HalfLife Computation
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Probabilistic and Deterministic Computations[edit  edit source]
Because half life computations may be either probabilistic or deterministic it is important to consider the difference between each method since each method is used extensively in nuclear physics, chemistry, and medicine as well as in commerce, business and finance. In both cases half life computations refer to the amount of time it takes for one half of the components that make up a group to be eliminated from the group through successive halflife intervals of time. This book will explain both the probabilistic and the deterministic methods of half life computation and show how each method of computation is used.
Growth and Decay[edit  edit source]
In the context of time when a group expands it grows and when it contracts it decays. The state of growth or decay is determined by means of comparing the current count of members with a previous count. If the previous count is less than the current count then the group is in a state of growth. If the previous count is greater than the current count then the group is in a state of decay.
Linear Rates of Growth and Decay[edit  edit source]
Sometimes we need to know the rate at which a group is growing or decaying. If the time of the previous and the current count are known then the rate of change can be determined by subtracting the previous count from the current count to get the change in members and subtracting the previous time from the current time to get the change in time and then dividing the change in members by the change in time. Thus a previous count of 50 made last month and a current count of 60 made this month means a rate of growth of 10 members per month.
Exponential Rates of Growth and Decay[edit  edit source]
Using the example above it can be seen that it will take an additional 5 months to increase the membership from 50 to 100 and an additional 10 months to increase it from 100 to 200 and an additional 20 months to increase it from 200 to 400 at the rate of adding 10 members per month. Instead of doubling the number of months each time to get the same increase in membership we can instead double the number of members per month. Thus if we increase the number of members per month from 10 to 20 it will only take 5 additional months instead of 10 to increase the membership from 100 to 200 members. If we next increase the number of members per month to 40 it will again take only 5 additional months instead of 10 to reach 400 members. When the number of members doubles in the same interval of time the group may be said to double in size every 5 months and to follow a pattern of exponential rather than linear growth. This also applies to decay where groups which loose half of their members in 5 months are said to have a Halflife of 5 months duration. In this case and in the case of instantaneous compounding of interest Halflife computation is deterministic and the survival of its members does not vary at random.
The Deterministic Method  Compound Interest Rates[edit  edit source]
In the case of an annuity that is loosing money the halflife of the account may be determined if the age of the account and the percentage of the original value of the account that has survived is known by using the following deterministic formula: Halflife of the account equals the account's age times the natural logarithm of two divided by the natural logarithm of one divided by the percentage of the original value remaining in the account. (In this example the group is represented by the account and the members by the dollars.)
In some cases, however, Halflife is not deterministic but probabilistic and intended to represent cases in which the survival of each member is random. In other words the rate at which a group looses half of its members varies according to the laws of probability rather than according to a deterministic, stable, absolute, or fixed amount.
The Probabilistic Method  Coin Flipping[edit  edit source]
The Halflife of any random activity such as tossing a coin is determined as simply one half of the possible outcomes. Any number of possible outcomes may be represented using the mathematical or computational equivalent of this method. The probability of survival for a group which has two possible outcomes or a Halflife of one can be represented by a coin with two sides where one side represents survival and the other side represents termination. Cards or balls of various numbers can be used to represent a higher number of possible outcomes. Each card or ball in the set is simply marked "terminal" except for one which is marked "survival" and the set is placed into a container. For each "toss" only one card or ball is retrieved, counted if it is labelled "survival" and returned to the container to be ready for the next “toss.” (The container and contents are usually well shaken after each "toss.") If six balls or cards are used then the Halflife is three. Multiple items with only two possible outcomes may be considered as well by "tossing" each item and counting only the items which turn up "survival" sides. Multiple items with multiples sides may be used as well.
The starting number of tosses is determined (usually 100, but 1,500 is better) and all tosses are completed for the first Halflife period and the number of survivors are counted. The number of tosses for the next Halflife period is then set to the number of survivors that were previously counted and the process repeated until the number of tosses remaining is zero. This process is repeated once for each trial.
Option Explicit Private Sub Form_Load() Randomize Dim a, i, j, c, n, d, e, h(), l n = 2 'number of sides, balls or cards l = n / 2 'number of tosses per Halflife a = 100 'number of tosses ' initialize the array  ReDim h(a + 1, 20) For i = 0 To a + 1 For j = 0 To 20 h(i, j) = 0 If i = 0 Then h(i, j) = j If j = 0 Then h(i, j) = i Next Next ' begin doing trials  For j = 1 To 8 'number of trials e = 0 ' set number of half lives to zero a = 100 'initial number of tosses Do 'loop until remaining tosses reach zero e = e + 1 'count number of half lives c = 0 'reset survival count For i = 1 To a 'toss the number of times that equal previous survivors count d = Int(Rnd() * n) 'flip coin or retrieve ball or card If d <> 0 Then c = c + 1 'if coin, ball, or card survives then count it Next a = c 'reset number of tosses to count of survivors h(e, j) = c 'store count in the array 'Debug.Print "Halflife:"; e; a; " tosses remaining"'verify operation 'Stop Loop Until c <= 0 Next j ' print chart  For i = 0 To 20 c = 0 For j = 0 To 8 Debug.Print h(i, j); If j > 0 Then c = c + h(i, j) Next Debug.Print If c = 0 Then Exit For Next ' end of program  End End Sub
Results[edit  edit source]
Half  

Life  Survival  Trial 1  Trial 2  Trial 3  Trial 4  Trial 5  Trial 6  Trial 7  Trial 8 
1  100.00%  100  100  100  100  100  100  100  100 
2  50.00%  49  46  50  55  43  55  53  59 
3  25.00%  27  17  28  23  21  26  31  29 
4  12.50%  10  13  17  9  11  11  15  20 
5  6.25%  3  4  9  7  4  4  7  9 
6  3.13%  2  1  5  4  2  2  3  4 
7  1.56%  1  2  4  2  1  2  2  
8  .78%  1  2  2  1  1  1  1  
9  .39%  1  1  1  1  1  
10  .20%  1  1  
11  .10% 
Carbon 14 Dating Application[edit  edit source]
The probabilistic computation of Halflife is easy to understand when presented in a simple and meaningful way using mathematical symbols and basic computer source code together. The purpose of this example is to demystify and explain the use of Halflife computation in determining the age of an archaeological sample.
The Halflife of Carbon14 is 5,730 years (plus or minus 40 years). This means that radioactive emission from the decay of Carbon14 into Nitrogen14 after 11,460 years will be one quarter as much or the amount shown in the table above where ~25% of the Carbon14 has survived. Why? The transition of Carbon14 into Nitrogen14 proceeds at the rate of one Halflife every 5,730 years which means that there will be only half as much Carbon14 in an archeological sample that is 5,730 years old as compared to a sample that is created today. The following is an example of Halflife computation applied to the decay of Carbon14. (Note: the symbol "ln" in the formula's below is generated by the Wikipedia math markup language and stands for "logarithm." Since there are both natural and base 10 logarithms it must be clarified that "ln" stands for natural logarithms while "log" in the basic code below also represents the natural logarithms.)
The age equation (percent of isotope)[edit  edit source]
 Where h is the archaeological isotope halflife and
 where p is the percent or portion of the isotope in the archaeological sample where
 and
 where n is defined by the ratio of the age of the archaeological sample and the isotope halflife
 or
 where the number of isotope half lives in the archaeological sample are defined by
 and where age of an archaeological sample is defined as
Specifically:
 Where h is the halflife of Carbon 14:
 and
 and the percent or portion of Carbon14 in the archaeological sample is 25%:
 and the number of Carbon14 half lives equal to:
 then the age of the archaeological sample will be:
Basic language computer code
Option Explicit Dim h As Double, p As Double, n As Double, age As Double Private Sub Form_Load() h = 5730 'Where h is the Halflife of Carbon 14 p = 0.25 '(where p is the percent or portion of Carbon14 in the archaeological sample) and defined by' 'p = 1 / (2 ^ n) 'and n is defined as the number of half lives n = log(1/p) / log(2) 'and age of the archaeological sample is defined as age = h * n Debug.Print "Halflife", "Percent", "Halflives", "Age" Debug.Print h, p, n, age End Sub
Relationship between equation variables[edit  edit source]
Other methods[edit  edit source]
The age equation (isotope proportions)[edit  edit source]
Considering that radioactive parent elements decay to stable daughter elements [1], the mathematical expression that relates radioactive decay to geologic time, called the age equation, is [2]:
where
age of the sample
number of atoms of the daughter isotope in the sample
number of atoms of the parent isotope in the sample
decay constant of the parent isotope
natural logarithm
where
The decay constant (or rate of decay) is the fraction of a number of atoms of a radioactive nuclide that disintegrates in a unit of time. The decay constant is inversely proportional to the radioactive halflife.[3]
and
halflife of the parent isotope, which can be obtained from tables such as the one given in [4]: