GCSE ICT/GCP Revision Guide

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Section One- What is A Computer?[edit | edit source]

Data[edit | edit source]


  • Data is information that has no meaning.
  • Data only becomes information when you know the context of the data.
  • Information = Data + Meaning

Data is stored in Bytes

  • Computers use a binary code (i.e. they use only 2 digits) to represent data. Usually, a circuit that's switched on represents the digit 1, and a circuit that's switched off represents the digit 0.
  • Bit: Each individual 1 or 0 is called a bit - short for binary digit.
  • Byte: 8 bits is called a byte.
  • Kilobyte: 1 kilobyte (1 KB, or simply 1 K) is about a thousand bytes. to be exact, 1KB = 2 to the power of 10 = 1024 bytes.
  • Megabyte: 1 megabyte (1MB) is about a million bytes. To be exact, 1 KB = 2 to the power of 20 = 1048576 bytes.

Computer System[edit | edit source]

Data is entered at the input stage

  • information is converted into data before its entered into the computer

The computer then processes the data

  • Processing involves turning the input data into something else

The results are then sown at the output stage

  • Output is when the computer communicates the results of the data processing to the user.
  • The two most common ways are a screen display and printed paper.
  • At this point the data becomes information again
  • The information obtained at the output stage might then be used as feedback to input more data. this turns the system into a cycle.

Computerised v. Manual Systems[edit | edit source]

Types of Computer[edit | edit source]

Networks - LANs and WANs[edit | edit source]

Networks - Different Configurations[edit | edit source]

Network Security[edit | edit source]

Revison Summary[edit | edit source]

Section Two- The Parts of A computer System[edit | edit source]

9-Input Devices[edit | edit source]

An input device is any hardware which is used to enter data into the computer system. The input devices of a computer are

  • QWERTY Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Camera
  • CD
  • Microphone
  • Scanner
  • Disk Drive
  • Joystick

12-The CPU[edit | edit source]

CPU stands for Central Processing Unit

  • The CPU is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer programs

Section Three- Using a A computer System[edit | edit source]

Section Four- System Analysis[edit | edit source]

Section Five- Text and Image Processing Software[edit | edit source]

Section Six- Spreadsheets and Database[edit | edit source]

The Basics[edit | edit source]

Spreadsheets are clever calculators[edit | edit source]

  • A spreadsheet is a program that can display and process data in a structured way.
  • Spreadsheets can process numbers and also handle text.
  • spreadsheets can be used to:record data, search for particular items of data, perform calculations based on data, produce graphs and charts.

Data is entered into cells[edit | edit source]

  • Spreadsheets are formed by tables- rows and columns divide them selves in to cells.
  • Each cell can be recognized by using coordinates by using the row number and column letter.

Each cells can contain one of three things[edit | edit source]

Cells can only contain one thing of these three things

  • Numerical Data- for example numbers, money and dates
  • Text Data
  • Formulas

Creating and improving[edit | edit source]

Simple Formulas[edit | edit source]

The Trickier stuff[edit | edit source]

Graphs and Charts[edit | edit source]

Section Seven- Measurement, Control and simulation[edit | edit source]

Section Eight- The Internet[edit | edit source]

Internet Basic[edit | edit source]

  • The Internet is an International Network of computers

To connect you need Special Hardware and Software:

  • Most people access the internet using a PC connected to a telephone cable or cable TV services these two items can not work without a modem. A modem converts data from the computer into a format suitable for sending over the telephone or other communication line. Both ends of the connection need a modem.
  • The Internet Has Two Main Parts:

1) The World Wide Web (WWW) is the part that contains web pages. 2) Electronic Mail(E-MAIL) is the part where messages are sent from one person to another - it works a bit like sending a letter.

E-mail[edit | edit source]

  • There is 5 step to sending an E-mail

Step 1-Create the message Step 2-Connect to the Internet Step 3-Press the send button Step 4-The message is sent from the sender's ISP to a mailbox in the computer system of the recipient's ISP Step 5-The recipient later connects to the internet, opens their e-mail account, and finds the new message

  • Emails has Benfits and Problems

Emails take quick to send It is cheaper than posting or faxing The same message can easily be sent to loads of diffent people Both need Internet access and Email accounts

Using the World Wide Web-Navigating[edit | edit source]

  • The Internet is a huge Source of Information

You can access the Internet form any computer, the Information is up to date.

  • Type in the URL

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator URLS's can not cantain capital letters or spaces or certain types of punctuation

Navigating and Downloading[edit | edit source]

Web Page Design[edit | edit source]

Using the Internet-Data Security[edit | edit source]

User-Generated Content[edit | edit source]

Social Networking[edit | edit source]

Online Audio and Vedio[edit | edit source]

Online Software[edit | edit source]

Revision Summary[edit | edit source]

Section Nine- Computers in the real world[edit | edit source]

Computers in Shops[edit | edit source]

Computers in Banks[edit | edit source]

Section Ten- Computers and Society[edit | edit source]


Computers And The Law[edit | edit source]

Computer are used to store and process important data. As it is easy to transfer data through the internet. So there are laws to protect the use of computers

The Copyright, Design and Patents Act Controls Illegal copy[edit | edit source]

This law was introduced in 1989, this law made it so that it was illegal to copy a file without permission from the owner, or copyright user.

Three ways that this law is broken up into:

  • Using software without a proper licence. E.g. if you acquire a MS software disk and upload it onto one computer station, it is illegal to use it on any other computer station.
  • Downloading text or images without saying where you have gotten it from, or with receiving the copyright owner's permission.
  • Copying a computer program that you use at another place and running at a computer at home without the permission from the copyright holder.

The computer misuse act prevents illegal Access to files[edit | edit source]

This law was introduced in 1990 to stop hackers and viruses. The act made the following three things illegal:

  • Unauthorised access to computer material. E.g. hacking
  • Attainment of unauthorised access to a computer to carry out serious offence such as fraud and blackmail.
  • Unauthorised changing of computer files. E.g. planting viruses and deleting files

Computers and the workplace[edit | edit source]

Computer Use-Health And Safety Issues[edit | edit source]

computer use can cause three main problems[edit | edit source]

three main solutions[edit | edit source]

emloyers need to follow the law[edit | edit source]

Social, moral and ethical issues[edit | edit source]

Main issues are social, moral and ethical[edit | edit source]

four main moral and ethical issues[edit | edit source]

unrestricted internet access[edit | edit source]

ease of copying computer files[edit | edit source]

computers and replacing people at work[edit | edit source]

increased government surveillance[edit | edit source]

five main social issues[edit | edit source]

information rich and information poor[edit | edit source]

the internet is changing how we interact[edit | edit source]

over-reliance on technology[edit | edit source]

impact on literacy[edit | edit source]

faster pace of life[edit | edit source]