Fundamentals of Human Nutrition/Sugar Bad rap
Sugar's Bad Rap
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Diabetes is a disease process that occurs due to the carbohydrates metabolism and insufficient hormone insulin in the body. There are the Diabetes Type 1 and Diabetes Type 2, also there is the Gestational Diabetes (GDM). 
Type 1 Diabetes: it occurs to children, teenagers or young adults. So in this case they are insulin-dependent because the body doesn’t produce more or there is a little insulin in their body. Pancreas beta cells no longer produce insulin once the body immune system has attacked and destroyed them.
People with this form of diabetes need to do some things:
- Injections of insulin every day in order to control the levels of glucose in their blood.
- Need to choose the correct food.
- Physical Activity
- Controlling blood pressure and cholesterol
Type 2 diabetes: The Pancreas produce insulin, but when the Diabetes Type 2 occurs the body stops producing insulin partially or completely. It refers to the insulin resistance. And there are associated things to it:
- Diet and physical inactivity
- Increasing age
- Obesity: The obesity happens because the insulin resistance lead to elevated blood glucose levels
- . Stress.
GDM is a form of diabetes consisting of high blood glucose levels during pregnancy.  Gestational diabetes is caused by the hormones of pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes may have obese children due to their gestational age once they receive more insulin than necessary.
Syndrome metabolic is associated with many risk factors among them we can have: cardiovascular diseases, abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes (caused by the insulin resistance). There are many risks of metabolic syndrome: dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia, elevated levels of apolipoprotein B, particles of LDL-cholesterol and small, dense low HDL-cholesterol), hypertension and hyperglycemia. 
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss and weakness
- Visual changes
- Slow healing of cuts and bruises
- Itching of the skin, or feminine itching in women
- Pain or numbness in the toes and occasionally the fingers
- No symptoms at all
Without proper management they can lead to very high blood sugar levels which can result in long term damage to various organs and tissues. Some complications are:
- Eyes: Glaucoma and retinopathy
- Foot and skin complication
- Nephropathy, once high levels of blood sugar makes the kidneys to filter blood much more than necessary, therefore kidneys work level is increased
- Neuropathy: There are many reasons for having neuropathy, one of them is: excess blood glucose can injure the walls of tiny blood vessels that nourish your nerves, especially in the legs
Treatment: Type 1 Diabetes: People need to be aware of all information on treatment including the different types of insulin available (1). Thus, it is very important to know the type of insulin to be taken.
Type 2 Diabetes: there are many treatments for it:
- Diet control: People need to eat right food combination because in the nutrition area there are some goals: controlled sugar blood, meals plan, loss or maintain weight. Also it is necessary to have their food in the correct time
- Gymnastics or body activity: it is important for having controlled diabetes, it decreases insulin resistance and increases insulin sensitivity, lowers triglycerides, the blood fat that contributes to clogged arteries, helps regulate blood pressure and others.
- Test blood glucose 
- Oral medication
- Insulin injections: their blood glucose levels remain too high and insulin treatment is recommended by their doctor.
Web Resources about Diabetes
- American Diabetes Association - Planing Meals 
This website not only shows you how counting carbohydrates if that it helps you to know what is a glycemic index, what effects has the glycemic index of a food and how it impacts on your sugar spikes. Also there are examples of foods with its glycemic index.
- American Diabetes Association- My food Advisor
This website goes to help you track the foods that you are eating and give you ideas for recipes and tips for eating out.
- USDA Carbohydrate counting and Exchnage list: 
- ADA-carbohydrate counting: 
- Full exchange list (2008) from mayo clinic:
These website goes to help you to begin counting carbohydrates through the exchange lists. This exchange system help your health care team decide if changes in medication and or your meal plan should be made with the aim of keep your blood sugar level within your target range. Moreover it's allow you can to substitute servings or types of foods from one list for other on the same list. In this way you can have an individual meal plan.
2.4.2 Dental Caries
Caries are the result of the destruction of the tooth structure; it happens because of bacterial effect, acid, plaque and tartar.
Caries is the result of poor hygiene in the mouth. Also people eat foods containing carbohydrates such as breads, cereals, milk, soda, cakes, or candy that are left on the teeth. Carbohydrates increase risk of tooth decay. 
The bacteria that live in the mouth digest these foods mentioned above, turning them into acids. The acid form tooth plaques and later these plaques can be turned into caries. Its more common in back molars, just above the gum line on all teeth.  
When people don’t have treatment against the caries it can cause more problems such as: pain, infection and tooth loss. 
The treatment can depend on how your caries are, but the dentists usually use the following :
- Teeth restoration what can make the teeth functioning much better.
- Crowns or “ caps” are used in some cases , however crowns are not very a good treatment once it causes teeth weakness 
- Root canals treatment
- People need to do three things for having a healthy mouth: brushing the teeth at least twice a day using fluoride toothpaste, flossing and mouthwash.
- If you don’t brush the teeth, you can wash your mouth before eating and drink water.
- Be careful with quality of some foods (snack, fermented carbohydrates and drinks) in your diet.
According to the “Instituto Paulista de Déficit de Atenção – IPDA” this is a syndrome with characteristics of oblivion, being easily distracted, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, aggressiveness, and similar behaviors.
According to “Paulo Gonçalves – Especialista em Hiperatividade” he believes that it is related to genetics, the same characteristic of genetics and environmental.
Family history can intensify hyperactivity symptoms (when family doesn’t have structured family, clean rules, and determined time for do many things and others), also habits you learn in the life. 
- Consumption of artificial yellow food and aspartame
- Sugar consumption such as food , such as : chocolate, sweets and drinks for example: soft drink
- Alcohol used in pregnancy once it can cause brain damage and drugs
- Lead poisoning can cause symptoms same of hyperactivity
- Deficiency of vitamin (calcium, magnesium, Vitamin B6, omega-6 and omega-3)
- Sexual abuse
- Sleep deprivation
- Family history
- Anxiety and depression
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy - psychotherapy.
- Audiology because many people or children who have this syndrome are not able to read very well because they can have dyslexia and dysorthographia.
- Some medication: psychostimulants, medication atomoxetine (Strattera), methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana), dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat) and others.
- Supplementation of vitamin, minerals and nutrients
- Eliminating sugar specifically, it does suggest to the parents to avoid giving food additives to their children once it might be better to avoid it as these foods contain aspartame.
- Homeopathy: Doctors have worked in herbal remedies and natural substances that in large doses would actually cause some of the symptoms of hyperactivity
- During pregnancy: Don't drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes or use drugs
- Protect your child from exposure to pollutants and toxins
- Put together a daily routine for your child with clear expectations that include such things as bedtime, morning time, mealtime, simple chores and television.
- Work with teachers and caregivers to identify problems in advance.
Obesity has increased since 1970 and thus the chronic diseases, diabetes, hypertension and others have risen in children and adults. As these diseases have appeared in many Nations, they have become an epidemic, a crisis of public health 
Obesity can be classified thrum two methods:
1º Body mass index (BMI) is your weight in kilograms divided by your height in meters squared. This is a standard method however its classification can vary for children, adults and old people.
2º People with very fat waists (94cm or more in men and 80cm or more in women) are more likely to develop obesity-related health problems. so, these measures are very important for determining health outcomes related to obesity and to metabolic syndrome.
Below there are some factors that contribute for having obesity problems: Genetics: Some syndromes can cause obesity because there is mutation or chromosomal abnormalities, such as Prader–Willi and Bardet–Biedl syndromes. 
Gender: More prevalent in women . Also more common in Australian women http://www.preventativehealth.org.au/internet/preventativehealth/publishing.nsf/Content/E233F8695823F16CCA2574DD00818E64/$File/obesity-2.pdf Once men have a very fast metabolism than the women. However in accordance to the CDC study in 2009 and 2010 the obesity prevalence did not differ between men and womenhttp://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db82.pdf, but others believe that women tend to be more overweight than men.
Physical activity: People live a sedentary life style.
Psychological factors: Individuals who suffer from psychological disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety, and eating disorders) may have more difficulty controlling their consumption of food and maintaining a healthy weight. Once the search for food can give them comfort, distressed also they can transfer to the food their feelings such as: sadness, anxiety, stress, lonely, and frustration. 
Malnutrition: Malnutrition is found in the food profile of the families nowadays once they consume industry food which is rich in fat, carbohydrates, sugar and sodium. On the other side they do not use to have vegetables, salad, fruits and cereals. 
Pregnancy: During the pregnancy women need more macronutrients and micronutrients; however they eat much more than necessary what make them to get fatter. After having their babies they face more difficulty in coming back to their previous weight. 
These factories have their consequences in the health such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, heart problems, hypertension, dyslipidemia (for example triglycerides and high cholesterol), Coronary disease, some cancers (for example: breast, colon, endometrial (related to the uterine lining) prostate and kidney, breathing problems (for example: asthma, sleep apnea)
“Excess weight reduces the quality of life, raises medical expenditures, places stress on the health care system and results in productivity losses due to disability, illness and premature mortality.” 
In order to avoid this situation the treatment should be in accordance with the diseases; changing the food habit and having regular physical activity for adults and children.
- http//finic.nal.usda.gov/diet-and disease/diabetes/carbohydrate -counting-and exchange-list
- http//www.mayoclinic.com/health /diabetes-diet.DA 00077