Handbook of Management Scales/Self-determination
Self-determination (alpha = 0.79, 0.80)
Based on a thorough scale development and validation process, the author presents a multidimensional measure of psychological empowerment in the workplace. It consists of four dimensions: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact.
Empowerment is defined as increased intrinsic task motivation manifested in a set of four cognitions reflecting an individual's orientation to his or her work role: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact (Thomas and Velthouse, 1990).
The self-determination dimension of empowerment is defined as an individual's sense of having choice in initiating and regulating actions (Deci, Connell and Ryan, 1989).
- I have significant autonomy in determining how I do my job.
- I can decide on my own how to go about doing my work.
- I have considerable opportunity for independence and freedom in how I do my job.
- Spreitzer (1995): Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 1442–1465
The mean values of all items were above five. Given that a 7-point scale was used, future researchers could slightly adapt the items in order to shift the mean values close to the center (e.g., by using terms like "can always decide" instead of "can decide").