HKDSE Geography/M5/Types of Agriculture
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There are several ways to classify agriculture:
|Output type||Arable farming||Crop cultivation only|
|Pastoral farming||Livestock rearing only|
|Mixed farming||Both crop cultivation and livestock rearing|
|Output use||Subsistence farming||Farm outputs are for own consumption|
|Commercial farming||Farm outputs are for sale in the market|
|Input-land ratio||Intensive farming||High input-land ratio|
|Extensive farming||Low input-land ratio|
|Input proportion||Labour-intensive farming||Labour is the most important input|
|Capital-intensive farming||Capital and technology are the most important inputs|
|Permanance of site||Sedentary farming||The farmland or pastureland is permanent|
|Non-sedentary farming||The farmland or pastureland is temporary and constantly moves|
|Technology level||High-technology farming||High technology and a lot of energy is used|
|Low-technology farming||Low technology and little energy is used|
|Output variety||Monoculture||Only one type of crop is grown on the land|
|Polyculture||Multiple crop types are grown on the land|
|Specialised farming||A farm specialises in certain types of crops|
|Water use||Irrigation farming||Farming that requires irrigation of crops|
|Rain-fed farming||Farming that relies mainly on rainfall as a water source|
- Wheat-sheep farming in Australia is an example of extensive mixed farming.
- Greenhouse cultivation is an example of intensive commercial farming.
- Nomadic herding and shifting cultivation (more about that in M7) are examples of non-sedentary farming.
Also note these relationships:
- Arable farming is preferred in areas with favourable physical inputs like high rainfall and temperature. Irrigation farming and pastoral farming are practiced in areas with more severe conditions.
- Areas with large and low-cost labour supply generally practice intensive farming.
- Areas with favourable cultural factors are more likely to practice commercial farming. Areas far away from markets with limited technology and capital tend to practice subsistence farming.