Foundations and Assessment of Education/Edition 1/Foundations Table of Contents/Chapter 14/Chapter FAQ

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Assessments-Learning Tools

Author: Mary M. Hobbs

Learning Target[edit | edit source]

- Readers will be able to identify the six different types of assessments - Readers will be able to know the kind of assessment to use when it comes to assessing the students. - Readers will be able to identify what a student feels when they get assessed - Readers will know the five key dimensions of quality classroom assessment

Students should be involved in the process of assessments when it comes to monitoring their progress.

What is an assessment?[edit | edit source]

Wikipedia says,"an assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs. <

There are six types or kinds of assessments that I will identify. They are:

1) Formative Assessments

2) Summative Assessments

3) Objective Assessments

4) Subjective Assessments

5) Informal Assessments

6) Formal Assessments

What is a Formative Assessment? Teachers use the formative assessment method when they want to accommodate their teaching and learning to meet the students needs. Examples would be teacher observations and classroom discussions.

What is a Summative Assessement? Summative assessments are used for final exams, statewide tests, and college entrance exams such as SAT's and ACT's.

               To learn more about formative and summative 
               assessments go to website:
               assessment/basic/basica.html- Click on How Classroom
               Assessments Improve Learning by Thomas R. Guskey.

What is a Objective Assessment? Objective assessments are questions that has only one correct answer. Objective assessments include true/false, multiple choice, and matching questions or statements.

What is an Subjective Assessment?

Subjective assessments can have more than one correct answer.  These assessments are usually extended-response questions and essays.

What are Informal Assessments? Informal assessments include teacher observations, rubrics, peer evaluations, self evaluations and discussions.

What are Formal Assessments? Formal assessments are quizzes, tests, or papers that students receives a grade based on their performance.

                       Rather than sorting students into
                       winners and losers, assessment for
                       learning can put all students on a
                       winning streak.
                                        Rick Stiggens

Assessment Through the Student's Eyes Teachers and students can learn from assessments. Assessments give understandable information in a way they can use to improve their performance, and when teachers and students improve their performance they can only enhance their learning. According to Black & Wiliam, "extensive research conducted around the world shows that by consistently applying the principles of assessment for learning, we can produce impressive gains in student achievement, especially for struggling learners."


The assessment experience gives a look into how a student feels when they are assessed.


                      Assessment results provide:

-continual evidence of success -continual evidence of failure

                          The student feels:

-hopeful and optimistic - hopeless -empowered to take productive action - initially panicked, giving up

                          The student thinks:

-It's all good. I'm doing fine. I - this hurts. I'm not safe here want more success. I'm confused -Feedback helps me. - Nothing I try seems to work. -Public success feels good -Public failure is embarrassing

                 The student becomes more likely to:

-seek challenges - seek what is easy -seek exciting new ideas - avoid new concepts ==

-take initiative - avoid initiative

                        These actions lead to:

-self-enhancement - self-defeat, self-destruction -acceptance of responsibility - denial of responsibility -feeling that success is its own reward - no feeling of success -curiosity, enthusiasm - boredom, frustration, fear -resilience - yielding quickly to defeat -strong foundations for future success - failure to master

                                               prerequisites for future 



According to Stiggens, Arter, Chappuis, and Chappuis, there are five key dimensions of sound and productive classroom assessments. They are:

1) Quality assessments arise from and are designed to serve the specific information needs of intended user(s). Assessments are used by teachers, administrators, and students to help them find out what kind of strategies to use.

2) Quality assessments arise from clearly articulated and appropriate achievement targets. Simply put, students need clear and specific instructions as to what is wanted from them to help them learn.

3) Quality assessments accurately reflect student achievement. No matter what kind of assessment that is used it should be one that gears toward achieving student success.

4) Quality assessments yield results that are effectively communicated to their intended users. Teachers, administrators, and students should be able to understand the results that are made.

5) Quality assessments involve students in classroom assessment, record-keeping, and communication of result. Students are more involved and held accountable for what they learn.

      • For interactive assessment games go to website: retrieved on June 6, 2009.


1) A teacher wants to adapt her teaching methods to meet her student's needs. Which assessment would she use? a) formal assessment b) formative assessment c) objective assessment d) summative assessment

2) A teacher gives a multiple choice test to her students. Which assessment is she doing? a) objective assessment b) informal assessment c) norm-referenced assessment d) subjective assessment

3) A teacher uses a rubric to grade her students written report. What assessment is she demonstrating? a) criterion-referenced assessment b) summative assessment c) informal assessment d) formal assessment

4)A teacher brings her students together to discuss a lesson on "What Makes A Good President." The class is discussing this lesson intently. What kind of assessment is taking place? a) summative assessment b) objective assessment c) formative assessment d) subjective assessment

Answers: 1) a 2) a 3)c 4) c

References[edit | edit source]

Black,P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Educational Assessment: Principles, Policy, and Practices, 5(1),7-74. retrieved on June 6, 2009. retrieved on June 6, 2009.

Stiggens, Rick. Educational Leadership, Best of. 2006-2007, p43-46, 4p

Stiggens, R. J., Arter, J. A., Chappuis, J., & Chappuis, S. (2004). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right-using it well, p12 retrieved on June 6, 2009.

Msmhobbs04 (talk) 00:39, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

Msmhobbs04 (talk) 14:46, 4 June 2009 (UTC)

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