, in accepting the set, stated that it had been constructed by Mr. H. K. James and supervised by Mr. H. A. Stowe. The uses for which the set would be employed were the Standard Frequency Transmission Signals, Institute Traffic and Vigilance Activities. He explained that the latter was partly necessary in view of the depredations of "agribulgers." Mr. James Malone, Chief Manager, Telegraphs and Wireless, was the next speaker. He first gave a brief description of the gathering for the benefit of listeners-in. He then went on to say that in his opinion amateur radio had not been making the progress of late that it should have done, and he stated that it must not be allowed to go backwards. In starting a Traffic Bureau the Wireless Institute had taken a most important step to the amateur and experimental movement. He stated that those associated with him on the administrative side were glad to see people who could look after this matter taking an interest in it. He then went on to speak of the howling valve nuisance and interference. This was a matter in which he appealed to the broadcast listener to try to understand his set in order to make them cause as little nuisance, as possible. He stated that the Wireless Institute was always willing to help broadcast listeners to reduce interference. He wanted the broadcast listeners to look up to the amateur as those who knew and could help. The amateur was appealed to, to help the broadcast listener forward, and thus justify the position the amateur has in the field of "radio." He then spoke of the value of co-ordinated work in the transmission of traffic, and stated that the new transmitter, which he considered to be a beautiful piece of work, would be the means of establishing an official clearing house for traffic in New South Wales. He particularly stressed the importance of co-operation in connection with experimental work, whether it be the handling of traffic or the conducting of experimental work. In conclusion, Mr. Malone wished the heartiest possible success to experimenters and members of the Wireless Institute of Australia. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford (Radio Inspector) stated that the construction and layout of the set reflected great credit on the constructors. He spoke in very appreciative terms of the assistance which had been afforded to him as Inspector in the administration of the regulations by the amateur and experimenter. He also stressed the point that the broadcast listener should look up to the amateur as one who could guide him in the construction and operation of his set, and could show him the means whereby reception could be improved. He wished every success to the Institute. Mr. George A. Taylor, in proposing a vote of thanks to Messrs. Stowe and James in connection with the set, indulged in a few reminiscences. He stated that on the previous day 2CM had sent a message of greeting to the daughter of Lawrence Hargreaves, the inventor of human flight, on the anniversary of his achievement. Mr. Stowe, in responding, outlined the history of the construction of the new transmitter. He gave some details of the work it was proposed to carry out, but left the construction of the set to Mr. James. Mr. James described the studio which he was speaking from, which consisted of a nice green lawn, laid in a pleasant back garden in Chatswood, on which there was erected an awning, and around the microphone into which he was speaking were grouped the members of the Executive Council and their visitors who had come to perform the opening ceremony. He described the set, stating that the power was obtained from two T250 Marconi Osram transmitting valves. The power was supplied from the lighting mains by means of transformers, and was rectified by "S" tubes. He stated that this was a new idea in Australia, and this station was using the greatest power put through "S" tubes in this country. Owing to the difficulty in handling these tubes until matters were properly settled down an input of only 90 watts was used instead of 400. The circuit employed was the Coupled Hartley, with Heissing modulation, having one sub-modulator. They were also using one stage of speech frequency amplification on this occasion. The set was of the panel type, suitable for hard, heavy, reliable work. There were only two tuning controls having special plug-in inductances. The wavelength range at present was from 20 to 300 metres. The next item was a musical one, and after this Mr. Coxon spoke briefly. He expressed great pleasure at being present, and stated that he considered that this was a great stepping-stone in the experimental and amateur movement in Australia. Speaking into the microphone he was now transmitting from east to west, but he hoped that he will be able to transmit from west to east from Western Australia on their own transmitter. He stated that station 6WF was always willing to help the amateur movement in every possible way. The transmissions were closed at 9.20 and were resumed at 9.45. During this period supper was partaken of and the after supper toasts were broadcasted. The first one was that of "His Majesty the King," given with musical honours. The toast of "Mr. Malone" was proposed by Mr. Stowe, who stated that he considered that Mr. Malone was one ©f the greatest friends that the amateur had ever had. In this everyone present heartily concurred, and the toast was drunk with musical honours. Mr. Malone, in responding, again stressed the value of co-operation. The toast of “Our Institute” was proposed by Mr. Cooke. In the course of his remarks Mr. Cooke stated that wireless was one of the greatest factors in the breaking down of barriers. Mr. Perrett, who responded on behalf of the Institute, heartily agreed with this sentiment, and he stated that although unable to take an active part in the transmitting section, he was doing what he could to further the interests of the Institute, as he believed that it was for the good of all. Mr. Crawford proposed the toast of the "Affiliated Clubs." He spoke of the efficiency of the movement, and expressed the hope that the efficiency would be increased. He particularly stressed the point in connection with the operations of the Traffic Bureau that operators should use correct procedure. Not only was this desirable now, but it was particularly desirable in view of any emergency that may arise. He thought it was a wise thing to inaugurate the Traffic Bureau. Mr. Nordstrom, in responding, also stressed the value of co-operation, and he stated emphatically that the clubs should and would be behind the Institute in the traffic scheme, and would give it a fair chance. Mr. Malone proposed the toast of the "Wireless Widows," and he stated that we little realise what science owes to the wives of those who carry out experimental work. This was supported by Mr. George Taylor, who referred to the progenitors of aerial transmission when the first message was transmitted by Eve when she winked at Adam. "Our Host and Hostess" was proposed by Mr. Renshaw, who wished them every happiness and a very pleasant trip on their holiday. Little 2CX was not forgotten in this toast. Mr. Stowe, in responding, said that it had given him much pleasure to have the official opening ceremony at his residence, stating that it was the realisation of a dream he had had for a long time. The proceedings were brought to a conclusion by Mr. Hull, who made a few remarks with regard to the Federal body of the Institute. He said that the formation of the Federal Executive was the biggest thing in experimental radio at present. It was a practical result of the Perth Conference, and as soon as the Federal organisation was complete it was their intention to link up with other countries. The proceedings terminated about 10.30 p.m. Through the careful forethought of Mr. Stowe visitors had no difficulty in finding the location, as a green light was displayed at the masthead. These proceedings marked a very definite forward move in the history of the Institute, and one which will have far-reaching effects. During Mr. Stowe’s absence the set will be moved to the residence of Mr. Cooke, and from this station traffic will be worked and the calibration signals will be sent out. On Mr. Stowe’s return, 2WI will return to its present location, and the research work, calibration signals, and Traffic Bureau will be carried on with the aid of the new transmitter. Standard Frequency Calibration Signals. These signals, which have hitherto been transmitted from station 2CX, will in future be sent out by the Institute’s new transmitter under the call signal 2WI. This marks an important step in the history of these transmissions. Owing to the fact that a slight amount of interference has been occasioned by these transmissions being set out at 8 o’clock, it has been decided in future to revert to the 10 o ’clock schedule. Commencing on Tuesday, November 17, at 10 p.m., 2WI will transmit these signals in exactly the same manner as has hitherto been adopted at station 2CX. The same code signals will be employed, and the rating will be given in kilocycles of frequency, and also the wavelength in metres. Static Observations. Reports are coming to hand, and will be acknowledged in these columns next week.[188]

Crawford issues guidance on need for specific licence for receivers in motor vehicles

WIRELESS. . . . (BY ALAN BURROWS.) . . . LICENSES FOR PORTABLE SETS. In view of the references made in this column to portable sets, the State Radio Inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, has issued a statement giving the conditions — which are purely formal — under which one of these sets may be used. Application must be made to the Inspector (319 Castlereagh-street, Sydney) to use a portable set, which will immediately be granted, provided that no set is in use simultaneously at the owner's private residence. "A permanent installation on a motor car which would be used at the same time as that at a private residence," said Mr. Craw ford, constitutes a separate station, and an additional license would be necessary."[189]

1925 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford reports hearing the new VLF station at GBR Rugby, England

WIRELESS. RUGBY TESTS. HEARD IN SYDNEY. The news service which the huge British wireless station at Rugby has been disseminating in its first trial has been received in Sydney by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, radio inspector, at his home and at his office in the City South Telephone Exchange, Castlereagh street. Owing to the high wave length of 18,200 metres used by the station few experimenters in Sydney reported having received the messages. Mr. Crawford stated yesterday that he had been receiving the signals since the test began on Thursday. The news, comprising general items, was received, he said, with remarkable clearness, except on Saturday night, when local atmospherics made the messages unintelligible. As an example of broadcasting, he considered it very encouraging. Yesterday, he added, the transmission was again excellent. The service, which is given twice a day, begins at 11.5 a.m. and 11.5 p.m. (Sydney time), and lasts for about 25 minutes, though on the opening day the period was 40 minutes. Mr. Crawford states that he uses an ordinary broadcasting receiving set, constructed on low loss principles, but with long wave length coils substituted for the usual broadcasting coils. It is understood that the test will be continued each day, except Sunday, until the end of the month at least. WELLINGTON (N.Z.), Monday. Mr. Shrimpton, chief telegraph engineer, says that the test transmissions from the Rugby wireless station were heard with ease in all parts of New Zealand. The tests from a departmental point of view were eminently satisfactory, Rugby being clearly heard over the whole period of an hour of sending.[190]

As previous

RUGBY STATION. HEARD IN SYDNEY. STATIC INTERFERES. Until the end of the year the new high power station at Rugby (England) is sending test transmissions twice daily, in order to gauge the ease with which the signals can be received in the dominions, Australia particularly. So far the only reports of successful reception have come from Mr. E. T. S. Crawford, State radio inspector, who has a set on the roof of the City South Exchange Buildings, in Castlereagh-street, and one at his home at Killara. On account of the high ware length, 18,200 metros, few amateurs have yet picked up this English station, whose callsign is GBR. Mr. Crawford states that although static interferes considerably, sometimes altogether obliterating the messages, the reception is satisfactory, as not nearly all of Rugby's power is, as yet, being used. The messages consist chiefly of British Government news. The wireless authorities in Melbourne have also reported reception. Broadcasting Station 2FC has made arrangements to pick up the news that is being broadcast daily from the British Broadcasting Station at Rugby, for the information of Australian listeners. Rugby is sending out in Morse news items on a wave length of 18,200 metres, which is too great for an ordinary set to receive. The Morse code will be transcribed into plain language, and the spoken word placed on the air, commencing next Monday, at 11.5 a.m. (Sydney time).[191]

1926[edit | edit source]

1926 01[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends a second anniversary reunion dinner and concert for 2FC

"2F.C. CALLING." A GREAT SERVICE REUNION DINNER. TO COMMEMORATE the completion of the second year of Farmers' Broadcasting Service, Station 2FC, the director's of Farmer and Company, Ltd., invited the artists who have assisted making the programmes popular to a reunion dinner last night. It was a highly enjoyable function, free from formality, with an aftermath, not of speeches, but in the form of a brilliant concert, which was broadcast, and which continued until the new year dawned. Mr. Norman Pope, managing director, presided over a large attendance, which included Mr. C. G. Whyte, director; Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, general radio inspector in Sydney; Dean Talbot, Revs. R. Rix, St. Mark's; T. E. Ruth, Pitt-street Congregational Freman, Lyceum, and Doran, and Commandant Egan, Salvation Army; Messrs. Goodman, Chappel and Co., Lashmar Musical Publications, A. MacCunn, and J. C. Williams. "The King" was the only toast. In wishing everyone a happy and prosperous new year, Mr. Norman Pope remarked that two years ago, with no precedent as a guide, 2 F.C. commenced pioneer work. The many artists had assisted in the success achieved. NEWS SERVICES "The theatres of the J. C. Williamson circuit have become tremendously popular with the public," he said. "The Union Theatres and the Haymarket Theatre now regularly appear on our programme, and there are also the great news services provided by the "Sydney Morning Herald," the "Evening News," and the cable services of the Australian Press Association and Reuter's services. "Our studio work, involving the arrangement of the entertainment programmes, is one of most exacting detail. On an average, some 400 artists contribute to our programme every month. Each week probably anything up to 100 aspirants for inclusion in our programme are given trials. "We are now transmitting from four theatres, five picture theatres, and eight other city halls. Seventy-five pairs of telephone and special broadcasting lines are permanently connected to the studio with outside points of control, and on an average we send collecting apparatus to outside points for the collection of special transmissions to more than 100 places every month. "2F.C. was the first station to transmit an actual church service in Australia. That was from St. Mark's, Darling Point. We now transmit church services of all the leading denominations, and the studio is permanently connected with fifteen different places of worship. "Six of the leading metropolitan bands perform regularly for 2F.C., and we propose conducting, in conjunction with the Band Association of New South Wales and the "Evening News," the first interstate broadcasting band championship at the Sydney Sports Ground next month. We have also made arrangements with five choral societies and several amateur theatrical bodies. EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES "We have fully realised the great importance of the educational and general service value of wireless, and throughout the year arranged for many educational addresses. We have made a big feature of giving complete weather and stock reports, and a comprehensive general commercial session, covering practically every phase of the interstate and local markets. "All branches of sport receive the full measure of attention from the 2F.C. service. One week recently we were called upon to spend nearly nine hours in transmitting racing results during the spring carnival, and more than 1000 horses were dealt with in the six days. The more important cricket and football matches are described from the playing fields during the progress of the game. SOME RECORDS "2F.C., during 1925, has created some records in regard to unique transmissions. Meeting the American Fleet at sea, and describing the arrival from the Sir Dudley de Chair, the description of the illuminations on the harbor, the Great Public Schools regatta, and the recent broadcasting of two divers' stories from the bed of Middle Harbor, are worthy of mention. "Another record for landline transmissions was that established by our station, when the policy speech of the Prime Minister, Mr. Bruce, was carried by telephone line a distance of over 600 miles before it was broadcast in Sydney. "Also, through broadcasting we have been able materially to assist in the cause of charity. Last June, at the conclusion of the Radio Voice Competition, which we conducted, we were able, as a result of the big concert held in the Town Hall, the proceeds of which were devoted to charity, to hand over a substantial cheque to the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children." Dean Talbot, on behalf of the guests, conveyed the season's greetings to the directors of Farmers, and expressed high appreciation of the very valuable service given.[192]

1926 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford makes a media release warning of prosecutions when holders of broadcast receive licences do not pay subsequent instalments or operate receivers without current licences

WIRELESS. Payment of License Fees. NOTICES ISSUED. The Federal Radio Department has, during the past week, issued notices to the users of radio receiving sets in New South Wales that prosecutions will be ordered in cases where it is found that licenses have not been renewed, or if the receiving sets are being used without any license being taken out. During the past month inspectors have been visiting different areas around Sydney, and other parts of New South Wales. As a result of these inspections it has been found that a great number of people are using receiving sets without having a current license for the receiving of wireless broadcasting. Some prosecutions have already taken place, and fines have been imposed, A number of additional prosecutions are pending. Inspectors under the Broadcasting Act have the right to inspect premises for wireless receiving sets, and the license is payable whether the aerial is an outside one, an inside one, or the receiving set one that works without any aerial, or merely a loop. All radio inspectors have an authorisation signed by the State inspector of the Federal Radio Department. In the case of New South Wales the authorisation is signed by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, State inspector of Radio, and this authority will be produced by any inspector on the demand of the householder. Mr. Crawford stated yesterday that he had been informed a number of users of radio receiving sets had taken out a yearly license on the payment of 15/ for the half-year, and then intimated that they did not intend to pay the remaining 15/, as they asserted they were not now using their receiving sets. The Federal Radio Department does not issue a half-yearly license, but a yearly one on pay-mont of 27/6, which can, if so desired, be paid in two half-yearly instalments of 15/ each, the extra charge being for the booking expenses. But the receiver of an annual license on the instalment system has to sign a guarantee that the second instalment will be paid when due, and if this is not done a prosecution will follow in due course.[193]

1926 07[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends official opening of the new high power transmitter of 2BL

ON THE AIR. 2BL's HIGH POWER. OPENED BY MARR. One hundred guests this morning visited the transmitting station of Broadcasters (Sydney), Ltd., at Coogee, where, in a marquee, the Federal Honorary Minister (Mr. Marr) officially declared open 2BL's new high power station, which now operates on 5000 watts. Mr. Marr said broadcasting had become an important community service, one that was regarded as almost indispensable. The recent strike in England afforded an example of this. Although the newspapers were restricted, information was sent by wireless several times daily so that the people could follow the progress of the industrial war. The future of broadcasting was almost fearsome in its possibilities. The day of telephotography and television did not appear to be far distant. "We will not hesitate to make changes," said Mr. Marr, referring to the Government's attitude towards broadcasting, "when sound reasons are advanced, but no radical change will be made without consultation and careful consideration." Dissatisfaction existed in this country regarding broadcasting. This was unavoidable, and was experienced in other countries, where changes in methods had been made necessary. There would necessarily be some changes here, and the Government was watching the position closely. LISTENERS' LICENSES Wireless development in N.S.W. , as measured by the number of listeners' licenses, could not, he said, be regarded as satisfactory. In this State the total was less than 37,000, while in Victoria there were 64,000. He could not help feeling that there were a great many people in this State who were dodging their obligations. (Hear hear.) The post-office was trying to locate them, and make them pay fines as well as fees. Listeners generally should co-operate in the work of reporting such people. Many of the complaints, he thought, came from people who paid very little and accepted a great deal. He congratulated 2BL on its fine record, and remarked that he had been At the opening of 2BL's new broadcasting station today). Front row, left to right: E. R. Voigt, A. C. Willis, M.L.C., J. W. Kitto, Deputy Postmaster-General Mr. C. W. Marr, (Honorary Minister), Mr. Justly Rawlings, Mr. George Wright, Mr. C. Lloyd Jones, Mr. S. R. Bean, Mr. W. J. Maclardy, Mr. R. H. O'Brien. associated with the opening of the wireless station at Bagdad. Touching on sealed sets, he said the system was a fair one at the time it was introduced. It was impossible to get a set that would receive all classes of wavelengths. Mr. Justly Rawlings, director of Broadcasters, Ltd., said the original proposal to the Federal Government was that one big broadcasting company should operate for the whole of Australia, as in England, where some eight stations were operated by the one interest. PATENT ROYALTIES He urged the appointment of a Royal Commission to investigate the question of patent royalties. The imposition of royalties on wireless materials and inventions was definitely retarding progress. As to copyright, inordinate claims had been made on broadcasting companies, under threats of legal action. Obsolete laws were being used to promote claims that were disproportionate and harmful. This question also should be referred to a Royal Commission. Those present included: Mr. L. P. R. Bean, chairman of directors of Broadcasters, Ltd.; Mr. Justly Rawlings; Mr. C. Lloyd Jones; Mr. J. W. Kitto (Deputy Postmaster-General), Mr. W. T. S. Crawford (radio inspector), Senator Grant, Major-General Bruche, the Vice-President of the Executive Council (Mr. Willis), Mr. E. T. Fisk (managing director of Amalgamated Wireless), Mr. George Wright (Farmer and Co.), and Mr. P. H. Pettyfer (chairman of the radio section of the Electrical Employers' Association).[194]

1926 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford on leave, Brown acting

RADIO INSPECTOR ON LEAVE. The Radio Inspector for New South Wales (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) is at present on annual leave. He is being relieved by Mr. James Brown.[195]

1926 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford endorses a selective crystal set for listeners close to Sydney's several high power broadcast stations

SELECTIVE SET. OFFICIALLY ENDORSED. Crystal users who desire to build a really selective set should study the one described and illustrated below. It is recommended by the radio inspector (Mr. Crawford), and has been exhaustively tested by members of his staff. With the set situated about 300 yards from Sandel's station, from 2BL, 2KY, or 2 GB, these stations have been satisfactorily cut out. No test has yet been made close to 2FC, but the radio officials believe that it would prove equally efficient there. The circuit is an example of the fact that there is nothing new under the sun. It was patented more than 25 years ago, but has been allowed to fall more or less into disuse. At first glance it bears a strong likeness to the orthodox two-circuit crystal circuit. It differs from that, however, in that the ordinary procedure is reversed, and the secondary coil made smaller than the primary. The other difference is that a .001 variable condenser is placed across the secondary coil, instead of the usual .0005. The argument in favor of these changes is that a small inductance (32 turns) and a large condenser (.001) in the secondary makes for a "stiff circuit," which, while it loses somewhat in sensitivity, is very selective. With high power stations all around us sensitivity is not the vital factor that it was. Following are the official recommendations regarding parts required:— Aerial, about 80ft. to 100ft., total length; two .001 variable condensers; spider web coil of 50 turns No. 23 S.W.G.; spider web coil of 32 turns No. 22 S.W.G.; crystal detector; one .001 fixed condenser; telephones; earth connection. The price of the set, without the aerial, works out at £2 13s 2d, but radio officials explain that in estimating this they have taken the cheapest prices they could find. The cheapest goods, of course, are not necessarily the best. The price is made up as follows:— Two variable condensers, £1 4s 6d; stationary spider web coil, 1s 3d; variable spider web coil, 1s 9d; pins, 1s 6d; crystal detector, 1s 6d; fixed condenser, 1s 6d; telephones, 16s; earth connection, four terminals — one for aerial, one for earth, and two for 'phones — 8d; box to hold set, 4s 6d; total, £2 13s 2d. Tuning is accomplished by rotating the two variable condensers. If interference is experienced, one of the coils should be gradually moved away from the other, the second variable condenser being slightly adjusted at the same time. If, however, the two coils are kept too far apart the strength of the signals will diminish.[196]

Crawford returns to work after leave

SHORT WAVES. BACK TO WORK. The Radio Inspector for N.S.W. (Mr. Crawford) has resumed duty after his annual holidays. As a member of the Mosman-Neutral Bay Rifle Club, he took part in the annual shoot at Liverpool.[197]

Salaries of all Third Division Officers reviewed, with modest increases

COMMONWEALTH PUBLIC SERVICE. OFFICERS OF THE THIRD DIVISION. The Governor-General, pursuant to sub-regulation (8) of Public Service Regulation No. 105, has on the recommendation of the Public Service Board of Commissioners altered the limits of salary to be paid as from the 1st July, 1926, in the offices shown in the following schedule and the salaries payable from that date to the officers occupying those offices, to the amounts shown therein, and where so indicated has fixed the dates on which increments following such alterations may be paid :— C. B. B. White, Chairman; W. J. Skewes, J. P. McGlinn, Board of Commissioners. Melbourne, 10th November, 1926. Schedule. . . . POSTMASTER-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. CENTRAL STAFF.

  • No.: 796
  • Officer: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Office Occupied: Radio Inspector, Grade 5
  • Branch or Station: Sydney
  • Limits of Salary from 1st July, 1926: 546-612
  • Salary of Officer from 1st July 1926: 582
  • Date of next Increment: 1.7.27
  • Remarks: Nil[198]

Crawford provides guidance on broadcast receive licence renewal procedure

RENEWAL OF LICENSES. A Liverpool correspondent complains that in renewing his license he was deprived of the rights under his expiring license for a period of 12 days. The expiring license terminated on October 21, and the correspond-ent states that he paid the renewal fee on October 9, and the new license was dated for 12 months from the earlier date. He asserts that this amounts to "sharp practice" on the part of the Post Office Department, and will have the effect of causing dilatoriness in the renewal of receivers' licenses. Mr. Crawford, State radio inspector, whose attention was called to this matter, stated that the postal official at Liverpool acted wrongly in antedating the new license, as under the regulations the renewal date was from the expiry of the existing license, and the matter would be rectified when the return came into the State radio inspector's depart-ment. He pointed out that every holder of a receiver's license gets a postcard notice about one month before the expiration of his license, and that postcard contains informa-tion showing the date on which the license expires, which would be the date of the com-mencement of the new license.[199]

1926 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford details rights of his inspectors to enter premises when use of an unlicensed set is suspected

WIRELESS. Unlicensed Receiving Sets. POST-OFFICE PROSECUTIONS. During the past week a fresh batch of radio prosecutions were brought before the courts at the instance of the Post Office Department, and persons found guilty of having a wireless receiver without a license were mulcted in substantial sums. It has been announced on behalf of the Post Office authorities that radio investigators are making a systematic house-to-house canvass in districts where it is believed there are a number of wireless receiving sets in use by unlicensed persons. In order that there may be no deception practiced on householders by unauthorised persons posing as "radio inspectors," each householder can demand that the inspector should show his authority from the Postmaster-General. This should also be countersigned by Mr. Crawford radio inspector for New South Wales. Official inspectors of the radio department have the right to make a personal investigation of every room in a house in the event of their not being shown a license for a receiving set, should they have any reason to believe there is an unlicensed receiving set on the premises. A new means has been devised for ascertaining the location of neutrodyne, superhetrodyne and other receiving sets which do not require an outside aerial in the case of owners of expensive receivers of this kind who have been prosecuted for not having a licenses, the magistrates have, up to the present, adopted the policy of imposing heavier penalties than in the case of owners of crystal sets. It must also be remembered by unlicensed owners that the magistrate has the right, under the Wireless Act, to order the confiscation of the receiving set. Hence the payment of the 27/6 license fee is an insurance against the confiscation of a receiver costing from £30 to £80 or more. When a householder has shown the radio inspector the current license, he has no further right to inspect the premises, provided there is only one tenant in the building. The license gives the occupier of any premises the right to have as many receiving sets in his residence as he wishes, but he cannot use the one receiving set in two different premises unless he has a permit from the radio inspector. Thus, if a person wishes to take a portable receiver with him on his holidays, he must have a permit from the radio inspector or else he will be liable to prosecution as the owner of an unlicensed receiver, notwithstanding the fact that he may have an operative license for his ordinary residence. Licenses for wireless receivers can be had it all post-offices and at most important sub-post-offices. The license is for one year from the date of issue, and if not renewed before the expiry date, the defaulter is liable to prosecution. License fees can be paid for half-yearly in two sums of 15/ each, but the license is for the year and the payment of the second 15/ is legally due at the end of the six months, whether the receiving set is being used or not. There is no such thing as a receiver's license for a period of six months. Assumptions to the contrary have led to many persons being prosecuted.[200]

1927[edit | edit source]

1927 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford's team of radio inspectors extend their activities to inquire into blanketing interference in the northern suburbs of Sydney

WIRELESS. ROYAL COMMISSION. Preparation of Evidence. Inspectors from the New South Wales radio section of the Postal Department have been engaged during the past week in a series of inquiries in the northern suburbs. This is more than the ordinary inspection to ascertain if there are owners of receiving sets who have not taken out licenses or renewed previous ones That was done in the ordinary course of procedure, and, it is understood, a number of defaulters have been found who will, in due course, receive a peremptory invitation to the police court. But, from the standpoint of the Royal Commission, the main investigation by the inspectors was regarding the problem of "interference." From facts that have been brought under notice it is probable that the evidence secured by the inspectors may not bring out the real nature of the "interference" that is being suffered. During recent months the great majority of licenses cancelled in the Sydney metropolitan area were by residents in the northern suburbs districts. The reason of this was that the owner of one of the older makes of receiving set had either to scrap it or dismantle his aerial. Many of the dissatisfied listeners dismantled their aerials. If the inspectors would state a little more fully the reasons why they are making these inquiries they would probably obtain more reliable information. It seems that in many instances ladies in the various households visited either do not properly appreciate the import of the questions asked them, or, if they do, they have an impression that there is an ulterior motive behind the investigation, and so give evasive replies. Radio listeners in the northern suburbs, who may be visited by inspectors from the radio department during the coming weeks, should have some definite information prepared beforehand regarding the difficulties they are experiencing from "interstation interference." It may be again emphasised that the radio inspectors have a signed authority from the State Radio Inspector (Mr. Crawford) to make the investigation. Should there be any doubt as to the bona fides of the person making the inspection he can be called upon to show his authority. If he cannot show a written authority, properly signed, then it is clearly a case for the prompt calling of the police and the telephoning of the State Radio Inspector or the Post Office Department. There have been reports of missing radio sets, or important parts, after the "inspection" of the receiving set by unauthorised persons.[201]

1927 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford gives evidence at the Royal Commission on Wireless in respect of interference to broadcasting

WIRELESS COMMISSION. ROCKING THE BOAT ON WIRELESS WAVES. CAUSES EXPLAINED. Questioned on the subject of interference with broadcasting reception, Mr. W. G. Crawford, New South Wales radio inspector, told the Wireless Commission today that a new listener, who had constructed a four-valve set, would work it to the utmost to obtain results more easily achieved by a five or six valve set. In doing this he might cause interference. IT would take him a few weeks to learn to work the set. After that the interference would disappear. Electric light stations might cause interference. Any moving electric object even the coils of a motor car, would interfere with radio reception. All over the Blue Mountains and also from Newcastle to Singleton, the reception from local stations was poor at night; but 3LO, Melbourne, and 4QG, Queensland, were always clear at night. Witness quoted figures regarding the proportions of crystal sets and valve sets in use in Sydney. He said that the percentage of crystal sets was from 55 to 60.[202]

As previous, Crawford also notes successful daytime reception in NSW country towns with high performance valve sets, but notes need for relay stations to give crystal set users adequate reception

EXPERIMENTS IN COUNTRY. Mr. W. T. Crawford, radio inspector for New South Wales, who gave evidence yesterday, was further examined. He gave particulars of experiments made by the department at Gundagai and Dubbo, of daylight reception with a six-valve set. These he described as very successful. Speaking of interference by oscillating sets, witness said that the troubles complained of by listeners-in were due to a variety of causes. Every moving electrical machine, even the coils of a motor car, could cause interference. Answering a question as to where reception from N.S.W. stations was bad at night, witness mentioned Lithgow, the Blue Mountains, and from the northern side of Newcastle to Singleton. Reception at night from 3LO and 4QG was invariably good. The Chairman: What, in your opinion, is the remedy for this state of affairs? Witness: Relay stations. MORE CRYSTAL SETS. Mr. Crawford gave a mass of figures showing the proportion of crystal sets to valves in various suburbs of Sydney. These showed that the percentage was in favor of crystal sets by 60 to 55. In only one area inspected did the valve sets exceed the crystal, and that was in Randwick. Kensington, Coogee, Bondi, Woollahra, &c., where the figures were 879 and 831 respectively. Replying to Mr. Markell, witness said he would guarantee satisfactory reception on a crystal set over a radius of 15 miles but not over 25 miles. "If you look after the crystal user you automatically protect the valve user," he said, in reply to another question. The Chairman: The position is such, in your opinion, as to justify the erection of a certain number of relay stations?" SELF-SUPPORTING SCHEME. Sir James Elder: Do you recommend the erection of relay stations without inquiry into the whole matter by a scientific or research bureau? Witness: Yes; the judicious erection of relay stations, in my opinion, would bring such an increase of licenses that the scheme would be self-supporting. High-powered stations, he pointed out, would never reach the man at Wagga with a crystal set, for instance. People in Wagga and towns similarly situated, with limited means, were crying out for reception, and could not get it.[203]

1927 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford, details included in list of all Central Office staff Commonwealth public servants, as at November 1927 ?

Postmaster-General's Department, Central Staff.

  • Telegraphs and Wireless Branch
  • Page No.: 2
  • Name: Crawford, W. T. S.
  • Date of Birth: 14.12.80
  • Date of First Appointment: 7.6.01
  • Office: Radio Inspector, Grade 5 (stationed at Sydney)
  • Division: III
  • Scale of Salary: L546-612
  • Salary: L582
  • Deduction for Rent: N/A
  • Allowances: Nil
  • Present Salary received from: 1.7.26[204]
1927 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends Commonwealth Radio Conference

RADIO'S PART IN OUR DEFENCE. BIG CONFERENCE OPENS. "I CAN visualise the day when, if Australia has to defend herself, we shall be able to nullify the approach of either men o' war or aeroplanes by radio." That statement was made by Sir Charles Rosenthal at the Town Hall today at the Commonwealth Radio Conference, which was opened by the Lord Mayor. Sir Charles was responding to a welcome extended to him as president of the Architects' Association. Incidentally he pointed out that Australia was the only country in the world in whose territory there had never been war. WELCOMED TO CONFERENCE. Others welcomed to the conference were Dr. Arthur, Minister for Health, representing the State Government; Mr. Crawford, Chief Radio Expert, Commonwealth Government; Mr. M'Lean, Institute of Engineers; Mr. Nangle, Government Astronomer; Mr. Walker, representing the radio trade; Mr. Walter Young, Listeners' League; Mrs. P. M. Taylor, hon. sec. Town Planning Association; and Mr. Farmer Whyte, Institute of Journalists. Others participating in the conference were Messrs. O. Anderson, 2FC; G. A. Saunders and Bennett, 2 GB: E. R. Voigt, United Distributors; E. G. Beard, Wire-less Institute; J. S. Garden, 2KY; and various representatives of the wireless trade. Mr. George A. Taylor, president of the Association for Developing Wireless in Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji, occupied the chair. A general feeling of optimism as to the future of wireless in Australia was voiced by him and other speakers. The Lord Mayor, in opening the conference, said he understood that the association had been having a great battle with the Government, but he hoped the Government would in future give it every assistance. We have the brains in Australia to develop anything," said Ald. Mostyn, "and why not wireless?" Before getting down to the business, which was the constitution of a number of committees to report to conference tomorrow, approval was given by the delegates, standing for a moment in silence, for a radio message to be sent to the King.[205]

1928[edit | edit source]

1928 01[edit | edit source]

Engagement announced of Crawford's eldest daughter Alice Beryl Crawford

RECENT ENGAGEMENTS. MISS ALICE BERYL CRAWFORD, elder daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. T. S. Crawford, of Killara, to Mr. James M. R. Campbell, third son of Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Campbell, of Killara.[206]

Crawford listed (in a Who's Who of Australia) amongst the mourners for the late George Augustine Taylor in a tribute by his wife

A TRIBUTE TO THE LATE GEORGE A TAYLOR. PERHAPS it is but natural, being the chief mourner of the late George Augustine Taylor, Editor of "Building," "Construction," "The Commonwealth Home," "The Australasian Engineer" and "The Radio Journal," who was my gentle and devoted husband and constant companion in work and play, that I should, feel too full to give expression in words suitable to an occasion of such magnitude, for with his decease the . . . Mr. and Mrs. W. T. S. Crawford, Gordon. (Radio Inspector).[207]

Crawford explains the impact of the new Wireless Regulations as to broadcast listener licenses

WIRELESS & RADIO. (BY ALAN BURROWS) . . . There still appears to be some doubt in the minds of many people concerning the new regulations in regard to license fees, which became operative on January 1. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, State radio inspector, has summarised them for "The Sun" in a way that should make the new conditions clear to everyone. "From January 1," said Mr. Crawford, "the dealers' listening license, the temporary license, special broadcast listeners' license, and the listeners' license paid in half-yearly instalments have been abolished. In their place has been substituted the standard broadcast listeners' license, the fees for which are: Zone 1, 24s; zones 2 and 3, 17s 6d. Persons who obtained a license on the half-yearly instalment plan on or before December 31, 1927, are obliged to pay the second instalment of 15s when due. Every agent and re-presentative of a radio firm — everyone, in fact, using a wireless service — is required to hold a standard listeners' license. The conditions and fees of experimental licenses have not been altered." [208]

1928 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends annual dinner of Waverley Radio Club and assures gathered experimenters that PMGD is sympathetic towards them

WIRELESS & RADIO. (BY ALAN BURROWS) . . . EXPERIMENTERS' POSITION. That experimenters have nothing to fear from the Federal authorities in the form of any unjust curtailment of their privileges, was a point emphasised by the State radio inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) at the annual dinner of the Waverley Radio Club. Even the Washington conference, which had allocated different wave lengths for experimental use, would scarcely affect amateurs in Australia, as they are so far removed from any likelihood of interference with other countries. At the same time, said Mr. Crawford, there were always the requirements of the broadcasting community to be taken into consideration, and sometimes the experimenters' privileges had to yield to the demands of the greater number. Still, the attitude of the department was sympathetic towards the band of experimenters, who, in time of emergency, would prove such an asset to the country.[209]

As previous

WIRELESS. . . . WAVERLEY CLUB REUNION. About 45 enthusiastic radio amateurs, whose messages have gone forth to the furthermost parts of the earth, met at the ninth reunion of the Waverley Radio Club at Altmount, Macpherson-street, Waverley. Included in the company were Mr. Walter Hannam, who went with Douglas Mawson to the Antarctic, and Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, the radio inspector for New South Wales. in proposing the toast of kindred societies, Mr. W. Perry, president of the club, said that in time of war the Government would find the radio clubs a solid body and very useful. Mr. Sharp, of the Marrickville club, said if they could organise the whole of the radio amateurs of Australasia they could organise the world. Mr. Hannam, in proposing the New South Wales Radio Transmitters' League, said he hoped that the league would be able to do what it set out to accomplish. They had to remember that they were all going to be roped in by the military or navy, and the sooner that happened the better it would be for this country. It had already taken place in America. When such a thing happened they would have a larger field for their activities than they had at present; they would have some definite scheme and have something to work for. They had to remember that the signallers belonged to the highest branch in both services; they were the nerves of the army. When radio amateurs were incorporated In the army and navy they would be filling the place that they were intended for.[210]

1928 04[edit | edit source]

Crawford provides advice on separating 2BL and 2FC on a crystal set

WIRELESS. . . . INTER-STATION INTERFERENCE. The State Radio Inspector (Mr. Crawford) stated last evening that he had had numerous complaints concerning the interference between 2FC and 2BL. He pointed out that practically all the complaints were from residents in the Parramatta and adjoining districts, all of whom are within from one to five miles of 2FC transmitting station at Pennant Hills. He stated that in this locality it would be extremely difficult to tune out 2FC so as to receive 2BL on a crystal set. Complaints are being continually received from users of crystal sets in this area. Mr. Crawford can hold out no hopes of improved reception on crystal sets in this district under the existing system of broadcasting. The transmission of 2BL, in districts about 15 miles from Coogee, becomes almost too weak for satisfactory crystal reception, so that if 2FC were tuned out the reception of 2BL would be took weak for comfortable reception on a crystal set. It takes an exceptionally good aerial and earth to get 2BL at headphone strength on a crystal receiver | 15 miles distant from the transmitting station. When that 15 miles ends in the proximity of Pennant Hills, the shock to the aerial by 2FC's transmission is sufficient to prevent the satisfactory reception of 2BL on anything but a valve set. The remedy apparently lies in the addition of a valve circuit to the crystal set, or in an improvement in the transmission on lines likely to reduce, if not prevent, inter-station interference.[211]

1928 05[edit | edit source]

Local Scone amateur being unjustly accused of interference to broadcast reception, refers the listeners to Crawford

Correspondence. LOCAL BROADCAST RECEPTION. (To the Editor). Sir,— In a recent issue of your journal I noticed a statement relating to the fact that radio broadcast reception in Scone was subject at times to severe interference, and in a subsequent discussion with certain enthusiastic broadcast listeners it was suggested that some experimenter was causing the trouble. I crave space to say a few words on the matter. So far as I know, at the present I happen to be the only holder of an experimental license endorsed for transmitting in this locality, and as such, naturally, suspicion may be centred on me. I would like to state, however, that it is quite impossible for any transmission tests I have carried out lately to have caused this trouble. My present tests are being conducted on approximately 32.7 metres and 21.3 metres, and I use a circuit in my transmitter which is practically the last word in control of wave length, in other words, sharpness in tuning, and signals from the transmitter cannot possibly be picked up by my own broadcast receiver situated 15 feet from the transmitter, even when using a Morse key in the circuit. In any case the times given me relating to this interference do not coincide with the times in my log book concerning my tests, when I was operating. What I would suggest, Mr. Editor, if the miscreant cannot be induced by other means to stop this nuisance is for some local B.C.L. to make a complaint either to the Post Office officials, or direct to Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Chief Radio Inspector for New South Wales, Sydney, and they will take action which will make this interferer sorry. I write strongly on this matter, because, in the first place, no experimenter should interfere with broadcast reception from a sense of fair play, and again, because there is a very heavy penalty attached, but also because we amateur experimenters have obtained very hardly earned privileges, and are very apt to get the blame for others' misdeeds, and so lose what few privileges we have left. Trusting, Mr. Editor, that someone in Scone will take action in this matter, and assuring you that I will assist in any possible way.— Yours, etc., T. K. ABBOTT, Owner and Operator Amateur Station OA—2TK.[212]

1928 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford to attend the Lismore Radio and Electrical Exhibition co-ordinated by the Richmond River Listeners' League

RADIO EXHIBITION. BROADCAST IN ALL STATES. Mr. Crawford, State radio inspector for the P.M.G.'s Department, will be in Lismore for the radio and electrical exhibition to be held in the Masonic Hall on July 12, 13 and 14. The exhibition has been arranged by the Richmond River Listeners-in League and an announcement of it has been broadcast by A class stations in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland during the evening sessions, so the fact that such an exhibition will be staged in Lismore has been made known throughout the Commonwealth. The Sydney station, 2FC, has informed the league secretary that the broadcast of animal imitations by Mr. A. Shum, of Lismore, will be put on the air as near as possible to 9 p.m. on Saturday, July 14, so all Lismore set-owners and those at the exhibition at that time will be able to hear him. In addition to amateur local sets of which the makers think they have cause to be proud, and many locally built sets by dealers, which have been on the market for some time, some special sets by Sydney firms will show the latest in the wireless world. The growing demand for labour saving devices in the home will be well demonstrated by a wide range of apparatus on these lines. Particular attention is drawn to this section of the exhibition in view of the new electric supply system in Lismore and the certain reduction of the price of current once the plant is in full swing.[213]

1928 07[edit | edit source]

As previous, Crawford interviewed prior to exhibition, notes growth of listener licences, non-commital on prospects for a local station

OPENS TODAY. RADIO EXHIBITION INSPECTOR'S COMMENTS. The Lismore Radio and Electrical Exhibition opens in the Masonic Hall at 2 p.m. today and will continue until 10 p.m. Tomorrow it will be open from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. and during the same hours on Saturday. The Mayor of Lismore (Ald. C. McKenzie) will officially open the exhibition at 8 o'clock this evening. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, radio inspector, P.M.G.'s Department, arrived in Lismore last night and will be present at the exhibition today. Interviewed last night Mr. Crawford said that the number of listeners-in in New South Wales had greatly in-creased during the past 12 months, and this increase was particularly noticeable in the country districts where the proportion had grown from 10 per cent, to 25 per cent. This State with its 71,000 licenses had a long way to go to overtake Victoria's 135,000, but the difference was being reduced. This would be all the better for broadcasting in New South Wales. He outlined the departmental policy as one of co-operation with listeners, and the department was always willing to give advice. He stated that the whole question of relay stations was being gone into by the department, but he could not at the present stage indicate the outcome. Questioned as to the likelihood of a relay station being established in Lismore he proved non-committal, but stated that if one was erected it would be some distance from the town so as to reduce to a minimum the possibilities of blotting out inter-state reception. During the last six months there had been a great number of additional licenses issued in the Lismore district, in which connection the Richmond River Listeners' League had done excellent work, and the department realised the necessity of catering for country set-owners. Mr. Crawford will judge in the amateur set competition at the exhibition today. He was in the company of the president of the local listeners' league (Mr. S. J. Hosie) last night and the latter took the opportunity of impressing on Mr. Crawford the fact that in a large country town like Lismore the money invested in radio equipment is much greater than in a similarly-sized portion of a city because only multiple valve sets are of value in the country town, whereas crystal sets or one valve sets satisfy the needs of many city dwellers living a few miles from a broadcasting station. Radio exhibitors were busy yesterday erecting aerials at the Masonic Hall, and some fine sets will be on exhibition today. All kinds of labour-saving electrical appliances will be shown, and, in view of the fact that the town now has a new electrical system and the price of current is gradually coming down, these should be of great interest to all householders.[214]

Crawford speaks at length at opening of Lismore Radio and Electrical Exhibition, accepts reception difficulties in Lismore, foreshadows developments, promotes experimenter Exton

RADIO EXHIBITION – LISMORE INTEREST. OFFICIAL OPENING BY MAYOR. Officially opening the radio and electrical exhibition in the Masonic Hall, Lismore, last night the Mayor (Ald. C. McKenzie) stressed the vast improvement made in broadcasting as evidenced by that display since the exhibition in the same hall a few years ago. The difference was most marked and though conditions at the Masonic Hall are anything but ideal for reception it is only necessary to remember the whistles, bangs, and snorts which constituted reception on the previous occasion to realise the advance that radio has made. Fortunately most persons ara now sufficiently acquainted with good recep-tion to avoid the mistake of confusing it with the Masonic Hall kind. The interest of the general public was evidenced by an attendance of about 300 people between 2 p.m. and 10 p.m., when the display was closed. It will be open to-day and to-morrow from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. The latest sets, in handsome cases which would ornament any home, are on view, prices varying from three valve sets at £20 and less to super-eights at more than £100. The electrical dealers show many devices for the home and the general standard of the exhibition brought commendation from city visitors. In addition to the receiving sets many exhibitors display parts. OFFICIAL OPENING. Mr. S. J. Hosie, president of the Richmond River Listeners' League, which organised the exhibition, introduced the speakers to an audience of about 100 at the official opening ceremony and explained the good work the league was doing for listeners in general and those in the district in particular. The Mayor and Mayoress were both present and the Mayor congratulated the Richmond River Listeners' League on organising such a display and the exhibitors on their exhibits. He referred to the varied nature of the articles, the latest in the radio field and the last word in electrical washing machines and labour saving devices for the home. He pointed out that the council had installed an up-to-date electrical plant which would be further improved in the future and a natural result would be decrease in prices and an increased consumption. He said the council recognised that broadcasting had brought something new into the life of the people and was out to assist the new development which was strengthening the home life of the nation by making homes more attractive. The Mayor pointed out that every listener paid a fee. Though not very large they amounted to a great deal in the aggregate. This money went to provide programmes for all and thus to a certain extent the broadcasting stations belonged to the people for they provided a communal service. He hoped that the future would not only see stations limited but that the country districts would have their transmitting stations and country listeners would be in the same fortunate position as those of the cities. He contrasted the present exhibition with the previous one and it was an indication not only of the progress of radio but of Lismore. He concluded with congratulations to the League and exhibitors, extended good wishes for success, and declared the exhibition officially open. DEPARTMENT'S ATTITUDE. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, radio inspector, thanked the league for the invitation to be present and said he had no difficulty in securing departmental permission for the department was endeavouring to do all that it could for the benefit of those who paid license fees. He congratulated officers and members of the league, also the radio dealers, on the display, which he considered the best staged in any country town. The department was well aware of reception conditions in Lismore and district, for it kept in touch with the whole of the State and he did not think that it would be very long before a policy was put forward by which country listeners-in would be better served. The limiting factors in the matter were chiefly financial for stations and land lines were costly; the technical side of the question did not present such great difficulties as the financial. He dealt with the complications that would arise were too many stations to be licensed and explained how the air in Europe and America had become congested by insufficient attention to this factor and the steps that had been taken to remedy it. The necessity for care in this direction was evidenced in the north of Australia, where the high powered Japanese stations interfered with the reception of Australian stations, and in some places the same remarks applied to the New Zealand stations. PROGRAMMES. Mr. Crawford spoke of the Government's action with regard to the improvement of programmes which was about to bear fruit and thought that all listeners-in with some experience of programmes would admit that these were improving. He knew nothing officially of the amalgamation of stations beyond that it was a step to eliminate financial waste which was going on and to give better programmes, and better programmes was the wish of the Government. Dealing with the interference question he said that Lismore was not unique in experiencing this trouble. He had been listening-in for the past two nights and reception in Lismore was what he would call "good," and the electrical officers in country towns were only too glad to co-operate with the department in eliminating trouble where possible. He said that there were some causes of electrical disturbances, such as those associated with X-ray plants, which could not be obviated and necessary services could not be stopped. The same trouble was experienced in America, where the big electrical manufacturers had created special departments to deal with this phase. There was a greater possibility of interference with direct current than with alternating current and when Lismore was using alternating current only he anticipated an improvement in conditions. Mr. Crawford next dealt with the howling trouble and counselled the league to educate set owners to the realisation that broadcasting was a communal service. He said that Lismore had a very fine experimenter in Mr. Exton, with whom he and the chief of the department had been in touch for many years, and he hoped that other young men would be encouraged to follow in Mr. Exton's footsteps. He urged the league to consider the formation of a technical branch, also to teach the young listeners telegraphy. He would like to see an experimental station established in Lismore. One effect of this would be to make the name of Lismore known not only in all parts of the Commonwealth but in America and other overseas countries. At the instance of Mr. Hosie a vote of thanks was carried to the Mayor and Mr. Crawford. The amateur sets were judged by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, radio inspector from the P.M.G.'s Department, points being awarded for wiring (neatness and electrical correctness), panel layout, baseboard layout, suitability of apparatus, simplicity of control, novel mechanical features, novel electrical features, and general appearance and design, total 100. Results were:— Multivalve set, H. Attewell (Nimbin), 89 points, 1; E. W. B. Stanger (Nimbin), 83 points, 2; B. L. Smith (Lismore), 82 points, 3. Single valve set, J. Threlfall, 80 points. Short wave set, H. Temperly, 85. 1; J. Threlfall, 83, 2. Combination short wave and broadcast wave set, J. Threlfall, 83 points. TRADE DISPLAYS. Exhibitors included Mr. J. S. Meaney, showing a wide range of Radiola (Amalgamated Wireless) products, including a super-eight, straight six, screened six, standard six, all-electric six, service tester, and the Electrutone, the latter a device for attaching to a gramopohne and receiving the music through a wireless set. This makes possible excellent gramophone music from a cheap gramophone if it is not desired to tune into a broadcasting station. A number of similar devices of different, makes were shown by other firms. Mr. V. Bale showed a fine range of R.C.A. sets and speakers, including all electric models and those operated by battery power. An unusual feature was a power speaker for use in a hall. This was operated by four valves and would make music from an ordinary orchestra seem of very small volume. Many of the R.C.A. sets have been sold in Lismore and district during the past few weeks. Webster, Jack, and McDonald showed 6-valve Crossley and Kolstor sets in varied designs and handsome cabinets, together with speakers and all equipment. F. Wicks and Company had a fine display of New System sets, five, three, and six valves, which are made by the New System Telephone Company, a firm with an international reputation. Floor and table models were included and cone speakers at a very reasonable price are worth attention. The C.C.M. Company showed its own well-known models, handsomely cased and completely equipped. Mr. P. Hoare showed Harrington's popular fives and threes, Gilfillan neutrodynes, Burgophones, Consol standard five, a complete range of Amplion speakers, other makes of speakers and valves and radio parts of all kinds. Mr. J. R. Currie showed the famous Atwater Kent sets of varying power all with the one-dial control which this firm claims to have originated and which is now seen as a feature of a number of makes. The serial number of one set was 2,109,000, so the make must be a popular one. Bennet and Woods are the N.S.W. distributors for Stewart Warner sets and showed the popular five-valve model together with Columbia and Everready batteries and an interesting display of Philips valves, which included an exhibit explanatory of the different stages a valve goes through before it is placed on the market. Lismore Electric Company had a stand full of all kinds of electrical devices for the home including irons, fans, radiators, kettles, toasters, urns, time switches, all worked by electricity; also all kinds of radio parts and speakers, battery chargers, etc. Northern Rivers Radio (Mr. R. W. Rogers) showed the Freshman five, World five, speakers, vlaves (sic), and radio parts. Mr. E. Downs exhibited many different kinds of electrical equipment including irons, fans, radiators, lamp fittings, etc.[215]

1928 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford's forecast that electrical interference in Lismore will reduce following commissioning of new power station, proven correct

RADIO RECEPTION. Since the closing down on Saturday last of the Lismore Council's old power house in Carrington-street, radio reception has improved in town. This bears out the statement of the radio inspector from the Postmaster-General's Department (Mr. Crawford), who said when he was in Lismore some two months ago that the interference being experienced in some quarters was more likely to be due to direct current than to alternating current. The old power house generated direct current, whereas the new system supplies alternating current. During next weekend an engineer from a southern shire is expected to visit the town to inspect the machinery with a view to purchase. The machinery is in good order, the only thing wrong with it being that it was not large enough for the job. All those consumers who were on the old system are now changed over to the new supply.[216]

1928 12[edit | edit source]

Richmond Rover Listeners' League to write to Crawford seeking guidance on establishing an experimental broadcasting station for Lismore

LISTENERS' LEAGUE. SHORT WAVE STATION. There was a good attendance at the last meeting of the Richmond River Listeners'-In League when it was decided to establish a short wave experiment station. This is in accordance with the advice of Mr. Crawford (Government Radio Inspector) given when he was in Lismore at the last radio and electrical exhibition. It was also decided to start a class to instruct members in the Morse code, and those who wish to join are asked to communicate with the secretary (Mr. B. L. Smith). As the exhibition held in Lismore in the middle of the year was a great success, members considered that it would be wise to make the event an annual one. Preliminary steps will be taken to secure a hall for about the end of May, 1929. The cash balance remaining from the last exhibition was discussed and exhibitors will receive a rebate of 50 per cent. of the net profits. This will be distributed according to the space rents paid. "Support local dealers" was given prominence in a discussion on the next exhibition and the right to show at the next exhibition will be granted to dealers and firms with local representatives. A meeting of dealers and exhibitors will be called to discuss the exhibition arrangements. As the league is in a good financial position, it was resolved that members' subscriptions should carry them on to June next, and this will have the added advantage of making subscriptions and the annual meeting due at the same time. The radio inspector will be written to and asked to advise the league on the steps to be taken to secure a license for the short wave station. Members congratulated the president (Mr. S. J. Hosie) on his election to the municipal council.[217]

Crawford provides advice to Grafton listeners on correct use of receivers, warns that oscillation not permitted under wireless regulations

BROADCAST RECEPTION. HOWLING VALVES. Numerous complaints have recently been received by the radio inspector, Postmaster-General's Department, Sydney, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, that certain owners of wireless receiving apparatus have, by the mishandling of such apparatus, greatly interfered with the reception of broadcast programmes by other listeners. The attention of all listeners is drawn to the fact that this mishandling of receivers is an offence against the wireless regulations. Interfering receivers may be divided into two classes: (1) Simple regenerative detectors; and (2) unbalanced neutrodynes. In districts so far distant from a broadcasting service as Grafton, simple regenerative detector receivers are totally unsuited. Reception by day can only be obtained, if ever, by closing the reaction coil in upon the detector grid tuning coil to such an extent that the action of the receiver becomes unstable and causes annoyance to other listeners. If, when moving the tuning dial past the position, where a broadcasting station is usually located, a whistle is heard, the reaction coil should be withdrawn from the grid coil, until the whistle disappears. It is probable that by day, when the whistle disappears, the receiver appears dead. This emphasises the fact that the operator is endeavoring to obtain results for which his re-ceiver was never designed. Efforts in this direction are spoiling the pleasure of those persons, who, probably realising the uselessness of this type of receiver, have gone to the expense of installing a receiver, suitable to conditions prevailing at Grafton. The unbalanced heutrodyne is a more hopeful case, as it can be cured. When installing new valves, if trouble is experienced when trying to "clean up" distant stations, the service of a reliable radio dealer should be secured. He will probably be able to neutralise the receiver in a few minutes.[218]

Marriage notice for Crawford's eldest daughter Alice Beryl Crawford

MARRIAGES. CAMPBELL — CRAWFORD.— December 19, 1928, at St. Philip's Church, Sydney, by Rev. H. J. Wiltston, James M. R. Campbell, third son of Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Campbell, of Killara, to Alice B. Crawford, elder daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. T. Crawford, of Killara.[219]

Full report of the wedding of Crawford's eldest daughter Alice Beryl Crawford

FOR WOMEN OF IMPORTANCE. SOCIAL EVENTS. FROCK OF SATIN RELIEFS IN PINK. ST. PHILLIP'S BRIDE. ST. PHILLIP'S Church was chosen for the wedding of Miss Alice Beryl Crawford with Mr. James M. R. Campbell, third son of Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Campbell, of "Roue," Killara. Rev. H. J. Wiltson officiated. The bride, who is the eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. T. S. Crawford, of Killara, was given away by her father. She wore a charming gown composed of an ivory satin bodice, with long sleeves, and an ankle-length skirt of Chantilly lace, poised on shell-pink georgette. A beautiful Honiton lace veil was mounted on shell pink tulle, fastened with chain straps of pearls, and a coronet of orange blossoms added a picturesque finish. Her shower bouquet was of while carnations, lily of the valley, and pale pink rosebuds. Miss Florence Crawford, sister of the bride, and Miss Alice Buddee were bridesmaids, in dainty frocks of shell pink taffeta and pink spotted net, worn with felt hats to match. They carried bouquets of pink carnations and blue delphinium, with blue ribbon bows and streamers. Mr. Clyde Campbell was best man, and Mr. R. Hillier acted as groomsman. During the signing of the register, Mr. Clement Hosking sang, "Beloved, It Is Morn." The bride's mother received the guests at the Waldorf, wearing a smart frock of navy georgette, with coat and hat to match, to which her posy of pink and blue blooms gave a bright touch of color. The bridegroom's mother, who wore a cream georgette ensemble suit, with hat to match, carried a pink and blue posy. When leaving for the honeymoon, which will be spent in Brisbane, the bride travelled in a grey crepe satin ensemble.[220]

Crawford provides details on how the Richmond River Listeners' League may apply for an experimental broadcast licence

SHORT WAVE STATION. The Richmond River Listeners' League has received from the radio inspector (Mr. Crawford) particulars of the short wave experimental station plant that the inspector suggested that the league establish in Lismore. The league has also been advised on the method to adopt to secure a license for a short wave station. The information has been referred to the league's engineers and their report on the matter will be submitted at the next meeting. Although no attempt has been made to solicit displays for the next radio and electrical exhibition in Lismore the secretary (Mr. B. L. Smith) has already received numerous applications for space.[221]

1929[edit | edit source]

1929 01[edit | edit source]

Crawford provides copy on new Wireless Regulations to Richmond River Listeners' League to support the establishment of new experimental broadcasting station

LISTENERS' LEAGUE. SHORT WAVE STATION. LICENSE TO BE SOUGHT. The proposal to establish a short wave transmitter at Lismore was advanced a further stage at Monday night's meeting of the Richmond River Listeners' League, held in the A.M.P. Chambers, it being decided to make application to the P.M.G's. Department for a license. Mr. P. Hoare (vice-president) occupied the chair during the early part of the meeting until the arrival of the president (Ald. S. J. Hosie). There were also present Messrs. J. Connah J. F. Threlfall, F. Wicks, J. Palmer, and B. L. Smith (secretary). Regarding the proposal to institute a class in morse tuition, the secretary said that the idea would have to be abandoned, the response not being satisfactory. REGULATIONS ALTERED. Mr. Crawford (radio inspector) wrote enclosing the regulations concerning short wave broadcast stations, and intimated that these had been altered to allow transmitting. In a report on the proposal to erect a station in Lismore, Mr. Hoare considered that everything hinged on the location of the station. The valve system would give best service enabling continuous telephony to be carried on. Most of the amateurs were going on a 42 metre band, and the proposed station could go as high as 249 or 250 metres. He suggested the use of the ordinary 201A valve, with which communication had been established with New Zealand. The transmitter need not cost more than £6 or £8, starting in a small way, but it was also necessary to have a receiver costing £5 or more. "I think the transmitter is a good idea from the league's point of view. It will give the league some standing in wireless circles as well as being a good thing to stimulate interest among members," he added. LOCATION OF STATION. Mr. Hoare offered to lend his location and promised assistance in the construction of the transmitter. In taking the first step, the league would not be committing itself to anything but the securing of a license. Mr. Palmer favoured the scheme provided the interest of members could be secured. Mr. Hoare recalled the efforts in transmitting by Mr. Derrick, telephony being well received in and around Lismore. The secretary said that the erection of the station would; be an excellent means of propaganda for the league, which had as its slogan "For Better Radio." Mr. Hoare suggested the construction of the transmitter for exhibition at the next radio exhibition. It was agreed that application be made for a license; that Mr. Hoare draw up the necessary papers and the license be taken out in the name of Mr. Connah, the regulations requiring the appointment of a club official. NEXT RADIO EXHIBITION. A report concerning a meeting of radio dealers to consider matters in connection with the next Lismore radio exhibition was given by the secretary. He was instructed to secure the Federal Hall for May 23, 24, and 25. It was agreed that space rates of 7½d a square foot, limited to 12 feet, be charged and a subcommittee comprising the president, Mr. Palmer and the secretary was appointed. Two pertinent suggestions were put forward by Mr. Hoare. One was that an information bureau be instituted at the exhibition, and the other that a definite system for the erection of aerials be adopted. The president was of the opinion that the matter of aerials could best be decided upon by tbe dealers themselves. They could' agree upon a plan, which to be equitable to all, would have to be adopted before space was allotted.[222]

Crawford visits Broken Hill with other senior PMGD staff, seeking information on reception issues experienced

RADIO INSPECTOR INQUIRING INTO COMPLAINTS MADE. Mr. Crawford, the Radio Inspector, is here for the purpose of seeing for himself the sort of wireless reception holders of licences are getting and to ascertain whether the complaints are justified. He is willing to give advice to anyone needing it, and will be available until to-morrow night for interviews by appointment made through the postmaster.[223]

Crawford's party includes Kitto and Bourne

INTERSTATE TELEGRAPHIC AND TELEPHONE SERVICES. PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS ARE OUTLINED BY MR. KITTO. Mr. J. W. Kitto (Deputy Postmaster-General for New South Wales), Mr. E. Bourne (Chief Inspector of Telegraphs for the Commonwealth), and Mr. W. T. Crawford (Radio Inspector), arrived this morning and are staying at the Grand Hotel. When interviewed today, Mr. Kitto said the purpose of the visit is to allow the officers to see for themselves the conditions of the district and whether a satisfactory service is being given. They are also considering the question as to whether the routing of the teleraphing business can be altered with advantage. At present telegraphic traffic is conducted through Adelaide, to Melbourne and Sydney, those circuits being of a very high order. The carrier wave system is in operation between Sydney and Melbourne and Melbourne and Adelaide, and it is now being installed between Adelaide and Broken Hill, but the completion of the work has been delayed owing to the necessity for building alterations at Peterborough, where repeaters have to be installed. With the completion of the carrier wave system a first-class service will be given between Broken Hill and Sydney both by telegraph and telephone. Mr. Kitto said that the carrier wave is the latest development of engineering skill and is operated between the capital cities on a physical circuit — two wires — over which previously only one telephone conversation could be conducted. Now five conversations can be conducted simultaneously over the same circuit, and at the same time telegraph messages can be transmitted. The time of completion of the work depends mainly on the Deputy Postmaster-General of South Australia. Mr. Kitto and the other officers will leave for Adelaide tomorrow night. Mr. Kitto will have a consultation with him on the matter. It is expected that the line will be finished in the very near future. An alternative system is also under consideration for use in emergency, and the officers are considering a route from Broken Hill to Menindie, Wentworth, Deniliquin, Wagga, and then Sydney, to permit of direct working between Broken Hill and Sydney instead of having the messages repeated at Adelaide. The alternative route would make business secure against mishaps on the other line.[224]

Crawford an colleagues do some sightseeing in Broken Hill

PERSONAL. . . . Mr. J. W. Kitto (Deputy Post-master-General for New South Wales). Mr. E. Bourne (Chief Inspector of Telegraphs for the Commonwealth), and Mr. W. T. Crawford (Radio In-spector), with Mr. H. B. Connelly, postmaster, to-day went underground at the Zinc Corporation.[225]

Crawford promotes a relay station for Broken Hill

WIRELESS IN BROKEN HILL. STATEMENT BY INSPECTOR ABOUT LOCAL COMPLAINTS, UNLICENSED SETS. Responding to an invitation to address the members of the deputation which waited on Mr. J. W. Kitto, Deputy Postmaster-General, yesterday afternoon, Mr. W. T. Crawford, Radio Inspector, said he had inquired into the radio disabilities here about which so much complaint had been made. On the observations made by him while here he would say the service the people are getting is very poor to that enjoyed by the people in less remote parts. He had made notes and collected data which would be very valuable to him when he took the matter up with the controlling officer when passing through Melbourne. Regarding interference — that is no more severe than it is in other country towns. The trouble here is that the signal strength when received is so weak that interference completely annihilates reception from the broadcasting stations. The larger the set the greater the interference. The only cure is to have nearer broadcasting stations. He thought that when the new organisation takes over in the near future the people in the country will receive the recognition that surely should be given to them with such a wonderful thing as wireless, He had noted the interference here and the "howling valve." The department could not be blamed for those conditions. People who buy a wireless set should receive service, and that service should be given mostly by the people who sell the sets. The best sets today do not cause interference, and the suppliers of the apparatus should inform the person buying that the set is capable or incapable of causing interference, and if it is capable of causing interference the buyer suould be instructed as to the correct way of handling the set. Wireless users must realise that the interfering person can be located only with difficulty. If a relay station is erected 100 or 150 miles from the city an excellent service would result. He was disappointed at the number of licensed listeners-in in Bro-ken Hill. The records showed only 230 licences. The department got only 1/ of the licence fee, the remainder of the money going to the broadcasting companies after a proportion is taken out for the Amalgamated Wireless Company. The licence fee for Broken Hill is only 17/6 a year, and he thought it rather mean, dishonorable, and un-thoughtful for people to receive the benefits coming from the broadcasting stations without contributing towards the cost of the programmes. The position is such that he thought inquiry officers should come and make the people realise that they must take out licences the same as the people of other towns. Mr. Kitto said he would like to say that the reference regarding licences was not threat, but all the same he would like the people to realise their responsibilities in the matter.[226]

Crawford and colleagues meet with their South Australian counterparts looking at improvements in service with Broken Hill

TELEGRAPHIC SERVICES PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS. Conference in Adelaide. Mr. J. W. Kitto (Deputy Postmaster-General for New South Wales), who formerly held a similar office in South Australia, Mr. E. Bourne (Chief Inspector of Telegraphs for the Commonwealth), and Mr. W. T. Crawford (radio inspector) arrived in Adelaide this morning. The purpose of the visit is to permit these officers to decide whether any alteration to the system can be advantageously made. They will confer with Mr. E. P. Ramsay (Deputy Postmaster-General for South Australia). At present telegraphic traffic is conducted through Adelaide, to Melbourne and Sydney, those circuits being of a high order. The carrier wave system is in operation between Sydney and Melbourne and Melbourne and Adelaide, and it is now being installed between Adelaide and Broken Hill, but the completion of the work has been delayed owing to the necessity for building alterations at Peterborough, where repeaters have to be installed. With the completion of the carrier wave system a first-class service will be given between Broken Hill and Sydney both by telegraph and telephone.[227]

1929 02[edit | edit source]

NSW / SA Conference including Crawford agrees to extend the carrier wave system to Adelaide – Broken Hill to obviate present issues

IMPROVED COMMUNICATION. Telephone to Broken Hill. As a result of a conference between Messrs. J. W. Kitto (Deputy Postmaster-General of New South Wales), E. Bourne (Chief Inspector of Telegraphs for the Commonwealth), W. T. Crawford (Radio Inspector), and E. P. Ramsay (Deputy Postmaster-General of South Australia) in Adelaide yesterday and today, the carrier wave system, which links up important cities of the Commonwealth, will be installed between Adelaide and Broken Hill. This will obviate the necessity of using the present rondabout route. Mr. Kitto explained this morning that there had been a slight delay in the work, but things were now being rapidly pushed along. He was hopeful that a new and efficient service would be in operation by June.[228]

Crawford regretfully declines to attend the Lismore Radio and Electrical Exhibition in May 1929

RADIO EXHIBITION. Listeners' League Plans. UNIFORM AERIAL SYSTEM. It was reported at last night's meeting of the Richmond River Listeners' League held in Lismore that a satisfactory solution of the problem of securing a uniform aerial system for the Lismore radio exhibition to be held on May 23, 24, and 25 had been arrived at following an inspection of the Federal Hall, which will house the exhibition. An apology for absence was tendered on behalf of the president (Ald. S. J. Hosie), and Mr. P. M. Hoare (vice-president) was voted to the chair. Messrs. J. Connah, J. W. Palmer, H. Temperley, W. Exton, F. Wicks, J. McLean, J. Clarke, and B. L. Smith (secretary) were also in Attendance. Mr. W. T. Crawford, radio inspector, wrote stating that he would not be able to attend the exhibition, and expressing pleasure regarding his visit last year. The secretary intimated that Sydney firms, represented in Lismore, had been circularised regarding the exhibition, and inquiries for space were coming to hand. One local firm, unable to secure a stand last year, had already paid for space. DRIVE FOR MEMBERS. A detailed report on the proposed publicity scheme, included in which is a "'drive" for new members, was also given by the secretary, who said that the details of organisation would need to commence one month before the exhibition. It was agreed to make application for a license for the proposed short wave transmitter in the name of J. Connah, on behalf of the league. Technical details required by the P.M.G. Department, have been drafted by Mr. Hoare. Mr. Connah introduced a discussion on the "hardy annual," "howling" valves. He considered it was time the league took up the matter, as the nuisance was constant. In his locality it was very bad, and the league should take steps to locate the operators of the sets. A set would not howl unless it was made to do so, and when it did, it disturbed the enjoyment of other listeners. The chairman suggested that listeners should be invited to notify the league if there were offenders in their locality, giving time and details. The league was willing to show operators of the isets how "howling" could be obviated. It was pointed out that to leave valves oscillating was an offence under the regulations. Future meetings were ordered to be held on the first Tuesday in each |month at 7.30 p.m.[229]

1929 03[edit | edit source]

Crawford announces to the media that while the number of broadcast listeners' licences steadily increases, many pirates remain

Numerous "Pirates" Although N.S.W. has been able to show a healthy increase in licence figures for some time. It is still thought that a fair amount of "pirating" continues. Early last month, the State Radio Inspector (Mr. W. H. Crawford) said that there were as many as 16 prosecutions for evasions of licence fees pending for the first week in March, and since then, of course, they have accumulated considerably. With the whole State to cover, it seems only reasonable to assume that a comparatively small percentage of "pirates" are caught, and, with this in mind, the authorities not long ago conducted a State-wide "drive," which proved most successful. The question now seems to arise as to whether it is time for another attack along the same lines. "It has been pointed out," said a representative of the N.S.W. Broadcasting Co., "that every increase of revenue leads to an improvement in the services rendered by the stations, which, in turn, makes possession of a radio set yet more attractive. Claims that are being made upon broadcasting, in copyrights, royalties, and fees, of which the public have little knowledge, are eating more and more into revenue, which previously was available solely for programmes. All this calls for a still greater percentage of new licences." [230]

1929 04[edit | edit source]

Mr & Mrs Crawford contribute a guinea to the Tasmanian floods relief funds

TASMANIAN DISASTER. RELIEF FUND. Clothing of all kinds, rugs, blankets, and sheets, have not yet been received in sufficient quantities for the relief of the sufferers in the flood disaster. Any parcels sent to 42 Pitt-street will be forwarded to the authorities in Tasmania free of charge. The relief fund now stands:— Amount previously acknowledged .. £1330 2 3 . . . Mr. and Mrs. W. T. S. Crawford .. 1 1 0 . . . Writing to the Editor, "Wake Up, Sydney" points out that Victorian contributions to the Tasmanian relief funds have been far greater than those from this State. The writer encloses a cheque for £25, which has been forwarded to the Town Hall. "Let us see," he adds, "if we cannot make a special effort to uphold our well-known generosity."[231]

1929 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford gives evidence at the Inquiry into loss of Anderson and Hitchcock in the forced landing of Kingsford Smith's Kookaburra

DEFENDED. KINGSFORD SMITH AND ULM NOT MEN TO "STUNT." AIRWORTHINESS OF THE KOOKABURRA. The investigation by the Air Inquiry Committee into the forced landing of the Southern Cross at Glenelg River, and the deaths of Lieut. Keith Anderson and Mr. H. S. Hitchcock entered its closing stages today. After hearing evidence in Melbourne and Adelaide, the Committee resumed its sitting in Sydney this morning. Herbert Campbell Jones, managing editor and a director of "The Sun," the first witness today, said that there was never the faintest suggestion of an agreement or a verbal understanding that the crew of the Southern Cross were to lose themselves and give the exclusive news to "The Sun." The agreement that had been put in, he added, was the only agreement between "The Sun" and the fliers. Not for a moment did he think it likely that, Kingsford Smith and Ulm were the sort of men to be associated with any such stunt as had been suggested in certain newspapers. It is expected that the taking of evidence will conclude on Wednesday, after which counsel will address the committee, which consists of Brigadier-General Wilson (chairman), Captain Geoffrey Hughes (N.S.W. Aero. Club) and Mr. C. N. McKay (Victorian Aero Club). This morning in Darlinghurst Court, in which the inquiry is being held, there were three persons in the public gallery, and the jury box was occupied by four women spectators. . . . William Stephen Crawford, radio inspector of the Postmaster-General's Department, said he had taken part in tests of the wireless of the Southern Cross. The Southern Cross receiving outfit could have been converted into a transmitting set with the material they had. Mr. Hammond: Could that have been done at Coffee Royal? — Yes. With what effect? — I don't think it would have made the slightest difference.[232]

As previous, further details

William Stephen Crawford, Radio Inspector for New South Wales, informed the court of the results of tests he had conducted with the Southern Cross wireless since the recent flight. Having advised experts in all States to listen-in for a certain schedule he sent messages from Killara (Sydney) both night and day. He first rigged an aerial, which was far more efficient, he said, than anything that could have been rigged at the Glenelg River. Transmission was then sent from the ground by means of batteries. La Perouse was distant 15 miles. On night transmission nothing was received. On day transmission weak signals were picked up at a few of the stations advised — La Perouse, Brisbane, Hobart, Bendigo, and Glenelg (S.A.). Many stations in West Australia, South Australia, Queensland, Tasmania, and New South Wales got nothing.[233]

As previous, further details

AIR INQUIRY. EFFICIENT RADIO ON S. CROSS. ANDERSON'S SEALED ORDERS. EXPERTS' EVIDENCE. THAT in a test with the wireless set carried by the Southern Cross, messages were received in Brisbane, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania, was evidence given before the Southern Cross Air Inquiry at Darlinghurst Court yesterday. William Stephen Crawford, who carried out the tests, said that the same equipment was used as was available to the crew of the Southern Cross, and had conditions been the same they should have been able to communicate with the outside world. . . . William Stephen Crawford, radio inspector for New South Wales in the P.M.G.'s Department, explained the tests he had carried out at Killara proved that the emergency radio set carried by the Southern Cross was not suitable for ground transmission. Useless at Night Tests with the receiving set, which had been converted into a transmitter, showed the set to be useless at night. "But during the daytime messages sent out were picked up in Brisbane, Bendigo (Vic.), Hobart (Tas.), and Glenelg (S.A.). "Nothing was used in the test I carried out that could not have been used at Coffee Royal," he said. The Chairman: They might have been heard at Wyndham, Port Darwin, Sydney, or Brisbane? — They might have been. You cannot say for certain.[234]

1929 07[edit | edit source]

Crawford requested to investigate the activities of wireless spiritual healer

"LAYING ON" THE LAW. Legislation May be Enacted to Deal with "Spiritual Healers." CROMER'S SHAMELESS QUACKERY. AS a result of "Truth's" repeated protests against men like Victor Cromer being allowed to carry on their healing demonstrations in Sydney it is likely that legislation will be enacted to deal with them. "I QUITE realise the need for action," the Minister for Health (Dr. Arthur) told "Truth" last week, "and when Parliament reassembles I will press for the appointment of a select committee to test the credentials of Cromer and all other unregistered healers. "A similar committee appointed at the suggestion of Dr. Creed many years ago, cleared up the nervous debility and cancer healers, and I believe it is the most effective way of dealing with the present situation." "In the meantime I will ask the Crown Solicitor if the Government has any power under existing legislation, to put a stop to their activities." "Truth" also approached the Chief Sec- (Start Photo Caption) MAY HAVE HIS ACTIVITIES CURBED by legislation before long. Victor E. Cromer. (End Photo Caption) retary (Mr. Chaffey) in the absence of the Acting Premier, with a request for a statement of the Government's attitude towards Cromer, whose luxurious quarters, in Burdekin House were at the time filled with people awaiting treatment. . "I have just returned from the country," said Mr. Chaffey, "and have not had time to go into the matter. No report has been placed before me regarding Cromer, but I can promise you I will look into it without delay. More than that I cannot say at the moment." Dr. Arthur admitted that he had once attended one of Cromer's Town Hall demonstration to ascertain at first hand something of his methods. "It was nothing more or less than mass hysteria," he said, "and I can not understand how so many level-headed people are carried away by it. It is useless dealing with Cromer or any other particular individual. What is required is legislation to put a stop to the operations of all unre-gistered healers. "The problem is a difficult one, but I am confident that a select committee will be able to deal with it." Nearly two years ago, when Cromer made his absurd claim to the possession of spiritual healing powers, "Truth" branded him as a quack, and told how he had accepted 10/- to "broadcast" treatment to a fictitious person in Orange. Since then he has carried on with wireless talks, lectures, and "healing" demonstrations, and despite the obvious absurdity of his claims he is still attracting large numbers of people, who pay him fees in the hope that he will be able to do what medical science has declared to be impossible. Such shameless quackery must cease, and it is the plain duty of the Government to put a stop at once to Cromer's reign. His claim that he can cure people by putting them in wireless touch with God is a travesty on religion which every right-thinking person should be quick to condemn. Cromer has found a champion in Miss Mary Rivett, who runs the "Federal Independent." The pair broadcast from 2 GB every Sunday morning, and the public are advised to "tune-in to the spiritual healing, power," as well as listen to the spoken message. Why the ether should be used to broadcast the name and claims of a man whose absurd pretences gull many unfortunate people was a question "Truth" put to the radio authorities last week. "I have never heard Cromer speak over the radiophone, and did not know he was doing so until you told me," remarked the radio inspector for New South Wales (Mr. W. T. Crawford) to "Truth." "I will listen in next Sunday morning, and if his message in any way contravenes the regulations I will have him stopped. "At the same time I feel confident that the authorities at 2 GB keep a watchful eye on what goes out from their station. There is no power to prevent the broadcasting of advertising matter from a B Class station, so long as it is not obscene or blasphemous, and is not against the public interests. I will be in a better position to speak after next Sunday." It is a tragic pity that unfortunate people whose health has been undermined by disease should be at the mercy of men like Cromer, who build them up with false hopes and take their money for a service which medical science has declared over and over again it is impossible to render.[235]

Crawford's team of inspectors overwhelmed by interference problems in Sydney, Newcastle residents demand attention

AFTER SYDNEY! Newcastle's Radio Troubles. LISTENERS' PLAINT. So busy have the radio inspectors been in Sydney during the past few months that it has been impossible to send an inspector to Newcastle to investigate the causes of radio receiving sets at Islington, Maryville, Tighe's Hill, and parts of Waratah, being put out of commission during the greater part of the day. The Chief Radio Inspector (Mr. Crawford) informed Alderman Davies, of Wickham, to this effect today. Mr. Crawford has agreed to send an inspector to Newcastle as early as possible. "It is disappointing to be told that Newcastle radio fans belong to an outback village and will have to wait until Sydney's troubles are all eliminated," said Alderman Davies today. "For months past it has been impossible to receive programmes from any broadcasting station between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m., noon and 2 p.m., and between 5 p.m. and 7 p.m. Some owners may allow their licenses to lapse unless the trouble is removed. Why should Sydney monopolise the radio inspectors?"[236]

1929 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford actively seeking to resolve interference complaints in Maitland

Interference to Radio in Maitland. After being for some time in communication with Mr. Crawford, Chief Radio Inspector, Sydney, regarding the electrical interference causing so much annoyance and trouble to radio listeners, Mr. R. E. Juleff (manager for Mr. W. G. Smart), has received a request to forward him the number of persons using nizers, refrigerators, and electrical motors, in the district, in order that immediate steps may be taken to have the matter rectified. This electrical interference has been present in Maitland, Morpeth, and surrounding districts for a considerable time, and Mr. Juleff anticipates the possibility of its entire elimination with the assistance of listeners. He asks them to communicate to him the names and addresses of persons with such machines, and to endeavour also to ascertain the maker's name. By co-operating listeners' troubles will probably soon come to an end, The elimination of the interference will prove of undoubted assistance and service to the radio public in general, and be appreciated by all.[237]

Crawford participates in the annual rifle match between NSW & Vic Posts & Telegraphs

POSTAL MATCH. The annual match between New South Wales Post and Telegraphs and the Victorian Posts and Telegraphs resulted in a win for New South Wales by five points. The scores of members are taken over the first stage of the "King's." Results:— New South Wales.— C. E. Sheppard (captain), 100; F. Cook, 98; N. King 97; A. Burg, 97; T. Finlay, 94; S. Bower, 93; W. T. S. Crawford, 91. Total, 670. Victoria.— J. Brack, 98; E. Sprague, 97; R. Gunn (captain), 96; J. Stuart, 94; W. W. Harris, 94; A. A. Burgess, 93; and W. Williams, 93. Total, 665.[238]

Alan Burrows most professional "Wireless & Radio" column in "The Sun" addresses most of the causes of interference which Crawford and his team have to deal with

WIRELESS & RADIO. (By Alan Burrows) ETHER PATHS. WATCHING RADIO TRAFFIC. CAUSE OF INTERFERENCE. Traffic rules are necessary in the ether, just as they are in any busy highway, and it is one of the jobs of the authorities to keep continuous "watch" in order that these will not be broken too frequently. Sets are sometimes blamed for trouble that is due entirely to a "mix-up" in the radio traffic. Sydney, however, has little to growl at in this respect, although at present there is slight confusion between several of the smaller stations. At first glimpse the thoroughfare of the ether seems broad enough for all those who want to use it, but, as some countries have found by costly experience, this is not always so. The trouble Is that it is almost Impossible for stations to keep strictly to the territory allotted them. Part of one's transmission sometimes overlaps that of another, and when this happens, the most selective set ever made will not avoid the interference, simply because both are on the same wave length. At present this happens to some extent between the transmissions of 2 GB and 2UE. There is also the point to be remembered that all wave lengths are not available to broadcasting. Up on 600 metres there are ships and commercial stations, whilst below the broad cast band, which ends at 250 metres, there are wave lengths reserved for naval and aircraft work. The amateurs' territory is also down here although it has grown smaller than ever recently In the face of the world-wide demand for wave lengths. Still, apart from these claims on the ether, broadcast-ing in Australia chose the comparatively narrow pathway between 250 and 550 metres, where there isn't a great deal of elbow room, in preference to the higher wave lengths, which were always open. Perth station. 6WF, has only just relinquished its position away from the beaten track in favor of a corner in the busier section. Other Australian stations gave them up years ago. With all the stations jostling each other in this way, it is hardly to be wondered that sometimes they cause confusion. Then there are "harmonics," duplications or reflections of the transmission, which occur at regular intervals, like musical overtones, up and down the wave length scale. An instance was found until a few days ago, in a slight whistle which was only present when both 2FC and 2BL were on the air. There was no sign of it when only one station was transmitting. Post Office engineers located the trouble in the overlapping of two harmonics. Not long ago the Canberra's powerful note could be heard through the centre of the broadcast band — a distinct breach of etiquette. This was also a matter for adjustment. And sometimes amateurs trespass unknowingly on the broadcasters' territory, while ship stations also come under the eye of the authorities. Most of the policing of the ether in New South Wales is carried out by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, State radio inspector, who is chiefly responsible for the stations' observance of the traffic rules. Probably, at the receiving end of radio, the electrification of sets is still the dominant feature. Yet many of its most elementary aspects are only dimly understood by many, whilst engineers realise that in its more technical phases there is still quite a lot to be learnt. POWER FROM MAINS. For the listener, however, the most confusing point seems to be the difference between the use of eliminators, and the real alternating current recelver. For obviously, any set, if it simply meant the displacement of batteries with eliminators, could be made all-electric, whereas it is generally realised that distinct alteration has to be made to the set before It becomes a true "all-electric set." So far as the "B" battery supply is concerned, it is quite true that the usual battery is simply replaced with an eliminator, exactly similar to thousands that are now used with sets which are not termed "electrically-operated." For this reason, any "B" eliminator can be considered as part and parcel of an electric set, and in the eventual conversion of any set to electric operation, can be used in the process, thus reducing the cost to that extent. On the "A" side, however, where the accumulator is discarded, and the set becomes completely electrified, different conditions prevail. An eliminator for this purpose is quite practicable, and a few are in use, but they are almost prohibitive in cost, seldom justifying their use for this reason, when a small accumulator and trickle charger accomplish so nearly the same purpose. A rather different principle is used in ordinary electric sets. In this instance the current from the mains, at 240 volts, is "stepped down" by means of a transformer to an ordinary filament voltage to suit whatever make of valves used, and supplied in an alternating form to the filaments. Usually these are heavier than those of battery-operated valves, although many ordinary valves, particularly those used for power amplification, serve the purpose well. Any small set requires an "A.C." valve in the detector only, ordinary direct current valves doing the job well as amplifiers. This practice is often followed in bigger sets as well, although here the use of A. C. valves — those of the indirectly heated type — in the radio frequency stages gives a greater safety margin in the avoidance of a disagreeable hum.[239]

1930s[edit | edit source]

1930[edit | edit source]

1930 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford provides a report on interference in Grafton to the Grafton Licensed Listeners' League

WIRELESS. INDUCTIVE INTERFERENCE. REPLY TO A GRAFTON PETITION. Mr. W. R. Weiley, secretary of the Grafton Licensed Listeners' League, has received the following reply from Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Government Radio Inspector, in reply to a petition forwarded by local members to the Postmaster-General's Department, on the subject of radio inductive interference at Grafton:— "I have to acknowledge receipt of your petition from broadcast listeners in Grafton, concerning radio inductive interference. "Last October I sent an inspector to Grafton, and after tests at various points of Grafton and South Grafton, the main source of interference (which was very pronounced at the time) was traced to the high tension insulators at the South Grafton substation. "On the day in question, the inspector, accompanied by Mr. Harris and Mr. E. E. Schafer, picked up the disturbance in the vicinity of the Australian Hotel, and walked in the direction of the substation. After proceeding about half a mile, the disturbance showed decided signs of an increase in strength, and still further increased as the substation was approached. At the substation the disturbance was maximum. On removing the headphones, the brush discharges of the insulators could be heard direct. About 50 per cent. the overhead H.T. insulators appeared to be leaking. It was drizzling rain at the time, and no doubt, this would accentuate the trouble but as listeners in South Grafton say that the same noise, in a modified form, exists in dry weather, the brushing is evidently not confined to damp weather. "The effects of these discharges, although, perhaps, only on the South Grafton feeder, would travel many miles and would most likely cause the same amount of interference to listeners in Grafton as in South Grafton. "The County Council's electrical engineer was acquainted with the discoveries and promised relief if at all possible. "The only remedy appears to be the installing of larger insulators, or providing some form of protection from wet weather for the present insulators. I am again taking the matter up with the council, and trust that some improvement to broadcast reception will result."[240]

1930 03[edit | edit source]

Campbell attends the funeral of a neighbour

MR. F. W. CAMPBELL. Mr. F. W. Campbell, who had been in the marine engineering service of Burns, Philp, and Co., died at his home in Greengate-road, Killara on Tuesday aged 56 vears. Mr. Campbell who was a native of Glasgow, came to Australia when he was a young man, and went gold mining in Western Australia. He afterwards went to the silver mines at Talunga, in South Australia. Later on he entered the service of the Adelaide Steamship Co., Ltd., and then that of Burns, Philp, and Co., Ltd. He was for a long time engineer of the Islands steamer Makambo. Mr. Campbell is survived by Mrs. Campbell and six sons. The funeral took place yesterday, the officiating clergyman being the Rev. A. D. B. Marchant, of Lindfield Presbyterian Church. The chief mourners were the sons, Messrs. Clyde, Leslie, James, Bruce, Ian, and Kenneth Campbell; others present included Messrs. E. A. Pidcock and A Sorlie (Burns, Philp, and Co., Ltd.), Captain C. W. Barnard, Messrs. W. T. S. Crawford, D. Morgan, W. Lawson, A. Corrighan, C. Cowan, and J. E. Stoneham.[241]

Crawford inspects potential sites for 2CO in company with Malone and Moore

COUNTRY NEWS. . . . RIVERINA'S RELAY STATION ALBURY, Thursday.— The Commonwealth Chief Inspector of Wireless (Mr. J. J. Malone), Mr. M. S. Moore, radio engineer, both of Melbourne; and Mr. W. T. Crawford, radio inspector, Sydney, have visited Albury to investigate the proposal to establish a relay broadcasting station in the Riverina. Mr. Malone said that, naturally, he could not give any indication of what his recommendations to the Postal Department would be. It is known that the station must be centrally situated to serve Albury, Corowa, Wangaratta, and Wagga, and all intermediate towns, but just where the station will be erected Mr. Malone was not able to say.[242]

1930 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford provides guidance to Sydney readers on need to hold a broadcast receive licence, notes receiver detection now efficient (inspectors look for receiver local oscillator signals)

WHEN LICENCE IS NECESSARY. It was mentioned last week on this page that a broadcast receiving licence is necessary "whenever there is a set in the house." The State Radio Inspector (Mr. W. S. Crawford) points out that this may possibly be misunderstood, as the regulations provide that a licence is required only when a set is in constant use. Hence, the fact of possessing a set which is never used does not call for any licence. It is emphasised, however, that many people, now that the electric sets have made indoor aerials popular, apparently believe that this provides an exemption, and do not take licences for sets used in this way. Mr. Crawford points out that this becomes an offence, and adds that methods of detection of defaulters have now reached an efficient basis.[243]

1930 07[edit | edit source]

Crawford provides a report to the Coffs Harbour Radio Club on local interference to broadcast reception

RADIO RECEPTION. LOCAL INDUCTIVE INTERFERENCE. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Radio Inspector, who visited Coffs Harbour recently and made inquiries re inductive interference, has sent the following report to Mr. C. Debenham as president of the local Radio Club:— "In connection with investigations of complaints of interference to broadcast reception in Coifs Harbour recently, the following facts are supplied for the information of your club:— "The general condition of the town wiring is such that little improvement to broadcast reception would be possible without expending much time in locating the numerous earths, high resistance connections, etc., which undoubtedly exist throughout the reticulation. In view of the fact that the Dorrigo Shire will acquire the existing power supply at the end of the year with the object of converting to A.C. and will be reconditioning and renewing much of the wiring, it is doubtful if I would be justified in approving of the work. However, the question has not yet been definitely settled, but as soon as a decision is reached you will be notified. "In the meantime a slight improvement would be effected by attaching a condenser filter to the generators at the power house and the motor at the shop of W. A. Tickle, Coffs Harbour jetty. The latter noise, of course, is only intermittent, and whether it justifies the expenditure entailed in installing a filter is a matter for yourselves to decide. The interference from the power house generator is only slight and constitutes approximately 20 per cent of the total noise level heard in Coffs Harbour. The balance of noise is coming from leaks and arcing connections on the house wiring circuits."[244]

1930 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford suggests that the Grafton League conduct its own investigations into interference sources and report further to the Department

LICENSED LISTENERS. BROADCAST RECEPTION TROUBLES. MEETING OF GRAFTON LEAGUE. Members of the Grafton League of Licensed Listeners met at the New State rooms, Prince street, last night, there being present: Messrs. C. A. Smith (chairman, G. Marks, E. Schafer, N. Jackson, P. Thompson, F. Strauss and N. O'Malley (secretary). An apology was received from the president, Mr. C. H. McKenna. In a letter relating to the location of the causes of interference with broadcast reception, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, radio inspector, Sydney, suggested that the League should investigate interferences that occurred locally and furnish a further report to the department. It was decided, on the motion of the chairman, to reply stating that, as had previously been pointed out, the League understood that the local defects which had been complained of had been located, but so far as could be ascertained, considerable interference of the same nature was still occurring. The League, however, was now arranging for the construction of a trouble finder on the lines which had been suggested by the department and would now themselves definitely investigate any interference. Donations, of some of the parts required for the trouble finder were promised by Mr. E. Schafer and Messrs. McKenna and Smith. The Lismore League wrote wishing the League every success, and a similar letlor was received from Mr. R. N. Shaw, of Wauchope, who also offered assistance in giving the League publicity. On the motion of the chairman, seconded by Mr. G. Marks, it was resolved that a notice should be sent to all financial members, inviting them to attend the next meeting of the League, to discuss radio matters generally, and more especially the functions of a radio receiver and its component parts; also any reception troubles that might be experienced by members. Those present agreed to canvass for new members. On the motion of Mr. F. Strauss, seconded by Mr. E. Schafer, it was decided that all present should be appointed as a working committee, with power to add to their number, to act in the interests of the League in respect of any immediate reception troubles. It was agreed that the general meeting night should be fixed for the first Tuesday of each month.[245]

1930 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford mentioned in civil case between Exton (2XN) and an accountant

DISTRICT COURT. WALTERS v. EXTON. In the District Court, before Judge Mocatta and a jury, Leonard Harold Walters, accountant, of Lismore, was the plaintiff in a claim for £205 13s for services rendered and out of pocket expenses against George Walter Exton, broadcast station proprietor, of Lismore. The case is part heard. Mr. L. J. Herron (instructed by Mr. A. M. Cottee) appeared for Walters and Mr. G. P. L. Hungerford (instructed by Mr. C. McKenzie, of McKenzie and Bondfield) appeared for Exton. The following jury was empanelled: George William Thomas Yabsley, Frederick Leadbeatter, William Edward Bryant, Albert Edward Priddiee. PLAINTIFF'S EVIDENCE. Walters said that in June, 1928, he saw Exton at Lismore Post Office and suggested that Exton appoint him to organise and to use his ability to secure a B class license for the broadcasting station at Lismore which Exton owned. Walters' proposition was that he was to be remunerated for his services if successful, and if he failed, there was to be no charge. Exton told him there would be a difficulty it securing the B class license as there were over 100 applications and only three were to be granted. The Postmaster-General's Department had control of the licenses, and Exton said there would be difficulty as Grafton were endeavouring to get a license. Continuing, Waiters said he collected certain statistics, and in August told Exton he was going to Sydney on private business. He alleged that Exton then said, "While you are there, call and put certain data about the Lismore broadcast station before Mr. Crawford, radio inspector for New South Wales." Walters agreed, and said that he had two long interviews with Mr. Crawford and showed him a skeleton programme including news collected from the area from Murwillumbah to Casino. Mr. Crawford said that he believed a license would be granted to Grafton and Albury, but he (Walters) felt satisfied that he had made a favourable impression for the Lismore broadcast station. Walters returned to Lismore and reported to Exton, who seemed pleased at what he (Waiters) had done. Walters said he had a number of conversations with Col. F. J. Board (of the Lismore Chamber of Commerce) and was in fact a nuisance to him in his efforts to secure support for the broadcast station. His Honour: Who was bored? (Laughter); Walters, proceeding, said he telephoned Mr. Roland Green, M.H.R., who was living at Manly, and approached chambers of commerce, sporting bodies, and prominent people in various centres. He took Mr. Green to see the station on four occasions and arranged the visits of several other people. At the station on one occasion, members of the Lismore Chamber of Commerce were present. Mr. Roland Green, M.H.R., said it would be hard to get a license for Lismore as in all probability it would go to Grafton; and that the only thing to do was to keep agitating and to secure the support of public bodies. He (Walters) arranged for Mr. Exton to attend a meeting of the Lismore Chamber of Commerce, but Exton failed to attend. Other work done with the idea of popularising and boosting the station was among the radio dealers in various towns, to whom he suggested preference in tuning in the Lismore station. These duties took him into 1929. He told Exton that having got the members of Parliament and public bodies working, things looked good for the granting of the license. Walters said that when the license was granted he (Walters) would lose his position and suggested to Exton that there was a good thing in advertising. Exton agreed to give him 20 per cent. commission on advertisements collected for broadcasting. Exton instructed him to go to Murwillumbah to link up some auctioneers in the supplying of information about cattle and pig sales. In April Exton rang him up and told him the license had been granted and asked him to come down to see him. Subsequently, he asked Exton for £30 or £40 on account. Exton, he alleged, replied: "I am pretty short. I have an account for £1200 to meet for valves. I am overdrawn at the bank and the station is costing me £10 an hour to run." Walters agreed to let payment stand over.[246]

1931[edit | edit source]

1931 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford appointed to the anti-interference committee of the Electrical and Radio Development Association (ERDA)

INTERFERING WAVES. World Move Towards Elimination. PREVENTION OR LEGAL ACTION. The well known "Trespassers Prosecuted" notice will assume a wider meaning if the latest aims of radio organisations in Australia and other parts of the world regarding interference are achieved. Wandering electrical waves will come under the heading of trespassers, and they, or at least their originators, will be liable to prosecution. In fact, recent jurisdiction on the Continent acknowledges the fact that the householder is entitled to protection against the intrusion of unwanted and interfering waves into his house during regular broadcasting hours. Viewed in this light, it would seem that the Australian legislature would offer similar protection, and the fighting of a test case would not only arouse tremendous interest, but would also have a far-reaching influence in the Commonwealth. The importance of eliminating interference, as far as possible, is becoming a public necessity, as the radio set is recognised as part of the equipment of nearly every household, and listeners form such a large proportion of the population that the demand for protection is a natural development. Leading cities and towns of the world have now formed their own anti-interference committees, composed of postal authorities, civic bodies, and manufacturers' representatives. Their activities are technical rather than judicial although they have scope to bring about the infliction of severe penalties upon those who choose to ignore their advice and requests. In America every town has a committee and so whole-hearted has been the public support accorded to them that they have practically cleared up the whole problem of interference. Australian Committee During the past few months there has been agitation for a similar committee in Australia, and a strong body in Sydney has now come into being Mr. V. H. Mackinney, (radio sales manager of Philips Radio) is chairman, and the committee, which is made up as follows, is a representative one:— Australian Broadcasting Co. Ltd., Messrs. H. G. Horner and H. P. Williams; B Class Stations. Messrs. O. Anderson and M. Bennett; electricity department, Municipal Council of Sydney, Mr. C. J. Craggs; electric supply department, Newcastle City Council, Mr. Guy Allbut; Electricity Supply Engineers' Association of N.S.W., Messrs. Dunstan and Thorncrof; Electrical Contractors' Section of the Electrical Association of N.S.W., Mr. F. T. S. O'Donnell; Institution of Engineers Australia, and the Standards Association of Australia, Professor J. V. P. Madsen and Mr. M. J. Lacy; Radio Inspectors' Department, Messrs. W. T. S. Crawford (senior radio inspector) and H. K. Burbury (radio inspector); Public Works Department of N.S.W., Mr. V. J. Brain; Wireless Institute of Australia, Messrs. C. H. Norville and O. F. Mingay; Radio Committee of E.R.D.A., Messrs. V. H. Mackinney (chairman), W. Wright, and W. J. Wing. All are members of the Electrical and Radio Development Association, and will provide the nucleus of the new anti-interference committee which it is hoped will be Commonwealth wide. Causes Of Interference Activities in Germany extending over a period of seven months brought to light 22,389 cases of interference, including the following:— lnterference caused by reaction coupling, 5,136; H.F. apparatus, 5,172; various electrical machines, 3,360; tramcars, 887; badly erected aerials, &c., 253. One of the most general causes of interference is the tramcar. Comparatively poor contact between the pulley-wheel at the end of the trolly pole and the overhead wire sets up a clicking and crackling in the speaker that is practically impossible to over-come at the receiving end. This can be eliminated by the substitution of the type of contact known as the Fischer Bow, which is of the slider bow type used on electric trains. There appears, however, little hope of this apparatus being introduced to Australia for some considerable time. The authorities have closely studied it, but financial stringency will not permit of the huge cost entailed, in scrapping the present trolly pulleys, and altering the overhead cables. The system bids fair to achieve worldwide adoption, and it can only be a matter of time before the Commonwealth falls into line.[247]

1932[edit | edit source]

1932 01[edit | edit source]

Crawford advises listeners in Leeton what needs to be done to minimise interference to wireless reception

WIRELESS INTERRUPTION. OH THOSE MOTORS! Owners of wireless sets are having a lot of trouble lately with reception — particularly during the news session of an evening, and on Saturday afternoons, when the "good things" are romping home at the races. The annoying and continuous humming sound that almost drowns the voice of the announcer is not due to the old enemy of the air, statics, nor is Lang is in any way responsible. The wireless experts say it is caused through the running of engines or other loud sound producing machinery in the locality. The law cannot say to these people, "you must not run your engine during certain hours" but consideration for listeners-in might suggest such a course, or some other means that might remedy the trouble. Mr. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector states that interference by the operation of electric motors or D.C. generators can be successfully elim-inated by the use of various types of filters.[248]

A rare instance where Crawford loses a prosecution against unlicensed use of a wireless set

UNLICENSED WIRELESS SETS. CASE IS DISMISSED AGAINST CLUB SECRETARY. In the Police Court this morning, before Mr. G. S. Goldie, S M., the case was heard in which Adelmar Eustace Winkler, wireless inspector, charged Harold Edward Jhonson with having an unlicensed wireless set at Broken Hill. Mr. J. J. Davoren appeared for the defendant, who pleaded not guilty. Adelmar Eustace Winkler deposed that he is a wireless inspector stationed at Sydney. About 9 a.m. on January 21 he called at the Musicians' Club in Argent-street. On a counter in the bar he saw an all electric wireless set, which was in good order. At 9.45 a.m. he called and met the defendant, who said he was secretary of the club. They had been trying the sets out from various firms in Broken Hill to see which set is the best for their purpose. The defendant said he did not have a licence as he did not give it a thought. He said that the set at the club had been there for three or four weeks. They had been trying the sets for months. He said that they intended to buy the set and have a licence taken out. To Mr. Davoren: I might have said that I would get in touch with my superior officers in Sydney about the matter. I did not refer it to them. I prepared the information at the Post Office. I arrived in Broken Hill on January 19 and for some time I was occupied inspecting sets installed round Broken Hill, and in having interviews with the occupants where I saw sets, I had about 250 inspections, and interviews. I made a written note of the interview with Mr. Jhonson. I have a good recollection and have not looked at my notes since the interview took place. I have been instructed to take this prosecution by Mr. Crawford, my superior officer. It is not a provision that a prospective buyer of a wireless set is allowed 14 days before getting a licence. The Wireless Department will allow a person thinking of buying a set seven days without taking a licence, but if there is any attempt at evasion a prosecution may be launched. I have been associated with the department for six years and know its practices. Mr. Davoren contended that on the evidence it could not be said that the defendant had maintained the wireless set in question at the Musicians' Club premises. The evidence shows he is merely secretary of the club. He called Mr. Jhonson. Harold Edward Jhonson deposed that he is secretary of the Musicians' Club. There are six committeemen, two trustees, two vice-presidents, and president on the committee. He is an employee of the committee. The trustees hold all the property of the club. On January 21 Mr. Winkler interviewed him. He told him that he is secretary of the club. He mentioned that he had seen the wireless set in operation and asked whether they held a licence. Defendant said they did not as they were only experimenting with various sets with a view to purchasing one if any proved satisfactory. He told Mr. Winkler that they had been experimenting for several months, but did not recollect saying how long the present set had been there. He could not have answered the question as the sets were coming and going all the time. A licence was obtained immediately he was told that one was needed. The present set was obtained from Davies Bros. To the Magistrate: I did not actually instruct anybody to get a licence. We could have got one three months ago. The house manager has to receive instructions from the committee. Davies Bros. did not get permission from me to install the set. William Bothwell Hyde deposed that he is secretary of Davies Bros. Motors. They held a wireless dealer's licence. His firm owned the wireless set in the Musicians' Club on January 21. The set was put there on January 9. To the Magistrate: We had installed two other sets in the club dating back to October. The magistrate said that he thought the Wireless Department was absolutely justified in taking the prosecu-tion. The club had had the use of sets for some months and should have taken steps to secure some licence. At the same time they could not get away from the contention that the defendant is a paid servant of the club. He had to dismiss the information as no offence had been made out against the defendant as a paid secretory of the club. He added that it was rather interesting to note that the servants of the club, without any direction from the committee, got a licence straight away after the visit of the inspector.[249]

1932 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford provides guidance on interference to broadcast reception due to high voltage transmission lines in the Penrith district

INTERFERENCE. Broadcast Reception. RADIO INSPECTOR'S EXPLANATION. The matter of interference with radio receptions mentioned at a recent meeting of Penrith Council by Ald. Hand has had attention by Mr W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector of the P.M.G's. Department. Ald. Hand has received the following communication from the inspector:— Dear Sir,— I wish to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 15th inst, complaining of interference to broadcast reception. No doubt the interference experienced by you and others residing along the route of the high tension feeders is due to brush discharge on the high tension insulators. This is quite common on feeders of this voltage, and similar complaints are being received from many parts of the State. It is only in vary rare instances that the trouble is due to one fractured insulator, and in these cases the interference is heard at maximum strength in the vicinity of the fractured insulator and is highly attenuated at a distance in excess of approximately one mile along the line on either side. Your own complaint and the others mentioned above all indicate that the interference is being received over a very wide area, extending for many miles along the route of the high tension; in fact, it would be found by traversing the route that interference would be approximately the same strength throughout its entire length, thus proving that the noise level is due to slight brush discharge on all the insulators and not due to any one particular insulator. It is well known that this type of interference is worse during the summer months owing to accumulations of sea salt (in the case of coastal towns) and dust (in the case of inland towns) on the insulators, and permanent relief will be obtained only when there is a substantial fall of rain. I shall be pleased, therefore, if you will advise me on the receiving conditions in two or three weeks' time. Ald. Hand will be pleased to receive reports from persons who were troubled with the interference, and would particularly like to know if the recent rain removed the trouble in any case.[250]

1932 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford is elected a councillor for Institution of Radio Engineers (Australia)

WIRELESS. . . . (By N. M. GODDARD. B.E.) . . . INSTITUTION OF RADIO ENGINEERS. A representative council has been appointed to control the destinies of the I.R.E. (Aust.), the members being:— President, Mr. E. T. Fisk; chairmen, Messrs. Phil Renshaw and N. S. Gilmour; treasurer, Mr. C. H. Norville; hon. secretary, Mr. O. F. Mingay; councillors, Messrs. W. T. S. Crawford, A. S. McDonald, L. P. R. Bean, T. R. W. Bushby, O. C. Turner, F. W. P. Thom, R. Hill, M. Tyler, A. E. Emmelhainz, R. J. W. Kennell, L. C. Hooke. As well as Fellows, provision has been made in the institution for four grades of membership, details of which may be obtained from the offices of the institution, 15 Castlereagh-street, Sydney. The first activity of the institution will be an inaugural dinner on May 30 and the first lecture will be delivered by Major Edgar Booth, M.C., on June 20, the subject being "Geophysical Detection."[251]

Crawford's explanation of multipath fading of 2FC Sydney fails to satisfy listeners in Narromine

LOCAL AND GENERAL. . . . Bad Wireless Reception. Numerous complaints have been heard in Narromine for a long time in regard to the unsatisfactory state of Station 2FC, and the annoyance became so bad that recently Dr. Sutherland complained to the proper authorities. On Friday last he received the following reply from W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector, which is anything but satisfactory. Mr. Crawford wrote:— "On receipt of your letter dated 21/4/32, representations were made to the Chief Engineer, 2FC, who has made a very thorough investigation but can find no transmitter fault which would account for the distortion and fading experienced by listeners at Narromine. It would appear that about 7 a.m. or so some reflection of the sky wave is operating against the reception of the direct wave. This effect is evident on all stations, irrespective of power, but occurs at varying distances according to the wave length of the transmitter." [252]

1932 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford advises listeners in Cessnock and South Maitland how to operate their receivers to avoid howling

Radio Reception Complaints. Careless Handling of Instruments. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector attached to the P.M.G. Department, has forwarded the following information:— "Complaints have been received by the Radio Inspector, Postmaster-General's Department, Sydney, that some person in Kurri Kurri is carelessly handling a wireless receiver, and thus interfering with the reception of others. The attention of all listeners is drawn to the fact that this misuse of reaction is an offence against the wireless regulations. To ascertain whether your set is capable of causing interference, adjust the receiver until maximum efficiency is attained, then tap the aerial terminal with your hand, and if clicks are heard in the loud speaker or telephones, your aerial is radiating and probably spoiling a programme being received by your neighbour. "It is essential to loosely couple the aerial to the detector circuit to obtain a smoother control of the reaction; also, it may be necessary to decrease the voltage supply on the plate of the detector valve. "Listeners whose sets are working erratically are advised to consult an experienced radio dealer with relation to the trouble."[253]

1932 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford's advice on mitigating radio interference fails to satisfy Forbes listeners

Forbes Listeners Denied Radio Service. Inspector Tells Them To Use Honeycomb Coils. ACTION WANTED. What pests these Forbes radio listeners are! They complain about interference in their reception and make a lot of noise as though they were really entitled to something for their twenty-four shillings' license fees each year. Fancy bothering the Senior Radio Inspector with their stupid complaints. Anyone would think that the inspector has nothing to do but attend to the wants of licensed listeners. It's ridiculous. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector, isn't going to be bothered by them, anyhow. He's got something else to do beside worry about listeners who can't get good reception and want to know why. Anyhow, he did drop a line to one Forbes man and did give him a more or less useful hint; but he put him in his place just the same. Here's the letter:— "Dear Sir,— Your letter of the 16th inst. to the Postmaster, Forbes, has been forwarded to me for attention. I can only point out that in cases where the sources of interference cannot be located, it is beneficial to connect two honeycomb coils, 150 turns each, one in series with each leg of the power supply between power point and power pack of the receiver. "I REGRET THAT I AM UNABLE TO ARRANGE FOR A RADIO INSPECTOR TO AGAIN VISIT FORBES Yours faithfully, (signed) W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector." TAKE THAT So there. All you poor listeners who are troubled by interference have only to canter out and find a wild bee's nest, get some of the honeycomb, shove it in the power point or down a leg, and everything in the radio will be lovely. Then you pay your 24/ with a smile, help Mr. W. T. S. Crawford and the Broadcasting Commissioners to keep their jobs, tune in to Station JDKZ and — get your eardrums shocked to a fare-ye-well. Confound it what do you think the Broadcast Commission and these radio inspectors are for? What do you think their upholstered chairs, well-appointed offices, and all the rest of It are for? What's the good of an upholstered chair if you have to get out of it and run up to Forbes because interference is spoiling their reception. Bah! SOME RELIEF Since Council employees found a wire crossed (or something like that) in Oxford Street, the loud crackling noises have ceased, but there is still a good deal of interference. Many complain that it's just as bad as ever on the B class stations. Well, there's Mr. W. T. S. Crawford's letter; what are you going to do about it, listeners? Form a united body and demand an inspection; or be sat upon by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford. This is Act II. What will Act III. be like in the up-to-date version of the stirring play, "INTERFERENCE?"[254]

1932 09[edit | edit source]

Again, Crawford's explanation as to remedies for interference, fail to satisfy listeners in the Young district

Radio Noise. INTERFERENCE AT YOUNG POSSIBLE CAUSES. In reply to a petition signed by many listeners at Young, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector, attached to the P.M.G.'s Department, writes as follows to Mr. R. Willis, of Young:— "I wish to acknowledge receipt of your Questionaire showing particulars of interference to broadcast reception. It would appear that the interference is emanating from two possible sources — high tension system of reticulation and cummutator type electric motors. The interference from the high tension system is quite usual and it not due to any defect of the system or to defective insulators, but is the cumulative effect of the normal leakage which inevitably takes place on any high tension insulator. It is generally possible to reduce the effects considerably by using two honeycomb coils, 150 turns each, one in series with each leg of the power supply between power point and power pack of the receiver. This will also reduce the interference from commutator type motors, although it is much more satisfactory to eliminate the motor interference at its source by connecting 2-1 mfd. condensers, 1,000 volts test each in series across the supply to the motor and to earth the condensers at the centre point to frame of motor. "In the absence of a portable receiver, probably the best way to locate offending motors is by test and inquiry." More Information. This reply is too technical for the majority of listeners and a further letter is being sent, asking for more explicit details, and also pointing out that listeners are not armed with authority to apply remedial measures.— Young "Witness."[255]

Crawford responds to media pressure and despatches his assistant radio inspector to investigate interference complaints in Forbes

That Listeners' League. Inspector Burfit (sic, Burbury), who was sent to Forbes by Senior Radio Inspector Crawford to seek out sources of interference complained of by listeners in the town, left during the week. If he discovered anything he did not say, and will probably submit a report to his chief. There still seems need for that Listeners' League mentioned in this paper some time ago.[256]

1932 10[edit | edit source]

Postmaster-General Parkhill meets his departmental heads (photo)

Mr. Parkhill Meets His Officers. . . . MR. PARKHILL, Postmaster-General, meeting departmental heads at G.P.O. today.— From left: Back row — Messrs. V. E. Butler (Supt., Telephones), T. H. Cameron (Supt., Stores), Dr. Moseley (Commonwealth Medical Officer), R. Lawson (Supt., Engineer), W. T. S. Crawford (Senr. Radio Inspector), T. G. Leece (Senr. Inspector). Front — Messrs. J. W. Kitto (Dep.-Dir. Post and Tel.), Parkhill, Bradley (Supt., Telegraphs), and Jeffrey (Acct).[257]

1933[edit | edit source]

1933 03[edit | edit source]

Crawford visits his brother in Launceston

PERSONAL. . . . Mr. W. T. Crawford, who is in charge in Sydney of the wireless activities carried out by the Commonwealth Government, has been spending a short holiday in Launceston with his brother, Mr. F. C. Crawford, Town Clerk. .Mr. Crawford was stationed in Launceston many years ago, when he was connected with the Postal Department, and he has had charge of a number of post offices in the state, as well as of the wireless station in Hobart. Mr. Crawford will leave by the Nairana today.[258]

Crawford an official guest at the opening of the 1933 Radio and Electrical Exhibition in Sydney, opening address by Fisk

"THE ELECTRICAL AGE." "We are now in the electrical age," said Mr Fisk in his speech. "Electricity is going to make a big difference to our future life. I am not one of those who think that civilisation is doomed. I think civilisation is going to rise to greater heights than ever before. Electricity is the one power we in Australia might call our own. It is going to make a big difference to Australia. We have coal and water here in abundance and those two things provide us with electrical power. At Burrinjuck there is a huge power plant where vast quantities of electricity are generated and at Sydney we have the Bunnerong powerhouse and other plants doing the same thing. These sources of power will mean much to Australia in the future. "Electricity is brilliantly lighting the city tonight. It enables us to speak to our friends in all parts of Australia. It enables us to talk to anything up to 150,000 000 people by radio telephone, and our cable services and beam wireless depend upon this great power. . . . Following the opening ceremony, which was broadcast through Station 2BL, there was a concert programme, also broadcast. The official guests included:— The chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Commission (Mr. Charles Lloyd Jones), the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. J. W. Kitto), the Government Astronomer (Mr. J. Nangle), Professor L. Wilkinson, representing the Institute of Architects, Mr. R. Lawson, superintending engineer for the State of the Telephone Department, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, senior Government radio inspector for New South Wales, and Colonel R. F. Smith (Second Division Signalling Corps).[259]

Crawford to present a paper on interference to radio at Engineers' Conference in Sydney

Electrical Engineers To Confer. Mr. T. A. Reece, electrical and mechanical engineer for the City Council, will leave tonight for Sydney on annual leave of about four weeks. He will attend a conference of electrical engineers which will be opened on Monday, and which will last about a week. The conference will be opened by Mr. H. P. Fitzsimmons, honorary Minister assisting the Colonial Treasurer. Many interesting papers will be discussed, including one by Mr. W. T. Crawford, radio inspector, on wireless interference. The subject of the paper is "Causes and results of interference in supply systems." During the absence of Mr. Reece his duties will be carried out by Mr. G. Strachan.[260]

Crawford presents a paper on radio interference at conference of Electricity Supply Engineers' Association of N.S.W. at which electrical engineers dispute primary causes of interference and solutions

TOO MUCH NOISE! Radio Problem Unsolved. ADDRESSING the Electricity Supply Engineers' Association of N.S.W. today, Mr. O. F. Mingay, of the Institute of Radio, said that radio engineers had done all they could towards eliminating electrical interference and now looked to the supply authorities to concentrate on the problem. Television was being developed and would shortly be generally available, but before it would be a success the subject of interference would have to be overcome. The common cause of interference in radio sets was the fact that earth wires were fitted to water mains, which, though running to earth, also acted as a common earth for electrical supply installation. Earth wires should be run directly to earth. Technical papers were read by several members of the conference, and Mr. W. T. Crawford (radio inspector). It was stated that interference was traceable to electric fans, vacuum cleaners, irons, refrigerators, small motors in the household and outside, to electric trains and trams, street lighting faults, &c. Attempts in some countries to eliminate interference at the source had not been successful. Mr. Lemaire (Electrical Engineers) complained that a lot of trouble was caused by the "sloppy" way in which some wireless sets were installed. In reply to a question, Mr. Mingay said that until the Government provided country stations with high power and long wavelength country listeners would not obtain satisfactory service. Proceeding.[261]

As previous, further details of Crawford's paper on interference, primarily statistics on causation

RADIO RECEPTION. Causes of Interference. Causes of interference with radio sets were discussed at the conference of the Electricity Supply Engineers' Association in Science House yesterday. Mr. W. T. Crawford, senior radio inspector said that the radio inspectors' department was handling 200 cases of interference a month. Commutator motors fitted to vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, etc., were responsible for 39½ per cent. of the interference. High-tension, although a severe form of interference, was responsible for only 9½ per cent., and low-tension caused only 7 per cent. Traction services, such as electric trams, were responsible for 10 per cent. of trouble. The percentage caused by receiver faults was eight, and oscillating receivers (that was reradiating or "howling" sets) were responsible for 3 per cent. Street lighting faults (loose contacts, etc.) caused only 1 per cent. Mr. Crawford pointed out that electro medical apparatus, which was responsible for 12 per cent. of interference, had been known in country towns to influence reception over a distance of a quarter of a mile, while flashing electric signs in the city and suburbs affected sets over a radius of 100 yards. Mr. D. Wyles, technical manager of Philips Lamps Australasia, Ltd., said that a separate earth should be used which should be as short as possible. Mr. A. E. Lemaire (Leeton) expressed the view that manufacturers would serve their interests best by making sure that their sets were installed by qualified men. Mr H. K. Burbury, radio inspector, said that electric trains in suburban areas did not cause much trouble, mainly because there were few residents within 50 yards of the train. Trams caused a certain amount of interference, because they passed through thickly populated residential areas. The conference will be continued this morning.[262]

1933 04[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends farewell for long term work colleague J. J. O'Kelly

LONG SERVICE. MR. J. J. O'KELLY RETIRES. Mr. J. J. O'Kelly, senior clerk in the engineer's branch of the Postmaster-General's Department, has entered on leave prior to retirement, after 50 years' service. At a valedictory gathering, Mr. R. Lawson, superintending engineer, paid a high tribute to the value of Mr. O'Kelly's services to the department during his long career, and his devotion to duty. Mr. Dawson's remarks were supported by Messrs. Hipsley, McKay, Horner, Jepsen, Mortimer, Grimm and W. T. S. Crawford, all of whom gave expression of their good wishes and of the officers they represented. On behalf of his colleagues and well-wishers, the presentation of a five-valve superhet Lekmek radio receiver, enclosed in a highly-attractive cabinet, was made by Mr. Lawson to Mr. O'Kelly. Other mementos were presented by Messrs. O. M. Moriarty and W. G. Hay on behalf of the cadet engineers and cleaning staff respectively.[263]

1933 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford's paper on electrical interference fires up a colleague to act

RADIO REVIEW. An Interesting Article Inductive Interference. (By J. B. Kyle). Those gentlemen who have recently combined to form the Inverell Radio Club are deserving of the support of every person in the Inverell district who owns and operates a wireless receiving set, writes the electrical engineer, Mr. J. B. Kyle. The objective of the club (so I understand) is to endeavour to obtain reasonably good entertainment via the radio-receiving set, from the broadcasting stations throughout the Commonwealth, and it is to be admitted by all that such is greatly to be desired. In my humble opinion, this objective can be attained by the concerted action of such a body as the Inverell Radio Club; provided any action taken, is the outcome of careful investigation on right lines. Bearing in mind the objective of the club, I would bring before members my own opinion of the various causes which prevent the listener from obtaining reasonably good reception. The modern radio receiver is the result of much hard labour and years of careful study; therefore, I do not suggest that there can be any drastic alterations or improvements in the direction of design and manufacture, although improvements are still being made. What I do suggest is that listeners should not lose sight of the fact that the radio-receiving set is a complicated piece of apparatus, and, as nothing is perfect, faults are liable to develop in any wireless set. In such faults lie some of the causes of poor reception. I suggest, therefore, that this matter ought to be No. 1 on the list for inspection. DAYLIGHT RECEPTION. We in Inverell are all satisfied that the main trouble lies in the fact that the distance from the broadcasting stations is so great that even the best sets fail to give the much-to-be-desired "daylight" reception. This trouble is being given serious consideration at the present time by the proper authorities, and as a member of the Electricity Supply Engineers' Association, I can assure all members of the Inverell Radio Club that Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector of the P.M.G's, Department, is doing good work. The club should, therefore, be prepared to assist Mr. Crawford, or his representative, who may visit the district. Having only mentioned the above causes of poor local reception, as they are outside the scope of this article, I arrive at the "much discussed" cause of poor reception, namely, radio interference. RADIO INTERFERENCE. Firstly, I would ask, What is radio interference — or, to give it the correct name, of radio inductive interference? Not wishing to appear as an authority, but quoting from technical literature on the subject, this inductive interference is the disturbance of one set of radio waves (which are sent out by the broadcasting station) by other radio waves induced from other sources. A simple analogy, which may be quite crude when placed alongside the highly-technical explanation, but yet, I trust, will assist the average listener to understand the fundamental principles of the subject: . . . .[264]

Crawford elected councillor of the IRE (Aust)

RADIO ENGINEERS. Address by Mr. E. T. Fisk. In his presidential address at the annual meeting of the Institution of Radio Engineers (Australia), last night, Mr. E. T. Fisk said that it was destined to become a force for good in the wireless industry of Australia. It was a body which all radio engineers anxious to uphold their profession should join. Mr. Fisk said that while the appointment of the Broadcasting Commission was an event of major importance, there had been no great technical advance in broadcasting in Australia, although the recent proposals regarding long waves were of considerable interest to members of the institution. The commencement of the B.B.C.'s short wave transmissions was an important event. Technically the broadcasts had fulfilled the expectations of radio engineers, and they had demonstrated to the public how wireless could overcome distance. The year had shown that the wireless industry in Australia was progressing efficiently. The following were elected to the council for the ensuing year: Messrs. L. P. R. Bean, W. T. S. Crawford, E. T. Fisk, N. S. Gilmour, L. A. Hooke, R. J. W. Kennell, A. S. McDonald, C. H. Norville, W. P. Renshaw, F. W. P. Thom, L. N. Schultz, D. G. Wyles, J. N. Briton, J. D. Olle, D. Lindsay, and E. E. Tree. Before the meeting, members of the retiring council and of the institution's subcommittees gave a dinner to Mr. Fisk, who leaves Australia tomorrow on a trip abroad.[265]

1933 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford declines to send an inspector to Parkes without a volume of written complaints

Radio Interference. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford (Chief Radio Inspector) has informed the Council that it was not considered necessary to send a radio inspector to Parkes, as only two complaints against intereference had been received. The letter was dated June 9, and the "Champion" knows that several further complaints have been forwarded since that date. The fact that only two had been received previously indicates that local residents are a long-suffering crowd, as interference is very prevalent indeed.[266]

As previous, Lithgow still waiting to see a radio inspector

SOME PARS AND PERSONALS. . . . Mr. Crawford (Chief Radio Inspector) has informed Parkes Council it was not considered necessary to send a radio inspector there as only two complaints against interference had been received. This is denied by Parkes residents. A similar letter, received by Forbes Council, stated only one complaint was received from there. Aldermen pointed out that two petitions of protest had already been sent to the department which, it was stated, must employ a bad filing system for correspondence. The department promised Lithgow Council some months ago it would send an inspector here, but he has not been sighted so far.[267]

1933 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford visits Grafton with McKay and Weir to inspect proposed sites for the new commercial station 2GF Grafton

TWO WIRELESS Stations FOR GRAFTON? To Serve Coast. GRAFTON, Monday. If there is no hitch in the present arrangements, Grafton will have two wireless stations shortly. The Federal Government is calling tenders for a £60,000 relay station, which will serve the whole of the coastal districts from the mid-coast to the Queensland border. It will be located close to Grafton. Tenders for this station will, it is stated, close next month. The second station will be built in Grafton for the Grafton Broadcasting Company, recently formed in Sydney. This will be a "B" class station, and it is understood that Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd. will control it. OFFICERS' INSPECTION. Three officers of the Postmaster-General's Department (Messrs. W. Crawford, radio inspector, R. V. McKay, supervising engineer for New South Wales, and H. Weir, radio engineer) have been in Grafton inspecting the several sites which the Grafton Broadcasting Company have in view as suitable for the erection of the station and studio. The departmental experts have returned to Sydney and it is expected that finality will be reached shortly.[268]

Crawford insists that the little experimental broadcasting station at Lismore comply with the radio regulations and ensure that an operator with AOCP be in attendance at all times

SURPRISE REQUEST. MORSE OPERATOR FOR STATION VK2GL. "BLOW TO LEAGUE." "It is very plain that some person with no knowledge of the circumstances, a superficial knowledge of departmental regulations, an inflated opinion of his own importance and a penchant for interfering in matters in which he has no concern, has drawn the attention of the department to the fact that one of their regulations is being contravened, a fact of which the department has been cognisant for the past four years." In the above terms the president of the Richmond River Listeners' League (Mr. B. L. Smith) at last meeting of the committee, commented on the receipt of a letter from the Sydney Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. Crawford) notifying the league of the necessity of having a certificated operator present at all transmissions from the league's experimental station (VK2GL), and requesting that an assurance to this effect be given. PRESIDENT'S ACTION. Mr. Smith explained that the letter had only been received on the day of the meeting. He telephoned Mr. Crawford in Sydney immediately, and pointed out the conditions under which the league had been operating during the past four years, with the full knowledge of the department. Mr. Crawford, said Mr. Smith, stated, that he would communicate with the Chief Radio Inspector (Mr J. Malone) to ascertain whether the department would be prepared to issue a provisional certificate to him (Mr. Smith) in order to conform with the regulation. A serious view of the matter was taken by the meeting. The enforcement of the regulation in question, which provided for the attendance of a certificated operator throughout every transmission, would virtually mean that the league's amateur station would have to cease functioning. This, in turn, would be a serious blow to the league, since its fortnightly transmissions were the chief factors in maintaining its activity. GENERAL OUTCRY. Great interest was taken in the broadcasts, continued Mr. Smith, and if they ceased there would a general outcry from the 500 odd regular listeners in the district. The president's action in telephoning was confirmed, the letter was received, and it was resolved to forward an undertaking to the radio inspector that at all times when the short wave station was in operation a person would be in attendance who possessed the necessary ability to receive and transmit the stipulated number of words per minute in morse. With regard to the medium wave station it was decided to withhold action until the result of Mr. Crawford's application to the Chief Radio Inspector became known. EXCEPTIONAL CASE. Interviewed yesterday by a "Northern Star" representative, Mr. Smith explained that in the normal course of events experimental licenses were issued only to people who had a knowledge of both telegraphy and radio, and who had passed a proficiency examination conducted by the department. The license granted to the league, however, constituted an exceptional case—the only known one of its kind in the State. Station VK2GL operates on a medium wave, and on no occasions are morse messages transmitted. In fact, morse transmission would not be permissible or advisable in any circumstances on the league's band. Included among the members of the league were expert radio mechanics and electrical engineers, whose services were available at all times. It was in consequence of this position that a license had been issued by the department. The league had never pretended to adhere strictly to the regulation regarding the attendance of an operator, since none was needed, a fact of which the department had been cognisant, and to which it had taken no exception hitherto.[269]

1933 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford makes special arrangements for Lismore's experimental broadcasting station VK2GL to continue broadcasting

"QUALIFIED PERSON" FOR EXPERIMENTAL STATION. LEAGUE DISCUSSION. Members of the committee of the Richmond River Listeners' League discussed, at their meeting last night, the necessity of having available the services of duly qualified persons to operate the transmitters at the League's experimental station, VK2GL. On the day of the league's previous meeting a letter had been received from Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector, stating that it had been brought to his notice that the station was broadcasting without having a certificated operator present, and asking that, an undertaking should be given that such an operator would be present at all future broadcasts. TEMPORARY RESPONSIBILITY. The president of the league (Mr. B. L. Smith) discussed the matter with Mr. Crawford by telephone, and a letter was also forwarded to the inspector, and, following these two communications, Mr. Crawford wrote as follows to the meeting last night: "Approval is hereby given for the transmitters owned by your league to be operated by an approved person for a period not exceeding six months, and it is suggested that, for that period, Mr. B. L. Smith be responsible. "It is expected," added the letter, that arrangements will be made for an operator to obtain an amateur operator's certificate of proficiency at the forthcoming examination on October 10 or at the following examination. Arrangements can be made for the examination to be held at the Lismore post office." IMPENDING EXAMINATION. Commenting on the letter, Mr. Smith said that its contents were satisfactory, but added that they should have a qualified operator at the short wave station. Messrs. R. J. Stick and J. A. Haynes and several other members of the league intended to sit for the examination, and to some extent the league might be able to get over the difficulty. The station was on the air regularly every second Sunday, however, and if the qualified man was taken ill or went out of town what was the league to do? "While agreeing generally with the contentions of the department," continued the president, "I still do not think that a qualified operator would be able to do more than is done by a man going down to the station and doing his turn on duty." NEED FOR CONTINUITY. The department's attention, he said, should be drawn to this and the inspector asked if, in the event of such emergencies as he had mentioned arising, permission would still be given for him, or anyone else the league agreed to appoint, to act, and so ensure that the station would be kept on the air. It was essential that continuity should be maintained." In reply to Mr. T. L. Griffin, the president said that under the regulations, it was necessary to have a qualified operator, even when working on a broadcast band. The following motion was moved by Mr. R. C. Creasey, seconded by Mr. R. P. Addison, and carried : "That we notify the Chief Radio Inspector that the league is agreeable to Mr. B. L. Smith accepting responsibility for the six months' period allotted, and that we assure the inspector that a number of our members are studying for the examination, and that towards the expiration of the six months period the league will again communicate with him concerning the position."[270]

1933 10[edit | edit source]

Photo of Ann, grandchild of Crawford

RADIANT CHILDHOOD. . . . (Start Photo Caption) This is Ann, only child of Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Campbell, of Grafton, and grandchild of Mr. and Mrs. W. T. S. Crawford, of Gordon. — Monte Luke. (Start Photo Caption)[271]

Crawford progressively seeking compliance with the Wireless Regulations for VK2GL

STATION VK2GL. Ultimatum by Department. PROHIBIT BROADCASTS. "This amounts virtually to a total prohibition of the popular Sunday broadcasts now transmitted from our experimental station, VK2GL," stated the president of the Richmond River Listeners' League (Mr. B. L. Smith) yesterday, commenting on a letter received from the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford). Mr. Crawford stated : "Referring to the programme advertised in the "Northern Star" of 5/10/33 it would appear that the transmissions of VK2GL are more in the nature of those from a licensed broadcasting station than from an experimental station, and it is now considered desirable that the VK2GL transmissions on the broadcasting band should be brought into line with those of other experimental stations in the State. HOURS LIMITED. "In order to put this into effect permission is granted for your league to use the 1715-1200 k.c. band until December 31, during hours outside those of broadcasting. Application for the renewal of this privilege must be accompanied by supporting data of the experimental work undertaken during its currency. The hours outside those of broadcasting are : Monday to Friday, 11.30 p.m. to 6.30 a.m.; Saturday, midnight to 7.30 a.m.; Sunday, 11.30 p.m. to 6.30 a.m." Mr. Smith stated that the league could not understand why the privilege had been withdrawn of entertaining listeners in a district inadequately served by the A class stations, and during hours when no other programme was available to listeners, especially since the hours had been fixed so that there could not possibly be any interference with any other broadcasting station. WILL NOT SUBMIT. It was not proposed to submit to the Radio Inspector's ruling without a murmur, however. A special general meeting of league members and all other listeners who cared to attend had been convened for Thursday night at the Lismore Council Chambers, at which it was anticipated that an emphatic protest would be made. Throughout its existence station VK2GL has been in a peculiar position. First conceived by Messrs. Smith and S. J. Hosie, it came into being as a result of a recommendation made by Mr. Crawford, who was in Lismore at the time. REGULAR PROGRAMMES. It has never attempted experimental work in the way of morse transmissions, having operated solely on a broadcast band. Its transmissions during the first 12 months were spasmodic, but in the last four years programmes have been broadcast regularly every alternate Sunday from 10 a.m. to noon and from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. Considerable interest has been taken by district radio users aud it is estimated that there are 500 odd regular listeners to the Sunday broadcasts. Although not functioning strictly in accordance with regulations there has never been any attempt at secrecy, or any suggestion of evading the periodical inspections. All radio inspectors in the district have been aware of the transmissions, and it is understood that on one occasion an inspector actually participated in a broadcast. A copy of the annual report has always been furnished to the Senior Radio Inspector, and in these the broadcasts have been discussed freely and openly. NO MORSE OPERATOR. A couple of months ago the Department drew the league's attention to the fact that the regulation stipulating the attendance of a certified morse operator at all transmissions was not being observed, but it was pointed out, in reply, that as no morse transmissions were made there did not appear to be any necessity for one. Subsequently permission was given by the Department for transmissions to be conducted under the control of an approved person, until such time as it was possible to provide a certificated operator. No exception was taken on that occasion to the hours during which the league was broadcasting and it seems difficult to account for the change of front.[272]

Crawford's efforts to have VK2GL comply with the Wireless Regulations results in a public protest meeting

PROTEST MEETING. PROHIBITION OF VK2GL. At a special general meeting of the Richmond River Listeners' League, held at the Lismore Council Chambers last night, decisive protests were voiced at the action of the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) in virtually prohibiting broadcasts from station VK2GL. It was decided to write to Mr. Crawford, pointing out the work that the League had done, requesting that an officer be sent to Lismore to investigate the matter, and asking for permission to carry on until such time as the officer completed his investigation. The Mayor (Ald. S. J. Hosie), who was the first president of the league, occupied the chair.[273]

Comprehensive background to the dispute between the PMGD and Richmond River Listeners' League with Crawford at the centre

INVESTIGATION URGED. Station VK2GL. League's Protest. To frame a protest against what is regarded as a virtual prohibition of transmissions from its experimental station (VK2GL) by the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), a special general meeting of the Richmond River Listeners' League was held at the Council Chambers, Lismore, on Thursday night. The Mayor of Lismore, (Ald. S. J. Hosie), who was first president of the league, presided. In outlining the object of the meeting, the president (Mr. B. L. Smith) explained that a letter had been received from Mr. Crawford in which he said that the Department considered it desirable that the VK2GL transmissions in future should be brought into line with those of other experimental stations, inasmuch as broadcasting should be only carried out during stipulated periods outside of regular broadcasting hours. PROHIBITIVE HOURS. Roughly the periods referred to were between midnight and 6.30 a.m., and as the league had no intention of broadcasting during such hours the Department's ultimatum meant virtually a total prohibition of the popular Sunday broadcasts from the station. BIRTH OF LEAGUE. Mr. Smith gave a brief survey of the league's career. It had commenced a little more than five years ago, its primary object being the elimination of radio interference, at that time particularly bad in Lismore. After some time it had been decided to conduct a radio and electrical exhibition, and the Senior Radio Inspector had been invited to perform the opening ceremony. While in Lismore Mr. Crawford had suggested that the League should apply for an experimental license as a means of increasing its activities. The step had been taken, and VK2GL came into existence. It was soon found, however, that members were principally interested in reception on the broadcasting band, very little interest being evinced in short wave work. Transmissions on this band had been instituted, and after five years had reached a high degree of efficiency. EXPERIMENTS MADE. Experiments had been conducted to ascertain the most popular type of broadcast items, and the transmissions had included recorded numbers, talks and debates, elocutionary and musical items, radio sketches and band music. From a rough census taken about 18 months ago it was estimated that each alternate Sunday at least 500 persons listened to the programmes, and it was probable that the present figure would be considerably greater. Throughout its existence the league had conducted its transmissions with the full knowledge of the Department. The station had been the principal means of keeping the league together, and if it was forced off the air the league would not live long. Apparently the penalty for improving our equipment and spending our money is that we must discontinue broadcasting," concluded Mr. Smith. NOT "ADVERTISED" Discussing Mr. Crawford's letter which referred to a programme advertised in the "Northern Star," Mr T. L. Griffin said that the inspector was obviously labouring under a delusion. The programme had never been advertised, although notices had appeared in the press regarding them. His attention should be drawn to this erroneous impression. The Lismore Municipal Council electrical engineer (Mr. R. C. Creasy) said that the Department's chief objection seemed to be that the league held an experimental license, but did not do any experimenting. He did not know what was regarded as experimental work in official circles, but he believed that the league was carrying out more really valuable experimental work than the majority of the so-called experimental stations. The fact that it had discovered and eliminated a variety of forms of interference should be stressed when writing to the Department. WOULD END LEAGUE. Mr. N. Laundry agreed that suppression of the station would mean the end of the league. He considered that some action should be taken to obtain an amendment to the regulation to allow stations such as VK2GL to broadcast during hours not permitted at present, providing such transmissions did not interfere with the reception from other stations. In reply to a question as to whether the inspector was aware of the exact manner in which the league was functioning, Mr. Smith stated that the Department was fully cognisant of the form the league's activities took. Four inspectors had visited Lismore, and one had actually participated in a broadcast. Mr. Smith moved that a letter be forwarded to the Chief Radio Inspector at Canberra advising him of the receipt of the letter from the Senior Radio Inspector ; pointing out that the listeners in the district resented the closing of the station, and asking him whether, in view of the cordial relations that had existed between the Department and the League and the inadvisability of destroying such relations, he would be prepared to detail a senior officer of the Radio Department, to visit Lismore to investigate the matter, and advising him that a proposal now on foot to prepare a petition for submission to the Minister would be held in abeyance pending consideration of the league's request. AMENDMENT MOVED. Mr. Creasy moved as an amendment that a reply be sent to Mr. Crawford asking why the league should be called upon now to do as requested when it had been operating with the Department's full knowledge for a number of years ; pointing out the value of the experimental work carried out by the league; and suggesting that if there was no other way out of the difficulty would he endeavour to take steps to have an amendment made to the regulation to allow broadcasting during the present hours. After some discussion the motion and the amendment were incorporated into one motion, which provided that the Senior Radio Inspector be written to, pointing out the work the league had done, requesting that an officer be sent to Lismore, and asking for permission to carry on until such time as the officer completed his investigation. The committee was empowered to take what action it deemed fit to carry the matter through to finality.[274]

1933 11[edit | edit source]

Richmond River Listeners' League writes to Crawford seeking concessions in respect of experimental broadcasting station VK2GL

STATION VK2GL. PROTEST AGAINST ULTIMATUM. LETTER TO DEPT. In accordance with a decision made at last Thursday night's meeting of the Richmond River Listeners' League a letter has been forwarded by the secretary (Mr. F. Cooper) to the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) protesting against the Department's action in prohibiting the league's station, VK2GL, from transmitting during regular broadcasting hours. After outlining the objects of the league, and tracing its history, Mr. Cooper draws attention to the valuable experimental work carried out by the League through its station, particularly in regard to the location and suppression of various existing types of radio interference. "If the station is forced off the air the league itself will be so affected that it will be only a matter of time before it ceases to function," he states. NO INTERFERENCE. Discussing the regulation which prohibits amateur broadcasting during regular hours, the letter says: "As there are no A or B class stations broadcasting within 100 miles of Lismore between the hours which we have used, we consider that we should be at liberty to conduct our broadcasts without any objection being raised; that even if a station did broadcast during the same hours we should still be at liberty to continue so long as we refrained from, causing interference. We have kept our station entirely free of all subjects of a contentious nature, and have refrained from assuming the privileges of B class stations in that we have not at any time received revenue from the station from any source whatever." "Another aspect is that the existence of the station has undoubtedly increased revenue from listeners' licenses in the district, as it has been a big factor in the suppression of interference," continues the letter. "It will be recognised that the contemplated action of the Department would adversely affect all set owners in the district, and the matter, therefore, is one which requires careful consideration." INVESTIGATION SOUGHT. Mr. Cooper concludes by asking Mr. Crawford either to visit Lismore to investigate the matter, or to send some other responsible officer from the Department, with authority to deal with it, and asks that, in the meantime, permission should be granted to the league to continue its broadcasts.[275]

Crawford's daughter Alice holidaying at Grafton, noted that she has often performed as a singer on the Sydney radio stations

PERSONAL. Miss F. M. Crawford, daughter of Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, of Gordon (Sydney), is holidaying at Grafton. Mr. Crawford is a noted rifle shot, and a Sydney radio inspector, whilst Miss Crawford, who is the possessor of a fine soprano voice, has on many occasions been heard over the air from 2FC and 2BL, Sydney.[276]

Crawford notes the formation of the Tweed District Listeners' League and seeks further detail

TWEED LISTENERS' LEAGUE. COMMITTEE MEETING. Survey of Electricity Mains. At the committee meeting of Tweed District Listeners' League last night, it was decided that a proposal be submitted to the Technical Advisory Committee suggesting that a survey of Murwillumbah's electricity reticulation mains be made at the earliest convenient date. The object of the survey is to detect apparent causes of interference, such as tree limbs having contact with the wires. A letter was received from Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector, notifying that he had noted the formation of a League in Murwillumbah and asking for copies of the constitution to be forwarded. A complaint regarding interference was received on the prescribed form from Mr. R. W. Patrick, and this is to be handed to the Advisory Committee for its report on the matter. The action of the President and Secretary in having questionaire forms for reports on interference printed was endorsed. The Treasurer (Mr. J. F. M. Theyer) reported that receipts to date totalled £4/5/0. Accounts to the amount of £17/8 were passed for payment. It was decided that a general meeting of the League take place on December 11, particulars of which will be notified later. Present were Mr. H. W. Kramer (in the chair), Messrs. J. F. M. Theyer, W. F. Hatfied, H. C. Seamons, J. Sutton, and the Honorary Secretary (Mr. D. Considine). Apologies were tendered by Messrs. F. K. Budd and Rev. J. W. Morley for non-attendance owing to prior engagements.[277]

Crawford again resists concessions for VK2GL Lisnore

LISTENERS' DEPUTATION. The Richmond River Listeners' League is endeavouring to arrange a deputation to the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. Kitto), who will be in Lismore in the course of the next few days, regarding the recent prohibition of the activities of the league's experimental broadcasting station excepting during certain hours. Mr. R. F. H. Green, M.H.R.. is lending his support towards arranging the deputation, which the president of the league (Mr. B. L. Smith) said yesterday would be a final effort to have the matter amicably settled. INTERIM PERMISSION REFUSED. Mr. Smith explained that last Tuesday, owing to the fact that a month had elapsed without any reply having been received to a previous communication (it being necessary, in consequence to forego two transmissions from the station) a further letter had been sent to the radio inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), with the request that interim permission be given to carry on, and stating that the league intended to transmit its ordinary programmes until specific instructions were received to the contrary. A reply had now been received prohibiting broadcasting through the station outside the hours previously advised, namely, from midnight till 6 a.m.[278]

Crawford visits Lismore in company with his boss J. W. Kitto and his assistant T. G. Leece

HURRIED VISIT. Postal Director in Lismore. On a general tour of inspection the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. J. W. Kitto) arrived in Lismore by car last night, accompanied by Messrs. T. G. Leece (senior inspector) and W. T. S. Crawford (senior radio inspector). Mr. Kitto's activities while in Lismore will comprise principally domestic matters, but he is to visit Bangalow in company with Mr. R. F. H. Green, M.H.R., today with regard to the suggested erection of a new post office to replace that which was destroyed by fire about two years ago. The party will probably visit Casino this afternoon, returning from there to Sydney. EFFICIENT WORKING. In a brief interview with a "Northern Star" representative shortly after his arrival, Mr. Kitto stated that he was pleased to visit Lismore once again. He regarded the town as the most stable and most progressive in the State, and considered that it possessed a big future. The old idea that the postmaster's business could be conducted from Pitt-street had gone by the board nowadays. Personal knowledge was required of great centres like Lismore to ensure efficient working in the Department, and he regretted that pressure of time forced him to make his visit so short.[279]

Crawford to meet with the Richmond River Listeners' League in Lismore

FINALITY? VK2GL Officials to Meet Inspector. It is anticipated that finality regarding the position of the Richmond River Listeners' League's experimental station, VK2GL, will be reached this morning, when officials of the League are to meet, the senior radio inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), who arrived in Lismore yesterday. The appointment has been made for 9 a.m.[280]

Crawford, Kitti and Leece pay a flying visit to Taree on their way to Lismore

Local and General News. . . . OFFICIAL POSTAL INSPECTION. — On Monday Messrs. J. W. Kitto (Deputy Director of Post and Telegraphs), Leece (Senior Inspector) and W. T. Crawford (radio inspector) arrived at Taree about 3.30 on a tour of official inspection, and left for the north about half-an-hour later.[281]

Crawford and Kitto signal regulatory forbearance has ended, VK2GL to close

CLOSING OF STATION VK2GL. Listeners' Deputation Waits on Postal Official. SERVICE WITHOUT ANY INTERFERENCE. "You are seeking to exercise the functions of a station which requires a license other than you hold, which pays a greater fee, and which has a status you have never claimed. The fact that you have been permitted to broadcast in the past in hours that constitute a contravention of the regulations does not justify the department permitting a continuance of such broadcasts. The question resolves itself into whether you have any right to expect the department to continue to close its eyes to a grave irregularity." In these words the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. J. W. Kitto) who was accompanied by the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), replied to a deputation from the Richmond River Listeners' League at Lismore post office yesterday. The deputation, which was introduced by Mr. R. F. H. Green, M.H.R., and comprised the Mayor of Lismore (Ald. S. J . Hosie), and Messrs. B. L. Smith (president), R. C. Creasey (Municipal council electrical engineer), F. Cooper (secretary), and N. Laundry, protested against the Department's action in prohibiting broadcasting from the League's experimental station (VK2GL), and sought an amendment to the regulations to permit the transmissions to continue as they have in the past. TO GO TO MINISTER. No finality was reached, Mr. Kitto promising to represent the matter to the Minister, and the league undertaking to submit a concrete proposal regarding an amendment to the regulations to overcome the present difficulty. Until the matter is settled in one way or another there will be no Sunday transmissions from VK2GL. Mr. Green, introducing the deputation, said that the station had been on the air every alternate Sunday morning and afternoon for some years. The department's edict had curtailed activities considerably, and it would be claimed that there was no justification for the step. It would be shown that the station was giving service at a time when none other was available, and that it had been an experimental station in every sense of the word. REASONABLE REQUEST. Ald. Hosie said that the League's request was reasonable, and one which could be granted by the Department without causing any difficulty for itself. The department had been aware that the station was operating for some years, and it had never raised any objection in the past. In fact, on one occasion a responsible officer had actually taken part in a broadcast, speaking over the air on radio interference. No suggestion had been made by the Department that there was any thing objectionable in the programmes. The league wished to know what it had done to cause the department to take the action it had, and also sought permission to continue broadcasting as it had in the past. Stating that the station was brought into being at the suggestion of the senior radio inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), who was in Lismore some years ago for the purpose of opening a radio and electrical exhibition, Mr. Smith proceeded to trace its history. He dealt at length with various letters that had passed between the league and the department emphasising the fact that the present official attitude was at variance with that adopted in the past. WITHOUT DEMUR. If it could be shown that the transmissions from VK2GL were interfering in any way with A and B class stations immediate steps would be taken to obviate this, and if it could not be overcome the league would cease broadcasting without demur. He had received a personal assurance from the proprietor of the local B class station that he had no objection to anything the league had done, and that he, personally, had listened to and enjoyed many of the programmes. Mr. Creasy pointed out the advantages and benefits accruing to the department by the operation of the listeners' league. A few years ago there had been an abnormal amount of interference in Lismore, and the league had been of untold assistance to himself, as the municipal council's electrical engineer, in combating the evil. It had definitely carried out a form of radio experimentation, particularly in this regard. If the station ceased to go on the air the league would very soon cease to exist. His statement was supported by Ald. Hosie, in his capacity as chairman of the electricity committee of the council. Five years ago interference was so prevalent that listeners received very little value for their license fees, but today the trouble was practically negligible. In reply, Mr. Kitto stated that it was not the department's wish to curb enthusiasm in these matters. There were certain defined lines laid down in the regulations, however. A number of experimental stations in various parts of the country had gone beyond their proper sphere. The department had been slow to speak and had more or less presented a blind eye to what had been happening in the past. If the matter began and finished with the Lismore station there would be a different tale. But other stations would have justification for demanding similar privileges, and trouble was bound to follow. The fact that the Lismore B class station had not raised any objection did not mean that other B class stations in other centres might not do so. The whole matter must be regarded broadly. It did not affect Lismore alone, but the whole of the State. MUST HAVE LICENSE. If the League wished to operate as a B class station it must make application for a B class license. Even then he would not guarantee that it would be granted. Mr. Crawford, elaborating on Mr. Kitto's explanation, stated that the department had reached a stage where a general tightening up of the regulations was essential. Lismore had not been singled out in this regard. It was pointed out by Mr Laundry that the league did not wish the department to continue countenancing a contravention of the regulations. It sought the introduction of a regulation which would enable stations such as VK2GL to broadcast during daylight hours, provided that it could be shown definitely that such transmission was not interfering with any A or B class station. Mr. Kitto reiterated that the league had been trespassing on the "preserves" of B class stations, who had paid fees for the privilege of broadcasting during certain hours, and were entitled to those hours. The hours for the operation of experimental stations had been prescribed and they must be adhered to. Alterations to existing legislation would be necessary to give effect to the league's request. For the present he must ask the league to restrict its operations. He would present the case to the Minister, however, and see what could be done. At his request the league agreed to draft a suggested amendment to the regulation and submit it to him, Mr. Kitto promising, on his part, to see that it was conveyed to the right quarter.[282]

1933 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford on tour of inspection of post offices along the north coast (including Lismore)

Personal. . . . Mr. J. W. Kitto, Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs, accompanied by Mr. Leece, Senior Inspector, and Mr. Crawford, Chief Wireless Inspector, visited Taree early in the week while on a tour of inspection of Post Offices along the North Coast.[283]

Crawford, Kitto and Leece visit Scone while returning to Sydney

Personal Pars. . . . Mr. J. W. Kitto, Deputy Postmaster-General, accompanied by Messrs. Leece and Crawford, Chief Inspector and Radio Inspector respectively, passed through Scone today, and made a brief stay at the Post Office. The chief, who left an O.K. report, is on his way back to headquarters following a trip to New Guinea, motoring south from Brisbane.[284]

Crawford, Kitto and Leece visit Coffs Harbour twice as part of their flying visits to northern NSW post offices

PERSONAL. . . . Messrs. J. W. Kitto, (Deputy-Postmaster-General), T. S. Crawford (Chief Radio Inspector) and T. G. Leece (Senior Postal Inspector) visited Coffs Harbour this week. They were here on Tuesday on their way north and again yesterday on the return journey, travelling by car. They lose no time, as they travelled from Port Macquarie to Lismore on Tuesday and called at various post offices en route.[285]

Crawford, Kitto and Leece visit Muswellbrook as part of their flying visits to northern NSW post offices

Personal Pars. Mr. J. W. Kitto, Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs, accompanied by Messrs. Leece and Crawford, senior inspector and radio inspector respec-tively, passed through Muswellbrook to-day, and made a brief stay at the post office. The chief, who left an O.K. report, is on his way back to head-quarters, following a trip to New Guinea, and is motoring south from Brisbane.[286]

1934[edit | edit source]

1934 03[edit | edit source]

A "Sparks" who served under Crawford in WW1 steps up to his defence – who?

STATION VK2GL. (To the Editor.) Sir,— Considerable discussion has taken place in the columns of your paper regarding the operation of the station conducted by the Richmond River Listeners' League. Although not a member of that society, I commend its members for what they have done for radio in and around Lismore; still it must be admitted that they must obey the law the same as other people. The operation of the station must be carried on only by a certified operator. Mr. Crawford, the radio inspector, is quite right in stressing this point. Other stations must do so and the Lismore club should fall into line. The writer served under Mr. Crawford during the war and found him a very just man. In my opinion, the club should arrange for one of its members to pass his ticket at Sydney. Then they would be recognised as a club possessing capabilities and troubles would probably disappear. It is only fair that the regulations be applied to the working of station VK2GL exactly as to others. The writer would gladly offer his services but distance and time does not permit. Hoping this suggestion is taken as a constructive criticism rather than destructive, and wishing the League every success. Yours, etc. "SPARKS." Byron Bay, March 6.[287]

Crawford's assistant inspector speaks to Kandos Listeners-in Defence League about his interference investigations

RYLSTONE AND KANDOS NEWS. KANDOS LISTENERS-IN. Cause of Trouble in Wireless Sets. INSPECTOR CARROLL EXPLAINS. A VERY well attended meeting of the newly-formed Kandos Listeners-in Defence League was held in the Angus hall on Thursday night. The president (Mr. W. O. Petersen) occupied the chair, and in the absence of the secretary (Mr. C. Roberts), who is away on holidays, he also took the minutes. After the minutes of a previous meeting and the correspondence had been read and confirmed, the chairman introduced Mr. Carroll, a Government radio inspector, to the meeting. The chairman, explained that, owing to the number of complaints of bad reception, the league had come into existence and steps had been taken by a petition signed by 30 listeners-in being sent to the Government radio inspector, who had, as a result, sent along Mr. Carroll to try and locate the trouble. He (the chairman) had accompanied Mr. Carroll to several premises, and Mr Carroll would report to the meeting the result of his investigations. Mr. Carroll said that he hoped his efforts would be found favorable to the members of the Kandos Listeners-in League. Bodies of this kind were greatly favored by his department, and the department always took action and guaranteed good reception from all stations within the State. Sets and conditions examined that day were in the first few cases excellent, until he called at Mr. Fletcher's shop in Argus avenue. He found, generally speaking, that until faults found were remedied that good broadcast reception was not possible in Kandos. At Mr. Fletcher's shop, on switching on the lights, he found an arc was created. This caused a great deal of trouble in many sets in that vicinity and a heavy vehicle passing would shake the premises, causing a fuse to vibrate and thus form an arc. Mr. Petersen, who was with him, then went to several sets in the vicinity — Mr. Hayes', Mrs. Wadey's and his own — and found that good reception was being received at all places just prior to then, but in all cases the interference had been brought about by the arc set up on the switchboard in Mr. Fletcher's shop. He could not interfere with any electrical fittings as he was not a licensed electrician. The fuse box needed attention. He next visited the butchers' shops in that vicinity and found everything in order. He made a thorough examination of fans and machines worked by electricity and all were in good order and not causing interference. The next visit was to Mr. Clem. Lewis' premises. The only trouble found here was clicks from the electric telegraph machine in the post office. Mr. Williams, opposite, was getting the same trouble. This would be rectified immediately. Goodacre's Majestic Cafe was then visited and trouble found through an electric milkshake mixer. This mixer was constantly in use on Fridays and Saturdays and coincided with the times of troubles complained of. Mr. Carroll explained how this could be overcome by the insertion of two coils, which he showed the meeting. They are induction coils and cost 1/6 each. He demonstrated how this should be done, and effectively cut out all noise from the shaker. Mr. D. Charles' premises were next visited, and he found the electric haircutting machine was causing great trouble at places within a radius of 300 yards. Mr. Coleman had reported to him that he had discovered a very bad leak on the high tension lines and traced the trouble to Foutain's Garage, where a high tension fray was causing a short circuit. This would very seriously affect reception in Angus avenue. This trouble had not yet been fixed, and was likely to make trouble in sets at any time. Two electric drills were also causing a deal of interference. These troubles could be eliminated at a cost of about £1. When the drills were working it was impossible to get reception in Mr. G. Smith's saloon next door. These were minor faults. The major faults were caused by interference from the electric power lines and oxidised joints. The leads from the high tension lines were not soldered — only wound around. This set up oxidation owing to the accumulation of dust and grease, and would cause a high resistance path, causing loss of voltage across the lines, and in one part of the town the voItage was only 130 instead of 260. He had acquainted Dr. Darton?, the shire president, of these matters, and the president had promised, if approached by the league, that he would endeavour to have the faults rectified. He (the inspector) had visited 25 premises that day, and found that in many the high tension frays were causing interference. This could be cut out by a neutralised lead. ln prime cases a long aerial was necessary to compensate for trouble from leading-in wires. He advised an aerial of about 100 feet at least, but this did not apply to all cases. Breaks and frays in the neutral cause a very high resistance. All leads from high tension or any wires should be soldered, as dry joints and unsweated joints cause a high resistence. Mr. Carroll also explained how a very simple and cheap wave trap, at a cost of 3/6, could be made for use on sets that had no superheterodyne valve. (A copy of this can be had by all members on making application to the president) He also presented the league with two sets of instructions on radio inductive interference and the suppression of same for licensed wiremen. At the conclusion of Mr. CarroIl's address a hearty vote of thanks was carried by acclamation, and also an official vote of thanks to be forwarded to the chief radio inspector (Mr. Crawford). Mr. Fletcher moved that a deputation from the league wait on the shire president (Dr. Darton) and put the various recommendations of Mr. Carroll before him. This was seconded by Mr. Lutton and carried. Mr. Lutton moved, and Mr. McCoy seconded, that the deputation consist of Messrs. Petersen, Fletcher and Hayes — Carried. It was decided to make the membership fee £1. Many in the room immediately paid the subscription. A meeting will be called as soon as possible to take the report of the deputation.[288]

1934 04[edit | edit source]

Crawford elected to the Council of the Institution of Radio Engineers (Australia) for 1934/35

RADIO ENGINEERS. The annual general meeting of the Institution of Radio Engineers was held at Science House last night. After the presentation of the report and the balance-sheet the following members were elected to the council: Messrs. S. Colville, L. P. R. Bean, L. A. Hooke, E. T. Fisk, W. P. Renshaw, C. H. Norville, E. E. Tree, N. S. Gilmour, W. T. S. Crawford, A. S. McDonald, J. K. Burnett, L. N. Schultz, J. N. Briton, D. Wyles, F. W. P. Thom, and T. P. Court. An illustrated lecture on Copper Oxide Rectifiers was given by Mr. E. D. Marks, B. E.[289]

Crawford's position with PMGD again reclassified from Radio Inspector, Grade 5, Third Division to Senior Radio Inspector, Grade 4 with modest salary increase (numerous other Wireless Branch positions reviewed)

OFFICES ABOLISHED, CREATED, ETC. . . . POSTMASTER-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. . . . New South Wales. . . . Reclassification of Offices.— The classification of the office of Radio Inspector, Grade 5, Third Division, Wireless Branch, occupied by W. T. S. Crawford, with limits of salary of minimum £546 and maximum £612 per annum, has been raised to Senior Radio Inspector, Grade 4, with limits of salary of minimum £600 and maximum £660 per annum, subject to reduction in accordance with the provisions of the Financial Emergency Act 1931–1933. . . .[290]

1934 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford provisionally promoted into his reclassified position

COMMONWEALTH PUBLIC SERVICE. PROMOTIONS — SECTION 50 AND REGULATION 109. THE following promotions are provisional and subject to appeal by officers to the Public Service Board, and, where consequent upon another provisional promotion, shall be dependent upon the latter being confirmed. Appeals should be lodged, either by letter or telegram, with the Inspector in the State in which the promotion is to be made, or, if the promotion is to be made in the Federal Capital Territory, with the Inspector at Canberra, within fourteen days of the date of this notification. An appellant shall forward his appeal direct to the Public Service Inspector. The grounds of appeal must be as prescribed in Section 50 of the Commonwealth Public Service Act, viz.:— (a) Superior efficiency; or (b) Equal efficiency combined with seniority. (N.B.— Where positions have been the subject of an Arbitration Determination, the salary scales shown are those prescribed by Determination.) . . . Postmaster-General's Department — continued. New South Wales.

  • Name: Crawford, William Tamillias Stephen (sic)
  • Present Designation and Station: Radio Inspector, Grade 5 (£546-£612), Third Division, Unattached
  • Position to which Promoted: Senior Radio Inspector, Grade 4 (£600-£660), Third Division, Wireless Branch. Office reclassified (P.S.B. Certificate No. 34/481)
  • Salary on Promotion: £606
  • Date of Promotion: 10.5.34[291]

Crawford's provisional promotion of 10 May 1934, is confirmed

COMMONWEALTH PUBLIC SERVICE. PROMOTIONS — SECTION 50 AND REGULATION 109. . . . The following provisional promotions have been confirmed:— . . . Postmaster-General's Department. . . . W. T. S. Crawford.[292]

1934 07[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends funeral of Henry Freeman Coffey

MR. H. F. COFFEY. Mr. Henry Freeman Coffey, of Byng-road, Maroubra, who died on Saturday and was buried yesterday in the Roman Catholic Cemetery, Botany, was one of the pioneers of radio. Born in 1885 in Ireland, Mr. Coffey went to London at the age of 18 years to train in general engineering. In 1910 he joined the Marconi Company and served in a number of vessels of the White Star, Booth Steamship Company, Iquitos Steamship Company, Union Castle and P. and O. lines. Mr. Coffey made two trips up the Amazon River for a distance of 2000 miles. He fitted several Australian ships with wireless when they were built in the United Kingdom and sailed to Australia in the Dimboola. He joined the Commonwealth Radio Service in 1912. In that year Mr. Coffey assisted with the erection of the raaio station at Mt. Gambier, of which he was placed in charge. Later he was in charge of coastal radio stations at Broome, Melbourne, Sydney, Thursday Island, Brisbane and Hobart. In 1928 Mr. Coffey was transferred to the receiving station of A.W.A. at La Perouse. Mr. Coffey is survived by Mrs. Coffey and four children. Amalgamated Wireless was represented at the funeral by Messrs. A. S. McDonald (chief engineer), W. G. Clarke (traffic manager), Captain Toombs, P. W. Brown, V. Stanley and K. McLellan and many members of the staffs of A.W.A. Receiving Centre, La Perouse, A.W.A. Radio Centre, Pennant Hills and the Central Radio Office, Sydney. The wireless section of the Postmaster-General's Department was represented by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford (chief radio inspector) and Mr. J. Brown (assistant radio inspector). A number of boy scouts also attended.[293]

1934 08[edit | edit source]

RADIO INTERFERENCE. Some Causes Outlined. COUNCIL SAYS POST OFFICE IS CHIEF OFFENDER. While the Postmaster-General's Department, which controls radio reception, sent an inspector to Yass who has outlined the causes of local interference, the Mayor declares that the chief offender in Yass is the Post Office itself. He said on Monday night that an overhead wire from the back shed at the P.O. to the exchange room acted as a broadcasting station and caused atrocious interference. To Monday night's meeting of the Council, W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector, of the Postmaster-General's Department, submitted the following report: I wish to acknowledge receipt of your letter referring to broadcast interference in Yass. In May, 1933, an inspector from this office visited Yass when a thorough search was made for sources of radio interference. It was discovered that interference was being caused by the following machinery: Several electric drills in motor garages; four electric washing machines, on one of which (Mrs. Grosvenor's) a demonstration of a remedy was given; electric dental drills operated by Mr. Dabbs; a private lighting plant at the Commercial Hotel; a motor generator set at the picture show; an electric sewing machine at Mr. Cusack's shop. Remedies Effected Other interference was traced to a rotating leather belt and in two cases to unearthed conduit, all of which were remedied at the time. The inspector's report shows that a meeting was called and an endeavour made to form a Broadcast Listeners' League. At the meeting a demonstration of the methods used in eliminating broadcast interference by electric motors was given. It would seem, therefore, that unless these sources of interference have already been remedied, a further visit by a radio inspector would merely result in the rediscovery of the same troubles. In conclusion, the report states that Mr. Davis, council engineer, was appointed adviser to the league, so I would suggest if any difficulty is being experienced in the installation of suppressor apparatus through lack of technical knowledge, the matter be referred to him. If on the other hand you should require any further assistance from this office I shall be pleased to forward same on by request. There is available at all post offices a special wireless reception questionnaire form on which listeners are invited to state details of any trouble experienced by them, but at present I have none on hand from any listeners in Yass. Lot Of Interference The Mayor said they had a tremendous lot of interference in Yass. The greatest amount of interference in the main street was caused by the Post Office. All attempts to have it rectified had been of no avail so far. Ald. O'Brien said he noticed the Post Office was not in the list. The Mayor said the position at the P.O. was atrocious. The officials of the P.O. had endeavoured to get the matter rectified but with the usual red tape they could not get anywhere. The cause of the trouble down there was really a transmitting station and all it transmitted was interference. They had a generator there supplying current. The speaker then referred to the overhead wire and added: They should start in their own department and fix that up first. Ald. O'Brien: Tell them the worst local interference is not in the list. Council's Position Mr. Davis (engineer) said he had been approached by indignant listeners who regarded it as the council's duty to cure the troubles. It was the duty of the P.M.G's Department. "While I am very willing to do what I can I would like it clearly known that we do it in a friendly way, and not because it it our bounden duty to do so." The letter, Mr. Davis continued, was very contradictory. They stated that the troubles were remedied when the inspector was here, which was not so. Then again the letter said if the troubles were not remedied it was no use an inspector coming again. What did the letter mean? The council was willing to co-operate with the P.M.G. Department but they expected the department to co-operate with them, and the speaker knew nothing of it. Only recently an inspector came here till after the inspector had gone and he had seen a report in the paper. He thought the inspector should have called on him. "We worked two Sundays to locate interference in Pritchard Street and that cost the council £7 or £8. I maintain we are doing our part and it is up to the Department to do theirs. It was decided, on the motion of Alds. O'Brien and Shaw, to protest to the Department about local interference and to point out that the Post Office was one of the principal offenders.[294]

1934 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford's correspondence generates a chuckle in Sydney

A Stroller In The TOWN. . . . A Warm Man. THE Chief Radio Inspector (Mr. Crawford) is addressed by various official titles in letters from the public, such as "Director of Radio," "Controller of Wireless," and ordinary "Inspector." He is now laughing at his latest title: "Chief Radiator Inspector," which, after all, suggests a friendly-glow.[295]

Crawford responds to the publicity of problems with broadcast reception at Yass

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. . . . W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector, acknowledged the council's letter referring to interference to broadcast reception in Yass. "The contents of your letter have been noted with interest and your activities in connection with the matter of improving conditions for broadcast listeners is appreciated. I would point out, however, that unless the listeners avail themselves of the opportunity of securing questionnaires from the local post office, I am unable to arrange for a further visit by a radio inspector, but should a sufficient number of these questionnaires be received, the advisability of further investigations will be considered."[296]

Crawford provides advice to Crookwell Radio Listeners' League to assist in pressuring council to fit suppressors to their generators

COST OF NOISE SUPPRESSORS. In a letter to the secretary of the Crookwell Radio Listeners' League, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector of the P.M.G.'s Department, states that the cost of installing suppressors to each generator set at the Crookwell powerhouse would not exceed 15/ for each set, there being required two condensers for the commutator and either two or three, according to the number of slip rings, for each alternator, and the cost of each condenser would be approximately 5/. He adds: "I am now writing to the Shire Clerk suggesting that suppressors be installed on the old plant if the new generator sets are not expected within a reasonable time." It would appear, then, that Mr. Woodward was somewhat astray when he told the Council that the cost would be £30 and possibly £100. We venture to suggest, now, that the Council would be doing the right thing, and at the same time giving a good lead, if it instructed its electrical engineer to act as promptly as possible on the Inspector's suggestion.[297]

1934 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford points out that under constitution PMGD has no power to enforce suppression of electrical interference

Radio Interference. TECHNICAL HOLD-UP. INSPECTOR'S VISIT. According to a statement made by the senior radio inspector (Mr. T. S. Crawford) when he recently visited Lismore, it is mainly on a constitutional issue that the P.M.G's. Department has in the past failed to adopt the suggestion that it should be vested with power to deal with the elimination of electrical interference with wireless. Officials of the Richmond River Listeners' League, which body has been conducting a persistent campaign in this direction, received some encouragement from the inspector's statement that the technical point in question has of late been the subject of careful consideration. It is hoped that there will be a favourable outcome. COUNCILS' POWERS. In the course of a general discussion with Messrs. N. Laundry (president of the league) and B. L. Smith, Mr. Crawford stated that he regarded the league's suggestion to the Electrical Advisory Committee that all machinery manufactured in Australia or imported should be branded either "interference free" or "non-interference free" as a very good one. Some of the municipal councils of New South Wales, he pointed out, were taking steps to compel users of electrical appliances capable of causing radio inductive interference to affix suppressors to abate the nuisance. He thought that the Lismore Municipal Council might well consider taking similar action. The inspector was informed by Mr. Laundry that the present method of sending out inspectors to locate interference was unsatisfactory. In most cases the location of the interference was a comparatively simple matter for those equipped with local knowledge. It was its elimination after it had been located that was causing the league concern. LOCATION NOT DIFFICULT. The league officials informed Mr. Crawford that they could take him to at least 50 sources of interference in Lismore; but the point was that at present nobody had power to deal with the trouble — neither the Commonwealth Government, the State Government, nor the league itself. They added that the town was almost clear of interference, so far as the council's own transmission lines were concerned, interference being chiefly caused by electrical appliances such as drills, sewing machines, hair clippers, X-ray machines, violet-ray machines, and so on. COMPARATIVELY IMMUNE. Mr. Crawford stressed the fact that, in spite of the annoyance thus caused, Lismore had not to submit to the degree of interference experienced in most of the towns he had visited. He voiced the department's desire to co-operate as closely as possible with the league. This sentiment was heartily reciprocated by the league officials, who said that co-operation would be to the distinct advantage of district listeners and possibly to that of others as well. Mr. Crawford was shown over the experimental station VK2GL, and evinced a keen interest in its technical equipment and operation.[298]

1934 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford involved in introduction of Automatic S.O.S." equipment in ships, opposed by unions

Automatic S.O S. After the deputation to Dr. Page yesterday by the maritime group of unions, a demonstration was given of the automatic S.O.S. (against which the unions are protesting) by an officer of the A.W.A. Reading from left to right are: Mr. E. A. Horner (manager, A.W.A.), Capt. Lawrence (Merchant Service Guild), Mr. W. H. Phillip (marine supt., A.W.A.), Mr. W. Crawford (chief radio inspector of the Commonwealth), Mr. C. A. Beal (professional radio employees), and Mr. W. Swadling (Painters' and Dockers' Union).[299]

Crawford attends Christmas luncheon sponsored by James Walters Kitto, amongst public service luminaries

KITTO'S LUNCHEON TO STAFF. A Christmas luncheon was given yesterday by Mr. J. W. Kitto, Deputy-Director Posts and Telegraphs, to heads of branches and principal officers of other departments, and former heads of branches in the P.M.G.'s Department. Those present were: Messrs. J. W. Kitto, Deputy-Director, Posts and Telegraphs; E. C. Kraegen, late Public Service Inspector; H. C. Elvins, Public Service Inspector; C. H. U. Todd, Works Director; R. Hamilton, Accountant, Sub-Treasury; P. W. Lovett, Chief Auditor; G. Watson, Deputy-Crown Solicitor; E. W. Bramble, late Deputy-Director, Posts and Telegraphs, Adelaide; F. Whysall, late Deputy-Director, Posts and Telegraphs, Sydney; M. Laird, late Superintendent, Telegraphs, Sydney; A. P. Westhoven, late Accountant, G.P.O., Sydney; S. C. Francis, late Senior Inspector (Postal); Dr. A. H. Moseley, Commonwealth Medical Officer; Messrs. A. Horner, Chief Clerk; T. G. Leece, Senior Inspector (Postal), E. G. Hipsley, Superintending Engineer, Sydney; T. Finlay, Actlng-Accountant, G.P.O., Sydney; V. E. Butler, Superintendent, Telephones, Sydney; F. R. Bradley, Superintendent, Telegraphs, Sydney; D. McVey, Superintendent, Mails, Sydney; T. H. Cameron, Superintendent, Stores and Transport; W. J. Mitchell, Chief Postal Investigation Officer; W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector, Sydney.[300]

Crawford drafting the Wireless Regulations for small coastal ships

Issue of Radio Equipment For Coastal Ships Discussed Today. Maritime Unions' Demand. WILL NOT ACCEPT THE SENDING DEVICE. TWO-WAY SYSTEM IS ESSENTIAL, THEY SAY. OWNERS MEET THE MINISTER. SYDNEY, Thursday. Proposals for the installation of automatic radio equipment on coastal vessels of less than 1600 tons were tentatively agreed upon today by a conference of shipowners and other interests, presided over by the Minister for Health, Mr. Hughes. The Council of Maritime Unions is also meeting today and is expected to insist upon the installation of two-way sets with qualified operators as providing the only adequate protection, as it is practically certain the Council will not approve of the shipowners' decision. Mr. Hughes will call a general conference of all parties next week. INTERESTED parties from the unions already have interviewed the Deputy Prime Minister (Dr. Page) and Messrs. Hughes and Thorby. Today Mr. Hughes placed before the conference, which included the Deputy-Director of Navigation (Captain Williams) and Mr. E. T. Fisk, Governing Director of Amalgamated Wireless, the draft proposals of the Chief Radio Inspector (Mr Crawford). The conference was unanimous in tentatively accepting the scheme for the installation of the automatic equipment. The proposals include automatic transmitters for the despatch of S.O.S. signals during distress. This apparatus, it was pointed out, would be capable of sending out continuous messages for 16 min without rewinding. It would call all stations and all ships. "Ample Means" It was also recommended that a receiver through which the various coastal and broadcasting stations could inform the small vessels that one was in distress, be installed. A further proposal adopted was for the installation of a manual Morse key on board which would enable the ship to keep in two-way communication with the shore, receiving replies through the ordinary receiving set. This would enable the ship in distress to check its automatic transmitter and to ascertain whether the station had received a message and to supplement it by further reports. The operation of the Morse would not require a skilled man, it was pointed out, but could be used by a member of the crew. This, it was said, would give the smaller ships ample means of communication in times of stress. It is understood that the cost of this equipment will be about 35s a week for each ship. Members of the conference pointed out that it was impracticable for many of the coastal ships to provide accommodation for a radio officer and that the apparatus proposed would give dependable means of communication at a low financial outlay. Mr. Hughes said the Council of the Maritime Unions had promised to forward him its decisions some time today. If it did not agree with the present proposals he would call a conference of all parties next week. Unions' View As a result of today's maritime council meeting, it is expected that the unions will insist that transmitting and receiving sets manned by competent operators be gazetted as the minimum safety requirements before crews are permitted to sign on coastal vessels. The council is meeting to discuss suggestions made by Dr. Page at a recent deputation. These embrace the type of wireless to be installed and the nature of the proposed regulations to govern the equipment and its operation. The unions, it is said, are not prepared to temporise in the matter, but will demand that the maximum of equipment consonant with safety at sea be installed. "We are not prepared to accept as any solution of the problem the automatic machine installed in the Birchgrove Park," said the secretary of the council (Mr. Tudehope) today. "The device is totally inadequate, as it can send messages, but cannot receive them. Therefore, there is no means of knowing if messages have been received, and no way of checking up position. "Such equipment would be worse than useless. We would like to remind owners that when the regulations are gazetted all such 'gramophone' contrivances will have to be scrapped." It was made clear today that the unions will not accept any type of transmitting equipment which would require the mate or any other executive officer to operate in case of distress.[301]

Another report on negotiations for Automatic SOS equipment on small coastal ships, drafted by Crawford

RADIO SAFEGUARD FOR COASTAL SHIPS. Officers May Be Trained For Emergency Messages. ELEMENTARY training in wireless operating for officers of coastal ships is a new proposal which the Commonwealth Government is considering. Representatives of shipowners who saw the Minister for Health, Mr. Hughes, and the Assistant Minister, Mr. Thorby, yesterday agreed tentatively to the installation of automatic distress signals as recommended by the Chief Radio Inspector (Mr. Crawford), but the Maritime Unions are still opposed, and decided yesterday to demand the installation of two-way apparatus. This was also recommended yesterday by the deputation from the shipowners. The question will be settled finally after a conference of all interests with the Ministers to be called next week. The automatic transmitters, which A.W.A. has agreed to supply to ships on a rental basis (about 35/ a week, including maintenance) are claimed by Ministers to be absolutely dependable and adequate for the purpose. Since the proposal was first made A.W.A. has agreed to supplement the apparatus with a receiving set for the same rental, capable of picking up from coastal stations direct voice advice of the ships and stations which pick up the automatic signals. Both Ways Now there is an additional suggestion that ships should also be equipped with a simple sending and receiving set, which could be operated by any member of the ship's crew after a simple training, for which the Commonwealth Government may be prepared to arrange. The course will be limited to a code of emergency signals. The automatic transmitter, which gives the alarm signal, and the name and position of the ship, does not require a trained operator. It will run for 16 minutes at one winding, and can be repeated for six hours. The proposed regulations apply to ships of between 400 and 1600 tons, and will come into force next March. They affect only vessels trading between States, but the precedent is expected to lead to their extension to intra-State trade by the State Governments. (Start Photo Caption) FOR THOSE IN PERIL ON THE SEA. THIS WIRELESS SET sends automatically the ship's position and S.O.S. in the event of accident. It is installed in the R. W. Miller collier, Birchgrove Park. (End Photo Caption)[302]

As previous, a Labor viewpoint

Automatic Radio On Coastal Vessels. SEAMEN OPPOSED TO SCHEME. Two – Way Sets Only Are Wanted. CONFERENCE. NOTWITHSTANDING the definite opposition of seamen to the installation of automatic S.O.S. wireless transmitters on ships, a conference of shipowners and other interests, over which the Minister for Health, Mr. Hughes, presided as the representative of the Federal Government, decided yesterday tenta (Start Photo Caption) Mr. Hughes. (End Photo Caption) tively to accept a scheme for the fitting of automatic radio to coastal vessels of less than 1600 tons. Since the installation of the automatic apparatus was first suggested the maritime unions have protested strongly against it and have expressed their intention of insisting upon all vessels being fitted with two-way wireless in charge of fully-qualified operators. Following the installation of an automatic set on the coastal steamer Birchgrove Park, the Council of Maritime Unions discussed the position yesterday and will convey its decisions to the Minister for Health, Mr. Hughes, today. It is understood that the council will adhere firmly to its attitude that automatic sets are totally inadequate and that only the fitting of ships with full transmitting and receiving sets, with competent operators, will satisfy the seamen. While the unions' representatives were reviewing the question yesterday, draft proposals prepared by the Chief Radio Inspector, Mr. Crawford, were placed before the conference of shipowners and the scheme for the installation of automatic equipment on coastal vessels of less than 1600 tons was tentatively accepted. Among those who attended the conference were Captain Williams, Deputy-Director of Navigation, and Mr. E. T. Fisk, governing director of Amalgamated Wireless. It was explained that the device recommended was capable of sending out continuous S.O.S. messages for 16 minutes, and that the messages could be picked up by all stations and ships. At the end of the 16-minute period, however, the apparatus would have to be rewound. A general conference of all parties will be called next week.[303]

1935[edit | edit source]

1935 01[edit | edit source]

As previous, another report

SAFETY AT SEA. UNIONS DEMAND WIRELESS PARTIES CONFER. SYDNEY, Thursday. In an endeavor to secure a final arrangement as to the type of wireless to be installed in interstate vessels under control of the Commonwealth Government. The Minister for Health (Mr. Hughes) today consulted the interested parties. Those he conferred with were the Federal leader of the State Labor Party (Mr. Beasley), the Secretary of the Council of Maritime Unions (Mr. Tudehope), the Chief Radio Inspector of the Postmaster-General's Department (Mr. Crawford), the Deputy-Director of Navigation (Captain Wilson), and the Secretary of the Merchant Shipping Guild (Captain Lawrence). Under review are the suggestions, as to wireless equipment, made by the Council of Maritime Unions, the shipowners and the Deputy-Prime Minister (Dr. Page). It is said that the teleprinter type of equipment, suggested by the unions, which would enable any intelligent member of a ship's crew to send messages and which could be adapted to receive Morse symbols, will be agreed upon. Clarify Position Today's conference has been called to clarify the situation and to enable a comprehensive report to be submitted to the Federal Government, which is anxious to see a solution of the problem within the next month. The unions hope that when the Commonwealth regulations are promulgated pressure will be brought to bear upon the individual State Governments to follow the lead given and to insist that intrastate vessels be equipped with wireless of a similar type. Mr. Hughes has made it clear that his sympathies are with the seamen, but the Commonwealth Government must be assured that the cost of the wireless equipment will not militate against the profitable and safe running of ships before any regulations are gazetted. It is estimated that the cost of installation and maintenance of the equipment suggested as minimum requirements by the union would be about £100 a year. Decision Reached During today's conference, Mr. Hughes stated that agreement had been reached as to the type of wireless equipment to be installed in interstate vessels at present unequipped and in vessels in the coastal trade and that shipowners would be informed as to the type and size of vessel which would be required to carry fully certificated wireless operators. He would not disclose the type of equipment to be installed in vessels not required to carry an operator was not disclosed.[304]

Crawford attends conference to decide on what, how and where automatic distress signalling wireless will be deployed to coastal steamers

WIRELESS ON SHIPS. Outcome of Conference Sets for Coastal Traders. SYDNEY, January 3. As the outcome of a conference between representatives of the maritime unions, the Postmaster-General's Department, and the Navigation Department, over which the Federal Minister for Health (Mr. Hughes) presided, all vessels engaged in the Australian coastal trade will be equipped with wireless. Mr. Hughes announced that agreement had been reached concerning the type of wireless equipment to be installed in inter-State vessels at present unequipped, and in vessels on the coastal trade. Shipowners had been informed as to the size and type of apparatus to be installed and what vessels would be required to carry a certificated wireless operator. The Commonwealth regulations stipulate that vessels of 1,600 tons and over must carry wireless equipment. That tonnage will be materially reduced, but no announcement was made regarding the tonnage of steamers which would be equipped with an automatic radio set capable of sending out messages under the control of an officer aboard the vessel. It is understood that the State Government will accept the decision of the Federal Government in regard to the equipment of wireless installation on vessels engaged in the New South Wales trade. The conference was attended by the Federal Leader of the State Labour Party (Mr. Beasley), the secretary of the council of the maritime unions (Mr. Tudehope), the chief radio inspector of the Postmaster-General's Department (Mr. Crawford), the Deputy Director of Navigation (Captain Williams), and the secretary of the Merchant Shipping Guild (Mr. Lawrence).[305]

AOCP examination at Newcastle at Crawford;s direction

Wireless Examination. Three candidates for wireless experimental licenses were examined at the Newcastle Post Office this after-noon under the supervision of the Postmaster (Mr. Gentle). The examinations are arranged periodically by the Chief Wireless Inspector (Mr. W. Crawford).[306]

Crawford accompanies Minister for Health on inspection of typical coastal steamers

WIRELESS ON SHIPS. MINISTER INSPECTS COASTAL VESSELS. FOLLOWING the statement made on behalf of the N.S.W. Coastal Shipowners that it would be impracticable for space reasons for them to instal complete wireless equipment together with an operator on their vessels, the Federal Minister for Health, Mr. Hughes, yesterday inspected a number of vessels in the harbor to see the position for himself. The Minister was accompanied by the Deputy-Director of Navigation, Capt. G. D. Williams; Mr. Crawford, Chief Radio Inspector; Capt. Lawrence (Merchant Service Guild), and representatives of the shipowners. Mr. Hughes said that ships above and below 750 tons were visited, including the colliers Kiama (358 tons) and the Warraneen (107 tons). The Minister was also shown over the Zealandia (7000 tons), which has had wireless apparatus installed for many years. It was pointed out by the Minister that in a general way the accommodation necessary for the installation of the necessary wireless equipment and an operator was available, although in some cases there appeared to be difficulties. The question of the preparation of draft regulations to deal with the position, it is expected, will be the subject of a conference today or tomorrow between the Minister and the Deputy-Director of Navigation. It is understood that the interested parties, including the Shipowners and the Maritime Transport Council, will be consulted before the regulations are finalised.[307]

Crawford attends a further conference to resolve the provision of wireless on coastal steamers

DECISION ON SHIPS' OPERATORS. FOLLOWING conferences yesterday with interested parties, the Minister for Health, Mr. Hughes is expected to make a final announcement today concerning the installation of wireless on coastal steamers. It is expected that Hughes will state that a regulation will be gazetted making it compulsory for all steamers above a certain tonnage to carry wireless operators, but that exemptions will be permissible. Mr. Hughes conferred yesterday with the Federal leader of the Labor Party, Mr. Beasley; the secretary of the Maritime Transport Council, Mr. Tudehope; the general secretary of the Merchant Service Guild, Capt W. G. Lawrence; the Deputy-Director of Navigation, Capt. Williams, and the State radio inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford. (Start Photo Caption) Mr. Beasley (End Photo Caption) Later, he discussed a draft regulation covering the matter with the secretary of the Interstate Shipowners' Association, Mr. Dillon. The suggested regulation will be placed before the Maritime Transport Council today for consideration.[308]

Despite the Crawford conference, unions taking the matter into their own hands

WIRELESS ON SHIPS. UNIONS CONSIDER REGULATION. At a meeting of the Maritime Transport Council yesterday, the draft regulation covering the installation of wireless and the provision of operators on coastal steamers was exhaustively, discussed. THE secretary, Mr. Tudehope, reported on a conference last Thursday at which he had been present with the Federal leader of the Labor Party, Mr. Beasley, the secretary of the Merchant Service Guild, Capt. W. G. Lawrence, the Deputy-Director of Navigation, Capt. Williams, and the State radio inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford. It was pointed out that throughout, the negotiations it had been stressed that very few vessels did not have space for wireless operators. Regarding boats to be built in the future, the council was of the opinion that ample accommodation should be provided for operators. The council conveyed its views on the regulation to the Minister for Health, Mr. Hughes, who is expected to announce the terms of the new regulation this morning. MELBOURNE, Friday. The Coombar was due to start a run tomorrow, but the seamen decided that they would not sail unless she carried the equipment they demanded. When she sails tomorrow from Melbourne she will carry not only radio equipment but also a wireless operator. The equipment is similar to that installed on interstate trading vessels.[309]

Hughes departs Sydney without warning for Melbourne and without making the statement promised at the meeting involving Crawford

Hughes Leaves Ships' Radio Question In The Air. DEPARTED SUDDENLY FOR MELB. Promised Decision Not Announced. BIG SURPRISE. SURPRISE and keen disappointment were expressed yesterday when it was learned that the Minister for Health, Mr. Hughes, had Ieft for Melbourne without making the promised announcement regarding the installation of wireless and the provision of operators on coastal steamers. It was stated that Mr. Hughes had left by car and would make the journey by easy stages, not reaching Melbourne until Tuesday. Following the conference last Thursday with the secretary of the Maritime Transport Council, Mr. Tudehope, the Federal leader of the Labor Party, Mr. Beasley, the Deputy-Director of Navigation, Capt. Williams, the secretary of the Merchant Service Guild, Capt. W. G. Lawrence, and the State radio inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, it was announced that Mr. Hughes would make a statement the next day. Postponements In the meantime, the Maritime Transport Council had considered a draft regulation covering the matter and its decision had been conveyed to Mr. Hughes. The statement was expected last Friday afternoon, but then it was stated that it would not be issued until that night. Then there was a further postponement until last (Start Photo Caption) Mr. Hughes. (End Photo Caption) Saturday morning. When the statement was not released, inquiries resulted in the revelation of Mr. Hughes' departure from Sydney. In view of the importance of the matter to maritime unions, the sudden and unexpected departure of the Minister has given rise to a good deal of adverse comment.[310]

1935 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford comments on the Seth Parker marine incident

Navy's Silent Retort. DID ITS RESCUE JOB WITHOUT TALKING "SQUEALING" FROM THE "SEZ YOU" PARKER U.S.A. PRESS IS SCATHING. ("Sun" Special) SAN FRANCISCO, Tuesday. In strong silence, says an Associated Press message, H.M.A.S. Australia voluntarily stayed alongside the Seth Parker all last night, after having taken off nine young men who, apparently, were too frightened to stay aboard any longer. THE OLD-FASHIONED New England parlor that forms the back ground for Seth Parker's famous broadcast. HAVING worked up a dramatic situation, the famous radio master, Phillip Lord, grandiloquently declared that he would stay with the ship even though he lost his life in the attempt to maintain the sailors' tradition. So with four mates named Sweeney, Flink, Pays and Rueschie, the impresario skipper remained aboard, waiting the arrival of the U.S. naval collier, Ontario, which is due from Samoa on Thursday. From the Australian cruiser came no word of any kind. "Howls of Distress" "Obviously," says the correspondent, "the Australia decided to remain alongside during the night lest Lord should again become frightened and emit further howls of distress." As the Australia remained Lord sent a radio message: "I don't believe it is necessary for you to stay now that I have got the boys away. You have put us under an obligation that we can never repay and, besides if you don't get to your destination the Duke of Gloucester will be hunting for me with a shotgun for the rest of his life." The Australia did not reply, but just continued to stand by. This morning the Australia parted company with the Seth Parker for the second time. San Francisco friends of Lord sent him, by radio, reports that his queer antics had caused them much concern, and he asked the National Broadcasting Company to give out the following message, which he said he received from Captain McLeod, of the Australia:— "I realise what you have been through, and am satisfied there had never been any question of you calling upon me unnecessarily. Goodbye, good luck." Fine Seamanship (From Our Special Representative Aboard H.M.A.S. Australia) (By radio) The Australia sighted the Seth Parker again about 4 o'clock this (Monday) afternoon, and at her captain's request lowered a boat and took off nine of the crew. Nearly every sailor on the Australia volunteered for the boat's crew, although a dangerous sea was running. Under the command of Lieut.-Commander Tozer, the boat was lowered towards a sea, which one second rushed up towards the small craft, and the next dropped away, leaving a chasm. Seamanship won, and the boat was soon pulling across to the Seth Parker, which rolled so heavily that it was impossible to go right alongside, so, standing off a short distance, it picked up the men, of whom two swam without the line used by the others. Five Remain The men taken off were Cadet Jack Love, of Jacksonville (Florida), Cadet Roy Gloston, of New York; Cook McAllister, of Circleville (Ohio); First Engineer Muller and Second Engineer Eric Carlson, of New York; George Schwannaman and James McGahey, cabin boy, of Balboa; and Arthur Morgan, of Boston. Those still on board are P. Lord, master (New York); Constantine Flink, navigation officer (New York); Cadet R. Rueschle (New York), Cadet Robert Pays (New York), Wireless Officer Sweeney. Cadet's Story Cadet Gloston said: "Ever since leaving Papeete on January 10 we had bad weather, but the real storm began last Thursday and last night it was at its worst. "The crosstrees on the fore and mizzen masts went and we had three feet of water in the hold as the result of leaks. Mr. Lord decided that some of us must go and we drew lots." The captain of the Australia has just informed Lord that the cruiser will stand by until either the tug arrives or it is certain that it will locate the Seth Parker. May Be Costly SYDNEY, Wednesday. Playing jokes with sea tradition can prove costly to the joker. If any vessel despatches a bogus distress signal at sea the person or persons causing the signal to be sent or sending the signal is liable, if American, to a fine of £1000, or imprisonment for six months, or both. "This is the U.S.A. provision to enforce the agreement of the International Convention for safety of life at sea. and the International Radio (Start Photo Caption) "SETH PARKER" (Phillips Lord) loaded the ship with big game hunting equipment before he left New York. He is shown examining one of the guns. (End Photo Caption) Convention," says Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector of the Postmaster-General's Department. Australian laws provide for a fine up to £500 and seizure of the radio set under the Wireless Telegraphy Act, and a fine of £50 under the Navigation Act.[311]

1935 03[edit | edit source]

Crawford again extending the licence of VK2GL, Lismore's experimental broadcasting station

HALF-YEARLY LICENCES. Radio Plan Not Supported. Though the Richmond River Listeners' League is continuing its drive for improved radio reception, there was no support at last night's meeting in Lismore for a motion by Mr. T. L. Griffin that the Postmaster-General should allow country listeners half-yearly licences because of bad reception at a certain period. In attendance at the meeting were: Messrs. N. Laundry (president), R. C. Creasey, O. Le Cornu, T. L. Griffin, G. Wells and F. Cooper (secretary). Mr. Griffin moved that the Postmaster-General be requested, through Mr. R. F. H. Green, M.H.R., to allow country listeners half-yearly licences, the periods to be from April 1 to September 30 and from October 1 to March 31. Mr. Griffin said that for the last six months those with only broadcast sets found it impossible to listen to any station. His motion was not seconded. The league will inform the senior radio inspector that it is prepared to extend its experimental licence to December 31. It had been asked if it was desired to extend it from January 1 to June 30. ADVISORY COMMITTEE. The under-secretary of the Local Government Department stated that the question of radio induction interference had been considered by the Electricity Advisory Committee. The committee considered that, as the question was so involved, it would be impracticable to legislate to meet the position at present. The committee was of the opinion that power supply authorities, in cases where trouble could be attributed to them, were generally taking all reasonable steps to cope with the trouble. The league desires the committee to consider making a provision that in future electrical appliances capable of causing interference should be made interference-free and that an authority should have the power to deal with interference from existing apparatus. The committee will be reminded of the league's aims. Mr. Creasey referred to Morse interference and it was agreed to write to a radio paper asking for concerted action to stop interference from Morse. The league decided to forward copies of letters it has secured from other country leagues on radio interference to Mr. Green, M.H.R., with the object of obtaining the opinion of the House on interference.[312]

Crawford relaxes the policy of questionaire completion for major centre of Newcastle

RADIO INSPECTOR FOR NEWCASTLE. ONE WEEK EVERY MONTH. Following representations by the Newcastle City Council, the Chief Radio Inspector of the Postal Department (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) has arranged for a radio inspector to be at Newcastle one week every month. He will arrive on the second Monday in each month, and will till the end of the week hear complaints from listeners as to interference, and to attend to other radio matters. This information was sent to New Lambton Council last night in a letter from Mr. Crawford. "Chiefly due to representations from the manager of the Newcastle City Council Electric Supply Department," the letter stated, "it has been decided to inaugurate improved facilities for the benefit of listeners in the Newcastle district and towns in the Hunter Valley. Therefore, as from April 8, a radio inspector will be sent to Newcastle for one week each month. "Although for some years listeners have been asked to fill in special questionnaire forms obtainable from local post offices, there are many, who, rather than commit their complaints to paper, prefer to discuss their troubles with the local electrical engineer." [313]

Crawford acknowledges issues with the interference identification process, states new legislation under consideration

OFFICIALS of the Richmond River Listeners' League, told a meeting of their members that they had informed the senior radio inspector (Mr. T. S. Crawford), on his visit to Lismore, that the departmental system of sending inspectors to locate the sources of radio interference was futile. They had also informed the inspector that the location of the causes of interference was a simple matter. The trouble was that when they were located neither the Commonwealth nor the State Governments had the power to stop the nuisance. Mr. Crawford had said that the legal position was receiving attention. He had added that the league's suggestion that all electrical apparatus should be branded interference-free or non-interference free was worthy of consideration.[314]

1935 04[edit | edit source]

First newspaper report of the Rosehill Racecourse incident which Crawford was involved in

RACECOURSE RADIO. There was excitement at the Rosehill racecourse this afternoon when a man with a portable transmitting wireless set was taken into custody by the racecourse detectives. It is said that the set was carried on his back. By using a detector, the officials located the man, and confiscated his apparatus.[315]

Coincidentally and contemporaneously with the Rosehill Racecourse incident, the racing industry is lobbying the State and Federal Governments to ban broadcasts of horse racing in response to reduced attendances at racecources.

S.P. BETTING AND RADIO. Racing Conference Seeks Action By Premier. Wireless and S.P. betting were the main subjects of discussion at a conference of racing clubs and bookmakers' representatives held in Sydney during the past fortnight. The conference was convened by a Newcastle racing man, and the clubs in Sydney were asked to send at least one representative each, while the bookmakers were requested to be present on the ground that S.P. betting was in strong opposition to the men who paid licences for the privilege of betting on racecourses. It was urged that wireless and S.P. betting had ruined racing in Newcastle and would ruin racing in Sydney in time. This statement was not accepted by all present, but eventually a resolution was carried that a subcommittee be appointed to wait on the Australian Jockey Club and urge that body to see the Premier with the object of having legislation introduced to cope with the situation. Difficulties In Way Racing officials are maintaining the greatest secrecy about the conference discussion and the work of the subcommittee. It is rumored, however, that there have been difficulties in the way, and that very little of note has been accomplished so far.[316]

Early detailed report of the Rosehill Racecourse incident.

ALLEGED SECRET WIRELESS SEIZED AT RACES. ROSEHILL COURSE SENSATION. Five Men Are Arrested And Charged. ONE of the greatest racing bombs of recent years exploded yesterday at Rosehill when radio experts, postal officials, and a picked squad of detectives arrested men alleged to be involved in an astonishing wireless stunt. A REMARKABLE portable transmitting set, which can be strapped around the waist, and is said to be capable of sending messages on a secret short wave length, has been seized. A tiny receiving set alleged to be capable of receiving messages on the mystery wave length was also seized. ALL authorities have been amazed and confused by the sensational discovery, because it is supposed that the alleged transmitting and receiving sets were the work of a radio marvel. For some time the authorities have been puzzled by mysterious Morse signals which were sometimes intercepted by the delicate official detectors. There was information regarding betting, movements in the "ring" and other facts vital to racing bettors. All efforts to trace the strange racing messages which came whispering over the air in code failed. Yesterday, after a conference of all the authorities, plans were laid to discover the transmitter at the Rosehill course. Mingling with the crowd inside the course was a postal department radio expert with a tiny receiving set inside his vest and miniature earphones. It is claimed that he received messages from the mystery sending "station" and he moved backwards and forwards through crowds as the messages either got weaker or stronger trying to get close to the "station." This expert was trailed about the course by other officials and at last they came upon a man who continually had his right hand in his trousers pocket. His hand appeared to be continually moving. Later when the man was approached and questioned it is alleged by the police that he was found to be carrying a remarkable device alleged to be capable of sending Morse code messages. In his pocket was the alleged transmitting key at which as he casually walked about, allege the authorities, he was tapping out very interesting racing messages. Outside the racecourse, detectives selected from Inspector Alec. Russell's special squad were hidden and watching the movements of certain people near one broadcasting stand. It was here that a man who is said to have been possessed of a small receiving set and earphones was detained and questioned. Thereupon it was decided to make arrests. It was pointed out to Inspector Russell that if arrests were made then and there, it would seriously interfere with the business occupations of the men concerned. The police said that they did not in any way want to interfere with the business arrangements of the men, and that they were quite prepared to allow them to continue to do their work. A move was then made to the Parramatta Police Station, where the following were formally charged:— Walter Bedford, radio mechanic, charged with a breach of the Wireless Telegraphy Act for having allegedly used an illegal radio transmitter. Rufus Theodore Naylor, investor. Charles Rowles, radio mechanic. Bertie Sheeley, clerk. Eric Gordon, journalist. The lastnamed four men were each formally charged under the Common- (Start Photo Caption) RUFE NAYLOR. (End Photo Caption) wealth Crimes Act with allegedly aiding and abetting in a breach of the Wireless Telegraph Act. All were released on bail to appear at the Parramatta Police court tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. The wireless set allegedly confiscated at Rosehill yesterday, and which was taken away by officials of the Postal Department, was inspected by "Truth." It was "done up" in a canvas bag attached to a waistcoat, so that it could be worn by the operator. The officials in charge of the confiscated apparatus explained that the set was not a receiving set, but that it was for the despatch of messages only. In certain pockets there were batteries, and various other "parts" that completed the makeup of one of the most unique sets that has ever been constructed.[317]

Another early report of the Rosehill Racecourse incident

WALKING RADIO "STATION" SEIZED IN RAID. Excitement At Rosehill Racecourse. AERIAL ROUND MANS BODY, SET IN POCKET MYSTERY MESSAGES TRACKED DOWN. During a raid yesterday afternoon by police and wireless inspectors at Rosehill races, a pocket transmitting set was seized in the Paddock and a receiving set a short distance from a broadcasting stand. Five men were arrested. The raid followed secret investigations by Commonwealth officials extending over several months, during which a wireless inspector visited various courses with a shortwave detector clamped to his head. It was an effort to trace mysterious messages transmitted from the courses. DIRECT action was decided upon on Friday when Mr. Mitchell, of the P.M.G.'s Department, conferred with officials of the Police Department, Inspector A. Russell handled the police end and yesterday he went with Senior-sergeant W. J. Keefe and Constables Grigor and Fleming to Rosehill where wireless inspectors were already at work. A few minutes after 3 o'clock they were in the Paddock observing the movements of a man whom they suddenly approached and seized. In one of the offices wireless officials took from the man's clothing a miniature Morse transmitting set which, it is alleged, had been used for sending messages while remaining concealed in the pocket. Strapped to the man's body was the remainder of the set, including aerial, valves and battery. A radio official at once used the set to send out a message. SEIZED "MESSAGES" Simultaneously Grigor and Fleming, who were at vantage points outside the course, went to the rear of a house not far from a broadcasting stand and confiscated a receiving set, which, it is alleged, was being operated. Two others were arrested a few yards away. The police claim that they seized a number of pieces of paper on which messages had been written. OVER THE FENCE. The use of a radio detector at a meeting at Kensington, about a fortnight ago, almost led to similar action by postal officials. With a small detector attached to his car, an inspector moved among the crowd and picked up messages which led him to a tree on the course. On that occasion a man leaped a fence and escaped.[318]

Crawford and his team develop a sensitive wireless detector to locate an illegal transmitter being operated at Rosehill Racecourse

WIRELESS SET. Seized by the Police. ON ROSEHILL RACECOURSE. A man who, according to a police statement, was carrying a portable directional wireless transmitting set which he could operate from his pocket, was arrested on Rosehill racecourse on Saturday, and later, four other men were arrested by the police and another wireless set stationed outside the ground was confiscated. Experts declared that the transmitter seized was the first of its kind they had ever seen and that it was probably the first occasion in racing history that such an intricate and successful method had been evolved by which information from the betting ring could be sent to people outside the ground. Police allege that the unique wireless set could be employed to transmit the fluctuations of the betting market and the amount of investments on individual horses to a receiving station nearby. For many months the highly sensitive instrument used by the wireless branch of the post-office has recorded the operations of an illegal broadcasting station. The type of information being broadcast indicated that it was being employed on a racecourse, but despite every effort of the authorities to trace the instrument by organised searches, the operator evaded detection. It was realised that a portable wireless was being used, and it was decided to construct an extraordinarily sensitive set to detect the supposed illegal station. For three months technical experts, under the direction of Mr. W. Crawford, the senior radio inspector for New South Wales, worked at the task of perfecting an elaborate portable detector. Meanwhile the chief investigating officer, Mr. W. J. Mitchell, in collaboration with Police-Inspector A. Russell, completed plans for the apprehension of the operators of the wireless stations when the instrument had been traced by the official detector. The instrument was carefully tested and found to be eminently suited to the purpose for which it had been designed. About 40 police, radio officers, and officials participated in the final test of the instrument at Rosehill. A wireless technical expert strapped the apparatus around his body and wandered among the spectators at the racecourse, tuning in to the station. By the varying strength of the signals he determined that it was a directional transmitting set, and notified his companions. Coincidentally further tests were made by means of other instruments, and the locality in which the receiving set was situated outside the ground was determined and ultimately found by visual examination. The increasing strength of the signals brought the official detector in the vicinity of the betting ring, and at an agreed signal a man who had been noticed standing nearby agitating his hand in the pocket of his dust coat was seized by the police. A portable set was allegedly found strapped to the man's body, and batteries and other essential parts were ingeniously concealed in his pockets. Simultaneously with the arrest of the man inside the racecourse, the police confiscated a radio receiving set in a house near the course, and subsequently four men were arrested. An official continued sending messages from the directional sending set until he was notified of the seizure of the receiving set, and then continued for some time to make certain that the sets seized were the ones for which the authorities had been searching. Later Walter Bedford, 25, radio mechanic, was charged at the Parramatta police station under the Wireless Telegraphy Act for having allegedly used an illegal radio transmitter. Rufus Naylor, 52, investor, Charles Rowles, 26, radio mechanic, Eric Gordon, 32, journalist, and Bertie Sheeley, 47, clerk, were charged under the Commonwealth Crimes Act with allegedly aiding and abetting an offence against the Wireless and Telegraph Act. Bail in £100 each was allowed.[319]

Earliest report of the court appearance in the Rosehill Racecourse incident

RADIO SET ON MAN AT COURSE. Police Find. COURT STORY. HOW, at Rosehill racecourse on April 6, he had watched a "shaky movement" by a man, which would synchronise with the movement of operating a Morse key was related in evidence by a Commonwealth radio inspector at the Central Court today. Walter Bedford, 25, radio mechanic, was charged before Mr. Harrison, S.M., with having, at Camelia, on April 6, without authorisation by or under the Wireless Telegraphy Act, used an appliance for the purpose of transmitting messages by means of wireless telegraphy, contrary to the provisions of the Act. Hand In Pocket Roy Vincent Brislan, a Commonwealth radio inspector, said that on April 6 he was in the saddling paddock at Rosehill racecourse, when he saw Bedford standing in front of the totalisator. He was wearing a grey dustcoat, and had his hand in the right-hand pocket, and he (witness) noticed a distinct movement of the right side of his body. It was a shaky movement, witness said, and would synchronise with the movement of operating a Morse key. Witness said that on two or three occasions between 1.20 and 3 p.m. he observed Bedford with his right hand in his pocket and saw a movement similar to that he had previously noticed. At 3.5 p.m., he said, Bedford moved through the betting ring and returned to his original position in front of the totalisator. Operated Key Two minutes later, witness said, Sergeant Keefe and Constable Grigor caught hold of Bedford's hands, Keefe saying: "We are police." Witness, with the police and the defendant, went to a room in the official stand. Mr. Crawford, senior radio inspector, and Mr. Weatherill were there. The sergeant, witness said, removed articles of defendant's clothing, and witness saw a Morse key hanging from Bedford's chest, attached to flexible wires. Crawford and Weatherill operated the key, and witness dictated messages, which were transmitted. The messages consisted of a repetition of "Q.S.A. Harold" and the letter "V." "Q.S.A. means," witness said, "What is the strength of my signal?" "Harold," witness added, was Radio-Inspector Horder. Bedford took off his shirt, witness added, and Sergeant Keefe removed a transmitting set. A vest was removed, on which was mounted six 15-volt dry cells, fitted into canvas pockets, which were sown on to the vest. There was also a three-volt dry cell in one of the pockets, said witness, and suspended from the vest by wires was a small box about the size of a cigar box. Asked by Sergeant Keefe, said witness, how long he had been transmitting from racecourses, Bedford replied: "About four or five months." He said he was paid £2 a week. Portable Receiver John Weatherill. a Commonwealth radio inspector, said he took to Rosehill racecourse a portable receiving set. He saw the defendant standing In front of the totalisator and from a distance of about four yards listened to his (witness's) receiver, but did not hear any Morse signals. Later he stood near defendant and heard signals. He moved away a few yards and they disappeared. "To Man Outside" Crawford, witness said, asked: "Had you any authority to transmit or were you experimenting?" Defendant had replied, "No." In reply to Keefe, said witness, defendant said he was transmitting to a man outside the course. He did not know his name. In reply to Mr. Sproule, witness said he thought the set would transmit a quarter of a mile. Witness said that an officer from the Postal Department, with a receiver strapped to his wrist, was walking around Bedford. Others Charged Before Mr. Harrison, also, Charles Rowles, 26, radio mechanic; Rufus Theodore Naylor, 52, investor; Bertie Sheeley, 47, clerk; and Eric Gordon, 32, journalist, were charged with being directly and knowingly concerned in the commission of the offence. The case is part heard. Mr. Badham (instructed by the Commonwealth Crown Solicitor) appeared to prosecute; Mr. SprouIe (Messrs. R. D. Meagher, Sproule and Co.) appeared for Rowles, Naylor, Sheeley and Bedford; and W. Niland for Gordon.[320]

Crawford appears in court to question accused in matter of illegal transmitter being used to send messages from racecourse

Transmit Betting And Tote Odds. SET USED. ALLEGED REMARK. MAN AT COURSE. POLICE EVIDENCE. WHEN he asked Walter Bedford at Rosehill racecourse, on April 6, what he transmitted by a wireless apparatus which had been found upon him, said Sergeant Keefe, at the Central Court today, Bedford, he declared, replied: "The latest betting and the tote bets." Sergeant Keefe said he asked Bedford if he would deny that he was employed by Rufe Naylor and Bedford replied: "I won't say yes or no to that." Bedford, 25, radio mechanic, was charged before Mr. Harrison, S.M., with having at Camelia, on April 6, without authorisation by or under the Wireless Telegrapny Act, used an appliance for the purpose of transmitting messages by means of wireless telegraphy, contrary to the provisions of the Act. He pleaded not guilty. William T. Crawford, senior radio inspector of the P.M.G.'s Department, said that when Bedford was brought into a room at Rosehill racecourse a Morse transmitting key was taken from the defendant's pocket. "Not In Tune" Asked by witness if he had any authority to transmit or was he experimenting, Bedford replied, "No." "Do you know it is contrary to the regulations to transmit without authority?" Crawford said he asked, and Bedford replied, "No, not unless you have an aerial." Crawford said the wireless set produced was the one removed from defendant's body. Mr. Badham: Do you know why Weatherill was unable to pick up the signals until he got close to the defendant and lost them when he moved away? Crawford: Because Weatherill's receiver was not in tune with the transmitter, and he could hear the signals only when he got close enough. Vivian Roy Horder, P.M.G. radio inspector, said that, with Inspector Russell and others on April 6, he went to a building near the Rosehill racecourse. He found wireless apparatus installed on the doorstep. It was connected to an aerial of 50 feet. A man was operating the set and, jumping up, he commenced to tear up paper. Horder said he picked up the headphones and heard messages in Morse. The receiving set, which was seized, was produced in court. "Messages to Outside" Sergeant Keefe said that on April 6 he saw Bedford standing on the fringe of the betting ring, in front of the totalisator. He was wearing a grey dustcoat, and had his right hand in a pocket. Twice he wrote something on a racebook with a pencil, and several times witness noticed his clothing moving when his hand was in his pocket. Witness said he and Constable Grigor took him to an office under the Members' Stand, and found a wireless transmitting set, or wireless apparatus, fastened to his body, between his vest and shirt. He admitted, witness said, that he had been transmitting messages from racecourses for four or five months. He would not say by whom he was employed, but said he was paid £2 a week. He would not say who paid him. Asked by witness what he transmitted, he replied, "The latest betting, and the tote bets." He admitted, said witness, he was sending the messages to a young man outside the course, but he would not say what his name was. "Employed By Naylor?" Witness said: "I have been informed that you are employed by Rufe Naylor." He replied: "I won't say Yes or No to that." Witness asked: "Do you deny that you are employed by him?" He replied: "I won't say anything." At the conclusion of evidence for the prosecution, Mr. Harrison, S.M., said there was a case to answer, and he adjourned further hearing of evidence until tomorrow. Mr. Badham (instructed by the Commonwealth Solicitor) appeared to prosecute; Mr. Sproule (Messrs. R. D. Meagher, Sproule and Co.) appeared for Bedford.[321]

Rosehill Racecourse incident defence utilises the current high court case

HELD OVER. Racecourse Case. ACT INVOLVED. PENDING a decision in a matter involving the Wireless Telegraphy Act, now before the High Court, a charge alleging the unauthorised use of radio at the Rosehill Racecourse on April 6 was allowed to stand over by Mr. Harrison, S.M., at Central Court today. At the conclusion of evidence for the prosecution in the case in which Walter Bedford, 25, radio mechanic, was charged with having, at Camelia, on April 6, without authorisation by or under the Wireless Telegraphy Act, used an appliance for the purpose of transmitting messages by means of wireless telegraphy, contrary to the provisions of the Act, Mr. Sproule (for Bedford) asked the magistrate to postpone his decision till the High Court matter was decided. Mr. Sproule contended that a message had not been shown in this case. He submitted that the Act was ultra vires of the Federal Constitution. He would offer no evidence. "Support Allegation" The magistrate said he would not give a decision as to the validity of the Act, but he would rule that in this case a message was sent. He added that he had no intention of proceeding to conviction at present. He found, however, that the evidence supported the allegation of the informant, as set out in the charge; but he would reserve his decision as to whether that was an offence against the law or not. The charge against Bedford; and the charge against Charles Rowles, 26 (radio mechanic), Rufus Theodore Naylor, 52 (investor), Bertie Sheeley, 47 (clerk) and Eric Gordon, 32 (journalist), of having been directly and knowingly concerned in the commission of the offence, were allowed to stand over until May 17. Mr. Badham (instructed by the Commonwealth Solicitor) appeared to prosecute; Mr. Sproule (Messrs. R. D. Meagher, Sproule and Co.) appeared for Bedford.[322]

Rosehill Racecourse incident, second day of evidence

WIRELESS PROSECUTION. Rosehill Racecourse Incident. At the Central Police Court yesterday morning, the hearing of the charge against several persons concerning a breach of the Wireless Telegraphy Act was continued. Walter Bedford, 25, was charged with having, without authority, used a transmitting appliance, and Charles Rowles, 26, radio mechanic, Rufus Theodore Naylor, 52, investor, Bertie Sheeley, 47, clerk, and Eric Gordon, 32, Journalist, were charged with being directly concerned in the alleged offence. Sergeant O'Keefe said that, on April 6, he saw Bedford standing on the fringe of the betting ring at Rosehill Racecourse in front of the totalisator. Witness noticed Bedford's coat moving when his hand was in the pocket of his dustcoat. Bedford, when taken to an office, was found to have a wireless transmitting set fastened to his body between his vest and shirt. Asked what he transmitted, he answered, "The latest betting and the tote figures." Mr. W. J. Mitchell, chief investigator for the Postal Department, said that Bedford had no experimenter's broadcaster's licence. In further evidence, it was stated that, when Sergeant O'Keefe said, "I am informed that you are employed by Rufus Naylor?" Bedford had stated, "I will not say 'yes' or 'no' to that." Bedford said he received £2 a week, but would not say who paid him, it was stated. The hearing was adjourned till this morning.[323]

1935 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford awarded King's Jubilee medal

AWARDS COVER WIDE REPRESENTATION OF COMMUNITY. PARLIAMENTARIANS OF ALL PARTIES. TO commemorate the King's Jubilee and to recognise public service, nearly 3000 medals are being awarded to citizens of New South Wales. All walks of life are represented among the recipients. . . . C — Engineer Commander L. J. P. Carr, Naval Forces; Commissioned Instructor G. E. Carter, Naval Forces; A. J. Chambers, gen. president, Federated T.B. Sailors and Soldiers' Assn.; M. Charlton, ex-M.P.; J. B. Chifley; Mrs. Chifley, Dame Alice Chisholm; J. J. Clark, M.P.; P. R. Cleland, accountant and senior clerk, Department of the Interior; Warrant Officer T. P. Clifton; Lieutenant-Col. R. S. Coates; Mrs. Marjorie Cohen; T. B. Cohen; Commander J. A. Collins, Naval Forces; T. J. Collins, M.P.; J. E. Connor, petty officer steward, Naval Forces; Sir J. Cook; Lady Cook; R. S. Cooper, postmaster, Cremorne; Senator C. F Cox; W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector, P.M.G.'s Department; W. Cridland, president, T.B. Sailors and Soldiers' Assn.; E. Cross, overseer, P.M.G.'S Department; J. Crust; Mrs. Nancy Cullen; Warrant Officer W. T. Cundy, 16 L.H.; L. L. Cunningham; Mrs. Cunningham; Mrs. H. R. Curlewis (Miss Ethel Turner); J. Cusack (R.S.S. I.L.A.); F. M. Cutlack.[324]

Offenders in the Rosehill Racecourse incident remanded again

REMANDED AGAIN. Walter Bedford, 25, radio mechanic, who is charged with Rufus Theodore Naylor, Eric Gordon, Bertie Sheehley and Frederick Rowles, with an alleged breach of the Wireless Telegraphy Act in connection with the alleged transmission of wireless messages from Rosehill racecourse on April 6 last, was further remanded on the charge till June 14, when he appeared at Central Police Court yesterday.[325]

1935 06[edit | edit source]

Lismore and its Richmond River Listeners' League continues to occupy Crawford's time on multiple fronts

INTERFERENCE. RADIO NOISES ANNOY LISTENERS. PROTEST MEETING. Numerous complaints concerning noises interfering with radio reception were made at a meeting of the Richmond River Listeners' League in Lismore on Tuesday, when it was decided to take action to remedy the position, which the president (Mr. Laundry) described as being abominable. "All electrical appliances should be made in such a way as not to cause interference to listeners, and the added cost placed on to the selling price of the appliance," said Mr. Laundry, when the meeting was advised by Albury League, that it had made little progress in its campaign to suppress interference. Mr. Glover said that an agent for a certain household appliance had told him to fix a device to his set to prevent Interference. GOVERNMENT SHOULD ACT. Mr. Laundry contended that the Government should make the fixing of suppression devices on electrical machines compulsory. The inspectors had found a number of machines causing interference, but the majority of machines had escaped. Mr. Glover said all the leagues should combine in an effort to have interference stopped. Mr. Laundry pointed out that the league had taken action along those lines by supplying them with information obtained from Mr. R. F. H. Green, M.H.R. "The difficulty could be overcome by allowing the A and B class stations to increase their power," said Mr. Laundry, "but the authorities will not agree to an increase." BLOT OUT RECEPTION. Mr. Laundry said interference had been so bad at his place, blotting out all reception on three nights. He had had good reception at North Lismore on Sunday, but it was impossible to hear on a set at his home. People near him had had similar experiences, some having to switch off because it was impossible to hear. At the instance of Mr. Stevenson, it was decided to advise the senior radio inspector that listeners were experiencing a particularly bad form of interference, and that the visit of the inspector six months ago had done nothing to eliminate the trouble. "The noise always comes just when one wants to hear some particular item of news," said Mr. Griffin. ONLY ONE STATION. Mr. Laundry, after suggesting that a public meeting to protest against the interference should be held in conjunction with the league's annual meeting, said that if the interference were allowed to continue listeners would be able to get only the regional station at Grafton, when completed, instead of being able to get all the stations operating. Metropolitan listeners would be opposed to an increase in power because it would hamper the use of the majority of sets. Mr. Glover thought the league should seek the co-operation of the manufacturers of sets in suppressing the interference which affected their country sales. The Federal Government should be advised of the trouble. It took the same money from country listeners as from those in the cities, but the former received only a quarter of the service. REGIONAL PROGRAMMES. Mr. Griffin was of the opinion that the new regional station should not be linked with the national relays. At present eight or nine stations transmitted the same programme, and the new station should be linked with the alternative station. Mr. Laundry thought action concerning the programmes from the new station should be deferred until the transmission commenced. The Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs is to be advised that the League is of the opinion that the only way of overcoming the interference trouble is to amend the law so as to compel owners of electrical apparatus to affix suppression devices, or to increase the power of the existing A class stations to such an extent that the signal will penetrate any interference. Those controlling the B class stations are to be invited to co-operate with the League in its efforts to secure better radio reception. Members of the league are to patrol the town object of finding any trees or other causes of interference on electricity power lines. EXPERIMENTAL POWER. The senior radio inspector (Mr. Crawford) advised that the League had been granted permission to conduct experiments on 1360 kilocycles from station VK2GL after broadcasting hours for six months until December 31 next. It was decided to recommend to the committee to be elected at the annual meeting next month the improvement and reconditioning of the experimental station. In addition to the president (Mr. W. Laundry), those at the meeting were: Messrs. A. E. Stevenson, L. Aked, J. Gallagher, O. Le Cornu, T. L. Griffin,. A. Wiltshire, S. Glover, and T. Cooper (secretary).[326]

Crawford attends funeral of prominent broadcaster Laurence Halbert

MR. G. L. H. HOLLINGWORTH. The remains of Mr. George Laurence Halbert Holllngworth (known to broadcast listeners as Laurence Halbert) were cremated at Rookwood yesterday. A service in Christ Church St. Laurence was conducted by the Rev. Father Hope, assisted by the Rev. F. Wilde, rector of Springwood. The Australian Broadcasting Commission's wireless chorus sang during the service. Mr. Joseph Post was the conductor, and Mr. G. Vern Barnett organist. At the crematorium, the address was delivered by the Rev. Dr. Watson, and the Rev. F. Wilde conducted the service. The chief mourners were Mrs. Hollingworth (widow), Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Bradley (Merriwa), Mr. and Mrs. F. Bang, Mr. and Mrs. C. Bang, Mr. and Mrs. G. Bang, Misses A. and L. Bang, Mr. and Mrs. L. Broadbent, Mr. and Mrs. Dickenson, Mrs. A. Hearle, Mr. and Mrs. A. Hearle, Mr. and Mrs. J. Wulf, Mr. and Mrs. Seabourn, Mr. and Mrs. M. Wulf and Miss Wulf. Among others present were Messrs. W. T. Conder, H. G. Horner, A. L. Holman, Bryson Taylor, W. J. Grieves, Laurence Cecil, E. Barclay, C. Charlton, H. Burdock, E. Chapple, E. J. Roberts, F. Sholl, R. Gifford, W. Powell, O. Lansbury, J. Bedouin, G. Willoughby, D. A. Ekland, G. McDonald, C. Dunn, W. Rockley, H. W. Hancock, G. A. Carter, W. J. McMahon, C. R. Powell, V. Gouriet, P. A. Goulding, E. Price, C. Wheeler, M. A. Ferry, A. Page, S. Isaacs, J. F. Hall, W. Redstone, W. T. S. Crawford, A. Greenaway, G. Cridlipp, R. Strother, C. Morrison, H. Croot, V. Edwards, H. Keats, V. Ramage, O. Lind, F. L. Brown, P. M. Farmer, G. Anderson, J. Pickard, J. J. Donnelly, W. F. White, A. C. Broadbent, G. C. Moore, R. L. List, M. Dobilnski, J. T. Taylor, W. C. Bradley, Marotta, E. Lashmar, C. C. Bradly, Mr. Justice Webb, ex-Senator R. B. Orchard, Messrs. R. Hughes, H. N. May, S. W. Edwards, J. G. Cocks, L. Schaeffer, J. B. King, A. W. Hall, Madame Grieg, Mr. and Mrs. S. Hunter, Mr. and Mrs. E. Masters, Mr. and Mrs. O. Lonegrin, Mr. and Mrs. Bradley, sen., Mesdames M. Hancock, A. Quinn, and Brunton Gibb, Misses Ross, Winifred Green, Gladys Owen, Loris Bingham, Joyce Morgan, Goodie Reeve, Amy Ostinga, Adele Quinn, Bell, Harris, and Mostyn.[327]

The offenders in the Rosehill Racecourse incident again remanded pending High Court decision

RADIO CASES. REMANDED PENDING HIGH COURT DECISION. The hearing of charges alleging the use of an unauthorised radio set on Rosehill racecourse on April 6 was yesterday further remanded from Central Police Court until July 16, pending a decision of the High Court on another case. Walter Bedford (25), radio mechanic, is charged with having, without authorisation, used an appliance for the purpose of transmitting messages by means of wireless telegraphy. Charles Rowles (26), radio mechanic, Rufus Theodore Naylor (52), investor, Bertie Sheeley (47), clerk, and Eric Gordon (32), are charged with concerning themselves in an offence against the Act.[328]

1935 07[edit | edit source]

Crawford offers to assist with interference investigations in Barraba

INTERFERENCE WITH WIRELESS. Electrical Appliances. Owing to the many complaints received by the Windsor (N.S.W.) Municipal Council from owners of wireless sets that reception is being interfered with by electric appliances in various parts of the town, the Council is considering the compelling of owners of the appliances to attach filters to prevent interference. Mr. Leard reported at the last meeting of Barraba (N.S.W.) Wireless League that he had purchased a number of suppresors on behalf of the league. These were now being fitted and with the aid of a portable set they were testing the actual results in the daytime, when the various electrical appliances in town were in use. By these means radio-set owners would eventually get perfect reception. The league is under a big expense in supplying and fitting these suppressors, but it is hoped that a large number of business people will assist. The league urges all set-owners to join and so help in the work. Mr. F. A. Chaffey, M.L.A., Mr. V. C. Thompson, M.P., Mr. T. S. Crawford (senior radio inspector), and the A.B.C. have signified their willingness to assist. Harold Haddon (67), a member of a shooting party looking for rabbits near Camden (N.S.W.), had his right arm shattered by the accidental discharge of a companion's rifle. On his arrival in hospital the arm was amputated.[329]

Richmond River Listeners' League continues to call upon Crawford's time

ACTION URGED. Radio Interference. SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS. Further steps towards the elimination of wireless interference were taken by the Richmond River Listeners' League, at its annual meeting in the Lismore council chambers last night. The sale of interference-proof apparatus and the elimination of ships' signalling from the broadcast band will be among the solutions recommended to the authorities. This action followed receipt of an unfavourable reply from the Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs to the league's suggestions that, with the object of overcoming the trouble, the power of the existing "A" class stations be increased to such an extent that the incoming radio signals would be sufficiently powerful to overcome local interference noises, and that the radio department be given the necessary legislative authority to force all users of electrical apparatus capable of causing interference to affix suppressors. CANBERRA ORDINANCE. The league was influenced in making the second suggestion by a report from Canberra that a special ordinance had been introduced, giving authority to compel the fitting of suppressors to any apparatus believed to be causing interference to wireless receiving sets. Expressing appreciation of the league's interest in broadcast listeners' difficulties, the Director General stated that it had already been mentioned that the department was not anxious to obtain statutory powers which might be both difficult of administration and harsh upon electrical users. It had been decided by international authorities in conference, after careful consideration, that there was no safe method of indicating what was an interfering signal, on the one hand, or a reasonable broadcast signal, on the other. "The degree of interference may be very harmful in one locality and yet, with a different type of receiver not far removed or in the same locality, be harmless, having regard to the particular station to which the listener tunes in," it was stated. VARYING RECEIVERS. "You will appreciate that it is not possible to arrange for the radiated energy of every station normally used in a district to be of equal signal strength in any one locality, and it is also unavoidable that types of receivers in use and their efficiency will vary." Referring to the power of the national stations, it was stated that the department was proceeding as rapidly as possible with the installation of additional regional stations, so that the received signal would be strong in all districts. In the Richmond River district Station 2NR would, in the near future, be an illustration of this intention. After discussion, it was decided to request the State parliamentary representatives for Lismore, Casino, Grafton and Murwillumbah to urge upon the Under Secretary for Local Government the necessity of compelling all apparatus manufactured or imported into New South Wales to be made interference-free before being retailed to the public. An extension of the Federal ordinance to this State will also be suggested to the department, while the Postmaster General will be asked to investigate the interference caused on the broadcast band by ships' wireless signals, with a view to its possible elimination. INSPECTOR'S VISIT. The Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) stated, in response to a request by the league that an inspector visit the Richmond River district with the object of locating sources of interference, that an itinerary was being drawn up covering the Lismore, Casino and Grafton districts, and it was anticipated that the services of an inspector would be available shortly. Reference was made by several members to the regional station and it was decided to inform the department that the league was opposed to the relaying of programmes from Brisbane, if this was intended, because the district was already served, when climatic conditions were favourable, by station 4QG and, in addition, there was no community of interest. ANNUAL REPORT. The president's annual report (details of which, have already' been published) was adopted, as also was the balance sheet. The latter showed that the receipts included a credit balance of £37 2s 6d brought forward, while subscriptions totalled £4. After the payment of expenses, including £9 8s 6d for the radio exhibition and £7 10s 6d for advertising, a credit balance of £16 16s 7d remained. The election of officers resulted as follows: President, Mr. N. Laundry; vice-presidents, Messrs. R. G. Creasy, T. L. Griffin and A. E. Stevenson; secretary, Mr. F. C. Cooper; treasurer, Mr. R. J. Stick; committee, Messrs. A. L. Green, O. C. Le Cornu, G. Wells, A. J. Wiltshire, L. Aked, J. R. Baker, R. Martin, and L. Cohen; auditors, Messrs. B. L. Smith and J. W. Palmer. EXPERIMENTAL STATION With the object of raising funds for improvements to Station VK2GL, it was decided to conduct a house-to-house drive for members. A recommendation was made to the committee that the improvements be effected as soon as finances permit. The license for the station will expire at the end of the year, but it was stated that no intimation had been received that it was not intended to renew it, in view of the early operation of the regional station. It was also decided to recommend that the improvements be carried out under the supervision of Mr. P. M. Hoare. Expressions of thanks were carried to the "Northern Star," Messrs. Lucas and Son, Mr. A. L. Caflisch, and Lismore Council for assistance during the year. Those at the meeting were:— Messrs. N. Laundry (president), A. E. Stevenson, R. C. Creasey, J. R. Baker, A. J. Wiltshire, R. Martin, C. Dunstan, O. Le Cornu, L. Cohen, W. Mason, R. J. Stick (treasurer), and F. C. Cooper (secretary).[330]

Malone visits Lismore while Crawford attends the new Grafton ABC station

NEW RADIO STATION. Inspector's Visit. INTERFERENCE. The Chief Inspector of WireIess (Mr. Malone) will receive a deputation from the Richmond River Listeners' League at Lismore post office this morning at 9.45 o'clock. The deputation will consist of the president (Mr. N. Laundry), the secretary (Mr. F. C. Cooper), and Messrs. R. C. Creasey and T. L. Griffin, and it is possible that Mr. Malone will make an announcement concerning the regional broadcasting at Lawrence, the testing of which is expected to be carried out shortly. The Chief Radio Inspector (Mr. W. Crawford) accompanied Mr. Malone as far as Grafton, where, it is understood, he is investigating the progress of the station. The deputation will broach, the subject of reception interference and will suggest to Mr. Malone that definite steps be taken towards elimination.[331]

Offenders in the Rosehill Racecourse matter again remanded

A further remand. until August 12, pending the decision of the High Court in a test case, was granted by Mr. Stevenson, S.M., at Central Police Court yesterday, when Charles Rowles, 26, radio mechanic, Bertie Sheeley, 47, clerk. Eric Gordon, 32, journalist, and Rufus Theodore Naylor, 52, investor, were charged with aiding and abetting in an offence against the Wireless Telegraphy Act, allegedly committed by Walter Bedford, 25, radio mechanic, at Rosehill Racecourse on April 6.[332]

1935 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford sanctions a special broadcast (on medium wave?) for Inverell's amateur broadcaster 2HV for first annual reunion of the Inverell Amateur Radio Club

Radio Club Re-Union. INTERESTING PUBLIC BROADCAST. Inverell Officially on the Air. Mr. Harry Hutton's Enterprise. Transmitting from the supper room of the School of Arts, Inverell amateur radio station, 2HV, owned, constructed and operated by Mr. Harry Hutton, had the distinction of officially conducting the town's initial broadcast of a public function on Wednesday night, the occasion being the first annual reunion of the Inverell Amateur Radio Club, an enthusiastic and progressive organisation of young men, who realising the great potentialities of radio have become keen students of this intriguing science. The function was a most convivial gathering at which His Worship the Mayor, Ald. S. J. S. Butler, gave a most interesting and comprehensive resume of the richness and attractiveness of the town and district, and various noted artists contributed to the enjoyment of the evening during which a lengthy toast list was honored. His Worship the Mayor (Ald. S. J. S. Butler), who continuously manifests exceptionally keen interest in the civic, economic, and social life or the town, extended the function his esteemed patronage, and initiated proceedings by proposing the loyal toast, which he followed by toasting "The Inverell Amateur Radio Club," stating he was most agreeably surprised by the various activities of this keen, enterprising body, which, since in inception 12 months ago, had made great progress and was that night celebrating the conclusion cf a useful and satisfactory year. Although he did not have a dual-wave radio, and therefore could not fully appreciate the club's activities, he understood that the two local amateur stations, 2HV owned and operated by Mr. H. Hutton and 2ZP (owned and operated by Mr. A. Yates) was carrying on a very good service, and that the reception in the district, and also much farther afield, was excellent. For the benefit of listeners in other parts of the State, His Worship said the town of Inverell was 1900 to 2000 feet above sealevel, and was situated on the northwest slopes, between lofty tableland and rolling plain, and served an exceptionally rich and varied district which abounded in agricultural, pastoral, and mineral wealth. Some idea of the vast potentialities of this attractive corner of the State could be gained by the fact that on two occasions its products won the premier award at the Royal Agricultural Show for district exhibits. (Applause). The people of Inverell enjoy an excellent climate, which was a happy medium between the rigorous cold of New England and the stifling heat of the flat country to the west. The district was one which tourists would find very attractive, and comprised rich, undulating country right to the Queensland border. The town was progressing most substantially; new business houses were being erected, the shopping centres were being made even more attractive by extensive renovations, including many modern shop frontages, whilst the residential areas in the various parts of the town were spreading surprisingly. Since the advent of the motor car, graziers and farmers from as far afield as sixty or seventy miles away, did business in town, which was the main shopping centre for a very large area. The beautiful, new hospital, with its modern equipment, treated patients from such outlying centres as Texas and Benshaw, whilst students from Gravesend and Warialda attended the Intermediate High School, and would soon have the benefit of a splendid, new building on Ross Hill. All this showed what an important centre was growing up here. Then, again, the district provided for various classes of sport, which was of a high standard. Golf, tennis, bowls, cricket, football, hockey, swimming, racing, rifle and gun club shooting, all had their respective devotees, who were provided with facilities which favorably compared with such appointments in other centres, and visitors would have plenty of good, healthy recreation to pursue. In conclusion, he congratulated the W.A.R.C. on the success it had achieved since its inauguration, and trusted such progress would continue. (Applause). INVERELL'S FIRST AMATEUR. The president of the club, Mr. Arthur Yates, who, incidentally, was Inverell's first amateur, responded, stating that initially he had entered into amateur radio activities with Mr. Hutton and they had decided to form a club of the young men of the town who were interested in this intriguing science. In paying a well-deserved tribute to his confrere's ability and enterprise, the speaker recalled the numerous adversities that beset the amateur, but, although confronted by innumerable setbacks and disappointments, Mr. Hutton had achieved success, and not a little renown, by dint of sheer perseverance and patience. These attributes were essential, and were the keynotes to success in amateur radio. Eventually, their esteemed honorary club secretary had become the owner-operator of station 2HV, which was a household word among amateur radio, not only in New South Wales, but in Australia, and had made contact with practically every civilised county in the world. At first, the operation of amateur radio had been viewed with concern, and in many cases alarm, as it was quite wrongly contended that interference was caused to long-wave sets. As interference increased from various sources, amateurs got into rather bad odour with listeners, who, however, now entertained more sane and charitable views. Generally, most of the Morse messages picked up on the long-wave sets were conversations between some garulous ship's operator and coastal friends. Although amateurs, they always did everything in their power to assist the progress of commercial radio by endeavouring to detect interference rather than cause it. (Hear, hear). He was particularly pleased to see so many young men interested in the science, and hoped that, by passing their operator's examinations, they would add further laurels to amateur radio in New South Wales, and to the Inverell Club in particular. (Applause). VALUED CO-OPERATION. To Mr. Harry Hutton was entrusted the toast of "The P.M.G. Radio Inspector and the Municipal Electrical Department." To be successful with amateur radio, said the speaker, it is most essential to have the cordial co-operation of these associate bodies, for without them the science could not exist. Both these departments had shown the club every possible consideration since it had been in operation, and had readily complied with any reasonable request. This was instanced by that night's proceedings, the broadcasting of which was a breach of regulations. However, permission had been sought from Mr. Crawford, who had promptly sanctioned the club's request to broadcast their first annual reunion and wished the function success. The municipal electrical department was also very considerate to the club, and any advice members required was readily and courteously supplied. (Applause). MR. KYLE IN REPLY. The Mayor apologised for the unavoidable absence of the postmaster (Mr. J. Carolan), who had forwarded felicitations, and called upon the Council's electrical engineer (Mr. J. B. Kyle) to reply to the toast. In doing so, Mr. Kyle expressed his pleasure at seeing so many enthusiastic young men, some of whom were mere boys, so keenly interested in, and so surprisingly conversant with, the intricacies of radio, a science which represented the foundation of the electrical system on which radio had developed, and which had such great potentialities. In Mr. Crawford and other officers of the P.M.G's Department, the club had loyal and energetic friends; he knew this from periodical contact with such officials during his visits to the city to attend the annual electrical engineers' conferences. Continuing, Mr. Kyle dealt with various causes of radio interference, which, he said, was often caused by defective wiring or connections, and, as Council's engineer, he was always anxious to locate the trouble and would welcome any concrete cases of definite interference. He assured members that he would always do whatever he could in his official capacity to further the interests of the club. (Applause) . Mr. J. Monaghan briefly proposed the toast of "The Visitors," whom he welcomed to the reunion and expressed his gratification at such a representative gathering, to which Mr. Keogh replied. "THE TRANSMITTERS." In toasting "The Transmitters," Mr. J. W. W. Campbell said 2HV and 2ZP were both very fine chaps and he had spent many interesting hours listening to "the noise of the north." (Laughter). The respective proprietors deserved great credit for their work for the betterment of local amateur radio conditions, and for the efforts to eliminate interference in the general broadcast band. Mr. Hutton deserved commendation for the manner in which he had progressed; he recalled on one occasion when Harry said. "I won't be five minutes. Jim," and he waited for two solid hours whilst Harry had tinkered with a soldering-iron and cigar box; but eventually it worked, and he was glad others could now hear Harry, as well as the speaker. (Laughter). In conclusion, Mr. Campbell also referred in eulogistic terms to "the sunshine of the south" — Jessie of 2YW, Wagga — whose transmission was perfect, and wished the club and transmitters every success. (Applause). POWERFUL AMATEUR STATION. Replies were made by the proprietor of 2ZP and 2HV, Mr. Hutton remarking that Mr. Campbell had done everything in his power to foster radio in Inverell, at no little expense to himself. (Hear, hear). He wished to announce at this juncture that his benefactor had offered him the facilities to build an entirely new transmitter which would incorporate the most modern American methods of amateur radio. This would make 2HV the most modern amateur station in Australia, and for its power, the biggest in the world. The regulations would have to be complied with that the power used for transmission would not exceed 25 watts, but it would be 100 per cent. modulated, would be quite up to "A" class standard, and could be operated on 80, 40, 20, 5, and 2½ broadcast bands. He closed by proposing the toast of "Mr. J. W. Campbell," which was enthusiastically honored. In a brief response, Mr. Campbell said it was his ambition to see Mr. Hutton with a first-class transmitting station, as he was an enthusiast of the first water, and such would be the reward to intelligence and patience. (Applause) . Mr. Wilkinson proposed the toast of "The Press," which was acknowledged by a "Times" representative, after which Mr. Stan Mulroy, who acted as monitor for the transmission, proposed the health of "The Artists," whom he thanked on behalf of the club for the enjoyable entertainment they had afforded the gathering. "As this is, for most of us our first appearance before a microphone, we appreciate the experience, and have thoroughly enjoyed the proceedings," said Mr. C. Hawkins, in reply. The concluding toast was that of "The Listeners," by Mr. Hutton, and "The Chairman," by Mr. V. Nesbitt, who remarked that during the past quarter of a century the Mayor had given unstintingly of his time to various movements, and was always prepared to interest himself in any scheme for the betterment and advancement of the town. His esteemed patronage was greatly appreciated. (Applause). During the evening the gathering was entertained by vocal numbers by Mrs. Theo. Psaros, Messrs. E. Burgess, C. and W. Hawkins, and Nicholas Pavlakis, all of whom were in exceptionally good voice. Accompaniments were played by Miss Dulcie Harding, whilst Messrs. James Stewart and J. Cottee entertained with selections on the pipes and saxophone respectively. The announcers were Messrs. Hutton and Burgess. A pleasing incident during the supper was the cutting of the club's first birthday cake by the Mayor. This was nicely iced and, in addition to its solitary candle, bore miniature wireless masts and aerial, at the foot of which was a neat little shack. The memorable evening was brought to a close by community singing, the consumption of "liquid electricity," and general felicitations.[333]

Crawford credits Don Bradman for record increases in wireless licences each July

WIRELESS BOOM. BRADMAN'S INFLUENCE. It is estimated by the authorities that by June 30, 1936, radio licences issued throughout the Commonwealth will total nearly 750,000. The average increase in licences each month is about 6500, but the returns for July will probably show an increase of over 8000 for the Commonwealth. According to the senior radio inspector for N.S.W., Mr. W. T. Crawford, cricket accounted for the record increase in July, 1934, when in this state alone 11,336 licences were issued. "Don Bradman," he said, "has been the biggest radio sales' drawcard. During the last Test season we showed an increase of 23,000 licences."[334]

1935 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford oversights the successful implementation of the 1935 Restack for NSW radio stations

NEW RADIO WAVE-LENGTHS IN GIGANTIC MIDNIGHT CHANGE-OVER. RELATIVE POSITIONS OF N.S.W. AND PRINCIPAL INTERSTATE STATIONS. LAST night, and continuing into the early hours of this morning, hundreds of radio technicians effected the biggest changeover in Australia's radio history. Commencing at 11.15 p.m. with 2TM Tamworth, the great bulk of stations started transmitting on new wavelengths. This morning your radio may seem to be playing strange pranks. To regulate your tuning there is only one general rule to be remembered — that stations have been moved a little to the right on the dials with the exception of 2SM, which remains unchanged. The new dial positions of all stations will be separated by a division of 10 kilocycles (10,000 cycles), which should enable listeners to separate more easily stations that were formerly close together on the dial. In New South Wales 2SM, 2CH, 2UW, and 2KY were bunched together on the left of the dial. Now a broad division separates them. Frequencies Now With the change of wavelengths comes the discarding of the measurements of metres and the use of the more scientific term of "frequency." The average listener will have no difficulty in finding a favorite station, as accompanying chart of the Sydney stations shows clearly just what the changes will be. The changeover meant a tremendous amount of work, not only for the engineers of the Postmaster-General's Department, but also for the engineering staffs of the radio stations. They had to design or incorporate into their equipment a special frequency control apparatus to ensure the high accuracy required. In the change there has not been an interruption or break in the broadcasting programme. Checked By P.O. The work of checking the new frequencies was carried out by the research branch of the P.M.G.'s Department on elaborate equipment at Mont Park, Melbourne, and a small substation at George's Heights, Mosman. The frequencies of the New South Wales stations were checked by officers of the wireless branch on this system. The Chief Radio Inspector at Melbourne, Mr. J. Malone, and the Radio Inspector in Sydney, Mr. J. Crawford, had their hands full with this important and exacting task. In January last year all radio stations in Europe underwent a similar change in broadcasting frequencies.[335]

Another acknowledgement of Crawford's role in effecting the 1935 Restack

RADIO LISTENERS SOON LEARN NEW WAVE LENGTHS. Most radio listeners, aware of the sweeping wave-length changeover which stations announced would take place on Saturday night, experienced little difficulty yesterday in "tuning-in" under the new conditions. HUNDREDS of radio technicians worked at high pressure on Saturday to effect the alteration which commenced at Station 2TM, Tamworth, at 1.15 p.m. As a result, the position of all stations on the dial has moved a little to the right. There is only one exception, 2SM, which remains as before. A division of 10 kilocycles, effected by the change, means that listeners will more easily separate stations formerly close together on the dial, while the change will also permit the measurement of metres to be discarded. Radio Frequency Radio frequency, which accompanies the change of wavelength, will also be to the listener's benefit. All the altered frequencies were checked by the research branch of the P.M.G.'s Department at Mont Park, Melbourne, and at a small substation at George's Heights, Mosman, the organisation being in the hands of Mr. J. Malone, chief radio inspector at Melbourne, and Mr. J. Crawford, radio inspector in Sydney. Thirtyfour Australian stations retain their old wavelengths, and the new positions for Sydney's stations are: 2FC, 492 metres; 2BL, 405 metres; 2 GB, 345 metres; 2UE, 316 metres; 2KY, 294 metres; 2UW, 270 metres; 2CH, 252 metres; 2SM, 236 metres. The new position of 2FC on the dial is that formerly occupied by 3AR; 2UW is on 2HD's former wavelength; 2KY is close to 2UE'S old position; and 2UE comes in where 2 GB was formerly received; 2CH is now received on 4MK's old position. The wavelength for 2BL has changed from 351 metres to 405 metres, but it will not replace another station on that mark.[336]

Crawford rejects another bid by Richmond River Listeners' League for an inspector to attend, yet again

RADIO CHANGE. LISTENERS' VIEWS. INTERFERENCE CHECK. After a discussion of the effect of the change in wave lengths which took effect on Sunday, the Richmond River Listeners' League, at a meeting in Lismore last night, decided to inform the Director of Posts and Telegraphs that the quality of the transmission from 2BL was not as good as previously, and that another report would be submitted after further tests of other stations had been made. Mr. Harder considered the quality of the transmissions from 2BL had deteriorated since the change in wave lengths, it being subject to interference from 7NT. Mr. Laundry held the view that all districts would be affected by the change so far as any particular station was concerned. The department would receive thousands of letters concerning the effect of the change. Referring to the quality of the transmission from 7NT, Mr. Griffin thought the announcer had a lot to do with the transmission. When 7ZL was relaying, the reception was good, but when the local programme was transmitted from 7NT the quality was poor. SKIP DISTANCE. Mr. Harder also called attention to periods of distorted reception from 4QG, and said that he found it preferable to listen to 4RK. Mr. Laundry thought some of the trouble was due to skip distance, and said American stations would not guarantee reception over 100 miles. In Australia the distortion zone commenced about 40 miles from the station. NEWS SESSION. After Mr. Laundry had said he had received complaints about the fading of 2BL during the news session at 7.50 p.m., it was agreed to ask the Australian Broadcasting Commission whether a different transmitter was used for the session. Mr. Wiltshire said that that afternoon a London station had asked listeners to wait five minutes until the news budget arrived and in the interval nothing had been transmitted. The League will also ask the Commission to transmit the news as near as possible to the time arranged in the programme for 2BL, which was being curtailed on account of the sporting sessions. Referring to the League's request for a further visit of an inspector, the senior radio inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) considered that such was unnecessary in view of the fact that during Mr. Carroll's recent investigation in Lismore he located a large number of sources of interference. It was more than likely that these represented over 90 per cent. of the total. Until all the present sources of interference were remedied no further benefit would be derived from another visit of an inspector. Mr. Laundry considered the position did not look promising. He was right in saying that a visit would be useless until the suppressors were fitted. INTERFERENCE SOURCES. Mr. T. L. Griffin did not think the sources found were the cause of 90 per cent of the interference. Mr. Laundry thought that the League was in a weak position until the suppressors were fitted. If that were done the League could then ask for the inspector's visit. Mr. Griffin said a lot of the trouble was caused by hair clippers and dental machines which were not operated after dark. It was considered by another member that owners of machines causing interference should be able to fit suppressors, which could be pur chased for 3s 9d each. Mr. Laundry suggested the purchase of several suppressors, and following a test of the apparatus, a representative of the League should interview owners of offending machines concerning the installation. Another league had installed suppressors with beneficial results. At the instance of Mr. Cohen, Mr. Laundry and the secretary were empowered to make arrangements for the fixing of suppressors. Mr. Griffin was of the opinion that the council's mains were the cause of a lot of interference, despite official statements to the contrary. Mr. Harder thought an appeal should be made to householders using electrical appliances to co-operate with the League in the elimination of interference by asking the League for particulars of the suppressors for attachment to their appliance. STATION VK2GL It was decided that Mr. le Cornu should supervise the reconstruction of the league's experimental station, VK2GL, so that it would be ready for use during the summer, when it was considered there would be a demand for the station. The meeting, was attended by the president (Mr. N. Laundry), and Messrs. J. Harder, T. L. Griffin, L. Cohen, A. E. Stevenson, A. Wiltshire, L. Aked, S. Martin, and F. C. Cooper (secretary).[337]

Bathurst and Lithgow both seeking the attention of a radio inspector

BREVITIES. . . . According to a communication received by the Bathurst Radio Listeners' League from the senior radio inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), arrangements are being made for a further visit to the Lithgow district by an inspector. The Bathurst body complained that, during a recent visit by an inspector to that centre, a lengthy investigation regarding interference could not be made. Mr. Crawford intimated that, if possible, the officer who was to call at Lithgow would extend his trip to Bathurst.[338]

1935 10[edit | edit source]

Lismore council makes representations for restoration of another broadcast transmitter VK2GH operated by R. L. Gibson

STATION VK2GH. Replying to representations by the council for the restoration of the broadcasting licence of experimental station VK2GH owned and operated by R. L. Gibson, the Chief Radio Inspector submitted the conditions covering a radio experimental broadcast licence. The council instructed the clerk to forward a copy of the letter to R. L. Gibson.[339]

1935 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford approves plan for educational broadcasts by Tweed Listeners' League over experimental station VK2GS

EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTS. MUR-BAH STATION DESIGN OF LISTENERS' LEAGUE. Permission has been granted Tweed Listeners' League by the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. Crawford) to use Station V.K.-2G.S., which is under licence to Mr. A. Simmons, to broadcast educational talks and other matters of interest to listeners. The advice was received at last meeting of the League, which was well attended, held in Murwillumbah Council Chambers. A subcommittee, comprising Messrs. H. W. Kramer, D. Considine, A. Simmons and J. C. May, was appointed to prepare a series of subjects for broadcast. In discussing "reception," it was pointed out that radio owners should exercise more care in selection of aerials. Mr. May illustrated the advantages to be gained by installation of proper aerials. He instanced experiments he had carried out, which had proved advantageous. LEGISLATIVE CONTROL SUGGESTED. Mr. T. E. Flynn said he thought the matter of defective aerials should come under Legislative control. He promised to table at next meeting a plan and specification of a much improved system, which, he contended could be adopted to advantage. The Technical Advisory Committee reported having inspected a number of installations during the month where local interference had been prevalent. In each instance the inspection revealed faulty switches, iron plugs or other similar appliances, and attention to these had been recommended to the persons concerned. Mr. H. McDonald gave notice of motion that at next meeting he would move a resolution providing for the reconstitution of the Technical Advisory Committee and for the rescission of the existing motion defining the constitution. CO-ORDINATION SOUGHT. It was decided to write to Tweed District Hospital and other known sources where X-ray plants are in service, seeking co-operation in an endeavor to minimise interference caused by the plants. It was resolved to draft a schedule of A class station broadcasts to be submitted to these sources, with the object, as far as practicable, of securing co-ordination. It was recognised that this would not always be possible as the plants had to be used to relieve suffering humanity, but it was thought co-operation would be advantageous. A number of new members were enrolled, bringing the approximate membership to 60.[340]

Crawford responds to complaints from Katoomba Shire Council of interference complaints saying previous inspection found negligible problems

INTERFERENCE WITH RADIO RECEPTION. Advice from the Senior Radio Inspector of the P.M.G. Department, Mr. T. S. Crawford, stated that the interference with Radio Reception complained of by the Council was a matter which had received inspection and found negligible. He requested individual complaints before the trouble could be detected thoroughly. Volunteers for many complaints from the Councillors themselves were offered, and developments will be awaited with interest.[341]

1935 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford provides advice on appropriate equipment to be used in locating interference to reception in Lismore

DISSATISFIED. REGIONAL RADIO. QUERIES FOR PARLT. After having expressed dissatisfaction at the delay in the completion of the new regional broadcasting station at Lawrence, members of the Richmond Rivers Listeners' League at a meeting in Lismore decided to ask Mr. R. F. H. Green, M.H.R., to ask further questions in Parliament concerning the completion of the station. "I have been informed by the Postmaster-General that the work at the station is proceeding satisfactorily, but no announcement concerning the date can be made at present," said Mr. Archdale Parkhill in the Federal Parliament when replying to a question by Mr. Green. A copy of Mr. Green's question concerning the station at Lawrence and the Minister's reply was before the meeting in a letter from Mr. Green, who expressed the view that it was most unsatisfactory. "In view of the assurances we have had, the work is proceeding most un-satisfactorily," said the president (Mr. W. (sic, N.) Laundry). THREE YEARS. Mr. Laundry said that Mr. Green had been surprised when informed that three years had passed since the building of the station was first mooted. When Mr. Cohen asked about the precedence in the decision to erect regional stations at Launceston and Gippsland, Mr. Laundry said all the stations, including that at Lawrence had been decided on at the same time, but it had been understood that the last mentioned would be constructed first because of the amount of static. Mr. Cohen said the report of the Radio Research Board showed that the northern rivers experienced many more times the amount of static than did Victoria. Mr. Creasey said he understood the construction of the station at Lawrence had been completed before the tender was let for the construction of the mast. He understood that since the trouble had been found with the mast work had ceased and the men had returned to Sydney. He moved that Mr. Green be asked to ask questions along those lines, and also would it be possible for a service to be given on a temporary aerial. Mr. Creasey said conditions were such that unless a person had a short wave set he could not use the wireless during the summer. He expressed surprise that similar trouble had not been experienced at Launceston and Gippsland. INTERFERENCE. After a letter from the senior radio inspector (Mr. U. (sic, W.) T. Crawford) concerning the apparatus used by his officers in tracing interference had been read, Mr. Creasey said Lismore Council was endeavouring to trace causes of interference. He said he had found a number of causes, but he had received few complaints from listeners. He had found wires on a consumer's service had been found responsible for interference, and said the electric iron was one of the most common causes of trouble. Mr. Crawford is to be thanked for the letter and asked if it would be possible for the apparatus promised by Mr. Malone to be forwarded to Lismore. The resignation of Mr. O. Le Cornu as a member of the committee and as an operator of the experimental station was received with regret. Members generally expressed the opinion that the quality of the transmission since the reconstruction of the station had been good. The meeting carried a motion expressing appreciation of the services of those responsible for the reconstruction of the station, V.K.2G.L. In addition to the president (Mr. N. Laundry) those at the meeting were Messrs. R. C. Creasey, T. L. Griffin, J. R. Baker, L. Aked, R. Martin, A. E. Stevenson, L. Cohen, A. Wiltshire, and F. C. Cooper (secretary).[342]

1936[edit | edit source]

1936 01[edit | edit source]

Crawford addresses a particularly problematic source of radio interference from arc welders in Lidcombe district

AUBURN-LIDCOMBE NEWS. RADIO FANS Thank Council. BROADCAST INTERFERENCE REMEDIED. A short-time ago, as the result of representations from several radio fans in Lidcombe, the town clerk (Mr. S. C. Wayland) communicated with the senior radio inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) telling him of radio interference in Lidcombe caused by an arc welder used in a local engineering factory. In reply the inspector stated: "I would point out that interference of this kind is very pronounced in more than one suburb of Sydney. Complaints were received from broadcast listeners is Lidcombe which, upon investigation, proved to be due to a pilot arc-welder in Goodwin's engineering works, Railway-parade, Lidcombe. "Some time ago experiments were carried out on one of these welders to ascertain what sort of apparatus was necessary to suppress the interference, but the usual methods failed. The matter was then taken up with the distributors for New South Wales, E.M.F. Distributors, Chippendale. The manager of the company produced correspondence showing that the radio inspector's office was co-operating with the manufacturers of these welders in Melbourne with a view to devising some means of overcoming the trouble. On November 8, I inquired of the chief inspector, wireless, Melbourne, as to whether a satisfactory remedy had been found, but in view of the absence of any reply, such is not the case. Since the requirements are known, it is proposed to approach the owners of the various welders of this type in Sydney, with a view to suppressor apparatus being installed." The following is the letter received by the town clerk: "Your letter of the third instant duly to hand, re radio interference. On behalf of the radio fans of this quarter and myself I should like to thank you very sincerely for what you have done in this matter. It is pleasing to notify you that of late we have had very little interference."[343]

The Rosehill Racecourse incident drawing to a close

AT RACES. Radio Set. FOUR FINED. THE sequel to the discovery of a portable transmitting set on a man at the Rosehill Racecourse on April 6, 1935, was the conviction at the Central Police Court today of Rufus Theodore Naylor, 52, investor; Charles Rowles, 26, radio mechanic; Bertie Sheeley, 47, clerk, and Walter Bedford, 25, radio mechanic. The cases had been adjourned pending the recent High Court Judgment on the validity of the Wireless Telegraphy Act. Bedford was fined £5, with £7 15s costs, for having, without authorisation, used an appliance for transmitting messages by wireless. Naylor, Rowles and Sheeley were charged with having been concerned in Bedford's offence. Naylor was fined £5 and Sheeley and Rowles £2 each. All were ordered to pay £2 10s court costs. On a similar charge, Eric Gordon (32), journalist, pleaded not guilty, and was remanded until January 24. Mr. Badham (for the prosecution) said that on April 6 Bedford, who had a transmitting set strapped to his body, sent information from the racecourse to a spot outside where there was a receiving set, and a broadcasting set belonging to station 2KY. Rowles, Naylor and Sheeley were concerned with the reception of the messages. He added that Naylor was not allowed on the course, and Bedford was giving him information which he was not allowed to get. Mr. Sproule (for the defence) said that on April 6 the defendants had good grounds for believing that they were acting within their rights. "Now, after the High Court decision, we come to court at the earliest opportunity to plead guilty," he said. Mr. Badham (instructed by the Commonwealth Crown Solicitor) appeared for the prosecution; and Mr. Sproule for the defence.[344]

The Rosehill Racecourse incident concludes with the conviction of journalist Gordon

FROM COURSE. Messages By Radio. Eric Gordon, 32, journalist, on a charge of having knowingly been concerned in the commission of an offence against the Wireless Telegraph Act, at Camellia, on April 6, was fined £2 by Mr. Sheridan, S.M., at the Central Police Court today. It was alleged that Gordon was personally concerned with the receipt of messages on the verandah of a building outside the Rosehill racecourse on April 6. The messages, it was stated, had been sent by another man, who was on the course with a transmitting set strapped to his body. When questioned at the bottom of a broadcasting stand outside the racecourse, Gordon, according to Constable Fleming, said that he had nothing to do with the wireless messages from the course. "I have no connection with Naylor," Fleming said, Gordon added, "Although Naylor used to broadcast from 2KY, he has given it up. I got the contract, and he works in opposition to me." Mr. Badham (instructed by the Crown Solicitor's Office) prosecuted.[345]

1936 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford advises Richmond River Listeners' League that wireless inspectors now using new equipment for interference detection

REGIONAL STATION — WORK STILL SUSPENDED — LISTENERS' LEAGUE ACTION. That he had been informed that work was still suspended on the construction of the regional radio station at Lawrence, and even if work were resumed tomorrow it would take three months before the station was in operation, was a statement made by the president (Mr. N. Laundry) at a meeting in Lismore last night of the Richmond River Listeners' League when the delay in the completion of the station was under discussion. INSULATION TROUBLE? Mr. Laundry added that the mast was 100 feet up, but he had been reliably informed that trouble was still being experienced with the insulation. Mr. Laundry said that statement did not fit in with a departmental announcement that the trouble had been overcome. Primary producers had protested against the delay, and Mr. Laundry said he felt sure municipal and shire councils would co-operate with the League in its protest. Mr. Creasey moved that the president and secretary form a committee to ventilate the grievance of the League through the press. Seconded by Mr. Stick, the motion was carried unanimously. NO REPLIES. Mr. Laundry said the league had had no replies from the senior radio inspector or the deputy director of Posts and Telegraphs concerning the league's questions about the station. At the instance of Messrs. R. C. Creasey and T. L. Griffin, further requests are to be made to departmental officials for information. "The erection of the station at Grafton has been unduly tardy," stated Mr. R. F. H. Green, M.H.R., advising that he would ask the Postmaster-General questions suggested by the league when Parliament again met. The questions were formulated at the previous meeting of the League after the members had discussed a statement that work on the erection of the mast for the Lawrence station had been suspended. Mr. Green is to be advised of the League's inability to obtain answers to its letters to the department with a view to his co-operating in obtaining the information. Before the business of the meeting commenced, the president (Mr. N. Laundry) moved that the League express its sympathy in the death of King George and its loyalty to King Edward VIII. RADIO INTERFERENCE. The senior radio inspector (Mr. W. Crawford) advised that when next an inspector visited Lismore he would be equipped with the latest apparatus for detecting causes of radio interference. The apparatus would be demonstrated to any member of the League's executive who might be visiting Sydney in the meantime. It was agreed that application be made for a renewal of the League's permission to broadcast from experimental station VK2GL. In addition to the president (Mr. N. Laundry), those at the meeting were Messrs. R. C. Creasey, T. L. Griffin, A. E. Stevenson, R. J. Stick, R. Martin, J. Wells, A. Wiltshire, E. Frith, J. R. Baker, S. E. Wiltshire and F. C. Cooper (secretary).[346]

Crawford unable to attend official opening of 2AD Armidale, deputises Wetherill to attend in his stead

ON THE AIR. 2AD ARMIDALE. Auspicious Opening. FINE SERVICE FOR THE NORTH. Much Appreciated Enterprise. Station 2AD Armidale was officially opened by the Hon. D. H. Drummond, M.L.A., Minister for Edu-cation, last night and the initial session gave ample evidence of the value which the enterprise of Northern Broadcasters Ltd. is to mean to the north. The appreciation of listeners was demonstrated by the great number of telephonic messages of congratulations received throughout the evening, the telephone at the studio ringing almost continuously up till a late hour. Congratulations and expressions of appreciation of the remarkable clarity of the reception were received from, among others, Glen Innes, Inverell, Tenterfield, Dorrigo, Bundarra, Tamworth, and the whole of the surrounding districts. Four telephonic messages were received from Sydney stating that the reception there was excellent and conveying congratulations. Among those present at the ceremony were the Mayor of Armidale (Ald. M. H. O'Connor), the president of the Chamber of Commerce (Mr. D. W. Oliver), Mr. A. H. McArthur, chairman of directors of Northern Broadcasters, Ltd., Mr. Mitchell (Brisbane), the Hon. E. C. Sommerlad, M.L.C (managing director) and Mr. M. D. Seward (director), of Northern Broadcasters, Ltd. Prior to the opening, a programme of light orchestral music, interspersed with special announcements, to enable listeners to pick up the station call sign and wave length, was broadcast. THE STATION OPENED. On this auspicious occasion when to me has been given the privilege of officially opening the broadcasting station at Armidale which in future will be known as"'2AD" (Mr. Drummond said). I would like my wide circle of hearers who per medium of this progressive development in the Cathedral City of the North, will listen to my speech to join with me in congratulating the people of Armidale and district on the fact that they now have in their midst an up-to-date wireless station controlled by capable officers selected from amongst the best wireless experts in the great metropolis of Sydney, and who will place at the disposal, not only of the district, but of the wider circle of listeners, the skill, the science, and the experience which they possess. The directors of Northern Broadcasters Ltd., who have fostered the establishment of the Armidale station, are to be congratulated on their courage and foresight in placing in Armidale an up-to-date station and selecting for its management those who will be able to give the highest possible service. That is the watchword of the directorate controlling the Armidale station — service in the highest possible sense, bringing to the people of the North — a most difficult area to reach by wireless — the best possible service in every sense of the word. Service in the sense of excellent news; service in the sense of beautiful music, fine performers, and literary talent; service in the sense of conveying to you the latest information concerning the triumphs of science in those things which are used in the home, in the field, the workshop, and the station, and service in the sense that you have always at your disposal for the broadcasting by prominent public men, by local artists of good standing and visitors of good standing, the best that can possibly be achieved. Wireless broadcasting is one of the latest triumphs of the human mind. By its aid, the loneliest settler's hut is brought into touch with every ripple that stirs the sea of world thought. Those who love sport, but isolated from the great city areas where the champions battle for supremacy are not permitted to watch the struggle, are yet able to follow it run by run, try by try, point by point. The music lover, the student of public affairs, the farmer seeking market news, the business man intent on commercial fluctuations — all are given new opportunities by reason of the magic wireless transported on the etheric waves. Science has achieved much — one of its greatest, perhaps its crowning achievement, is the high pinnacle to which wireless broadcasting has been raised. Not only in the application of science to the dissemination of that which is interesting, amusing, instructive, and helpful to the human race, but the aim and object of the directors of the Armidale broadcasting station (those who have asked me to perform this ceremony tonight) is that they shall be able to establish here a fine tradition of service, finely maintained, and one which will cause Armidale and its district to be proud of this latest progressive movement and will cause the wider circle of listeners beyond to appreciate the fact that one more effective provision has been made in the direction indicated. CONGRATULATIONS. Mr. D. W. Oliver, president of the Armidale Chamber of Commerce, Mr. A. H. McArthur (chairman of Northern Broadcasters, Ltd.) then spoke, the former complimenting the company upon its enterprise and upon the care which had ben taken to make the station modern in every respect. AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT. The Hon. E. C. Sommerlad said he was sure listeners would appreciate the feelings of pride with which he participated in the opening of Station 2AD. It has been a privilege to be associated in the past ten years with the movement for better newspapers on the Tablelands -— Mr. Summerlad said, and I derive a particular satisfaction from the fact that I was, in some degree, instrumental in bringing to my native North the benefits of a modern radio service. Every thing that could be done to make Station 2AD completely efficient has been done, and neither money nor effort has been spared to give the Tablelands and the North-West a broadcasting service second to none in any country district of Australia. I desire to thank all who, in the months since the license was obtained, have assisted in the preliminary labours which have combined to put this station on the air tonight. Particular mention might be made of the consulting engineer, Mr. Harry Kauper, of Melbourne, who, as one of the leading radio engineers of the Commonwealth, has drawn the specifications with outstanding skill and given us throughout the benefit of his expert advice. Mr. Kauper is here to night and is proud of his job as we all are. Then I must refer to the builders of the transmitter, Messrs. Standard Telephones and Cables (Australasia) Ltd., known to us all as S.T.C. Though S.T.C. have built most of the big "A" class stations in Australia, and have a great record of achievement in other parts of the world, this is their first entry into the small station field in this country. They have put their best into this job and that best has been good. The builders are represented here tonight by some of their principal executive officers, including Mr. McQuillan, chief constructional engineer, and Mr. Jenner, who has supervised the installation of the plant. For the courtesy and assistance of the Postmaster-General's Department I am particularly grateful. I have apologies for regretted non-attendance from Mr. H. P. Brown, the Director of Posts and Telegraphs, from Mr. J. Malone, chief radio officer of the Commonwealth, and from Mr. Crawford, chief radio inspector for New South Wales. The Department, however, is well represented by Mr. J. Wetherill, who has come from Sydney specially to be present. We appreciate the courtesy of Mr. Mitchell, of 4BC, Brisbane, who has made a fine gesture of goodwill by coming to Armidale specially to be present, and I take the opportunity of thanking him for his splendid message over the air tonight. Amongst our visitors also are Mr. A. D. Bourke and Mr. Graham Dowland, from the office of the Country Press, in Sydney. Both are interested in the advertising side of broadcasting and have come to see for themselves the way we do things in Armidale. They will have a good story to tell of what they have seen in the cathedral city of the North. We also have with us the principal executives of 2LV, the new station which will shortly be opened by this company at Inverell. Of that opening you will be told more in due course, as the station nears completion. Meantime I heartily commend to you Mr. Stuart Beattie, the manager and chief announcer of the Inverell station, and one of the most popular radio personalities on the air. With him is Mr. Stevens, chief engineer at Inverell, who has assisted our own chief engineer, Mr. Lindo Taylor, in the installation of this station at Armidale. I now wish formally to introduce to our listeners Mr. John Creighton, the manager and chief announcer of 2AD, whose voice will become pleasantly familiar to you after to-night. Mr. Creighton comes to his new position with a magnificent record as an an-nouncer, and as chief night announcer on station 2CH, he gathered a most appreciative public in the city. I am sure he will soon win your hearts, too, and with the utmost satisfaction I now formally hand the station over to him and ask him to have a few personal words with you in his own account.[347]

1936 03[edit | edit source]

Crawford extends authorisation of VK2GL for a further 6 months, League plans another approach re interference if current efforts not successful, all as commencement of 2NR and 2LM approaches, likely a complete solution to reception problems in Lismore

RADIO EXHIBITION. NEW STATIONS WILL ADD INTEREST. LISTENERS' LEAGUE SCHEME. A decision to hold a radio and electrical exhibition in Lismore this year was reached at a meeting of the Richmond River Listeners' League on Tuesday night. Because lack of interest an exhibition was not held last year, but it is expected that when the Lawrence regional station, and the new commercial B class station at Lismore are completed, sufficient enthusiasm will be aroused to make the exhibition a success. The president (Mr. N. Laundry) and the secretary (Mr. F. Cooper) were asked to make preliminary arrangements for the exhibition and to decide on a suitable date during the winter months. SPECIAL FEATURES. The exhibition will be held on a Friday and Saturday, and it is hoped to incorporate features that will attract large attendances to all sessions. Reference was made to the enterprise of a new company known as the Richmond Broadcasters Ltd. in acquiring the licence of station 2XN, Lismore, for the purpose of providing a new station and an improved broadcast service for local listeners. It was decided to send a letter congratulating the company, pointing out that the opening of the new station was being awaited with interest. The successful broadcasts each Sunday morning from station V.K.2.S.L., which is owned and operated by Mr. P. M. Hoare, Lismore, were mentioned, and it was decided to congratulate Mr. Hoare on the quality of the transmissions. The president stated that Mr. Hoare's broadcasts were providing a big service to listeners each Sunday morning. EXPERIMENT STATION. The senior radio inspector (Mr. W. T. Crawford) wrote advising that permission had been granted to the League to carry out experiments on the 1360 Kc/s (221 metres) until June 30, 1936, under previous conditions. The secretary reported that the overhaul of the plant had been completed, and the station would come on the air at the usual hour next Sunday morning. Writing in reply to the league's request for co-operation in a protest to the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs, Melbourne, about the delay in the completion of the relay station at Lawrence, the Grafton City Council stated it had been advised the delay in completing the construction of the station was unavoidable and had been caused by circumstances over which the department had no control. In view of that it could not co-operate in a protest, while it regretted the delay. Several acknowledgments from local governing bodies in the Richmond River district which had been asked to co-operate in a protest were received. They promised to co-operate as asked and added that it was proposed to send letters to the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs. It was decided to thank the shire and municipal councils for their interest and co-operation. DELAY EXPLAINED. The president stated that since last meeting a letter had been received from the Director-General (Mr. N. P. Brown) setting out the cause of the delay, and stating it was proposed to commence tests during April. Details of the cause of the delay have previously been published. After a long discussion, during which it was stated that considerable time had been wasted in the completion of the station, it was decided to ask the department if the work on the station had been recommenced as was promised during last month, and if sufficient progress had been made to enable to Deputy Director to fix a date in April when test transmissions would be carried out. The president said that listeners could not expect a regular broadcast from the relay station immediately the tests were commenced. It would probably be several weeks before minor adjustments had been made to enable the station to broadcast regularly. The president stated that at the last meeting Mr. T. L. Griffin promised that if suppressors were secured he would fit them without charge to apparatus known to cause interference. The suppressors had not been secured and he (the president) suggested that the local manager of A.G.E. be asked to secure a quantity for Lismore. CLEAN UP INTERFERENCE. Mr. Laundry said that during last year, when an inspector visited Lismore, he located about 40 sources of interference. If suppressors were fitted to these sources and the position was not then cleared up, the league could then reasonably ask the department for another visit from the inspector to locate other sources. It would be advisable for the inspector to spend a longer period on his next visit. A motion embodying the president's suggestion, submitted by Mr. J. Harder, was carried, and the president was deputed to interview Mr. Griffin.[348]

Crawford gives a talk to the annual dinner of NSW AWA Radiola distributors

Tribute To Our Radio Engineers. AN OVERSEAS DEMAND IS CREATED. RADIO transmitting equipment is being manufactured in Sydney for Liberia, West Africa, and two similar stations are being constructed also for the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, to be used in Persia. THIS statement was made yesterday by Mr. Fisk, chairman of Amalgamated Wireless, at a dinner given by the company to Radiola distributors. Mr. Fisk mentioned that during the past year A.W.A. had manufactured more Radiolas than ever before. Over 1000 persons were employed at the company's Radio-Electric Works. Many wireless equipments for ships had been manufactured by the company, sent to England, Scotland and Ireland, and fitted in vessels there in the course of construction. A.W.A. was also building a broadcasting station for New Zealand which would be six times as powerful as any now operating in Australia. The orders for the wireless equipment to go to Liberia and Persia had been passed to A.W.A. by the great Marconi Company of England, indicating the broadminded policy of that company, and indicating also that the premier wireless manufacturing company of the world was satisfied to supply its customers with equipment made in the A.W.A. works. TELEVISION RECEIVERS. "The day will come when Radiola television receivers will be distributed far more largely than sound receivers are being distributed today," said Mr. Fisk. He added, however, that although television was a certainty of the future, it was still a long way off, and on present knowledge it was not likely to be in public use in the near future. When television did come, it would instantly become a business far greater than the present day sound broadcasting, but all the indications were that it would have no influence on the marketing of broadcast receivers for many years. The gathering included 230 Radiola distributors from all the Australian States and New Zealand. Mr. L. A. Hooke, deputy general manager of A.W.A., presided, and among those who spoke were Messrs. Ewart Chapple (Australian Broadcasting Commission), G. V. Stevenson (Aust. Fed. of Broadcasting Stations), W. T. S. Crawford (Commonwealth Wireless Inspector), J. S. Meaney (country distributors), Geoffrey Johnson (city distributors), and E. W. Ackland (New Zealand and interstate distributors). AT THE WORKS. The happy spirit of the luncheon was sustained at a smoke social tendered by the company to the staff at the Ashfleld headquarters last night. The guests were shown over the plant, and the production of every unit in wireless manufacture was demonstrated. Later, after Mr. W. Wing, A.W.A. sales manager, had spoken concerning the great improvements in the 1936 range of receivers, and Mr. Holdsworth, of the sales staff, had given a practical demonstration, the 650 persons present were entertained at a breezy, informal and altogether most enjoyable function.[349]

Crawford reveals that investigations for unlicensed listeners were quiet during the course of the High Court challenge

NOW WILL YOU GET A LICENSE. Radio pirates beware! The inspectors are on your trail, and they expect March to be a record month for prosecutions. AT the moment they are concentrating on the Eastern Suburbs, but are not disclosing where they will swoop next. The chief radio inspector, Mr. Crawford, stated yesterday that during the High Court proceedings when the constitutionality of the wireless regulations was in question, the department moved quietly. Now, however, prosecutions at the rate of 50 a month or more were taking place. The department was stressing in the courts the unfairness of people with unlicensed sets getting for nothing the entertainments provided by licensed listeners. The highest fine so far this year, he said, was £10. The inspectors are now making house-to-house and flat-to-flat inspections in the Eastern Suburbs. It is anticipated that an even more intensive campaign will be instituted. Air Detectives Mr. Crawford said inspectors were provided with special apparatus for the detection of sets. The department, he added, was also co-operating with the dealers, who supplied information regarding the installa-tion of new sets. Indicating the effectiveness of the department's campaign, licences issued in February totalled 22,131, an increase of more than 3000 over the figures of February, 1935. Mr. Crawford mentioned that New South Wales now had 300,282 licensed listeners, out of the Commonwealth's total of 784,492.[350]

Clearly revealed that Crawford's team detect the output of receiver's local oscillators to identify suspects

Getting Personal. . . . Trapped By Science. This month's raid for unlicensed wireless sets made me curious to know the methods of Chief Radio Inspector Crawford and his aerial detectives. In the crowded suburbs they are at present indulging in house-to-house and flat-to-flat raids — effective, but crude. Directly they come to suburbs where the houses are spaced out a bit, they track the radio pirate down with pure trigonometry. The inspectors tour about in cars containing a radio instrument, which can pick up the oscillation of any set being used in the vicinity and show its direction on a dial. When a suspicious set is picked up in this way, the car drives on, say a hundred yards along a road running north, when the direction of the same set is again plotted. It is now work of a few seconds with ruler and dividers to plot on paper the approximate distance and direction of the actual house where the pirate set is being operated. Then they draw sextants and move in on their prey.[351]

1936 04[edit | edit source]

Crawford thanks Richmond River Listeners' League for their report on the operation of VK2GL

LISTENERS' LEAGUE. It was reported at a meeting of the Richmond River Listeners' League that no reply had been received to the League's letter sent to the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs asking if he could fix a definite date for the commencement of test broadcasts from the regional station at Lawrence. Information concerning the progress of the station was given at the meeting, and in view of this it was decided not to take any further action for the time being. NEARING COMPLETION. The league was told that the mast at the station was now 490 feet high, and as it was to be 500 feet high it appeared as though it was nearing completion. An "umbrella" had yet to be placed on the mast and work was proceeding to schedule. Mr. R. F. H. Green, M.H.R., who recently asked in the Federal House when the relay station at Lawrence would be finished, submitted a copy of the reply he had received from Mr. Archdale Parkhill. Mr. Parkhill stated that it occurred to him that the station was four years nearer to being opened than it was when tenders were called. He would ask the Postmaster-General to obtain the information Mr. Green wanted. So far as he was able to say the station was nearing completion, and the member would not have to wait very much longer. The league decided to write and thank Mr. Green for the interest he had shown in its agitation to speed up the completion of the station. The Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. Crawford) wrote thanking the league for its report on experimental work undertaken by the league's station VK2GL and stated that future co-operation by the league would be appreciated. RADIO EXHIBITION. The proposed radio and electrical exhibition to be held by the league was discussed. Members expressed the opinion that an exhibition of that kind had the effect of making the public radio minded. The president said he proposed to interview local radio dealers at an early date to ascertain if they were prepared to co-operate in staging the exhibition. The meeting was attended by Messrs. N. Laundry (president), A. E. Stevenson, R. Frith, L. Aked, J. Tracey, G. Hitchens, R. Stavins, T. L. Griffin, F. C. Cooper (secretary).[352]

Crawford donates trophy for inter-State cricket match between PMGD NSW & Tas

POSTAL DEPARTMENTS. N.S.W. V. TASMANIA. SYDNEY, April 13. The first inter-State cricket match for the Punch shield was played to-day between teams representing the Postal Departments of New South Wales and Tasmania. New South Wales won by 78 runs on the first innings. A trophy given by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector, for the highest scorer on both sides was won by S. Sullings, New South Wales, who scored 64. Bowling for Tasmania, R. Hooper won another trophy presented by Mick Sim-monds Ltd., for the best bowler. Hooper took five wickets for 52. The Tasmanians scored 118, the best bat-ting display being by Webster, who made 31. Scores: . . .[353]

Crawford again elected councillor to IRE Aust

RADIO ENGINEERS ELECT OFFICERS. At the annual meeting of the Institution of Radio Engineers of Australia, held at Science House on Wednesday, Mr. E. T. Fisk was elected president for the fifth consecutive year; Messrs. L. P. R. Bean and N. S. Gilmour, vice-presidents; hon. treasurer, C. H. Norville; assistant-hon. treasurer, S. V. Colville, hon. secretary. O. F. Mingay; assistant-hon. secretary, K. M. Denny; coun-cillors: Messrs. R. Allsop, J. N. Briton, T. P. Court, W. T. S. Crawford, L. A. Hooke, R. J. W. Kennell, A. S. McDonald, P. S. Parker, L. N. Schultz, F. W. P. Thom. E. E. Tree, C. W. Tyrrell, D. G. Wyles. In recognition of 25 years' service to the radio movement, Mr. W. Phil. Renshaw was elected the first hon. life member of the institution.[354]

Crawford official guest at the opening of Australia's first aeronautical beacon for Mascot Airport

RADIO BEACON. FIRST IN AUSTRALIA. Opened Near Mascot. RANGE UP TO 200 MILES. The first wireless beacon station for aircraft in Australia was opened by the Minister for Defence (Mr. Archdale Parkhill) at North Brighton, near the Mascot Aerodrome, yesterday. It has been designed to send beams in four directions — to Canberra, Dubbo, Newcastle, and the Tasman route. With a range of about 200 miles, the beacon will enable the pilot, irrespective of rain, fog, darkness, or wind, to fly on a direct course, using an ordinary wireless receiver. Weather reports and other information can also be sent out when necessary. Several hundred persons took part in the official opening of the wireless beacon, beneath the five transmitting masts, in an unfrequented area between Cook's River and Botany Bay. Mr. E. T. Fisk, chairman of Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia), Limited, spoke highly of Mr. Parkhill's interest in aviation and wireless. AERIAL NAVIGATION. Mr. Parkhill said wireless was a necessary adjunct to aerial navigation and the maintenance of regular aerial services. To provide a complete and effective wireless communication and navigational organisation for all practicable air routes in and about Australia was a task of great magnitude and involved much expense. "A great deal has been heard of the efficient organisations for wireless aid to aerial services in other countries," Mr. Parkhill said. "While great advances have been made in recent years, and remarkable efficiency achieved in existing systems, there are still certain limitations. Even in the United States, where great advance has been made, rather bad mishaps still occur on the regular commercial air services. "A thorough study of the circumstances, however, will go a long way towards discounting any suggestions that Australia is backward in the provision of wireless aids for aerial services. Australia has been one of the pioneers of long-distance flying, but during recent years the Commonwealth Government has had very little money to spend in developing commercial air services and the necessary and costly navigational adjuncts. Any delay will, in a measure, prove beneficial, because methods and apparatus for radio communication betwen the ground and aircraft have been undergoing rapid and costly change during recent years." TWO WIRELESS AIDS. Mr. Parkhill said that two established features of wireless aid to aerial navigation were the radio direction finder, largely used in Great Britain and in European countries, and established at the Essendon (Vic.) airport two years ago, and the radio range beacon, used in America. That was the system now installed in Sydney. The two most efficient, up-to-date, and most widely used adjuncts to aerial navigation in all parts of the world were now available in Australia. The result of the trial of the two systems would be of service to the Commonwealth in studying the layout of a comprehensive organisation for aerial services throughout Australia. He believed that other beacons would be placed in various parts of the Commonwealth. "There is a responsibility upon the Government," added the Minister, "to do all it possibly can to ensure the safety of those who go through the air in 'planes. The Government is fully alive to its responsibility, and a great deal of work is being done to achieve that end. It is grateful that it has at its command the valuable, efficient, and expert knowledge of A.W.A." After the beacon had been switched on, an aeroplane from Mascot, piloted by Mr. Neville Stokes, picked up the beam and flew over the course. The Minister for Defence conversed with the pilot by means of wireless telephone, and afterwards the pilot spoke to the audience. Among those present at the ceremony were Messrs. L. A. Hooke, general manager, A. S. McDonald, chief engineer, and J. H. Mulholland, assistant manager of Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia), Ltd., the Secretary for Defence (Mr. Shepherd), the Deputy Director Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. Duncan), the State Radio Inspector (Mr. Crawford), and the president, Flying Corps Association (Mr. A. W. L. Ellis. Others present were Messrs. Percy Hunter, G. A. Robinson (Air Lines of Australia), F. W. Follett (Adastra Airways, Ltd.), Alderman F. J. Chipman (Mayor of Mascot), Alderman F. W. Beehag (Mayor of Rockdale), Captain A. T. Cole (Royal Australian Air Force), Flight-Lieutetnant Mulroney and Mr. S. C. Bridgland (Royal Aero Club), and Mr. O. F. Mingay (Institute of Engineers). The Australian Flying Corps was strongly represented.[355]

1936 05[edit | edit source]

Crawford gives a speech at the WIA NSW Annual Dinner and answers questions about the Wireless Regulations

W.I.A. Dinner. The annual dinner of the N.S.W. Division of the Wireless Institute of Australia is becoming a very well-known yearly event in amateur radio circles. The 1936 dinner, held at the Dungowan Cafe on 26th March, was a success. The new President of the Institute in this State. Mr. H. Petterson, was in the chair, and the dinner was officially opened with the toast of "The King." The President reminded those present of the great losses that amateur radio had suffered in the passing of Colonel Clair Foster and Hiram Percy Maxim. In memory of these two fine "Hams" a silence of one minute was observed. The toast of "The Institute" was moved by Lieut. McCormack, of the Army Signals, who mentioned how the Army was dependent, to a large degree, for their operators on the amateurs. He also expressed the opinion that in the case of a national emergency, the experimenters, especially if properly organised, would be of inestimable value to the Commonwealth. and, in concluding, he wished the Institute every success in their endeavours to forward the radio game. Mr. W. M. Moore, Federal President, replied on behalf of the Institute. and mentioned the efforts of the body in the past and since its inauguration in 1910, and said he was sure that the Institute and its members would do all in their power to further the radio art. The Senior Radio Inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, representing the Department, was present, and replied to the toast "The Radio Inspectors' Department," proposed by Mr. D. B. Knock, who said the Institute, and amateurs in general, appreciated the support afforded them. Mr. Crawford, in replying, stated the Department had always been interested in the Institute's activities, and he was pleased to be present. At the conclusion of his reply, Mr. Crawford kindly consented to answer any questions concerning the regulations. Quite a few members and visitors present availed themselves of the offer. Messrs. Moyle, of "Wireless Weekly," and Knock, of "The Bulletin," replied to the toast of "The Radio Press," and both spoke of the valuable work being done by amateurs. Mr. H. Chinner moved that toast. "Associated Societies" were toasted, and the following replied:— I.A.R.U., H. W. S. Caldecott; BERU-RSGB, J. Corbin; A.R.R.L., E. Colyer; Lakemba Radio Club, Mr. Clarke; Waverley, Mr. Wells; Manly, Mr. Shelley; and Zero Beat, Mr. Miller. VR3AM, of Ocean Island, was a welcome guest, and replied on behalf of the visitors. The Country Vice-President, Mr. O. Chapman, was also down from Wyong. Some of the highlights included the glowing references to the retiring council, replied to by Frank Goyen; 2JX ability to mix marbles and drinks; 2AG and 2GP formation of a left wing; Manly versus Zero Beat side bets on a competition; and, finally, the increased capacity H.C. without a doubt.[356]

1936 06[edit | edit source]

Crawford gives a speech at the Lakemba Radio Club sixth annual reunion and presents the awards

LAKEMBA RADIO CLUB (VK2LR). AFFILIATED WITH W.I.A. (By 2DL.) At the annual meeting of the above club, held at the club rooms, 334 Canterbury-road, Hurlstone Park, on 28th April, the following were elected to hold office for the ensuing year:— President, Mr. J. Pinnell <2ZR); Vice President, Mr. E. Hodgkins (2EH); Hon. Secretary, Mr. G. Brown; Treasurer, Mr. H. Ackling (2PX), unopposed; Publicity Manager, Mr. W. Phelps (2DL), unopposed; QSL Manager, Mr. L. Hughes (2QP), unopposed; Committee of three, Mr. J. Warren (2QX), Mr. I. Clarke (2IC) and Mr. T. O'Donnell (2OD); Social Committee, Mr. L. Myers (2KS), Mr. J. Warren (2QX) and Mr. W. Phelps (2DL); Auditors, Mr. J. Worral (2XM) and Mr. J. Warren (2QX), both unopposed); W.I.A. Delegate, Mr. T. O'Donnell (2OD). The sixth annual reunion of the club was held at the Donnybrook Hall, Canterbury, on Wednesday, 6th May. The Radio Inspector's Department was represented by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford (senior Radio Inspector) and Mr. J. Carroll (Assistant Radio Inspector). The W.I.A. (Federal) was represented by Mr. W. M. Moore (2HZ), and New South Wales by Mr. H. Peterson (2HP). Radio clubs represented were Waverley, Zero Beat, Manly and Hurstville. Mr. D. B. Knock represented the "Bulletin," while Mr. J. Moyle was to have represented "Wireless Weekly," but was detained at the last moment. The newly-elected President (Mr. Pinnell) occupied the chair, and after the usual speeches and toasts the club cups were presented to the winners by Mr. Crawford. Mr. L. Myers (2KS) won both the "Chanex-Dulytic" Cup, for the VK-ZL Contest, and the "Slade Cup," for the D.X. Contest. The winner of the Receiving Cup was Mr. G. Bower. The "booby" prize, in the form of another "cup," was won the second time in succession by Mr. H. Ackling (2PX). Mr. Crawford presented this trophy amid much amusement and cheering, and for some reason a recorded version of "the passing of the fruit" was emitted from the amplifier at the conclusion of Mr. Ackling's speech! Briefly, the whole function was an outstanding success, and great credit is due to the ladies who arranged the tables and catering. The club would also like to extend thanks to all those amateurs who co-operated with club members in the recent club contests. WM. J. PHELPS.[357]

Crawford gives a speech at the opening of the WIA Exhibition in Sydney

RADIO WONDERS DISPLAYED. Reducing the apparently miraculous to the commonplace by the aid of wireless, an official listening in U.S.A. to messages flashed over the air from the Assembly Hall, Sydney, last night at 9 o'clock, performed the opening ceremony of an amateur and short wave radio exhibition sponsored by the Wireless Institute of Australia. The exhibition is the first of the kind to be held to any large degree in this State, and is designed to show the activities of amateur and experimental radio enthusiasts. A wide range of curious and wonderful exhibits are displayed. Mr. E. T. Fisk, chairman of Amalgamated Wireless, Ltd., introduced to a big audience Mr. F. Handy, communication manager of the American Radio Relay League, who, speaking from New York, opened the exhibition. There was, said Mr. Fisk, a great deal in common between the work of the two leagues, who represented a very enthusiastic, and valuable body of citizens of all ages and walks of life who devoted their time to a wonderful hobby. The exhibits covered all the possible amateur bands for radio communication, they were all home-built and were of the most up-to-date kind of equipment. It was a great achievement to communicate across the world on wave lengths of 10 metres. Among the exhibits is an amateur television transmitter of low definition, which Mr. Fisk said was showing satisfactory results. Numerous competitions are being held throughout the exhibition, which will be continued daily until June 20. Mr. Handy, whose voice came through clearly, extended his congratulations to the Wireless Institute. Others who spoke were Mr. H. F. Peterson, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Chief Radio Inspector, and Mr. D. B. Knock, of "The Bulletin."[358]

Crawford notifies Young postmaster that one of his inspectors will be visiting Young

RADIO LISTENERS' COMPLAINTS. The Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) has informed the local Postmaster, (Mr. O'Regan) that an inspector will be visiting Young on 22nd July to inquire into complaints of electrical interference and broad-cast listeners' licences.[359]

1936 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford gives a speech at the WIA NSW July 1936 meeting and presents the prizes from the Sydney exhibition, also offers a trophy for best all-round operator

THE JULY MEETING. The July meeting of the N.S.W. Division was held at the Y.M.C.A. on the

16th. The Senior Radio Inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, was in attendance to present the £80 worth of prizes won by amateurs at the Radio Exhibition. Mr. Crawford expressed the fact that he was very pleased with result and usefulness of the exhibition, and offered to the Institute a trophy for competition amongst amateurs and to be awarded to the best all-round operator. VK2JU, Mr. J. Moyle, was elected to the Council in place of VK2MY, Mr.

J. Macgregor, who recently resigned.[360]

Crawford combines work and pleasure inspecting 2GF and visiting his daughter

PERSONAL. . . . The Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) stayed at Grafton over the weekend, en route to Lismore. During his stay here he was the guest of his daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. J. Campbell, of Grafton. Mr. Crawford also inspected the transmitting equipment of station 2GF before taking his departure.[361]

Crawford's approval of local experimental broadcast stations to broadcast citizen's military news arrives too late

Citizen's Military. Following a request to the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), permission was granted to Murwillumbah experimental stations to broadcast publicity on the Committee's behalf on Sunday, August 9. As the letter of authority did not come to hand until August 10, it was decided to advise Mr. Crawford accordingly, and to ask for permission to operate at a future date.[362]

Crawford foreshadows his radio inspectors further visit to Lismore looking for interference and unlicensed listeners

RADIO INTERFERENCE. Departmental Investigation. Two officers of the radio branch of the P.M.G's. Department, who are experts in radio inductive interference, will arrive in Lismore shortly and will conduct an exhaustive inquiry into preventable interference in the town. Any listeners experiencing this trouble should procure a form from the Lismore post office, fill in the particulars asked for and return the form to the post office. The visiting experts will endeavour to to cate the trouble. The senior radio inspector (Mr. Crawford) arrived in Lismore yesterday. He stated that the departmental campaign to compel all listeners to take out licences was not confined to the metropolitan districts. The department was increasing its investigations in country districts and all listeners would be well advised to make certain that they held licences that were current.[363]

1936 09[edit | edit source]

Conditions for the annual W.T.S. Crawford trophy announced for best all-round operator

N.S.W. Division. W. G. Ryan, Secretary, VK2TI, Box 1734JJ, G.P.O., Sydney. COUNTRY ZONE OFFICERS. ZONE 1 (Far West) — J. Perooz, VK2PE, Hope Street, Bourke. ZONE 2 (North-West) — H. Hutton, VK2HV, Byron Street, Inverell. ZONE 3 (North Coast) — R. J. Berry, VK2NY, 54 Bacon Street, Carlton. ZONE 4 (Hunter River and Coalfields) — S. Grimmett, VK2ZW, 161 Tudor Street, Hamilton. ZONE 5 (South Coast and South-West) — ??? Messrs. P. M. Goyen and R. H. W. Power, late President and Secretary respectively of the New South Wales Division, were created life members of the W.I.A., as a gesture to show how much they were appreciated when working for the Institute. The senior radio inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, presented all the prizes won at the exhibition at the July meeting. The latest addition to the Council in New South Wales is Mr. John Moyle, who is well known as a radio Journalist and an enthusiastic amateur. The new regulations seem generally well received in New South Wales, but at the time of writing no meeting of the Institute has been held since the issuing of the amendments, so general discussion should be fierce at next meeting. The rise in subscriptions in New South Wales has not had an adverse affect on members, for at the moment the membership is higher than for the corresponding period last year. WHO IS THE BEST ALL-ROUND AMATEUR OPERATOR IN N.S.W.? The above will be the subject of a competition for the W. T. S. Crawford trophy. The trophy has been presented by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector in New South Wales, to the Institute for competition amongst all amateurs in New South Wales, to decide who is the best all-round operator. While all the arrangements have not been finalised, the following is a brief outline of the intended competition:— OPERATING TEST. Five-minute test at 20 words per minute, including two messages as per P.M.G's. Handbook, two minutes duration; press for three minutes. Candidates must hold current experimental licenses. No professional telegraphists eligible. These would include present and ex-P.O. and Railway telegraphists, R.N., R.A.N., Cable, Ship Shore Station, Police, etc., operators. In receiving, correctness, legibility and setting out to be aimed at in transmitting, formation, spacing and freedom from breaks would count. A separate test will also be held to decide who is the fastest amateur operator in New South Wales. The W.I.A. will be circularising all amateurs on the above and other matters.[364]

Crawford recommends a five valve receiver for reception in the Taree district

TINONEE. (From our Correspondent) P. & C. ASSOCIATION. A. meeting of the above association was held on Monday, 28th September, and was well attended. Mr. F. Wynter: (vice-president) presided. Letters read by the secretary (Mrs Mudford) were: — From Senior Radio Inspector (W. Crawford) suggesting a five-valve radio receiver for Tinonee district; . . .[365]

1936 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford's team has to deal with conflicting information about sources of interference in Kempsey

OUR LOCAL PARLIAMENT. USUAL FORTNIGHTLY SESSION. The usual fortnightly meeting of the Kempsey Municipal Council was held at the Council Chambers on Monday. There were present: Ald. H. E. Chapple (Mayor), J. B. McElhone, W. H. Warhurst, H. C. Henderson, A. A. Somerville, A. Jeffery, Jos. T. Walker and Mr. A. J. Druitt (Town Clerk). Apologies were received from Ald. H. T. Blight and H. J. Stewart. CORRESPONDENCE. The following correspondence was received and dealt with:— . . . From W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector, advising that during a recent visit of inspectors regarding radio interference in Kempsey, there was some doubt as to whether a welder at Parisotto's garage was of a type which caused radio interference. At the time of testing the high frequency portion of the welder was inoperative, and consequently no interference could be created. However, an interview with the Sydney manufacturers, Aston Products, revealed that the construction of the welder was such that it could give rise to considerable and wide-spread interference. The firm was now out of production, but the manager, Mr. Swinton was in his own welding business, and would be pleased to offer his assistance and advice, if co-operation was obtained in Kempsey. Since the original firm had gone out of business the writer had not been able to arrange for compensation for the time it would be necessary to spend on the job, and would appreciate early advice on the attitude in regard to the matter.— The Mayor said Council did not complain. Ald. McElhone said Council supported a petition for the Listeners' League for an inspection. The Mayor said Mr. Fleming was President of the League. Decided to send a copy of the letter. Ald. Jeffery said he lived next door to Parisotto, and the interference did not come from there, as the interference did come when Parisotto was not working.[366]

1936 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford acts as technical adviser in review of ABC school broadcasts

SCHOOL BROADCAST REVIEW. A meeting with promise of great importance to school broadcasting will be held in the Assembly Room at the Education Department on Wednesday next at 8 p.m. Encouraging success has attended school broadcasts, which have been a daily feature for several years, but the problems which have arisen, and the experience gained, now warrant the position being reviewed with the object of effecting improvements. Teachers and others interested are invited to attend the meeting. The Director of Education (Mr. G. R. Thomas) will discuss the educational value of school broadcasting; Mr. C. J. A. Moses, general manager of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, will outline the Commission's work and explain what co-operation is necessary by teachers; and Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, chief radio inspector, will deal with technical aspects. General, discussion will also be held.[367]

Radio and Electrical Exhibition will again be held in Sydney in 1937, Crawford will award a prize for the best telegraphist

BROADCASTING. WIRELESS NOTES. . . . (By N. M. GODDARD, B.E.) . . . RADIO EXHIBITIONS. The Radio and Electrical Exhibition, which had become an annual fixture in the Town Hall before Easter each year, will not be held next March. It is probable that the display will be replaced by some other form of educa-tional effort, designed to draw attention to the advantages of radio and electrical devices. The Amateur and Short-wave Radio Exhi-bition, which made a successful debut earlier this year, will be held in 1937. It will be the occasion of the finals of a competition for a trophy presented by the senior radio inspector in New South Wales (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), for the best amateur telegraphist. This does not necessarily mean the fastest, but the neatest and most accurate. Speed will be the subject of a contest arranged by the Wireless Institute.[368]

Crawford drums up support for the Wagga Listeners' League by the local council

MUNICIPAL MATTERS. POINTS OF INTEREST FROM LAST NIGHT'S MEETING. . . . RADIO INTERFERENCE The senior radio inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), in a letter, said that he was interested to note, in the report of the radio inspectors who visited Wagga in August, the keen interest displayed by the council's superintendent of electricity in the suppression of radio inductive interference. Tentative itineraries for inspections of country districts for 1937 were now being prepared, and it was realised that the number of complaints received from listeners was not always a true indication of the actual conditions. He would appreciate any information which would be of assistance in deciding whether broadcast reception in Wagga was as free from interference as the present absence of complaints seemed to suggest. In many towns, the activities of district broadcast listeners leagues had been responsible for remarkable improvements in reception conditions, and perhaps that was the case at Wagga. The department endeavored as far as was economically possible to give attention to complaints from country districts with a minimum of delay, but, in order to bridge the inevitable gaps, it encouraged the formation of such voluntary aid societies as referred to, and was appreciative of their work. Mr. Crawford felt sure that it was in the best interests of the council to adopt a similar attitude towards the Wagga Listeners' League. He was extremely grateful for any assistance extended to their representative by the council in the past. The continued co-operation of the council was confidentally anticipated. The letter was received, and it was agreed to send a copy to the Wagga Listeners' League.[369]

1936 12[edit | edit source]

Full Conditions for the annual W.T.S. Crawford trophy announced for best all-round operator

The W. T. S. Crawford Trophy Competition for best Amateur Telegraphist Open to N.S.W. Amateurs. The Senior Radio Inspector, W. T. S. Crawford, Esq., has always had the interests and well being of the Amateur and Experimental Transmitter at heart and it has always been a pleasure to him to help the "ham" in his experiments in every way possible. Many an amateur is only too willing to testify to this fact. Mr. Crawford has always held a very high opinion of the operating abilities of the Australian Amateur and he considers that they hold their own with the rest of the Amateur World. In an endeavour to raise this standard still higher, he has very generously donated a trophy for competition among the New South Wales amateurs in order to find the best operator in our ranks. This trophy will take the form of a silver cup, together with three replicas, and will be competed for over a period of three years. Each year's winner will hold the cup for a period of twelve months and will retain a replica for all time. The amateur winning the competition twice will win the trophy outright. The Wireless Institute of Australia (New South Wales Division) has been delegated the honor of drawing up the rules, organising and conducting this competition. This does not mean that the competition is restricted to members of the Institute. Every amateur operator in N.S.W. is eligible with the exception of those mentioned in Rule 1. The following are the rules and mode of competition:— RULE 1.— The competition is open to every person in New South Wales holding an A.O.C.P. and a current experimental licence. Any amateur holding a commercial certificate, i.e., 1st or 2nd class "Ticket" is debarred from competing. Any amateur who is employed, or has been, employed as professional telegraphist is also debarred. (This covers present and ex-:— P.O., Railway, R.N., R.A.N., R.A.F., R.A.A.F., Cable, Ship, Shore, Army and Police operators). RULE 2.— Automatic keys and "Mills" of any description will not be permitted. RULE 3.— For the preliminary heat, three judges will be selected from the ranks of the commercial and professional operators. The Senior Radio Inspector will be sole judge at the final. Judges' decisions in all cases to be final and binding. RULE 4.— There will be one preliminary heat only, and that will take place during the week-ending 23rd January, 1937. The final will take place during the course of the 1937 Amateur and Shortwave Radio Exhibition on a date to be fixed. RULE 5.— The radio clubs affiliated with the Institute and the Institute itself will conduct the preliminary heat in the city and suburbs. The Institute will conduct two sections of the preliminary heat (a) for members, (b) for non-members. Amateurs are asked to get in touch with the radio club in their district or the Institute itself. Any amateur who is not a member of the Institute or a radio club, should get in touch with the secretary of the W.I.A., at Box 1734JJ, G.P.O., Sydney, who will make arrangements for his test. The following country centres have been decided upon together with the controlling body. Newcastle Radio Club (Newcastle and Coalfields), Broken Hill (Broken Hill Radio Club), Wagga (Wagga Radio Club), Albury (W.I.A. Zone Officer, VK2IG), Grafton (W.I.A. Zone Officer, YK2NY). Should entries warrant it, other centres will be added. RULE 6.— In the various sections of the preliminary heat the following procedure will be adopted to decide the finalists:— Where there are ten or more entrants, 1st, 2nd and 3rd will qualify; where there are five or more entrants, 1st and 2nd only will qualify; where there are under five entrants 1st only will qualify. RULE 7.—The Operating and Receiving Test will take the following form:— RECEIVE at the rate of 20 words per minute, two messages — each of one minute's duration — as per P.M.G's. Handbook. Press for a period of three minutes. Marks will be awarded for correctness, legibility and setting out. TRANSMIT at the rate of 20 words per minute two messages — each of one minute's duration — and three minutes press. Marks to be awarded for formation, spacing, freedom from errors and breaks. The Senior Radio Inspector's object in donating this trophy is an earnest and wholehearted desire to raise the standard of operating technique to a very high plane, and every "ham" in this State, who is worthy of the name, will ensure the success of this competition by sending in his entry form and making this test the event of the year. With reference to this competition the point must be stressed that speed is not essential to success — that is, of course, speed exceeding 20 words per minute as previously set forth. The Institute realises that quite a number of amateurs would be interested in an endeavour to find the fastest operator among the "hams." To cater for these "hams," the Institute has decided to run a competition in conjunction with that for the Radio Inspector's trophy. The trophy for this competition — to be known as The Wireless Institute of Australia Speed Contest — will take the form of a silver cup and three replicas, and will be competed for over a period of three years. Each year's winner will hold the cup for a period of one year and retain possession of a replica for all time. Competitor winning the cup twice will be the outright winner. RULE 1.— Competition will be open to any amateur in New South Wales possessing an A.O.C.P. and current experimental licence. RULE 2.— Entrants for Radio Inspector's trophy are eligible to compete for this trophy also. RULE 3.— Country centres, as previously mentioned, will conduct tests and the rule for elegibility to qualify for final will be same as Rule 6 in R.I's. trophy. RULE 4.— There will be one test only in the city, and that will be conducted by the Institute itself. This will cater for country finalists and all city and suburban entrants. RULE 5.— Test will be to receive and transmit, press for three five-minute periods at the following speeds:— 20, 25 and 30 words per minute. Marks will be awarded as under Rule 7 R.I's. trophy. RULE 6.— Automatic keys or "Mills" are ineligible for this competition also, but upon conclusion, any entrants desiring to create a record may use both. RULE 7.— At least twenty-five entries must be received before this competition will take place. RULE 8.— Judges in this competition will be the same as for R.I's. trophy, and their decision will be final and binding. RULE 9.— This competition will take place immediately following the final for the R.I's. trophy. The country heat in the various areas will take place immediately after trophy heat. RULE 10.— Country competitors should send their entry forms to the various centres. City and suburban competitors should send their entries to the secretary, W.I.A. (N.S.W. division), Box 1734JJ, G.P.O., Sydney. All enquiries should be sent to the above address also.[370]

Crawford assisting newly formed Wagga Radio Listeners' League

RADIO LISTENERS LEAGUE FORMED IN WAGGA. TO ELIMINATE INTERFERENCE. Public Meeting at Town Hall. A public meeting was held at the Town Hall last night for the purpose of discussing a proposal to form a Radio Listeners' League in Wagga. Alderman Cox presided and apologised for the absence of the Mayor (Ald. H. McDonough) and the deputy Mayor (Ald. Stevenson.) Ald. Cox said that the object of the formation of the League was principally to approach the Postmaster-General's Department for assistance in the elimination of interference in reception. It would also be in a position to make representations to the Australian Broadcasting Commission in regard to the programmes for Riverina. What they wanted in particular was a large membership. The efforts of the committee which had been working towards the formation of the League had met with considerable success. The municipal council had offered its co-operation and support. Ald. Cox then read a letter from Mr. W. T. Crawford, senior radio inspector of the P.M.G.'s Department, in which he stated that listeners' leagues in other towns had met with outstanding success in the elimination of interference. COMMITTEE ELECTED. Mr. P. Coady then moved that the Wagga Radio Listeners' League be formed. The motion was seconded and carried. Alderman Gissing suggested that eight members of the committee now in existence, and that seven members of the general public, be included on a committee to be formed. The formation of the committee was then undertaken. The following were nominated and elected: Ald. G. Cox, Messrs. A. Speirs, C. Mortimer, S. Colley. Colquhoun, Fuller, McKay, and H. Kelly, representatives of D. Copland and Co., Wagga Wireless Distributors, Coady's, Lyric Music House, M. Rava, Heimann, and Maples. The executive will be elected by the committee at its first meeting. The membership fee was fixed at 2/. ASSISTANCE. Ald. Cox said that a great deal of work had been done by the electrical department, particularly in regard to the reticulation of electricity. Mr. Robinson, superintendent of the electricity department, had signified his willingness to help the Listeners' League in dealing with interference which was reported. It was also anticipated that representatives of the Postmaster-General's Department would visit Wagga from time to time to make efforts to locate and suppress interference. Mr. Robinson said that a great deal of work had already been done to ensure that the electricity lines were in a condition to give the best service. There were times, of course, when storms and winds interfered with the lines, but every effort was being made to maintain them in the best order. The Postmaster-General's Department had supplied him with a set for his car, which was helpful in locating interference. Considerable difficulty however, was experienced in locating interference. Occasionally electrical appliances were installed without conforming to the required conditions, and consequently interference was caused. Wherever it was known that interference was being caused steps would be taken to have it eliminated.[371]

Crawford advises Orange of the number of broadcast receive licences issued at the local post office in past 12 months

Orange Radio Licenses. In answer to an inquiry, the senior inspector of the P.M.G.'s Department (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) advises that the number of broadcast listeners' licenses issued at the Orange post office during the year ended November 30 last was 1600.[372]

1937[edit | edit source]

1937 02[edit | edit source]

Crawford gives a speech to the annual conference of the WIA in Sydney, emphasising value to the nation of a pool of telegraphist in time of national emergency

RADIO AMATEURS. Interstate Conference. The thirteenth annual convention of the Wireless Institute of Australia was held in Sydney on Saturday afternoon and yesterday. Matters affecting Australian amateur radio were discussed by delegates representing Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and New South Wales. The visitors were entertained by the New South Wales division of the institute at a dinner in the Dungowan Cafe, Martin-place, on Saturday night. The value of wireless amateurs in times of national emergency was emphasised by speakers. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector in New South Wales, said that able telegraphists were a great asset to the country. Other speakers directed attention to the fact that although, in the amateur radio ranks, there was personnel to provide communication in time of war, there was no equipment suitable for use. They urged the institute to take up the matter. Today, delegates will visit the La Perouse and Pennant Hills wireless stations, and the Bunnerong power house.[373]

Crawford notifies Deniliquin Council that source of radio interference was Council's own high tension lines

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. LAST NIGHT'S MEETING. Present: Ald. McFaull (mayor), Adams, Bradford, Walters, Matthews, Hynes, Brown and Edwards. CORRESPONDENCE. . . . W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector, forwarding report on radio interferences at Deniliquin and pointing out that the trouble was located in the insulators of the council's high tension lines.[374]

1937 03[edit | edit source]

Crawford invites heat winners in Crawford trophy competition to practice session

W. T. S. CRAWFORD TROPHY CONTEST. The following were the successful entrants from the various centres who will participate in the final to be held during the Amateur and Short Wave exhibition May, 3rd to 8th. C. Fryer 2NP, A. J. Barnes 2CE, E. Colyer 2EL, W. R. Nash 2WW, R. Priddle 2RA, R. Corthorn 2VG, D. Dunn 2EG, J. Howes 2ABS, K. Westzee 2FK, I. Meyers 2KS, H. Sherlock 2TQ, T. O'Donnell 2OD, A. McKenna 2WB, S. Grimmett 2ZW and J. Cowan VK2ZC. The Senior Radio Inspector Mr. Crawford has kindly arranged a practice to be held in March, and all the finalists will be invited along to get into form for the final in May. The practice will be held at the Radio Inspector's Office, Haymarket.[375]

1937 04[edit | edit source]

Crawford attends Reunion of North Suburban Radio Club

NORTH SUBURBAN RADIO CLUB'S REUNION. (Affiliated with W.I.A.) An extremely successful Club

reunion was that held by the above Club at Chatswood on 16th March. It was the Club's first birthday, and some 50 members and guests turned up in terrible weather to celebrate the event. The Senior Radio Inspector, Mr. Crawford, in replying to the toast "P.M.G. Department," expressed the hope that the Club would prosper, as an organisation of such nature was of value to the Amateur movement. The Chairman and President, Mr. Burnett (2BJ), donated a cup for the best ultra-high-frequency effort amongst Club members. VK2HL (H. Hapthorne) was the winner, and the cup was presented to him by Mr. Crawford. The outcome of the W.I.A. Field Day on 5 mx was discussed by Mr. Knock (VK2NO), who read a letter from 2ZC, Newcastle, who said that both 2NO and 2EM were heard near Newcastle during the Field Day. At the conclusion of the celebration the various club delegates drew lots for their stall positions in the forthcoming W.I.A. Exhibition. The following were represented at the reunion W.I.A. Federal, W.I.A.

State, and Manly, Zero Beat, Waverley, and Lakemba Radio Club.[376]

1937 05[edit | edit source]

Date announced for final of the Crawford Trophy competition

N.S.W. Amateur and Short-Wave Exhibition. . . . On the Tuesday evening (4th May) the final of the Competition for the Trophy presented by the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford) will be held at the Radio Inspector's office, Haymarket Post Office Chambers, George Street, Sydney, at 8 p.m. This trophy is for the best amateur operator in N.S.W., and a list of the finalists was published in the March issue. . . .[377]

Priddle (VK2RA) wins the Crawford Cup at the WIA Radio and Electrical Exhibition in Sydney

AMATEUR RADIO. Competition Results. The amateur and shortwave radio exhibition in the lower hall of the Town Hall will be open today from 6 p.m. to 10.30 p.m. Tomorrow, the hours will be from noon to 10.30 p.m. The contest for the W. T. S. Crawford trophy, held in conjunction with the exhibition, was won by R. Priddle (VK2RA), Marrickville, with C. Fryer (VK2NP), Gladesville, and W. Nash (VK2WW), Crow's Nest, sharing second place. The trophy has been presented for annual competition among the radio amateurs and experimenters of New South Wales by Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector in New South Wales. A high standard was set in the test, which disclosed that amateur operating ability is at a high level in New South Wales. Accuracy and other operating points leading to good "copy" rather than speed were the qualities sought for in the contest. . . .[378]

Crawford again elected councillor with IRE Aust in august company

BROADCASTING. . . . (BY N. M. GODDARD, B.E.) . . . INSTITUTION OF RADiO ENGINEERS. Sir Ernest Fisk has been elected president of the Institution of Radio Engineers (Australia) and chairman of council for the sixth consecutive year. The other officers are: Vice-presidents, Messrs. L. P. R. Bean and N. S. Gilmour; hon. treasurer, Mr. C. H. Norville; hon. assistant treasurer, Mr. Phil S. Parker; hon. general secretary, Mr. O. F. Mingay; councillors, Messrs. R. Allsop, J. N. Briton, S. V. Colville, T. P. Court, W. T. S. Crawford, L. A. Hooke, Major R. Kendall, Messrs. R. J. W. Kennell, A. S. McDonald, F. W. P. Thom, C. N. Tyrrel, and D. G. Wyles.[379]

Crawford offers to assist schools in eliminating interference to reception of ABC schools broadcasts

SCHOOL BROADCASTS. Merits and Obstacles. TEACHERS' VIEWS. (BY "SPERANS.") An interesting report from the honorary secretary to the Schools Broadcasts Advisory Council (Mr. A. E. Riley) contains replies from schools to a questionnaire. In these replies, teachers express warm approval of the broadcast-booklet, with its helpful notes, maps, and diagrams. Several teachers suggest that each "talk-title" should be accompanied by a summary indicating the scope of the talk. One suggestion which the authorities welcome is that questions likely to stir the pupils' activity should be included in the booklet. Another teacher would like to see the full text of some of the broadcasts published on the lines of the B.B.C.'s "The Listener." The realism secured by the actuality broadcasts on "Discovering Australia," appears to be generally recognised. First-hand information from a mining field, a cattle station, or a shearing shed implies vivid portraiture. But, according to many teachers, the broadcasts were too noisy; the atmosphere sometimes drowned the speaker, and the background was too pronounced. Despite these criticisms, the advisory committee is loth to drop the actuality broadcasts, and hopes, with the experience gained in this series, to make a new attack on the problem. Comments from schools show that the "Discovering Music" booklet is familiarising children with the various instruments of the orchestra. One teacher observes, with some acuteness, that "the broadcasts brought the sounds of the instruments home to the children better perhaps than if the players had been in the room." DRAMATISATION. Most teachers praise the dramatisation of lessons. Some would like to see all history talks dramatised. Others consider that "dramatisation by wireless is not a success:" "music and effects," they say, "drown the speakers' voices," "too many talk at once," "stage effects are overdone," etc. One interesting suggestion is that children should broadcast a short play. The interest of children in children's work would, it is thought, more than compensate for the absence of adult technique in the acting. Allied to dramatisation is the dialogue form of presentation. In the answers to the question: "Should the number of dialogues be increased?" the "yeses" outnumbered the "noes" by three to one. A dialogue between McDouall Stuart and (the ghost of) Burke was suggested as likely to be helpful, and also dialogues between children and an adult. Conversations between animals were mentioned as useful in nature study. Women speakers are still unpopular, especially in the country. Most comments are unfavourable to them as speakers. One headmaster, however, a modern Bayard, writes: "I think the ladies hold attention." The replies show that teachers reject by a two to one majority the statement that school broadcasting produces passivity in the children. Even where the reply begins "yes" or "no," it is usually modified thus: "No, if the teacher looks for activity;" "yes, if children are not asked to do anything; "yes, if preparation is neglected;" "yes, unless there is follow-up;" "It depends on the teacher; broadcasting can be made the means of much self-activity." In the city, there is no difficulty about reception. In the North Coast, the new regional station 2NR is giving great satisfaction, but at least one school protests against the practice of replacing the school broadcast by ball for ball descriptions of test match play. The headmaster at Forster reports that satisfactory daylight reception is possible only during the wintry half of the year. "Only the growth of strong regional stations," says the report, "can remove the disabilities suffered by some country schools." One such station, at Cumnock, is now approaching completion. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, chief radio inspector, has assured the council that members of his staff are always ready to co-operate with schools to improve reception quality, and teachers, both State and non-State, who desire such help, are advised to write to the honorary secretary.[380]

1937 06[edit | edit source]

Winners of the Crawford Trophy competition announced

W. T. S. CRAWFORD TROPHY. The final for this trophy — a handsome cup donated by W. T. S. Crawford, Esq., Senior Radio Inspector — was held at the Radio Inspector's office on the evening of Tuesday, 4th May, being won by R. A. Priddle (VK2RA), with C. Fryer (VK2NP) and W. R. Nash (VK2WW) equal second. The other finalists were:— A. J. Barnes (VK2CE), D. Dunn (VK2EG), E. Colyer (VK2EL), K. Wetze (VK2FK), L. Meyers (VK2KS), T. O'Donnell (VK20D), K. Sherlock (VK2TQ), R. Corthorn (VK2VG), A. McKenna (VK2WB), J. Cowan (VK2ZC), S. Grimmett (VK2ZW), and J. Howes (VK2ABS). Mr. Crawford presented the trophy in the hope that it would act as an incentive towards better operating amongst the amateurs of N.S.W., and at the conclusion of the final expressed himself as being very pleased with the general standard of operating shown, especially in the sending. The Division desires to thank Mr. Crawford for his generosity in donating the trophy, and also for the keen interest he has shown in arranging the contest and practices in his spare time. The operating of Mr. Crawford during these periods was a model for all. The trophy, together with the prizes won at the Radio Exhibition, will be presented by Mr. Crawford at the general meeting of the Division on 20th May. It is to be hoped that every amateur in N.S.W. will make an effort to take part in the contest next year.[381]

Burbury stands in for Crawford at seventh annual reunion of Lakemba Radio Club

LAKEMBA RADIO CLUB — VK2LR. (Affiliated with the W.I.A.) (By 2DL.) The seventh annual reunion of the above Club, held at the Sunrise Hall, Canterbury, on 20th April, proved to be one of the most successful conducted by the Club. In responding to the toast to the Radio Inspector's Department, Mr. H. K. Burbury conveyed the regrets of the Senior Radio Inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, at the latter's inability to attend. Mr. Burbury assured ail present that his department was always willing to assist the amateur with any problems or enquiries which might arise. With regard to the authorised power for Australia, he stated that it was necessary to impose some limit, in fairness to all concerned. Other speakers included Mr. P. Adams, 2JX (Fed. W.I.A.), Mr. H. Peterson, 2HP (W.I.A., N.S.W.), Mr. R. South (Australian Radio World), Mr. Haworth (Amalgamated Wireless Valve Co.), and Mr. McIntyre (Prices' Radio Service). At the conclusion of speeches, the usual trophies were presented by Mr. Burbury. The Chanex-Dulytic Cup (VK-ZL Contest) was won by VK2OI, the Slade Radio Cup (DX Contest) by 2KS, and the VK2UU Special DX Trophy by VK2AS. At the annual election, the following were elected to hold office for the ensuing year:—President, Mr. E. Hodgkins, 2EH; Vice-President, Mr. J. Warren, 2QX; Hon. Secretary, Mr. G. Brown (unopposed); Treasurer, Mr. H. Ackling, 2PX (unopposed); Publicity Manager, Mr. W. Phelps, 2DL (unopposed); QSL Manager, Mr. L. Hughes, 2QP (unopposed); Librarian, Mr. E. Hodgkins, 2EH (unopposed); W.I.A. Delegate, Mr. T. O'Donnell, 2OD (unopposed); committee of three, Messrs. Pinnell (2ZR), Taylor (2CL), and Clark (2IC). In connection with the Sydney Amateur Radio Exhibition, 2OW was once again successful in winning first prize in the transmitting section. The exhibition was a great success, both from experimental and trade angles, and indications are that next year it will be conducted on a still larger scale.[382]

Crawford's position again reclassified from Senior Radio Inspector, Grade 4, Third Division, Wireless Branch to Senior Radio Inspector with small salary increase (many other concurrent Wireless Branch variations)

OFFICES ABOLISHED. CREATED, ETC. . . . POSTMASTER-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. . . . New South Wales. . . . Offices Reclassified.— The classification of the office of Senior Radio Inspector, Grade 4, Third Division, Wireless Branch, occupied by W. T. S. Crawford, with limits of salary of minimum £600 and maximum £660, has been raised to Senior Radio Inspector with limits of salary of minimum £636 and maximum £708, subject to variation in pursuance of Regula-tion 106a.[383]

1937 07[edit | edit source]

Crawford presents prizes to winners of the Crawford Trophy competition

N.S.W. Division. W. G. Ryan, Secretary, VK2TI, Box 1734JJ, G.P.O., Sydney. Country Zone Officers. Zone 1 (Far West).— J. Perooz, VK2PE, Hope Street, Bourke. Zone 2 (North-West).— H. Hutton, VK2HV, Byron Street, Inverell. Zone 3 (North Coast).— R. J. Berry, VK2NY, 54 Bacon Street, Grafton. Zone 4 (Hunter River and Coalfields).— R. W. Best, VK2TY, 57 Huuter Street, Newcastle. Zone 5 (South Coast and Southwest).— R. Ross, VK2IG, 673 David Street, Albury. GENERAL MEETING. At the general meeting held on 20th May the Senior Radio Inspector (W. T. S. Crawford, Esq.) presented the prizes won at the recent Amateur and Short-wave Exhibition, and also the trophy presented by him for amateur telegraph operating. In making the latter presentation to VK2RA, Mr. Crawford referred to the high standard of operating shown by the contestants, especially in the transmitting section. He expressed himself as being pleased with the interest shown in the contest, and at the same time made an appeal to those present to take a greater interest in CW operations, as being more reliable over long distances and under bad conditions, requiring less transmitting gear, causing less interference, and providing a training-ground for operators for emergencies. Preparatory to presenting the prizes won at the Exhibition, Mr. Crawford congratulated the Division on such a successful undertaking, and commented on the excellence of the display and of the competitive exhibits. The interest taken by him in the Exhibition was shown by his references to several individual items of gear during the presentations of prizes. A full list or prize winners was published in last month's issue. In a few general remarks, Mr. Crawford referred to the good feeling which exists between his Department and the Institute, and stressed the importance of amateurs dealing with the Department through the Institute or similar organisation, as it was very difficult to deal with individuals, but where a large number of men belonged to an organisation the wishes of that body would command respect, and also the Department could reach those men through a single channel. He also mentioned the work done by the Vigilance Committees, and commented on the improved standard of transmissions, at the same time asking that care be exercised as to the conduct of the station when on telephony, on account of the general public interest in amateur transmissions. In conclusion, Mr. Crawford thanked the Division for affording him the opportunity of being present at the meeting. The Chairman (VK2HP) and others then spoke in high terms of the personal regard which the amateurs have for Mr. Crawford, and a vote of thanks was carried with acclamation. Among those present was Miss Longley (VK6YL), who spoke interestingly on the subject of Amateur activities in W.A., and also described briefly her trip through the eastern States. The meeting terminated after mention was made of the forthcoming 5-metre field day, details of which appear elsewhere.[384]

Crawford again visiting his daughter in Grafton

PERSONAL. . . . The Chief Inspector of Wireless, Mr. W. T. Crawford, has been visiting Grafton during the past few days, and has been staying with his daughter, Mrs. J. Campbell, of Bacon street.[385]

Crawford advising on appropriate receivers for use in schools for reception of educational broadcasts

200 More Schools To Be Equipped With Radio. WITH the decision of the Roman Catholic Church authorities to equip 200 of their metropolitan schools throughout Australia with radio to listen to the Australian Broadcasting Commission's school broadcasts and supplement them with transmissions of their own, it is estimated that the educational broadcasts from station 2FC, Sydney, will be listened to by some 60,000 school pupils. One of the most interesting and successful innovations in school broadcasts is the presentation of certain subjects in dramatic form. For instance, three dramatisations in primary history are given each term. These are written by Edmund Barclay and enacted by a professional cast. Dramatisation has also been experimented with in the geography session. Last term a trip up the River Yangtse-Kiang was presented with dialogue, story, sound effects, and atmospheric music, while next term it is proposed to give a similar production illustrating a trip down the Ganges. In secondary English, a new series, "Progressive Dramas," has been arranged by Dr. G. Mackaness, of the Teachers' College. These broadcasts present scenes from famous English plays, illustrating the growth of English drama. School broadcasts provide ideal supplementary instruction. In such subjects as natural study, history, and geography, they provide talks by specialists including scientists, naturalists, and travellers who have visited the places which they discuss. Successful broadcasters to schools have humour, use a simple vocabulary, and do not condescend. Pupils know what they like and at the conclusion of the broadcasts some of the school masters invite pupils to allot marks to the speaker. One of the most successful speakers in the broadcasts to schools is Mr. J. A. McCallum, who presents the series, "The World we Live In," on Wednesdays through 2FC at noon, in which he covers the news of the week. Although these broadcasts are intended especially for listeners in schools, it has been found than many grown-ups tune in regularly to the talks. So popular are they in fact, it has been decided to transmit them on national relay. Programmes for school broadcasts are arranged by an advisory council consisting largely of representatives from the New South Wales Education Department and Teachers' College. Mr. A. W. Hicks. (Assistant Director of Education) is chairman, and Mr. E. A. Riley, ex-Inspector of Schools, is secretary. The council works through subcommittees which draw up the programmes, the commission reserving the right to veto in connection with speakers it does not deem suitable. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, Chief Radio Inspector, advises on equipment for certain districts. The A.W.A. recently constructed a receiving set specifically designed for school reception, and has lent some of these sets to schools as an experiment.[386]

Crawford comments on the excellent quality of the STC transmitter about to be commissioned for the new Murwillumbah station 2MW

"On the Air" in September. TWEED STATION 2MW. The Tweed's commercial broadcasting station, 2MW, will be "on the air" probably during the first week in September. A decision to this effect was made at a recent meeting of the Board of Directors of Tweed Radio and Broadcasting Coy. Pty. Ltd., but the actual date is in abeyance pending final arrangements for the official opening ceremony. The studio, which is situated on the Condong Road, just outside Murwillumbah, is almost complete, while the two 150 feet masts already form a prominent district landmark. The grounds are being tastefully laid out, and altogether the station presents a most attractive appearance. The contractor for the erection of the station was Mr. M. Vardy, of Murwillumbah, while the masts were erected by Mr. T. A. Small, the station manager, with the assistance of local workmen. The problems associated with the erection of the huge pieces of timber which constitute the masts were not slight, and Mr. Small is to be congratulated on the workmanlike job that he has carried out. Apart , from its attractive appearance, the station will probably be one of the most efficient of its size in the Commonwealth. It will have an output of 100 watts, and the broadcasting set has been constructed by Standard Telephones and Cables (Australasia) Pty. Ltd., of Sydney. Some delay has been experienced in the completion of the set as a result of two changes in the wave length since the work was started, but delivery of the set will be taken during the coming month. In the opinion of Mr. Crawford, the senior wireless inspector of New South Wales, the set is of outstanding quality for its power. It is designed to give efficient day and night service under all conditions over a radius of 30 miles. The studio equipment has been constructed by Lekmek Radio Laboratories and this also is of the highest standard. A picture on the cover of this week's "Wireless Weekly" illustrates part of this equipment. The chief announcer of the station will be Mr. John Creighton, who at present occupies a similar position on the Armidale station. Mr. Small will be manager and chief engineer. Other appointments have yet to be made. The consulting engineer for the construction of the station was Mr. Schultz, of station 2 GB, Sydney. Mr. A. A. Budd is Chairman of Directors, and other members of the Board are Messrs. F. E. Nicholl, A. C. Pratt, J. Raward, and J. C. Price.[387]

1937 10[edit | edit source]

Crawford speaks at the opening of 2PK Parkes

2PK, PARKES. New Broadcast Station Officially Opened by Mr. Thorby. The official opening of the new Parkes broadcasting station, 2PK, was performed on Tuesday night by Mr. H. V. C. Thorby, M.H.R. for Calare. Mr. Thorby performed the opening from Temora, his voice, conveyed by telephone wires, being broadcast to some 4000 listeners who eagerly awaited the event. Reception was perfect. The Mayor of Parkes (Ald. E. W. Spicer, M.L.C.) presided over the proceedings. Mr. Thorby, in his opening address, declared it was remarkable that he should be sitting in a chair at Temora and having his voice broadcast from a transmitter situated at Parkes. He stressed the important progress made in Australia, particularly during the past few years, and asked what would have been the reactions of Sir Henry Parkes if he were able to return to see the strides made. SERVICE TO PEOPLE Alderman Spicer declared that he was proud to be associated with the official opening of 2PK because it was two years and a half since application had been lodged for a licence for Parkes. Notification of the granting of the licence was received on April 19, 1937, and the promoting company, anxious that no time should be wasted before it opened up a service to the people of the Central West, had expedited installation in readiness for the opening. "The station will be absolutely free from political leanings, and its principal endeavor will be to further the interests of the Central West, serving at least 4000 listeners," he said. Other speakers included Mr. Prentice, superintendent of railways with headquarters at Orange; Mr. Abercrombie, representing the installing company; the Mayor of Condobolin (Ald. M. Condon); Mr. Clive Packham, president of Parkes subbranch of the R.S. and S.I.L.A., and Mr. Crawford, representing the P.M.G's Department, The station has a wavelength of 214 metres. The studio and the transmitter are situated in Close Street, Parkes. The sessions will be as follows: Week days, 7 a.m. to 9 a.m., 12 noon to 2 p.m., 5.30 p.m., to 10 p.m. Sundays, 10 a.m. to 12 noon, 5.30 to 10 p.m. Programmes will include local and city news, market reports, sporting results, children's sessions, and amateur night. The manager-announcer will be Mr. C. J. Moloney, of Forbes, and formerly of 2RG, Griffith; engineer-in-charge, Mr. J. D. Miller, formerly of 2 GB, Sydney, and 2RG, Griffith.[388]

1937 11[edit | edit source]

Crawford provides advice to P&C of Tweed Heads pblic school on an appropriate receiver

RADIO SET FOR TWEED HEADS PUBLIC SCHOOL. After hearing information on the subject collected by the Secretary (Mr. P. H. Petherick), the Tweed Heads P. and C. Association decided on Friday night to proceed with the proposal to instal a radioset in Tweed Heads Public School. Mr. Petherick had useful information from Mr. Crawford (Chief Radio Inspector), Mr. G. R. Thomas (Director of Education) and the Headmaster of the Casino school, where a set is in use. In reply to Mr. Green, who asked how the funds could be raised, Mr. Petherick said he would undertake that responsibility. He had gone so far as to make the preliminary arrangements for a high class concert on December 2nd, with a number of the best artists of Brisbane. He had been asked already to book seats and Mr. C. E. Cox, of the Hotel Wells had sent along a donation of 10/- to start the fund. Mr. Petherick said all he wanted was a small committee to assist with the arrangements. The following were appointed a with Mr. Petherick to raise funds and proceed with the installation of the set:— Messrs. A. E. Williams, R. T. Gillies, H. J. Whalan, A. J. Bonamy and W. Smith. The President reported that the proceeds of the card evening held last month amounted to £9/10/-. Accounts amounting to £11/15/- were passed for payment.[389]

Mrs Crawford holiday with her daughter in Grafton

PERSONAL. . . . Mrs. Crawford, wife of the senior radio inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, is holidaying with her daughter, Mrs. J. Campbell, of Bacon street, Grafton.[390]

1938[edit | edit source]

1938 01[edit | edit source]

Crawford is photographed on a rainy day at the rifle shooting

"Singing" In The Rain (Start Photo Caption) W. T. S. CRAWFORD, Mosman-Neutral Bay, introduces a new angle on rifle shooting. (End Photo Caption)[391]

1938 02[edit | edit source]

Contest rules for the 1938 W.T.S. Crawford Trophy competition

THE W.T.S. CRAWFORD TROPHY COMPETITION FOR 1988. During 1936, the Senior Radio Inspector for this State, W.T.S. Crawford Esq., generously donated a Trophy for Competition among Amateur Transmitters of New South Wales. The Senior Radio Inspector has always held in high regard the operating capabilities of the Amateur in this State and in an endeavour to raise the standard of operation still higher, asked the co-operation of the New South Wales Division of the Wireless Institute of Australia in an effort to discover the Best Amateur Telegraphist. The Trophy takes the form of a handsome Silver Cup and three Replicas and is to be competed for over a period of three years — 1938 being the second year of the Competition. The Amateur winning the yearly Contest will hold the Trophy for twelve months and a Replica for all time. The Amateur winning the Competition more than once will become the outright winner of the Cup. This year the Final will be held during the Second Section of the Sesqui—Centenary Celebrations and it is anticipated that three additional Prizes will be available in the form of Sesqui-Centenary Medallions and these will be presented to the winners of the first three places in the final. In 1937 the Trophy was won by R. A. Priddle VK2RA after very keen competition and it is anticipated that the 1938 Contest will create even greater enthusiasm and competition and it may be safely stated that the winner of the Trophy in Sesqui-Centenary Year may be proud to say that he is the Best Amateur Telegraphist in the Amateur ranks for that year. The Wireless Institute of Australia (New South Wales Division) has been again delegated the honour of drawing up the Rules, Organising and Conducting the Competition. This does not mean that the Contest is restricted to Members of the Institute. Every Amateur Operator in New South Wales is eligible, with the exception of those mentioned in Rule 1. The following are the Rules and Mode of Competition:— Rule 1.— The Competition is open to every person in New South Wales holding an A.O.C.P. and a current Experimental Licence. Any Amateur holding a Commercial Certificate, i.e., 1st or 2nd Class "Ticket" is debarred from competing Any Amateur who is employed, or has been employed as a professional Telegraphist is also debarred. (This includes present and ex-P.O., Railway, Naval, Army, Air Force, Mercantile, Marine and Police Operators. Rule 2— Automatic Keys and "Mills" of any description barred. Rule 3.— For the various Preliminary Heats a Judge will be selected from among the Professional Operators. Rule 4.— The Preliminary Heat will take place on 15th February, 1938. The Final will be held on Monday 11th April, 1938. Entries will close on 31st January, 1938. Rule 5.— The Radio Clubs affiliated with the Institute and the Institute itself will conduct) the Preliminary Heat in City and Suburbs. The Institute will conduct two sections of the Preliminary: (a) for Members, (b) non-Members Amateurs are asked to get in touch with the Radio Club in their District or the Institute. Any Amateur who is not a Member of the Institute or a Radio Club should communicate with Honorary Secretary, W.I.A., Box 1734JJ, G.P.O. Sydney who will make arrangements for his test. Country Amateurs who are in Sydney at time of Final may participate without any Preliminary Test. Rule 6.— First Second and Third from each Section of the Preliminary Heat will qualify for the Final. Should a very high standard of operating be demonstrated in any heat the Committee reserve the right to increase the number of entrants eligible for the Final. Before a Radio Club is given the right to organise a Section of the Preliminary Heat it must have at least six entrants therein. Rule 7.— The Senior Radio Inspector or his nominee will be the sole judge at the Final. Rule 8.— The Operating and Receiving Test will take the following form:— RECEIVE at the rate of 20 words per minute, two messages — each of one minutes duration — as per P.M.G.'s Handbook. Press for a period of three minutes. Marks will be awarded for correctness, Legibility and Setting Out. TRANSMIT at the rate of 20 words per minute two messages — each of one minutes duration — and three minutes press. Marks to be awarded for Formation, Spacing, Freedom from Errors and Breaks. Rule 9.— Judges decisions in all cases to be final and binding.[392]

Increasing interest in the amateur community in the 1938 W.T.S. Crawford Trophy

N.S.W. Division Notes. Activity has been rather restricted of late, as a result of the holiday season, coupled with poor DX conditions. The lower frequency bands are well filled with QRN, 28 mc appears to be dead most of the time, and on 14 mc stations are trying hard to land the little DX that to coming through, so it is not an easy matter to have a QSO at times. Some of the locals have been heard on 1.75 mc getting ready for the I.R.E. Trophy Contest, so it looks as if this contest is arousing more interest than in former years. The same may be said for the W.T.S. Crawford Trophy, which is being competed for this year for the second time. Entries so far are in advance of last year, and it is known that many are taking it very seriously, and getting plenty of practice, so the competition promises to be very keen. This year's rules give the country hams an equal opportunity of participating with the city men, and in view of the announcement of the Department of Railways that it is issuing concession tickets (return journey for single fare) to all competitors and amateurs visiting the 14 th Annual Convention, we should have much better representation of country hams than usual. The concessions are available to all amateurs, and may be obtained through the Hon. Secretary of the Division. At the General Meeting held on 16th December an address was given by Mr. C. Gittoes, of Ducon Condenser Pty. Ltd., the subject being "Condensers — Paper, Mica and Electrolytic." Mr. Gittoes described their manufacture, illustrating with condenser units at various stages. He also pointed out the types of losses and their relation to working temperature, concluding with some figures showing the rapid decrease in the life of a condenser when subjected to voltages beyond its rating. The subject was very well handled by Mr. Gittoes, and those present learned much of the "how" and "why" of condenser operation. The National Field Day was well supported, several stations being on the air. Conditions, however, seemed very dead, and few DX contacts were made. The only scores (approximate) known are:— 2LR, 190; 2HZ, 2PN, 170; 2RA, 120. 2LR had contacts in Africa, Asia, Oceania and North America. The ops. at 2HZ got a thorough "ducking" in the storm on the Saturday afternoon, whilst 2RA and party, at Mt. Tomah (4,000 ft.) were in the clouds and rain all the time, and found that it was safer not to touch anything, even with the power off. In spite of the difficulties, all the participants enjoyed the outing, and are looking forward to next time. Next month's All-Band CW Contest is being well supported in the Division, and on any evening the air is full of "please take test msg." etc. Station Report.— 2AFJ, using break-in with fixed bias on 807, mainly interested in ragchews, but works some DX, including OA4J in the Junior VK-ZL.[393]

Crawford declines to comment on cessation of broadcasts of horse racing markets

BETTING MARKETS ON RADIO. Information From Melbourne Not Given. DEPT. REQUEST. BROADCASTING of betting markets on Melbourne races prior to the commencement of the events was discontinued by stations 2UW and 2UE yesterday. As in the case of Sydney meetings the prices of the placed horses only were given after each race had been run. First intimation that radio listeners received of the change was an announcement prior to the commencement of the Melbourne meeting that, beginning from that day, no betting markets would be given. After Discussion The assistant-manager of Station 2UE, Mr. Armitage, said that a request from the Postmaster-General's Department that stations discontinue giving the Melbourne markets was discussed at a meeting on Tuesday of the Australian Federation of Broadcasting Stations, and it was decided to acquiesce in the suggestion. Mr. F. Marden, general manager of Station 2UW, said the view had been taken in the past that, because the markets came from another State, they could be broadcast, but it was now realised that to do so was a breach of the regulations. An executive of another broadcasting station said last night that a hint had previously been given by the department that unless stations ceased broadcasting betting markets, racing descriptions might be curtailed by legislation. The Senior Radio Inspector, Mr. Crawford, said yesterday that he preferred not to comment on the position. The acting Deputy-Director of Posts and Telegraphs, Mr. Butler, was not available. Though the actual betting on the Melbourne events was not previously given over the air, the phraseology employed was such that listeners had no difficulty in ascertaining the price of any horse in the market.[394]

1938 03[edit | edit source]

Results of Preliminary Heats for the 1938 W.T.S. Crawford Trophy competition

N.S.W Division. W. G. Ryan, Secretary, VK2TI, Box 1734JJ, G.P.O., Sydney. Country Zone Officers, Zone 1 (Far West).— J. Perooz, VK2PE, Hope Street, Bourke. Zone 2 (North-West).— H. Hutton, VK2HV, Byron Street, Inverell. Zone 3 (North Coast).— R. J. Berry, VK2NY, 54 Bacon Street, Grafton. Zone 4 (Hunter River and Coalfields).— R. W. Best, VK2TY, 57 Hunter Street, Newcastle. Zone 5 (South Coast and Southwest).— R. Ross, VK2IG, 673 David Street, Albury. At the January meeting of the Division a lecture was given by Mr. G. V. Hume on the subject, "Modern Radio Valves." Mr. Hume described the manufacture and testing of the various types of receiving valve made locally, and his talk was illustrated by an excellent series of photographs taken in the Phillips Valve Factory recently established in Sydney. Some discussion took place on the subject of the ballot for election of officers, and it seems likely that this will be changed before the elections in March. Some results are to hand for the 1937 D.S.D.C. contest, and the following scores may be of interest:— D4CDM, 865,878; D3DSR, 807,788; VK2ADE 179,758; VK3MR 118,048; VK2JX, 91,290; VK2TI, 82,376. Quite a lot of interest was taken in the I.R.E. Trophy Contest, which appears to have been won by 7AB. Conditions were patchy, and, so far as is known, no interstate signals were heard in Sydney on 28 mc. Some approximate scores:— 7AB, 1,090; 2RA, 960; 4AW, 900; 2VN, 2AS, 850; 2EO, 750; 2LZ, 2NY, 2YL, 2PZ, 2ADR and 2AFJ were also active. Conditions were reported fair for the Senior BERU Contest, but some found difficulty in raising new stations the second week-end. 2TF apparently leads for N.S.W. with 604, 2EG 543, 2AS 528, 2TI 343, 2PX 296. The preliminary heats for the W.T.S. Crawford Trophy were held on Tuesday, 15th February, twelve qualifying for the final to be held in April during the Convention week. Mr. Crawford examined 9 non-club members at his office and members of his staff conducted heats in three of the radio clubs. Those successful in qualifying for the final are:— VK2ABH, 2ABS, 2AEN, 2AHB, 2AHJ, 2AS, 2CE, 2NP, 2PN, 2RA, 2YY and 2ZK. With two months in which to practise there should be some first class operating in the final.[395]

Mrs Crawford attends a farewell with many other wives of senior PMGD officials

PARTIES FOR TRAVELLERS. . . . MRS. J. S. DUNCAN and Miss Joan Duncan, who will leave for England in the Orontes on March 9 with Mr. J. S. Duncan, who has been appointed as Official Secretary at Australia House, London, were entertained by a number of friends at the Hotel Australia this afternoon. Mrs. V. E. Butler and Mrs. R. W. Hamilton were hostesses. The guests included Mesdames E. Upton, F. R. Bradley, E. G. Hipsley, W. Perkins, H. C. Elvins, H. P. Christmas, J. W. Kitto, O. K. Probert, L. P. R. Bean, A. H. Moseley, T. G. Leece, J. H. Barrow, J. M. Crawford, E, Becher, A. Horner, P. W. Ferris, W. Mitchell, and W. T. S. Crawford, and Misses Drewitt and L. B. Edwards.[396]

Mrs Crawford involved in organising a ball for the World Radio Convention

ORGANISING RADIO BALL. (Start Photo Caption) MESDAMES L. P. R. BEAN, A. C. MILLINGEN, W. T. S. CRAWFORD, A. S. MCDONALD, and L. A. HOOKE discuss plans for the World Radio Convention Ball over the teacups at Mrs. Bean's home at Pymble. The ball will be held at the Trocadero on April 7 in aid of the Children's Hospital. (End Photo Caption)[397]

1938 04[edit | edit source]

The Crawford trophy again a centre of attention at the WIA Annual Conference

BROADCASTING. . . . (BY N. M. GODDARD, B.E.) . . . WIRELESS INSTITUTE CONVENTION. The annual convention of the Wireless Institute of Australia will be held in Sydney next week. This conference of delegates from the six States of the Commonwealth is the fourteenth, and it will be officially opened by Mr. J. L. Baird, the celebrated television pioneer, who is attending the Radio Convention now in progress. In the arrangements for its convention, the Wireless Institute has co-operated with the Institution of Radio Engineers (Australia), and many of the technical sessions of the institution's programme will be attended by the Wireless Institute's delegates and members. The principal fixtures of the convention programme are:— Monday, April 11, the final of the annual contest for the W. T. S. Crawford trophy for amateur radio telegraphy, and a lecture, "Beyond Radio," by Dr. Van der Pol, the famous Dutch physicist; Tuesday, the official opening by Mr. J. L. Baird at Science House at 8 p.m.; and Wednesday, the annual dinner of the N.S.W. division of the W.I.A. at the Dungowan Cafe, under the chairmanship of the Minister in Charge of Celebrations, Mr. Dunningham. The business sessions of the conference will be interspersed with these and other technical and social functions between next Monday and Easter Monday. The Wireless Institute of Australia is the oldest wireless association in Australia, and today represents the interests of the radio amateur, of whom 1,859 held licences in Australia at the end of February.[398]

Crawford attends the World Radio Convention

Globe Of World In Flowers. Overseas Guests At Radio Ball. Striking Decorations Were A Feature. For Hospital. AN outstanding feature of the Radio Convention Ball last night was provided by the striking decorations. Many of the table effects were symbolic of radio and others represented Australia's 150th Anniversary Celebrations. More than eight hundred dancers attended the ball, the proceeds of which will benefit the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children. Russian troubadors serenaded the guests, and late in the evening a shower of 1000 gold and orange balloons drifted down over the dancers from the ceiling. A tribute of general admiration was given to a large floral piece in the foyer, which represented a globe of the world with the various countries picked out in flowers of different colors. Sir Ernest and Lady Fisk, the latter wearing a trained gown of brocaded lame, entertained at the official table. Among their guests were overseas delegates to the convention and their wives, including Mr. and Mrs. F. S. Hayburn and Mr. and Mrs. John Logic Baird (England). General James Harbord and Mr. E. S. Colling (U.S.A.), Mrs. Harraden Pratt and Mrs. H. C. Trenam. Also in the party were Brigadier-General and Mrs. J. L. Hardie, Mr. Percy Hunter and Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Clapp. In the party arranged by the Broadcasting Service Association were Mr. and Mrs. H. G. Horner, Mr. and Mrs. C. V. Stevenson, Mr. and Mrs. C. D. Service, Mr. and Mrs. Ewart Chapple, Mr. and Mrs. Parry, Mrs. Howes, Miss June Munro, Messrs. F. Daniell, Sinclair-Carruthers and C. Ogilvy. Others who entertained included Mr. O. F. Mingay, honorary general secretary, and Mrs. Mingay; Mrs. L. P. R. Bean, president of the ladies' committee; Miss Enid Whiddon, honorary secretary; Mesdames A. S. McDonald, W. T. S. Crawford, L. A. Hooke, A. C. Millingen, vice-presidents; and Mesdames N. S. Gilmour, C. H. Norville, P. S. Parker, J. N. Briton, R. Allsop, S. V. CoIville, T. Court, R. Kennel, D. Wyles, L. Schulz, H. Burbury, W. Donner, C. Marden, A. Hosking, G. Anderson and G. Shoemacker.[399]

VK2ZK wins the Crawford trophy for best telegraphy at WIA Converence 1938

RADIO AMATEURS. Praise by World Authorities. CONVENTION OPENED. Mr. John Logie Baird, the famous television pioneer, opened the 14th annual convention of the Wireless Institute of Australia last night at Science House. The institute is an organisation of amateurs in radio, and the convention is being held in conjunction with the 150th Anniversary celebrations. It is being attended by delegates from every State and from New Zealand. It will continue until Monday. Mr. Baird, after referring to the fact that the Institute was formed in 1910, and is the oldest body of its kind in the British Empire, if not in the world, said that in the early days of television in England amateurs had been of great assistance, and that in every big television enterprise today one or more who had been amateurs were playing an important part. Although television had not yet been introduced to Australia, great interest was being taken in it by amateurs, and he hoped that that interest would soon find an outlet. Sir Ernest Fisk, president of the Institute of Radio Engineers (Aust.), said that experimenters might find difficulty in extending their work to modern television methods, but suggested that, as a start, they should consider the question of the transmission of still pictures over long distances. TROPHY WINNER. Sir Ernest announced that Mr. H. D. Fisher, VK7AB, of Launceston, Tasmania, had won the trophy presented by the Institute of Radio Engineers (Aust.) for the best work done in making known internationally the World Radio Convention and Anniversary celebrations. Major-General James G. Harbord, chairman of the Board of the Radio Corporation, America, said that radio owed a great debt to the amateur. The greatest deeds in history, he added, had been performed by volunteers — men without expectation of reward — and the radio amateurs came into that class. Recognising their worth, his company encouraged them in every way it could. The proceedings were transmitted by station VK2HF, Manly (Mr. A. Furze), simultaneously on the 20 and 40 metre bands for amateur reception all over the world. TELEGRAPHY CONTEST. Mr. A. Henry, of Sans Souci, who operates amateur station VK2ZK, won the W. T. S. Crawford trophy for amateur radio tele-graphy. Mr. W. Watson, of Annandale, amateur station VK2YY, was second. This trophy is competed for annually by amateurs in New South Wales.[400]

Crawford presents a speech at the WIA Conference 1939 Annual Dinner and awards the Crawford trophy to VK2ZK

RADIO AMATEURS. Post Office Realises Value of Work. INSTITUTE'S CONVENTION. At the annual dinner of the New South Wales division of the Wireless Institute of Australia, last night, Mr. V. E. Butler, Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs in this State, said the department felt that in the ranks of the amateur radio movement there was being built up the nucleus of something of great value to the nation. The department realised the great work that was being done by amateurs, from whom had been drawn some of the best radio engineers the world has known. The Minister in Charge of Celebrations, Mr. Dunningham, presided. Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector in New South Wales, said that at the end of February there were 711 licensed amateurs in this State. Mr. Crawford handed over the trophy presented by him for the best amateur radio telegraphist in New South Wales to the winner, Mr. A. Henry, of station VK2ZK. The dinner was part of the 14th annual Federal convention of the Wireless Institute, which is being attended by delegates from New Zealand and all the States of the Commonwealth. It will continue until Monday..[401]

Crawford attends farewell to overseas delegates of the World Radio Convention 1938

Farewell To Delegates. SIR ERNEST and LADY FISK were official host and hostess at the reception given at Schofleld House last night to say au revoir to the visiting overseas and interstate delegates to the World Radio Convention. Several of the delegates will leave in the Niagara this afternoon; others have booked in the Nieuw Holland and Strathaird. Lady Fisk received the guests in a full-length black Chantilly lace gown, with black velvet applique trimming and adorned with a cluster of poppies on the corsage. Mrs L. P. R. Bean, president of the Women's Council, wore a full-skirted floral dress, with a bodice of black net with appliqued flowers of the same material. After supper there was dancing in the large ballroom, which was decorated with massed bowls of zinnias, chillies, and hibiscus. Among the guests were Mr. and Mrs. F. S. Nayburn, Mr. and Mrs. H. Pratt, Mr. and Mrs. J. Logie Baird, Mr. and Mrs. F. H. Witt, Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Dixon, Mr. T. Armstrong, Dr. van der Pol, Mr. J. Sanders, Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Garth, Mr. and Mrs. L. A. Hooke, Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Millingen. Mr. and Mrs. W. T. S. Crawford, Mr. O. S. Mingay (general secretary for the World Radio Convention) and Mrs. Mingay, Mr. A. F. MacDonald, and Miss Enid Whiddon (secretary of the Women's Council).[402]

1938 05[edit | edit source]

Results of Final Heat for the 1938 W.T.S. Crawford Trophy competition

W.T.S. Crawford Trophy The final heat of the W. T. S. Crawford Trophy for 1938 was held at the Radio Inspectors' Office on Monday, 11th April, and was won this year by Mr. A. Henry, VK2ZK, well known as the head of the R.A.A.F.W.R. in this State. It will be remembered that Mr. Crawford, the senior radio inspector, presented this handsome trophy last year for competition amongst the amateurs of N.S.W., the object being to improve the general standard of operating. That this is being achieved is quite noticeable if one listens to the operating heard on our bands, and we are indebted to Mr. Crawford for this practical evidence of the keen interest he takes in the welfare of the amateur. Mr. Crawford has worked hard to make the competition a Success, and he personally conducted the preliminary and final heats, as well as a practice for the finalists at which he gave much valuable advice on operating procedure. There were twelve participants in the final, including one country ham (VK2PN), who travelled over 250 miles to participate, last year's winner (VK2RA) and quite a number who participated in last year's final. Mr. Henry is to be congratulated on a very fine performance, as the general standard was high, whilst his was outstanding in both sending and receiving. A pleasing feature of the contest was the presence in the final of several of the newer hams as represented by those with 3-letter calls. This should be an incentive to the newer men for next year's competition.[403]

Presentation of the 1938 W.T.S. Crawford Trophy

ANNUAL N.S.W. DINNER. The Annual Dinner has been and gone, leaving behind it one or two sore heads and many happy memories. Never before have we been honoured with the presence of so many visiting hams and distinguished guests. The usual friendly ham spirit prevailed and city members intermingled with country, interstate and overseas men, swapping yarns, describing the favourite beam, and making new friendships. As a result contacts over the air with our newly made friends will have greater significance for us in the future. The more formal parts of the evening could not entirely suppress the general feeling of good-fellowship, and we might sum up by saying that a good time was had by all. We were greatly honoured by the presence in the chair of the Rt. Hon. J. M. Dunningham, M.L.A., minister-in-charge of the 150th Anniversary Celebrations — practical evidence of his and the State Government's interest in our convention. Mr. Dunningham in welcoming the delegates and visitors, eulogised the work being done by the amateur and stressed the value of the amateur training as a national asset. The divisional president, Mr. H. Peterson, proposed the toast of the P.M.G.'s Department, stressing the thoroughness with which the Department's motto of "speed, efficiency and courtesy" is carried out. Mr. V. Butler, Deputy Postmaster General, responded and in doing so mentioned the willingness of his Department to help the amateur in any way possible. Mr. W. G. Ryan then proposed the toast of the Senior Radio Inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford. During his term of office as secretary, Mr. Ryan met Mr. Crawford on many occasions and always found him sympathetic and eager to help the amateur movement. In replying, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford emphasised what a year of progress last year had been and quoted some interesting figures on amateur matters. On 1st February, 1938, 1869 amateurs had been licensed in Australia, the total for N.S.W. being 711. During the year ending 31st March in N.S.W. 91 breaches of the regulations had been examined, 10 per cent, had definitely proved that they were not on the air at the time of the breach and during that period three unlicensed stations were apprehended, the maximum fine imposed being £20. 177 people had sat for the A.O.C.P. examination in the same period and 85 had passed. In conclusion, Mr. Crawford said he hoped that the W.I.A. Convention would be the most successful yet held. Mr. Crawford then presented his trophy for the best amateur telegraphist in N.S.W. to Mr. A. Henry, VK2ZK, who also receives a replica of the trophy. In making the presentation, Mr. Crawford referred to the particularly high standard of operating shown by Mr. Henry. Mr. Henry responded, and in doing so congratulated the Institute on the efficient manner in which the competition was conducted. Mr. L. G. Petrie, ZL2OV, in proposing the toast of the Wireless Institute of Australia, referred to the early origin of the Institute — one of the oldest amateur organisations in the world — and also to the high esteem in which the W.I.A. is held both in New Zealand and in other parts of the world. Mr. W. M. Moore, Federal President, and Mr. H. Peterson, Divisional President, responded. Mr. Peterson then made a presentation to Mr. W. G. Ryan, the retiring secretary. Mr. Peterson explained that owing to the pressure of private business Mr. Ryan was reluctantly compelled to relinquish the post of secretary, which had on many occasions interfered with his own work. Mr. Peterson gave a resume of the advances the Division had made during Mr. Ryan's term of office. The finances have improved to the extent of approximately £100, two successful Amateur Radio Exhibitions have been held, the monthly Divisional Bulletin instituted by the retiring secretary has kept members, and especially country members, in much closer touch with events. Prior to this the country members knew very little of what was being done in the Division. There have been many other examples of the untiring energy shown by Mr. Ryan, and much of the 75 per cent, increase in membership may be attributed to his work. To show his versatility,. VK2TI has participated in all the major contests during the past year, and in that time has been successful in coming within the first three places in the BERU, DJDC and ARRL Contests — a very fine record. Mr. Peterson then referred to the part that Mrs. Ryan has played, by taking a great interest in the activities of the Division, and also by assisting on very many occasions with the preparation and mailing of circulars, bulletins, etc. In view of this constant encouragement it was particularly fitting that the presentation made by Mr. Peterson on behalf of the Division should be suitable for Mr. Ryan's home — a silver coffee service. The applause which followed the presentation was sufficient proof of the popularity of Mr. Ryan with the members. Mr. Ryan thanked the Division for himself and for Mrs. Ryan, and expressed regret that he was unable to continue as secretary. The toast of Kindred Societies and Affiliated Radio Clubs was proposed by Mr. F. M. Goyen, vice-president, and Mr. M. Lusby proposed the toast of the Press. The evening concluded with a vote of thanks to the chairman, and all voted the 1938 dinner a great success.[404]

1938 06[edit | edit source]

Profile of VK2RA winner of the 1937 W.T.S. Crawford Trophy competition

N.S.W. Personalities Ray, 2RA, is a real old-timer, having obtained his ticket in 1929 when still a schoolboy. Was recently Publicity Officer of the Division, but now looks after the distribution of the Magazine. Has taken his Degree in Engineering and is recognised as one of the coming men in his profession. Spent his early days on the air as Bathurst (ask 2NS). After Wal, 2TI, gave him some advice he began to work DX hand over fist (?). Considers that he takes an interest in stamp collecting, especially Australian imprint, but 2TI has his doubts. Has great faith in a single 808, but not much faith in 10 mx! Won the Crawford Trophy in 1937 and is now practising for 1939. Look out 2ZK![405]

Crawford arrives by train with a large party of senior industry people to attend the official opening of the new 2CA Canberra

EXERCISE IN PYJAMAS AT RAILWAY. From Our Special Representative. CANBERRA, Friday. Half-a-dozen pyjama-clad men tumbled out of the mail train from Sydney this morning and did physical exercises on the Canberra railway station platform. A battery of movie cameras filmed their antics. Braving the heaviest frost of the year, several hundred Canberra people crowded into the station to see them. The exercises were led by Jack Davey, who conducts the early morning session from radio station 2 GB, Sydney, and provided the first of the day's functions connected with the official opening of Radio 2CA, Canberra. Description of the display was relayed to 2 GB. Sydney Guests. A large party of Sydney business men and radio and advertising executives arrived by the train for the opening of 2CA by the Prime Minister, Mr. Lyons, tonight. The official party included Messrs. R. E. and L. A. Denison and Dr. W. S. Ziele (directors of Associated Newspapers, Ltd.), F. W. Tonkin (managing editor, Associated Newspapers), E. Kennedy (advertising manager, Associated Newspapers), H. G. Horner (managing director, Station 2 GB), F. H. Daniell (Macquarie Broadcasting Services, Ltd.), C. Ogilvy (director of Station 2CA), W. Crawford (senior radio inspector, P.M.G. Department), and E. Don Service. More than 80 Sydney guests are in Canberra for the function, 30 having arrived by car. Tallest Mast After breakfast today the party visited the Royal Military College at Duntroon, where the cadets put on special displays of gymnasium drill, bridge-building, reconnaissance and occupation of positions with 18lb. field guns. A visit was then made to the new 2CA transmitter, three miles from the city, where the tallest self-supporting mast in Australia puts out a power of 2000 watts — the maximum power allowed commercial stations. The party inspected the new broadcasting house at Civic Centre, a feature of which is a concert studio capable of seating more than 200 guests.[406]

Crawford again elected as councillor for IRE Aust

RADTO ENGINEERS ELECT OFFICERS. Mr. N. S. Gilmour has been elected president of the Institution of Radio Engineers (Australia) succeeding Sir Ernest Fisk. Messrs. L. P. R. Bean and D. G. Wyles were elected vice-presidents; Mr. C. H. Norville, hon. treasurer; Mr. O. F. Mingay, hon. general secretary; Messrs. R. Allsop, J. N. Briton, W. T. S. Crawford, T. P. Court, F. Canning, Sir Ernest Fisk, Messrs. L. A. Hooke, F. Langford-Smith, A. S. McDonald, P. S. Parker, H. C. Trenam and C. W. Tyrrell, councillors.[407]

Crawford attends the official opening of the "New 2CA"

NEW 2CA RADIO. OFFICIAL OPENING CEREMONY. Distinguished Gathering for Canberra. When the Prime Minister (Mr. Lyons) officially opens the new studios and transmitter of Station 2CA Canberra at 7.35 tonight, the climax will have been reached of months of busy preparation in the provision of a new and powerful radio station for Canberra. The new studios at City and the powerful transmitter at Gungahlin, will be declared to be officially on the air in the presence of a distinguished gathering at Hotel Canberra, including leaders of the political, business and newspaper and radio activities of the Commonwealth. A party of 45 visitors will arrive by train from Sydney at 5.15 a.m., while another 30 will travel by car to the capital. Associated with the opening ceremonies will be a tour of the city by the visitors and the broadcast to listeners of highlights of the day and evening. Jack Davey, with the able assistance of Jack Lumsdaine, will conduct the "Tummy Club" from the platform of Canberra Railway Station — primarily to quicken the awakening of the sleepers but also to afford Canberra residents the opportunity of witnessing the acts and antics of these two "Radio Rascals." From the Railway Station, the guests will drive to Hotel Canberra, for breakfast. Cars then will convey the 2CA guests to Duntroon Military College for an inspection. Special features include a gymnasium display, bridging expediencies and reconnaissance and occupation of positions with 18-pound field guns. Duntroon will be left behind as the party proceeds for inspection of the studios and transmitter. Lunch will be provided at Hotel Canberra. Inspection of Mount Stromlo will open the afternoon activities. At 4.30 p.m. the party will be received by the Prime Minister (Mr. Lyons) at Parliament House. The official opening will take place during the dinner at Hotel Canberra. The Prime Minister will officially open the studios and transmitter of the New 2CA. 2CA will broadcast from special points of interest, including the Royal Military College, Mount Stromlo, the foyer of the Hotel Canberra during which prominent personalities will appear at the microphone, and the official dinner. Sydney business men who will be in Canberra during the weekend include Messrs. R. E, Denison and L. A. Denison (Associated Newspapers Ltd), H. G. Horner (Managing Director Station 2 GB), F. H. Daniell (Macquarie Broadcasting Services Pty. Ltd.), C. Ogilvy (Director of 2CA), W. Crawford, (Senior Radio Inspector, P.M.G.'s Department), and N. Gilmour (Managing Director, Lekmek Studios). NEW 2CA RADIO. "From the Heart of a Nation" A feature of the 2CA opening festivities will be a play by the Macquarie players of Sydney. Tabbed "From the Heart of a Nation," the play deals fascinatingly with the development of Canberra. The roles of Dr. Charles Throsby, the Campbells and Mr. Ainslie, are portrayed by the leading actors of the talented Macquarie players. The play will be broadcast from 2CA at 8.30 tonight. Cinesound Newsreel. Cinesound photographers, by arrangement with the management of 2CA, intend to make a newsreel of various points of interest. "The Song of Canberra" Mr. Jack Lumsdaine, the talented song writer and musician from 2 GB, has written a song to commemorate the opening of the New 2CA. This song, "The Song of Canberra," is from the hands of Australia's leading song writer. Jack Lumsdaine will render his own song on the air on Friday and Saturday.[408]

Crawford sits at the official table for the 25th anniversary ball for AWA

100LB BIRTHDAY CAKE. A.W.A. Dance. The decorations at the 25th annual ball of Amalgamated Wireless (A'sia), Limited, held at the Trocadero last night, took the form of birthday greetings. During the evening a birthday cake, weighing 100lb was brought on to the ballroom floor on a blue trolly adorned with silver stars and manned by four Beam wireless messenger boys. It was cut by Lady Fisk and pieces taken round to the guests by the Beam wireless boys. At the official table Sir Ernest and Lady Fisk entertained Mr. and Mrs. L. A. Hooke, Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. W. T. S. Crawford, Captain and Mrs. Burgess, Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Mulholland, Mr. C. Plowman, Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Thom, Mr. and Mrs. H. G. Horner, Mr. and Mrs. C. J. A. Moses, Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Marden, Mr. and Mrs. V. E. Butler, Colonel and Mrs. F. M. Lorenzo, Major and Mrs. P. J. Manley, Mr. and Mrs. T. G. Murray, Mr. and Mrs. L. P. R. Bean, Mr. J. A. Overdiep, Rev. G. and Mrs. Cowie, Mr. and Mrs. D. T. Hinchen, Mr. and Mrs. F. McDowell, Mr. and Mrs. A. S. McDonald, Miss P. McDonald, Mr. and Mrs. A. Burch, Mr. and Mrs. V. F. Mitchell, Commander and Mrs. N. Harvey, Mr. A. Giberius. Lady Fisk chose an ensemble of orchid brocaded lame. Mrs. L. A. Hooke wore a frock of white crinkle crepe georgette cut on classical lines, with a swathed corsage; a Iei of real frangipanni completed her ensemble. Mrs. A. S. McDonald chose a gown of rust floral georgette, and Miss Patricia McDonald's white sheer georgette frock was made with a matching bolero. Mrs. J. F. Wilson wore a frock of stiffened black satin patterned in gold.[409]

1938 08[edit | edit source]

Crawford advocates provision of radio receivers in local government motor vehicles for early detection of developing electrical faults

RADIO SETS TO FIND ELECTRICITY FAULTS. GOSFORD, Tuesday. IN future, Erina Shire's electrical engineer "will have music wherever he goes." While shire engineers in other parts trundle on maintenance work in trucks, Erina's electrical engineer will loll back in luxury in a modem car, listening to the latest dance hits, grand opera or race results. He will attempt to locate faults in high and low tension electricity mains with a radio set in his car. "It will cost about £19," he told the Erina Shire Council this morning. "Radio sets," said the engineer, Mr. A. J. Cresswell, "are definitely very sensitive detectors." A letter from Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, senior radio inspector, of Sydney, was read at the meeting. "Manly electrical engineers are at present equipped with radio sets as testing equipment," stated the letter. "The engineers have found that faults are detected before they can become sufficiently serious to cause a dislocation of the service."[410]

As previous, further detail

Electricity Services. At Tuesday's meeting of Erina Shire Council Mr. A. J. Cresswell, Electrical Engineer, reported that due to the steady increase in loading it would be necessary to change two existing transformers at The Entrance, namely, the 75 KVA at The Entrance, and the 50 KVA at Long Jetty. The 75 KVA would be installed at Long Jetty and he proposed to instal 100 KVA at The Entrance and, as this would leave him without a spare for both places, it would be necessary to purchase two 100 KVA transformers at £145 10s each; total £291/-/-. As it takes approximately eleven weeks to deliver a transformer from receipt of order, he recommended that the order be placed immediately. Terrigal was served with one 50 KVA transformer, and the reticulation area had so increased since 1929 that it now became necessary to instal another 30 KVA transformer at Havenview Road, near the bridge. Total cost of 30 KVA single pole substation, £156. At Erina the reticulation area had so increased that it would be necessary to instal another substation and remove the present one to another site so as to allow better spacing between transformers. Total cost £170. He would like to point out to the Council the development that had taken place on this feeder from Moir's corner to Terrigal. In 1929 this 11 KV feeder only supplied Terrigal and the original transformer, one 50 KV, is still there. Since that year the following substations had been erected: Cox's Corner, Erina, and two substations at Wamberal. To efficiently control this feeder it was necessary to instal an airbreak switch and chemical repeater fuses on the Terrigal side of Moir's corner at Erina, at a cost of £60. He recommended that this work be carried out as soon as possible. He also recommended that three poles be erected in Church Street, Terrigal, to allow him to supplement the mains at Terrigal, and the erection of three phase 415/340 volts mains in Church Street. By doing this a considerable load would be served direct from the transformer, whereas the consumers at present received their supply from the main street. The cost would be £38. Radio Interference.— Only a portion of the consumers at Ourimbah were experiencing faulty radio reception. He had been in touch with the Senior Radio Inspector, and a certain course of action was decided on, viz., disconnecting our lighting arrestors at Ourimbah substation — but the trouble still remained, although he had disconnected the arrestors as suggested. He had spent one Saturday afternoon over this matter with the Radio Inspector, and considered it was a matter for the Department to ascertain the trouble. The letter from the Department on May 31, read as follows: "With reference to interference with broadcast reception at Ourimbah, it appears that the lightning arrestors at Ourimbah substation are responsible for the trouble. Your suggestion to disconnect this equipment for a short period should indicate whether or not the arrestors are responsible for the interference. "I wish to bring under your notice the value of a car radio attached to your official car as a testing instrument. Mainly electrical engineers at present are so equipped and have found, with their aid, that faults are detected before they become sufficiently serious to cause a dislocation of the source. "I wish to place on record my appreciation of the assistance rendered by you in attempting to locate the trouble.— Yours faithfully, W. T. S. Crawford, Senior Radio Inspector." He thought the letter pointed out that the matter was receiving attention. Council had many miles of 11 KV distribution, and low tension reticulation and this interference which undoubtedly existed in this particular area only presented peculiar features. From Gosford to the outskirts of Ourimbah the reception was excellent, and half a mile from the Ourimbah hotel the reception was good. Regarding the suggestion of equipping the car with a radio set as a testing instrument, he considered this set would prove invaluable as the radio set was definitely a very sensitive detector. An example of the efficiency of this detector was brought before his notice by the Radio Inspector. The report was adopted, and it was decided to secure a wireless set.[411]

Crawford confirms that one of his team will be available to track down interference problems in Grafton district

WIRELESS NEWS. . . . INSPECTOR'S VISIT. The Clarence River District Wireless Listeners' League yesterday received a reply from the senior radio inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, to its representations, intimating that he was communicating with the inspector, who is to. visit Grafton next week for the purpose of tracing inductive interference affecting wireless broadcast reception. Mr. Crawford advised that he had instructed the inspector to use his own discretion as to the extent of his stay in Grafton. The length of the inspector's visit would, therefore, be governed by the amount of interference evident during his visit here, and the number of complaints from licensed wireless listeners awaiting his attention.[412]

1938 09[edit | edit source]

Crawford oversights prosecution of court matter involving use of an amateur transmitter without a licence

HAD NO LICENSE. Wireless Transmission Case. FINE OF £50 IMPOSED. Edward Davies, of Kearsley, pleaded guilty, at Cessnock Police Court yesterday, to a charge of having used a wireless transmitting station without authority. James David Lamond, an inspector from the P.M.G.'s Department, stated that defendant must have been quite aware that he had no authority to use the station, because he had sat for an examination and failed to pass it. The department has got to be very careful to see that these stations are only used by persons who are entitled to do so. Defendant was using the station for purposes other than of an experimental nature. He was using the station for the purpose of communicating with his daughter and son-in-law who are at present in England. There is an Anglo-Australian radio telephone service for the purpose and the department must not only protect its own interests, but the interests of the company in charge of this service." Mr. W. I. Cleeves (Woodgate and Cleeves), who appeared for Davies, said he was instructed that the position was not exactly as put to the court by the departmental officer. The defendant thought he had a right to use the transmitting station providing he had the authority of the licensee. In this case it was necessary to have two licenses — one for the station and one for the operator. "In this particular case the operator left the State and wrongly gave my client permission to use the set. He had only used the transmitter on comparatively few occasions himself. On other occasions it was used by certificated operators. There is the object in some of the regulations of preventing these people using these stations, and defrauding the Commonwealth Government of revenue, but in this case I am instructed that, instead of defrauding the Government of revenue, any experiment or conversations which took place gained revenue for the department. "My client dealt with the matter in a whole state of ignorance. He has given a definite assurance that it won't occur again. Mr. Lamond contended that defendant was aware he had no authority to use the station. "To cover himself up, when apprehended, he said: 'At all times when I used the station, there was a licensed operator present'." Mr. Carr-Boyd, P.M., said he took a serious view of the matter. The matter was one which could be dealt with summarily, but on the other hand the offence was one for which the defendant could be committed for trial." "If this country was at war, in all probability the defendant would be sent for trial," said the magistrate. Davies was fined £50, plus £1 costs, in default 102 days' imprisonment. Defendant was allowed two months to pay.[413]

As previous, Crawford comments

LICENCE LIMITS. Wireless Experiments. SYDNEY, Thursday. Commenting on the £50 fine imposed on a Cessnock amateur for unauthorised use of an experimental transmitter, the chief radio inspector (Mr. W. Crawford) said that an experimental licence-holder was limited to investigation and research. He could transmit or receive in plain language unimportant messages relating to his experiments or remarks of a personal character, but not messages for a third party. At the end of last month there were 1916 licensed experimenters in Australia, 736 of whom were in New South Wales. Mr. Crawford said that in the event of war special action would have to be taken.[414]

1938 12[edit | edit source]

Crawford comments on the provisions of the WT Act following the cancellation of 2KY's licence

Station Summarily Cut Off The Air. MINISTER ACTS WITHOUT EXPLANATION. "Dead" Lines First Hint To Officials. At 4.0 p.m. yesterday, radio station 2KY, owned and operated by the New South Wales Labor Council, was cut off the air. One minute earlier the secretary of the 2KY committee (Mr. R. A. King, M.L.C.), had received a notice from the Postmaster-General (Mr. Cameron) cancelling the station's licence to broadcast. The station was given no opportunity to inform listeners. The two telephone lines which connect the studio with the transmitting station in French's Forest went "dead" in the middle of a racing session. No explanation was given by Mr. Cameron in his letter for cancelling the licence. Later, in a telephone conversation, Mr. Cameron told Mr. King that it was due to the fact that the station's political commentator (Mr. J. Morley) "was still attacking people." The Prime Minister (Mr. Lyons), who is in Deloraine (Tasmania), booked a phone call to the Postmaster-General (Mr. Cameron) last night as soon as he heard of the 2KY ban. Mr. Cameron was on a train between Melbourne and Adelaide, but Mr. Lyons asked that every effort be made to get him to the phone at some station en route. Information received from an official source in Melbourne last night confirmed the fact that the cancellation of 2KY's licence was due to the nature of the political commentaries. At the Minister's request, officers of the P.M.G.'s department made records of several recent broadcasts, which they forwarded to Melbourne. When allegations were made in one of the talks that the P.M.G.'s Department had instituted a censorship and policed telephone conversations during the Port Kembla dispute, the Minister decided to act. The cancellation of 2KY's licence was done on the Minister's own authority without consulting Cabinet. Matter Raised At End Of November. Mr. King said last night that at the end of November Mr. Cameron had mentioned to him that Mr. Morley's remarks would have to be toned down. Mr. Cameron did not state what remarks made by Mr. Morley were objected to. At first it was thought that remarks made by Mr. Morley on Tuesday in connection with Mr. Thorby's criticism of Mr. Curtin were the direct cause of the cancellation. Among other remarks, Mr. Morley had said that Mr. Thorby evidently intended to pass out politically with a spitoon in one hand and a smoking gun in the other. The fact that Mr. Cameron's letter of cancellation, however, was dated December 19, showed that these particular remarks were not those directly responsible. Mr. Morley said last night that his commentaries had been couched in "robust language." He had mentioned the name of Mr. Cameron on several occasions, but nobody could say that his remarks showed any special animus against the Minister. Text Of Talk On Kembla Dispute. On December 12 Mr. Morley broadcast a talk on the Port Kembla dispute which contained many personal references to Mr. Cameron. The text of the talk was as follows:— "Imagine the bilious look on the faces of certain people when their nice little arrangements to aid Japanese butchers against the Chinese people were neatly exposed . . . "I say certain people. I'd like to name them because they're well known enough. "But Mr. Cameron said we mustn't mention names. Don't think I'm afraid of my job, but this session must go on . . . "The screw is on, but we can still do the job . . . Claim Telegram Was Censored. "The telegraph office censored a telegram in which the Port Kembla men were praised for their stand. "The telegram included the phrase, 'slaughter of Chinese women and children.' "But the despots of the Post Office ordered that the phrase be expunged before the telegram could be transmitted. "Then again, Port Kembla leaders say their telephone lines were under surveillance. Their conversations are spied on by secret official listeners. "If phone-spying is proved, the two lots of charges should be enough to force the resignation of Mr. Cameron. No Appeal Provided in Act. No Appeal From Ban On Radio Station. The Wireless Telegraphy Act does not provide any right of appeal against the cancellation of a broadcasting licence. This was stated last night by the radio inspector for New South Wales (Mr. W. T. S. Crawford), in discussing the cancellation of 2KY's licence. "Regulation 20 provides that the Minister may, by notice in writing, revoke any licence on the ground of the licencee having failed to comply with any regulation then in force under the Act or with any condition of the licence," he said. "The regulation provides also that the licensee shall not be entitled to any compensation." Described As Fascist Action. "The action of the Postmaster-General is of a Fascist-like character, similar to the recent attack by the Minister for Defence (Mr. Thorby) on Mr. Curtin," said the president of the New South Wales Labor Council (Mr. J. Hughes). "Newspapers can make attacks on the Government of the day, but, apparently, a broadcasting station is not allowed to do so. "Had our telephone lines not been disconnected we would have disregarded the cancellation of our licence, and continued broadcasting. "Action of this kind against a commercial enterprise, with a turnover of £30,000 a year, is without precedent." Question Of Legal Action Considered. When Mr. King rang the Prime Minister (Mr. Lyons) in Tasmania last night, Mr. Lyons said he would make no comment until he had communicated with Mr. Cameron. The 2KY committee will discuss today the question of taking legal action against the Government. Mr. King said last night that legal advice had already been sought. Mr. Curtin To Ask For Explanation. PERTH, Wednesday.— Interviewed tonight, the leader of the Federal Opposition (Mr. Curtin) said that he was asking the Postmaster-General for an explanation of his extraordinary action. He added: "The unprecedented nature of the proceeding will call for the strongest justification and an explanation much more satisfactory than has been the characteristic of many recent Ministerial explanations. "Political views of a radio station in a free country are neither the subject for censorship nor suppression. "I shall not accept any explanation as being adequate which is based on the opinions held by the Postmaster-General as against the views held by station 2KY." Station Granted Licence In 1925. 2KY is one of the oldest commercial stations in Australia, and was granted its licence in 1925. The station is owned and controlled by the New South Wales Labor Council. It is governed by a committee elected annually by the council. 41 People Put Out Of Work. The manager of 2KY (Mr. H. E. Beaver) said last night that 41 people would be out of work as a result of the cancellation of the licence. He said the station had a large following, and probably the largest volume of advertising of any broadcaster in Sydney. "It appears that we have broken all our advertising contracts by going off the air," said Mr. Beaver. The official notice from Mr. Cameron of the cancellation read: "I hereby notify you that I have this day revoked and determined broadcasting station licence number 55, granted to the Labor Council of New South Wales for broadcasting station 2KY. "As the licence has been revoked and determined, the use of the station for broadcasting purposes will be contrary to the Wireless Telegraphy Act."[415]

As previous, Crawford's personal role in putting 2KY off air detailed

STATION 2KY CUT OFF. ACTION BY MR. CAMERON. SUDDEN SILENCE. No Explanation. At about a minute's notice, the trades union radio Station, 2KY, Sydney, was "put off the air" by order of the Postmaster-General, Mr. Cameron, yesterday. The action, which was the first of the kind in Australia, was taken under the provisions of the Wireless Telegraphy Act, which give the Postmaster-General extremely wide powers of censorship over broadcasting stations. In Melbourne last night, Mr. Cameron said that he accepted full responsibility. He said that he had personally warned the management of the station of the action that would be taken if it did not conform to the requirements of the Department. "They know why action has been taken," he added. ONE MINUTE'S NOTICE. The station was informed about one minute to 4 p.m. by telephone from the Post Office of the proposed action, and that official notice of cancellation of its licence would be sent to the Trades Hall by letter immediately. No explanation was given. Promptly at 4 o'clock, while a description of the Victoria Park races was being broadcast, the station was "cut out" by the simple process of disconnecting the line connecting the transmitting station with the studio. About 20 minutes later, the Chief Radio Inspector, Mr. W. T. S. Crawford, arrived at the transmitting station at French's Forest with a plainclothes constable armed with a warrant to enter the station. Mr. Crawford informed the operators officially that the station had been "cut off the air." As no announcement had been made from the studio about the department's decision, the station was besieged by telephone calls from listeners asking the reason for the sudden silence. Beyond replying that the station was "off the air," studio officials could give no explanation. LICENCE CANCELLED. Later, a special messenger delivered at the Trades Hall two letters signed by Mr. Cameron, and addressed to Mr. J. Hughes, president of the 2KY committee, and to Mr. R. King, M.L.C., secretary of the committee. "I hereby inform you that I have this day revoked and determined broadcasting station licence No. 55 granted to the Labour Council of New South Wales for the broadcasting station 2KY," Mr. Cameron wrote. "As the licence has been revoked and determined, the use of the station for broadcasting purposes will be contrary to the Wireless Telegraphy Act." Mr. R. King, M.L.C., said last night that on November 28 he interviewed Mr. Cameron in Sydney. "Mr. Cameron complained that our news commentator had attacked individuals," said Mr. King. "He said that those individuals should be given the right of reply. If they were not, he would take action under the Wireless Telegraphy Act. I informed him that such attacks would not be tolerated by us. Instructions were issued to 2KY to that effect. I heard nothing more until this afternoon. I telephoned Mr. Cameron in Melbourne after the station had been cut off the air. I asked him why he had cut us off the air, and I asked whether, if the news talks were discontinued, he would relicence the station. He refused to answer. "Mr. Cameron told me that 2KY broadcast much that I knew nothing about. I told him that much went through the General Post Office of which he knew nothing." "I regard Mr. Cameron's action as high-handed and dictatorial," said Mr. King. "He is obviously trying to stifle free speech over the air. We have been charged and found guilty without a trial. It is a challenge to all commercial stations. What Is our fight to-day may be theirs to-morrow. His action means that 40 employees at the studio have been thrown out of work. We were not even allowed to advise our advertisers." LEGAL ACTION POSSIBLE. Mr. R. King added that legal advice had been taken and a meeting of the 2KY committee to-day would probably investigate the possibilities of taking legal action against the Federal Government. The chairman of the 2KY committee, Mr. J. Hughes, said that what 2KY had said about the Government was not half as bad as what newspapers had said. The action of the Minister in closing a station with a turnover of £30,000 a year was without a precedent. Officials of the station stated that they believed that objection had been taken by the Postmaster-General to statements relating to the Government and individual Ministers made during news commentaries from the station. The commentator is Mr. J. K. Morley, and in the last few days he has commented on the Port Kembla pig iron dispute, as well as on the references made by the Minister for Defence, Works, and Civil Aviation, Mr. Thorby, to the leader of the Opposition, Mr. Curtin. COMMENTATOR'S STATEMENT. Mr. Morley said last night that he was at a loss to know what statement had offended the Minister. All his commentaries were aimed at matters of Government policy, and not at individuals or personalities, unless the individuals were linked directly with national policies. He had, at various times lately, referred to the Port Kembla dispute, dealing with the subject from the angle of national policy; but in no case had the station tried to influence the waterside workers in their decisions. "Our policy on this subject all along," Mr. Morley said, "has been to put the case of the waterside workers fairly before the public, and surely no official objection could be taken to that. It may be that exception was taken to our remarks about the Ministerial attacks on Labour members of Parliament, particularly about the recent utterances of Mr. Thorby concerning Mr. Curtin. "But we have never shown any animus towards Mr. Cameron. In fact, when he took over the portfolio of Postmaster-General, we expressed the hope that he would be as tolerant of radio commentaries as was his predecessor, Senator McLachlan. "We did have some criticism to offer a few days ago about Mr. Cameron's ideas of what Australian people should do," Mr. Morley said. "We accused him of possessing an 'anthropoid idea of thrusting all women back into the kitchen and making them have children,' which, we said, was what Hitler had told the women of Germany to do; but even that comment was not directed at Mr. Cameron personally, but at the policy of the Government as a whole. PIONEER COMMERCIAL STATION. Station 2KY has been operating since October, 1925. It was one of the first commercial stations in Australia, and was the first Labour broadcasting station in the world. The station was formed by the unions in New South Wales. Officials of the Labour Council communicated with the Federal Labour leader, Mr. Curtin, yesterday afternoon, and he sent a telegram to Mr. Cameron, asking him for reasons for the action he had taken.[416]

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Pro-Nazi Minister Silences 2KY. STOPS STATION AT MINUTE'S NOTICE. Free Speech Gag By Cameron Stuns Australia. POSTMASTER-General Cameron's Nazi heel crashed on broadcasting station 2KY late yesterday, putting the station off the air at one minute's notice. 2KY was the only Australian station giving an independent news commentary. Mr. Cameron refused to give any definite reason for his extraordinary action. Headed by A.L.P. leaders in Sydney, spontaneous protests from all over Australia were made last night against this infringement on the rights of the people. Late last night, the Labor leader, Mr. Heffron, and the secretary of the Trades and Labor Council, Mr. King, communicated by phone with the Prime Minister, Mr. Lyons, at Devonport (Tas.). Mr. Lyons undertook to communicate immediately with Mr. Cameron in Melbourne. The hope was expressed last night that the intervention of the Prime Minister would result in immediate action being taken to lift the ban. Early in the night, Mr. King communicated by telephone with the Federal Labor leader, Mr. Curtin, at his home in Western Australia. Amazement was expressed by Mr. Curtin at the Fascist-like action of the Postmaster-General. "I will get in touch with the Postmaster-General immediately," said Mr. Curtin. All in Dark. Astonishment of Federal Ministers in Sydney betrayed the fact that the matter had not been discussed in Cabinet or in the party rooms. "I received a Ministerial instruction, and immediately acted upon it," said Mr. V. E. Butler, Deputy Postmaster-General. "I know nothing more than that." When questioned by Mr. King, Mr. Cameron would give no information, apart from saying that there had been complaints about the news commentary of Mr. J. K. Morley. It is regarded as significant that in his commentary during the past few weeks Mr. Morley has strongly attacked the B.H.P. for its ruthless policy in the Port Kembla lockout. The complaints which have resulted in the stifling of free expression, emanated from Inner Group supporters. 40 Lose Jobs. As a result of Mr. Cameron's action, 40 members of the staff have been deprived of their livelihood and a broadcasting station with a turnover yearly of £30,000 has been put out of business. Labor leaders recall that in bludgeoning his way to power, Hitler, also gagged free expression over the air. They claimed that it was a definite move towards the introduction of Fascism in this country. The station was cut off the air with such dramatic suddenness that the staff had no knowledge whatsoever of what had occurred. Even as the station officials read the fateful notice, rushed in by special messenger, a mechanic at the telephone exchange pulled out a plug cutting the line between the station and its out-of-town transmitter at French's Forest. By 4.20 p.m., silence brooded over the Labor station, which was among the first to commence broadcasting 10 years ago. ???? Terse and brutally cold, the official decree said the station's line would be killed at 4 o'clock. The notice was pushed into the hands of the station's assistant-manager at one minute to 4 p.m. Simultaneously, chief radio inspector Crawford and a squad of police were racing by car to French's Forest to close down the transmitter. Inspector and police bustled into Labor's £10,000 broadcasting plant, taking complete charge. The transmitter was immediately silenced. His Letter. Mr. Cameron's letter, which was written from Adelaide on December 19, read:— "I hereby notify you that I have this day revoked and determined broadcasting station licence No. 55, granted to the Labor Council of New South Wales for broadcasting station 2KY. "As the licence has been revoked and determined, the use of the station for broadcasting purposes, will be contrary to the Wireless Telegraphy Act." Assistant manager, Harcourt Garden, frantically dialled the P.M.G.'s office to find out the reason of the shut-down. "But why have our lines been discontinued?" he pleaded into the receiver. "Your station's licence has been cancelled by the Minister; there is no explanation." "We are absolutely dumbfounded," said Mr. Garden' later. "There does not seem to be even the slightest pretext on which the P.M.G. could take this unprecedented action." An eerie silence ruled in the studios, usually athrob at four in the afternoon with the highlight of the early evening program. Sensitive needles, usually jumping in lively arcs, registering the impact of the broadcast on the ether, all lay dead and silent in their frames. Announcers, clerks and typistes gathered in stupified groups, unable to comprehend the savage blow of Cameron's fury, not only at the station, but their jobs also. Swift Moves. Labor Council officials acted promptly. After communicating with the leader of the A.L.P., Mr. R. Heffron, M.L.A., they booked long-distance calls to the Federal Attorney-General, Mr. Menzies, Mr. Cameron, the Prime Minister, Mr. Lyons, and the Federal leader of the A.L.P., Mr. Curtin. "I told Mr. Cameron that I considered his action was r