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Ελληνική ιστορία - History of Greece
The tiny Mediterranean country known officially as the Hellenic Republic has had a fascinating history stretching back through the ages. This nation, known commonly as Greece, is widely considered the birthplace of Western civilization, and thus, its long and complex history continues to exert influence worldwide.
Chapters: -- Introduction
- Minoan Civilization --3000-1100 BCE
- Mycenaean Civilization --1600-1100 BCE
- Greek Dark Ages --1100-750 BCE
- Classical Greece --750-336 BCE
- Hellenistic Greece --336-146 BCE
- Roman Greece --146 BCE-330 CE
- Byzantine Empire --330-1453 CE
- Ottoman Greece --1453-1821 CE
- Independent Greece --1821-1974 CE
- Modern Greece --1974-2016 CE
Ancient Greece is undoubtedly one of the most important civilizations in history. The Hellenes, the term used by the Greeks to describe themselves, laid the foundations for democracy, philosophy, theater, and the sciences. In architecture the Ionic, Doric and Corinthian orders were perfected and their aesthetic function utilized during all periods up to the modern state. In the plastic arts Greek sculptors shook off the influence of Egyptian statuary with its stylized perspective seeking instead to explore proportion in relation to an aesthetic ideal of perfect form. Above the entrance to the Delphi oracle were inscribed the words "Know Thyself" as an ominous portent to those seeking answers at the sanctuary of Apollo. Critical introspection, of which the Delphic epigram is only one example among many, freed the Greeks from the restraints of censure. The arts and sciences flourished and the great poets and philosophers of Ancient Greece laid bare the human condition in a psychological drama that still resonates today. The Greeks adopting the Phoenician alphabet created a script that would form the basis for the development of other European writing systems. An achievement which is acknowledged today by the English word "alphabet" - a compound of alpha and beta which are the first two letters of the Greek alphabet. For the next three thousand years the written word would be the only method of recording human thought as expressed in language and in three thousand years time people will marvel at the ingenuity of Thomas Edison who devised a machine to record sound. A Golden Age is not defined as a product of linear continuity, though this is the path of progress, but by those individuals or societies who enrich mankind universally. Our debt to the Ancient Greeks is only now being repaid in kind for we truly live in a Golden Age of comparable universal achievements.
The location and topography of a land is important to understanding the environmental factors that shape a civilization. It allows historians and archaeologists to assign a permanent physical condition under which human development can be traced from the distant past to the present day. A people's response to these conditions is not only interpretative but also flexible allowing them to shape and to be shaped by their environment. The fluidity of this response presents a mosaic of meanings that scholars seek to uncover to explain the origins and development of a civilization. That the Ancient Greeks believed the gods resided on Mount Olympus, the highest peak in Greece, is a reminder of how the physical landscape can determine the cultural foci of a people. Zeus who ruled from Mount Olympus gave to his brothers, Poseidon and Hades, the sea and underworld. To the Greeks this trinity encompassed their religious world with a host of minor deities whose abodes either marked a landscape feature or whose existence gave an aetiological response to natural phenomena. The anthropomorphic nature and transformation of the Olympian deities allowed the Greeks to rationalize their interaction with the natural world of flora and fauna.
The four Greek elements of fire, water, earth and air also belonged to the Gods. It was Poseidon who shook the earth and Zeus who would strike dead with lightning those who did not hold to an oath sworn in his name. To the Greeks these beliefs defined their behaviour and to swear by Zeus held the same gravitas as swearing to truthful testimony on the Bible. The multitude of Greeks myths are not to be dismissed as the archaic practices of a primitive people. The Greeks sought to personify their beliefs within the parameters of their environment assigning characteristics in accord with their knowledge. That the Greeks understood this meant that they expanded their investigation into the elements in a scientific way and separate from the divine though never with a view to displacing the Gods. This tenuous detachment is why the Greeks are still held in high regard as the first to take a tentative step towards a greater understanding of the observable elements.
The west coast of Greece faces the Mediterranean and the east coast the Aegean. The west coast of Greece is more favourably placed for trade with Italy and Spain. The east coast of Greece offers access to the coast of Asia Minor as well as the Balkans and the Black Sea. At the southern tip of Greece is the Corinthian isthmus which acts as a land bridge to the Peloponnese peninsula. The north of Greece fans out to the borders of Albania, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Mainland Greece is divided north to south by the Pindus mountain range of which Mount Olympus is the highest peak. The Aegean islands were colonized by Greek settlers in prehistoric times and their importance is reflected in Greek mythology notably as the birthplace of major Greek deities. The two largest islands in the Aegean are Euboea and Crete.
The Spartans claimed Dorian ancestry and in this assertion we may find the clues to the destruction of Mycenaean hegemony and the seeds to future conflict. Archaeologists have long been puzzled by the paucity of Dorian archaeology yet their existence as a tribe is irrefutable based on linguistics. Sparta, a much admired and feared military aristocracy, whose dominance of its tribal neighbours points to a singular purpose also leaves to history less archaeological evidence. The Spartans were renowned for their austerity, severeness and laconic speech and though luxury was no stranger to their tables their myopic militarism does suggest that they were truly the descendants of the original Dorian invaders.
As modern archaeology progresses the dates of human activity are pushed further back highlighting the errors in the assumptions of the twentieth century historian. The Dorian invasion that was believed to have caused the collapse of Mycenae is now being examined as new interpretations of the archaeological evidence points to continuous human activity. The two world wars of the twentieth century act as a caveat against interpreting archaeological evidence of widespread destruction as a prelude or conclusion to permanent displacement. Modern conflict teaches us that despite the destructive forces we unleash upon ourselves the one assurance we have is that as long as people seek to live together society cannot be destroyed.
The Ancient Greeks have left a wide-ranging body of literature that has profoundly affected the development of Western culture. The Gods and Heroes of Ancient Greece have inspired generations of artists and writers in their muse. Our primary text sources for Greek Mythology are Hesiod, Homer and the anonymous Orphic poets. The Ancient Greeks used poetry as a medium to record their religion and history. For modern readers poetry is strongly associated with the Romantic movement and the expression in language of word-painting. A comparison of the modern romantic poem "Daffodils" by Wordsworth with the Pythian poem written by Pindar for a chariot race victory by Hieron of Syracuse highlights the differences. When approaching the study of Ancient Greek primary text sources the modern conception of poetry as an outlet for the emotional expressions of a poet should be tempered with an understanding of the historical context. The poetry of Ancient Greece developed from oral history and religious practices and though the poetry of Sappho of Lesbos displays the same personal form as Wordsworth the writings of Homer and Hesiod should be understood within the context of declaiming historical and religious practices in poetic form.
An Introduction to Works and Days by Hesiod
The manual Works and Days by Hesiod is a very short agricultural treatise and is a useful introduction to the primary sources of Ancient Greece. It starts with an invocation to the Muses whom Hesiod states in his other work Theogony commanded him to write when they appeared before him as he was shepherding on Mount Helicon. The poem Works and Days is addressed to his brother Perses with whom he has recently shared an inheritance. The first part of Works and Days asks Perses to heed the moral lessons blessed to the Gods and those immoral actions divisive to Man. Hesiod states that his brother has manipulated the division of their father's estate by bribing the Lords whose judgement was final in the matter. Hesiod starts by relating the origins of evil using the medium of Ancient Greek religion. The modern definition of mythology must be discarded when immersing yourself in Hesiod. To the Ancient Greeks their deities carried the same force in matters of spirituality in accordance with our modern concept of religion and therefore the connection is always human. Hesiod will show Perses that the evils that plague mankind are in part of their own making. The events of Prometheus stealing fire to give to humans after Zeus had hidden it from them is used by Hesiod to introduce the concept of human folly. After discovering the theft by Prometheus the angry response of Zeus is to ask Hephaestus, the Blacksmith God, to fashion from clay the first woman, Pandora. Zeus commands the Gods to each give a gift to the humans which will be placed in a jar. Pandora is sent to Epimetheus, the brother of Prometheus, who despite the warnings by Prometheus to not accept gifts from the Gods takes Pandora into his house. Pandora opens the jar of gifts and releases the plague of evils though Hope is stopped from escaping by Zeus. The relationship between predestiny and free-will are bound by our behaviour and Hesiod is clearly stating this to the errant Perses. This is reinforced by Hesiod who relates the history of the five generations of Manː
- The Golden Race of Men
- The Silver Race of Men
- The Ash (Spear) Race of Men
- The Hero Race of Men
- The Iron Race of Men
Hesiod recounts the common Ancient Greek belief in spirits who themselves were once humans. The Golden Race were the most loved by the Gods who blessed them with no evils and a life of ease. Upon their death, which was like falling asleep, they became good spirits who travailed the earth for the benefit of mortals. The Silver Race were created by the Gods and their demise would come during the reign of Zeus who had usurped his father, Cronos, ruler of the Golden Race. The Silver Race were destroyed by Zeus for not worshiping the Gods and upon their destruction became the good spirits who travailed the underworld of Hades. The Ash Race were permanently at war honouring Ares above all other deities. The Ancient Greeks viewed Ares, the God of War, as an evil force and Hesiod says that their love of war was the reason that assured their mutual destruction. The fourth generation was the age of Heroes and Demigods. This is the time of the Trojan War and its legendary hero Achilles which Hesiod states is the race of humans before his own. Hesiod also mentions Cadmus, the legendary founder of Thebes, as well as Oedipus who became King of Thebes after vanquishing the plague-bringing Sphinx by solving its riddle. Hesiod praises this age of Heroes and offers the first view of an afterlife where fallen warriors live in a distant paradise ruled by Cronos. To the Ancient Greeks the domain of Hades was not a paradise and though it housed the souls and bodies of the departed they were mere shadows of their former self. A common theme in Greek plays and literature is the possibility of a return to life by escaping from the underworld of Hades. The playwright Euripides in his play "Alcestis" has Hercules rescuing the heroine Alcestis from the underworld after she has exchanged her life to save her husband from death. The comedy playwright Aristophanes has Euripides and Aeschylus, both deceased by the time of Aristophanes, competing in the underworld to settle the question of who is the greatest writer of tragedy in his play "The Frogs". The winner, as judged by Dionysus, will be returned to life from the underworld. Hesiod's paradise for heroes is not somewhere one would wish to escape from but it should be noted that the underworld was not regarded by the Ancient Greeks as Hell is to Heaven. This is reflected in the funerary practice of placing an obol (coin) in the mouth of the deceased to pay the ferryman, Charon, who transported the departed across the River Acheron. The Iron Race is Hesiod's own time and he spares nothing in describing the degenerate and corrupt nature of his contemporaries. This excerpt from the Evelyn-White translation of 1914 in which Hesiod describes the eschatological conditions that will lead to the destruction of the Iron Race highlights the universal themes comparable to modern religions and brings into focus the true moral aim of this agricultural manual for Persesː
The father will not agree with his children, nor the children with their father, nor guest with his host, nor comrade with comrade; nor will brother be dear to brother as aforetime. Men will dishonour their parents as they grow quickly old, and will carp at them, chiding them with bitter words, hard-hearted they, not knowing the fear of the gods. They will not repay their aged parents the cost of their nurture, for might shall be their right: and one man will sack another's city. There will be no favour for the man who keeps his oath or for the just or for the good; but rather men will praise the evil-doer and his violent dealing. Strength will be right and reverence will cease to be; and the wicked will hurt the worthy man, speaking false words against him, and will swear an oath upon them. Envy, foul-mouthed, delighting in evil, with scowling face, will go along with wretched men one and all.
The Greek peninsula resisted Roman rule, until it was organized into the Roman province of Achaea in 27 BCE by Augustus. Throughout history, conquerors have imposed their culture upon the vanquished, but the Roman annexation of Greece was perhaps one of history's most-influential exceptions to this rule. In the words of the Roman poet Horace, "Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit" ("Greece took captive her conqueror."). The Romans adopted nearly every aspect of Greek culture, allowing it to continue to thrive much as it had done for centuries. During this time period, Christianity began to rise, and Greece was one of the first areas of the Roman Empire to be heavily influenced by the new religion.
When Emperor Constantine I moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in 330, Greece experienced a revival of its economic power, becoming one of the richest areas of the Byzantine Empire that was created by the Roman Empire's split in 305. After more than a thousand years of Byzantine rule, the Ottoman Empire in nearby Asia Minor began to rise in power, eventually capturing Constantinople in 1453. By 1460, Greece was under Ottoman control. As the Ottoman Empire gradually weakened, the Greeks were influenced by the growing nationalist movements throughout Europe during the early nineteenth century. In 1821, they rose up, and gained independence, leading to the creation of the modern Greek state.
Chapter 01 - Minoan Civilization
The Minoans were a Bronze Age civilization that flourished on the Greek Aegean island of Crete from around 3000 to 1100 BCE. By around 1450 BCE the Minoan palace culture had collapsed and the vacuum was filled by the Greek mainland Mycenaean culture whose ascendancy is mythologized in the story of King Agamemnon who led the Greek expedition to Troy. The name Minoan was coined by the British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans, who from 1900 to 1906 excavated the palace at Knossos, which he believed to be the capital of the empire of the mythical King Minos.
Greek archeologist Nikolaos Platon devised a chronology of the civilization based on excavations of Minoan palaces. He divides the civilization into the following eras:
Prepalatial period (3000-1900)
Archaeological evidence shows that Crete may have been inhabited as early as the seventh millennium BCE. New settlers skilled in metallurgy arrived by the end of the fourth millennium BCE, and replaced the earlier Neolithic peoples.
Protopalatial period (1900-1700)
The first large palaces, most notably at Knossos and Phaistos, were built during the Protopalatial period, leading to more urbanized life and centralized political authority. Around 1700 BCE the major palaces were all destroyed perhaps due to natural causes, such as an earthquake, or perhaps an invasion from Anatolia.
Neopalatial period (1700-1450)
After their destruction, the palaces soon were rebuilt, giving rise to the Neopalatial period. This period represents the apex of Minoan civilization. Population increased, new settlements were built, and impressive art, architecture, and technologies (such as plumbing) were developed. Despite these many advances, the Minoans suffered some sort of catastrophe around 1450.
Final Palace period (1450-1380 BCE)
Many theories have been put forth to the cause of this sudden and rapid decline. Theories include a massive volcanic eruption of Mt. Thera on the nearby island of Santorini, internal strife, or an invasion of the Myceneans from mainland Greece. A combination of these factors may be reason for the Minoan collapse. Minoan power and influence in the region had effectively ended by 1420 BCE supplanted by the Myceneans. Excavations reveal that pottery and writings from Crete after 1450 resemble those of mainland Greece more so than those of pre-1450 Crete. Knossos then served as the administrative center of Mycenean Crete, until it was destroyed by fire in 1380.
Postpalatial period (1380-1100 BCE)
After the destruction of Knossos, economic and political influence shifted to the town of Khaniá. Despite this, Cretan civilization began to further decline, and many Minoan sites were abandoned. Khondros is one of few new sites to be settled during this period. The last Minoan site to fall was the isolated mountain town of Karfi, which was able to resist assimilation into the Mycenean culture until the early Iron Age. The widespread use of iron tools (brought by the Myceneans) rather than bronze ones (used by Minoans) is one of the main indications archaeologists used to determine the date of the final Minoan collapse.
The Minoan culture featured a very distinctive religion, art style, and language. The Minoans were also pioneers in naval exploration, establishing several colonies on the Greek mainland and other Aegean islands, such as Akrotiri on Thera. Minoan cultural influence spread throughout the region, including over the Mycenean culture.
Much of what is known about the Minoan religion is based on oral tradition that was not written down until long after the Myceneans had replaced their civilization. From these records, as well as what archaeologists have been able to piece together, historians have generally agreed that the Minoan religion seems to have been based on the religion of the Neolithic peoples they conquered in moving to Crete. It centered on the goddess Potnia and was polytheistic. Bulls were sacred to the Minoans and bull-leaping, as depicted on the wall fresco discovered at Knossos, was a religious ritual. The famous labyrinth at Knossos is the best-known example of a Minoan temple. Religious symbols include the serpent, bull, labrys (a double-headed axe, for which the labyrinth is named), sun, and tree.
Excavations have revealed frescoes, statues, and pottery. Pottery was the dominant art form of the Minoans from their arrival on Crete up until the Neopalatial period, when pottery-making technology allowed for a standardization of design. Fresco-painting soon rose in prominence, and focused heavily on religious and naturalistic themes. Bulls and snakes, both religious symbols, featured prominently in many works of art, as do other non-religious animals. Perhaps the most famous of the Minoan frescoes is one depicting the religious ritual of bull-leaping, which was found in the palace of Minos. Interestingly, no frescoes depict any of the many gods.
Minoans also pioneered many architectural methods. Cities featured roads paved with stone, sewers, and plumbing. The most-recognized type of Minoan architecture is the palace. The construction of the first palaces (the famous palace at Knossos was one of the first) ended the Prepalatial period. Palaces were centers of government, allowing the dozens of individual communities to come under centralized political authority. Palaces also were used to store crop surpluses, and house shrines to goddesses.
The Minoan economy was very diverse. Several crops were cultivated, such as wheat, barley, grapes, olives, and figs. They raised several animals, including cattle, goats, and pigs. Bees were kept for honey production, as were donkeys and oxen for plowing purposes. The Minoans also had an established shipping industry, as evidenced by the many colonies they established throughout the eastern Mediterranean. They were involved in the tin trade. As bronze tools and weapons made from tin and copper were replaced by superior iron ones the Minoan economy in trading tin declined. Their trade network extended from Mesopotamia and Egypt all the way to Spain.
Minoan civilization featured several written languages. During the Prepalatial period, a primitive hieroglyphic script was used, but fell out of use by 1700. A writing system called Linear A developed during the Protopalatial period, and continued to be used through the Neopalatial period. Linear A featured many symbols, each of which represented a syllable, word, or number. Linear A was used for record-keeping, and some religious functions. Linear B was the script used for government records. After the Mycenean conquest, Linear A was replaced by Linear B, which would eventually evolve into what is now the modern Greek language. Linear B was deciphered in the 1950s, but Linear A and the hieroglyphic texts have yet to have been completely translated.
Chapter 02 - Mycenaean Civilization
The Mycenaean civilization refers to a Bronze Age civilization on mainland Greece, inhabiting the area from around 1600-1100 BCE. The name "Mycenaean" refers to the city of Mycenae, which was excavated by Heinrich Schliemann beginning in 1876. Schliemann is also well-known for discovering and excavating the city of Troy in Asia Minor, which was at the time believed to be fictional. Mycenaean Greece is the period in which the Iliad and Odyssey are set.
Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and Middle Bronze Age in mainland Greece under influences from Minoan Crete. These Bronze Age Greeks establish themselves as political units sometime around 1600. The Mycenaeans quite possibly lived under Minoan dominance until around 1400, when they conquered Crete.
Conflicts with Minoans
The Mycenaeans are often cited as one of the contributing factors to the rapid decline of Minoan civilization. The Minoans lived on the Aegean island of Crete, and had a naval influence that likely subjugated the Mycenaeans. Around the year 1600 BCE, it is believed that a volcanic eruption on the island of Santorini near Crete devastated the Minoans. The resulting weakness is thought to have allowed the Mycenaeans to overthrow the Minoans and replace them as the dominant culture of the region.
The Classical poet called Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey in the 8th or 7th century BCE, long after the Mycenaeans had vanished as a recognizable civilization. Because of this centuries-long gap in time, most scholars agree that Homer's epics cannot be viewed as accurate accounts of Mycenaean culture. It has been verified, however, that many of the places referred to in the Iliad and Odyssey were actual Mycenaean sites, including Troy.
Decline and collapse
Sometime around 1100, a tribe from the north known as the Dorians invaded the Peloponnesus and destroyed the Mycenaean civilization. Greece was subsequently thrown into a Dark Age, from which it took several centuries to recover. The written Mycenaean language was completely forgotten, forcing the Greeks to reinvent their writing system centuries later.
Not a great deal is known about the Mycenaean religion. It has been observed, however, that it was influenced to some degree by that of the Minoans. Many of the Mycenaean gods are recognizable to us as the well-known Classical gods, such as Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Ares, Athena, Dionysus, and Hermes. Apollo, Aphrodite, and Hades are notable absences!
Mycenaean artwork was influenced, like nearly all other aspects of their civilization, by the Minoans. Pottery, statues, and paintings make up the majority of Mycenaean art. Mycenaeans developed advanced bronze-working techniques, creating swords, shields, and suits of armor.
In contrast to the Minoans, the Mycenaean leaders built fortresses — enormous walled structures that contained a megaron like the Minoan palace, but were primarily fortifications for defense. The walls of these structures often stood forty or fifty feet high, and were composed of enormous blocks of stone weighing two to three tons, fitted together without mortar. Fortresses at Tiryns and at Mycenae are considered the best examples of these military structures.
Unlike the Minoans, the Mycenaeans are not known to have built many religious shrines. A sacrificial site on Mount Lykaon sacred to Zeus in the Classical period has recently been found to pre-date Mycenaean occupation of the Greek peninsula or the Peloponnese, but no substantial structures of a religious nature have been identified at Mycenaean sites. Such buildings may have been incorporated into the palace-fortresses, but they are not specifically identified as such.
A Mycenaean common house has been located and identified. Dating from late in the Mycenaean period, it consists of a long, narrow building of posts with wattle-and-daub curtain walls and likely a thatched roof. One end of the house held an entry porch, while the opposite end was rounded and held the likely sleeping quarters. The interior was divided into two rooms, the aforementioned sleeping area farthest from the entrance, and a living area that contained a rudimentary hearth and a food-preparation area. The presence of sheep feces and wool fibers in the porch area suggest that the front entrance was used as a pen for holding animals.
The language spoken by the Mycenaeans was an ancestor of modern Greek as shown on the Linear B tablet (the Minoan script from the Linear A tablet). Linear B was deciphered in the early 1950's, and proved to be an ancient form of the modern Greek language. This orthography resembled modern Japanese, in that it was syllabic instead of alphabetic. This form of writing, however, was forgotten during the Dark Ages, leading the Greeks of the classical era to redevelop a system of writing from a Phoenician model, allowing the alphabetic system to come into use.
A substantial number of Linear B texts, deal with matters of economic concern — inventories of possessions and lists of goods being brought to and from the palaces or sent out from the palaces. One of the most famous, used in the process of cracking Linear B as a language, lists provisions for the coast guard: apparently the so-called "Palace of Nestor" mounted a seaward watch on the approaches to its landfall, and paid the watchers in food and goods. These records suggest that the palaces were the principal economic engines of the era. They took in raw materials into workshops, where trained artisans produced finished goods, that would then be exchanged with other palaces for the best products of their local regions.
- Dickinson, Oliver (1977). The Origins of Mycenaean Civilization. Götenberg: Paul Aströms Förlag.
- Dickinson, Oliver (December 1999). Invasion, Migration and the Shaft Graves. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 43 (1). pp. 97–107. doi:10.1111/j.2041-5370.1999.tb00480.x.
Chapter 03 - Greek Dark Ages
The Ancient Greeks divided themselves into three tribes; the Aeolians, Ionians, and Dorians. The Mycenaeans (referred to as Argives, Achaeans, and Danaans by Homer in the Iliad) were Aeolians and Ionians. Sometime around 1100 BCE, the Dorians, who lived north of the other two tribes, began to raid the Mycenaeans. Entire cities were destroyed, and Mycenae itself fell and was plundered by the invaders. Not only were the citadels of Mycenaean Greece destroyed, but civilization itself would collapse in the region.
Changes under the Dorians
Many theories exist about the cause of the Mycenaeans' collapse. Ecological disasters may have undermined the economy of the agrarian-based Mycenaeans, allowing the Dorians to supplant their society. The Dorians quickly developed trade relations throughout the Mediterranean to replace the old economy. The region of Attica (which included Athens) would rise to dominate the region due to its prominence as a trade center. The change was not immediate, however, as Athens, like the rest of Greece, would need a long recovery from the Mycenaean collapse. These new contacts with outside civilizations would have drastic consequences for the future of Greece.
The most significant immediate change for Greece during this time period was the end of writing. No written records exist for this time period, and writings from subsequent time periods are completely different from those of the Mycenaeans, leading historians to believe that writing was completely forgotten during the Dark Ages. The Dorians spoke a dialect different from that of the Mycenaeans, and due to the absence of a writing system, very few records remain of their language. All modern Greek dialects are descended from Attic Greek ("Classical" Greek), with one exception: the endangered Tsakonian dialect, which is a descendant of Doric, and therefore of considerable interest to linguists.
The Dorians would undoubtedly come into contact with the Phoenicians, a powerful seafaring people from the nearby Levant. The Greeks adopted the Phoenecian concept of an alphabet, and through trade would spread this throughout the Mediterranean. This alphabet was the first to include vowels, replacing the syllabic script of Mycenaean Linear B. The word alphabet itself comes from the names of the first two letters of this new writing system: Alpha (Αα) and Beta (Ββ).
Due to the lack of a writing system, poets (also known as bards) would have recited the long stories orally and passed them down over the years. Homer's epics could very well be versions of stories first composed, but not written, during the Dark Ages.
The Dorians were a warlike people, and thrust Greece into the Iron Age. Weapons were no longer made of bronze but instead, iron. Weapons became cheaper to make, more durable, and more effective in combat. This functionality replaced the ornate beauty of the craftsmanship of the old Mycenaean weapons. The hoplite was the name of the Ancient Greek infantryman who fought in phalanxes. Cavalry was the preserve of the Greek aristocracy due to the status attached to horse ownership. The cuirass, greaves and crested helmet not only offered protection but also presented a formidable display of height and strength to the enemy.
During the Dark Ages, the polis (plural poleis), or city-state, would begin to develop. Cities dominated the surrounding landscape, and became independent units. The Dorians did not "conquer" the area in the sense of adding the territory to their domain, as the mountains of the region prevented the continuous contact necessary for a single nation to exist. Each city-state was naturally defended by the surrounding mountains, and each constantly expanded at the expense of its neighbors.
Soon after the invasions, monarchies were established in most, if not all, of the poleis. While the monarch held religious as well as political authority, he did not, however, wield complete control of his government. Many city states came to be dominated by the aristocracy. Tyrants first appeared during this time period. A tyrant was an aristocrat who gained enough power and influence to control the polis. They were backed by a personal hoplite army independent of the city-state, and set up autocratic (though not necessarily "tyrannical", in the modern sense) governments.
Despite the mountains separating Greece from unification, the independent poleis did develop commonalities in culture, language, religion, and government. It was during this time period that Greeks began to identify themselves and each other as Hellenes. In spite of the rivalries among the poleis, they shared the same language, the same style of dress, and the same décor, and these traits served to unite them as one and the same: they were all Hellenes.
Contributing to this sense of loose unity were the Olympic Games, begun in 776 BCE. These featured athletes from the various poleis who competed against one another as a religious ritual. Athletes may have competed for personal glory and fame, but the games were first and foremost in honor of Zeus, king of the gods. Olympia featured a temple which contained a 12-meter high statue of Zeus made of ivory and gold. This massive sculpture, created by the famous Phidias, was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. These games would cease in 393 CE, when they were banned under Roman Emperor Theodosius I in an effort to stamp out paganism.
Chapter 04 - Classical Greece
Chapter 05 - Hellenistic Greece
Chapter 06 - Roman Greece
Chapter 07 - Byzantine Empire
Chapter 08 - Ottoman Greece
Chapter 09 - Independent Greece
Greek War of Independence --1821-1829
First Hellenic Republic --1822-1832
Kingdom of Greece --1832-1924
Second Hellenic Republic --1924-1935
Kingdom of Greece --1935-1941
Kingdom of Greece --1944-1974
Civil War --1944-1949
Military Junta --1967-1974
Chapter 10 - Modern Greece
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