GCSE ICT/Edexcel New GCSE ICT
Chapter 1: : Let's communicate!
Fashion phones are phones that have a unique design but don't really have a lot of features on them. They may not be able to do most things that smart phones do but they would benefit someone who just wants a phone that looks good with a sleek design. On fashion phones the keypad might have a funky design or if its a slide phone it may slide out in a different way to a normal slide phone and the phone would be small and thin whereas some smart phones would have a larger design.
these are combine both style and business features, appealing to the mass market rather than a niche. they have the best of both worlds: high spec features, large amounts of storage, high speed processing, slim design with touch screens and access to the Internet. These phones can introduce the idea of convergence.
Mobile phone safety advice
When thinking about a mobile phone there are many things to consider these include:
A child can lose a mobile phone more than once; this will cost a fortune for the parents Mobile phones also contain harmful chemicals which can be dangerous if not disposed of properly and to dispose of these properly will cost money also this will cause a problem for the environment . A child will also want to keep up with the latest fashion causing them to change pones and phones tend to get more and more expensive.
Police officers have come up with an idea to reduce the theft of mobile phone. This started of in the Colwyn Bay area the idea involves attaching the phones with the ultraviolet (UV) pen so that when stolen the phone can be easily detected. Mobile phones are stolen every 3 minutes so this would really help a person worried about theft.
- Peace of mind
Parents need to know where their child is and how they are. Having a mobile phone can help this situation. If a child has to be somewhere after school the parents wouldn’t know which will get them worried and think of the worst things but if the child carries a mobile phone the parents would have peace on their minds.
- Invasion of privacy
Privacy can also be an issue when it comes to mobile networks because the user can easily me hacked and their private things can be messed with mobile payment is also a problem when it comes to privacy.
- Environmental cost
It may not cost as much to go through the making of a mobile phone but when it comes to the disposal phase that’s when the environment is at stake, mobile phones contains dangerous chemicals of not disposed of properly. Heavy metals such as mercury, lead and cadmium which are found especially in old mobile phones can be harmful. Problems begin if the handsets end up in landfill sites or if they are dumped illegally because this could lead to toxic substances seeping into the soil and groundwater.
In conclusion i believe that when buying a mobile phone the main things to consider are; weight, function and cost.
Difficulties using mobile phones
There are many difficulties using mobile phones, especially when elders are trying to use them. Some elders have hearing problems therefore they may not be able to hear the other person on the other line.
Other problems also apply to everyone such as the keyboard may be too small/too big, therefore using the keyboard to get to certain applications on the handset may be difficult.
Most people also find it hard getting around the handset to find certain applications or pieces of data.
When some people want to see the last calls they had made they find it difficult to find their way around also when they want to send a text message they may not know where the certain application is for creating text/ or maybe the keyboard for the handset maybe too big or too small.
Advantages of using mobile phones
It is for a fact that having a mobile phone nowadays is a sort of a necessity and it is an inevitable truth that mobile industry is taking everyone by a storm. From the very basic thing of making a call to texting, and now Internet access for just a touch of your finger tips. Do you have one of these? or do you know somebody who enjoys having such stuff? I do have one of those too and I wont deny the fact that I enjoys using them. So as one of the million subscriber of this technology I will share you some of the advantages and disadvantages I found, out of having a mobile phone.
First here are some advantages of having it:
- It keeps you in constant contact with people you consider important
- It can help you seek help immediately during emergency cases
- It's a sense of being financially uplifted.
- Through mobile phones you can lessen your boredom,example listen to your favorite music and as well as watching movies through downloading.
- It can take photos
- Mobile phones also gives us easier access on the Internet
- You can carry it anywhere
- It has a lot of useful functions like calendar, making notes, alarm clock, timer and calculator.
No doubt, our mobile phones makes our lives more convenient, but as the saying goes every technology has it's equal negative side and mobile phones are not so special to be exempted. Here are some disadvantages of having one:
- People spend less time bonding with there family and friends
- People just contact through phone and became too lazy meeting outside
- Disturb us on our works and studies
- People spend lots and lots of money buying the latest model
- May have a physiological effect because of radiation it produces
- Easily broken
- mobile phone makes it easier to invade privacy
In the end, it is up to the end user to weigh the advantages and the disadvantages of responsible mobile phone use.
Personal digital assistant (PDA)
Optical Disk Drive
An Optical Disc Drive (ODD) is a drive which reads the information on disks. Some drives can only read from discs, but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. Compact discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. There are many type of disk formats and different types of drives to play the formats.
What is a usb Connection
A usb connection is standard cable connection. USB ports allow electronic devices to connect to things such as computers or laptops via cables.
Socialising on the Internet
IM is a form of real-time direct text-based communication between two or more people using personal computers or other devices.
Some of the main advantages of using Instant Messaging are:
- Messages are sent in real-time and responses are instantaneous.
- Emotions cannot be expressed as well as they can be when actually talking to a person.
- Proper conversations can be held with another person without running up a large bill.
- Files/pictures can be sent in instant messaging conversations.
- It is similar to talking face-to-face to a person.
- It is free to use and normally quick to set up.
- Instant messaging systems offer a safer environment than chat rooms.
- You can monitor who is allowed to contact you at any given time and people can only 'add' you if they know your exact email address or username
- It is possible to talk to many people at once.
- Work can be done in groups, and (if still in school/higher education) the instant messaging system allows people to ask for help before going to their teacher.
- Instant messaging systems allows people to talk to each other from different countries, allowing friends to keep in touch if one of them moves away.
However there are some disadvantages:
- Instant messaging systems are often used for gossiping and rumour spreading.
- People can send viruses through files sent on instant messaging servers.
- A lot of bullying happens on instant messaging
Example of a use for Instant Messaging
Instant messaging is used by friends who use it to communicate over large distances, when a phone call wouldn't be practical, and would be too expensive.
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
VoIP (Voice over internet protocol is a piece of technology that lets you make worldwide calls as well as local calls over the internet instead of using the basic phone line.not only can use a computer to use VoIP or a specialised VoIP phone, you can use a traditional phone with a VoIP adapter.
Advantages of VoIP
- VoIP doesn't cost an extreme amount,if you have a DSL or cable you can make PC to PC calls, which are FREE of charge,however you can make PC to Phone calls which will cost but not a large amount.
- Portability is an advantage of VoIP because you can make a call world wide from any broadband connection.
- VoIP has many features it has call waiting, Voice mail,Call forwarding,three way conversations as well as,Caller ID.
- Portability is an advantage of VoIP because you can make a call world wide from any broadband connection.
Disadvantages of VoIP
- VoIP needs electric power and electric power costs and is not always reliable.
- VoIP has limited emergency calls.
- VoIP can have sound Quality and reliability problems.
- VoIP has limited emergency calls.
Advantages of VoIP(Voice over Internet Protocol
- VoIP is a great way to connect to anyone worldwide,you can use this for business,school,family households and personal needs.
social networking is a public site or activity that involves people from all over the world working together to make a virtual world were people can communicate, interact and meet new people. it often works by participants creating a profile and adding people as 'friends' on their account. once added you can chat, add other people through there profile, view one another's pictures, basically your open to all there account has to offer. such things as emailing, instant messaging and picture sharing would also be classed as social networking.
I'm a frequent user of social networking and I've come to realise its addictive, misinterpretive and will never beat a real face to face conversation however when you on the go or just bored social networking will keep you company you just need to learn to manage it efficiently.
Cookies can be used to guess your characteristics and general interests based on the pages you have been looking at online. Cookies can't lift personal details such as your name or address directly from your PC. They cannot view data on your hard drive or capture other data stored on your PC.
A computer worm is a self-replicating malware computer program. It uses a computer network to send copies of itself to other computers and it may do so automatically. This is due to security shortcomings on the target computer. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, even if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer. Worms can replicate in great volume. For example, a worm can send out copies of itself to every contact in your e-mail address book, and then it can send itself to all of the contacts your contact's e-mail address books.
Some of the ways to prevent worms are:
- Use a fire wall
- Use antivirus software
You should always keep antivirus software up to date as new worms and malware are created regularly so require the antivirus software to be updated as well.
What are computer Viruses?
Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computer to another and to interfere with computer operation. A virus might corrupt or delete data on your computer, use your e-mail program to spread itself to other computers, or even erase everything on your hard disk.
What can a computer Virus do to your computer?
- Your computer runs more slowly than normal
- Your computer stops responding or locks up often
- Your computer crashes and restarts every few minutes
- Your computer restarts on its own and then fails to run normally
- Applications on your computer don't work correctly
- Disks or disk drives are inaccessible
- You can't print correctly
- You see unusual error messages
- You see distorted menus and dialog boxes
What is a Spyware?
Spyware is a category of computer programs that attach themselves to your operating system in nefarious ways. They can suck the life out of your computer's processing power.
What can a spyware do to your computer?
Other kinds of spyware make changes to your computer that can be annoying and can cause your computer slow down or crash.
These programs can change your Web browser's home page or search page, or add additional components to your browser you don't need or want. They also make it very difficult for you to change your settings back to the way you had them.
irrelevant or unsolicited messages sent over the Internet, typically to large numbers of users, for the purposes of advertising, phishing, spreading malware, etc.
The act of sending an e-mail or a false web page which to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise or social networking site in an attempt to scam the user into giving private personal details that will be used for identity theft. Phishing is commonly found on false networking site web pages; as acting like the 'Facebook' welcome page... you could enter in your Facebook account details; which include username/email and passwork, The person can gain full access into your Facebook account
People who take away personal information and use it against you.
Implications of Technology
The cultural impact on technology is not something new to be found. Technology has been used in many ways i.e. to create new things.
We all underestimate the influence of technology on culture,this problem arises when we are thinking of the relationship between culture and technology.
Technology exists within the cultural boundary.
Culture runs the technology, as well as producing its applications, cultural forces can limit as well as remove the practical applications of technology, this may be due to societal predispositions.
Because of culture and technology are extremely intertwined, we must also think about religious, governmental,demographic and ethical influences as this can have serious cultural implications on technology.
There are many social implications of technology, some examples are:
- virtual gaming
- social networking site
- mobile phones
Social networks Sites like Facebook have changed the way we socialize dramatically, they enable friends globally to organize events, share pictures and much more
- 20 years ago mobile phones were used only by businessmen, but today just about everybody has one. This has lead to a big social change, friends can organize social events from anywhere at anytime. Also mobile phones mean that friends globally can keep in touch.
List of sources about Technology in education
Examples of how it could be used *In schools
With the rebuilding of schools the government is buying laptops for classrooms
Interactive whiteboards have been used in British schools for a long time now, Interactive Whiteboards are large interactive displays that connects to a computer and projector. A projector projects the computer's desktop onto the board's surface where users control the computer using a pen, finger or other device. The board is normally on a wall.
- VLE or MLE
A Virtual Learning environment, or Managed Learning Environment is an online education tool, where teachers can post work or notes for their pupils who can log on to see it. It is now compulsory that every school in the UK uses one of these. The main VLE used by schools is Fronter
- In LEDC's mobile phones and 3g enabled laptops are used to help teach children in hard to access places
Chapter 2: On The Move
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information.
RFID tags are used in many industries. For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses; and implanting RFID microchips in livestock and pets allows positive identification of animals.
Since RFID tags can be attached to cash, clothing, and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns. These concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues.
The first time an individual uses a biometric system is called an enrollment. During the enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored. In subsequent uses, biometric information is detected and compared with the information stored at the time of enrollment. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and the system; it has to acquire all the necessary data. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system, but it can change according to the characteristics desired. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor, to enhance the input (e.g. removing background noise), to use some kind of normalization, etc. In the third block necessary features are extracted. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted in the optimal way. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. A template is a synthesis of the relevant characteristics extracted from the source. Elements of the biometric measurement that are not used in the comparison algorithm are discarded in the template to reduce the filesize and to protect the identity of the enrollee.
Connecting to the internet
There are many ways of Connecting to the internet. The method you choose can have a significant impact upon how you subsequently use the variety of services and applications online. The most common ways used are Broadband, which is a wired connection directly to you computer, and wifi which needs a router, it is wireless.
Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams. A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. It is sold on demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic—a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). Significant innovations in virtualization and distributed computing, as well as improved access to high-speed Internet and a weak economy, have accelerated interest in cloud computing. A cloud can be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet. (Currently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider.) A private cloud is a proprietary network or a data center that supplies hosted services to a limited number of people. When a service provider uses public cloud resources to create their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud. Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services. Infrastructure-as-a-Service like Amazon Web Services provides virtual server instances with unique IP addresses and blocks of storage on demand. Customers use the provider's application program interface (API) to start, stop, access and configure their virtual servers and storage. In the enterprise, cloud computing allows a company to pay for only as much capacity as is needed, and bring more online as soon as required. Because this pay-for-what-you-use model resembles the way electricity, fuel and water are consumed, it's sometimes referred to as utility computing.
Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is defined as a set of software and product development tools hosted on the provider's infrastructure. Developers create applications on the provider's platform over the Internet. PaaS providers may use APIs, website portals or gateway software installed on the customer's computer. Force.com, (an outgrowth of Salesforce.com) and GoogleApps are examples of PaaS. Developers need to know that currently, there are not standards for interoperability or data portability in the cloud. Some providers will not allow software created by their customers to be moved off the provider's platform.
Global Positioning System satellites transmit signals to equipment on the ground. GPS receivers passively receive satellite signals; they do not transmit. GPS receivers require an unobstructed view of the sky, so they are used only outdoors and they often do not perform well within forested areas or near tall buildings. GPS operations depend on a very accurate time reference, which is provided by atomic clocks at the U.S. Naval Observatory. Each GPS satellite has atomic clocks on board.
Each GPS satellite transmits data that indicates its location and the current time. All GPS satellites synchronize operations so that these repeating signals are transmitted at the same instant. The signals, moving at the speed of light, arrive at a GPS receiver at slightly different times because some satellites are farther away than others. The distance to the GPS satellites can be determined by estimating the amount of time it takes for their signals to reach the receiver. When the receiver estimates the distance to at least four GPS satellites, it can calculate its position in three dimensions.
There are at least 24 operational GPS satellites at all times. The satellites, operated by the U.S. Air Force, orbit with a period of 12 hours. Ground stations are used to precisely track each satellite's orbit.
Determining Position A GPS receiver "knows" the location of the satellites, because that information is included in satellite transmissions. By estimating how far away a satellite is, the receiver also "knows" it is located somewhere on the surface of an imaginary sphere centered at the satellite. It then determines the sizes of several spheres, one for each satellite. The receiver is located where these spheres intersect. Click here for a detailed description of how this works.
GPS Accuracy The accuracy of a position determined with GPS depends on the type of receiver. Most hand-held GPS units have about 10-20 meter accuracy. Other types of receivers use a method called Differential GPS (DGPS) to obtain much higher accuracy. DGPS requires an additional receiver fixed at a known location nearby. Observations made by the stationary receiver are used to correct positions recorded by the roving units, producing an accuracy greater than 1 meter.
When the system was created, timing errors were inserted into GPS transmissions to limit the accuracy of non-military GPS receivers to about 100 meters. This part of GPS operations, called Selective Availability, was eliminated in May 2000.
A satellite navigation system is made for use in automobiles, it is also known as GPS. A sat nav is used to acquire position data to locate the driver on a road in the map database. Using the road database, the unit can give directions to other locations along roads also in its database. GPS signal loss and/or multipath can happen due to obstructions of tunnels and high buildings (That means a GPS/SAT NAV will not work properly).
A number of stand alone digital products; such as a camera, MP3 player, GPS etc coming together into one product. Such as a smart phone.
Geotagging is when you take a photo and the phone links the photograph to the exact location of where it was taken and you can see where all your photos have been taken on a map