First Aid/Primary Assessment & Basic Life Support

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search
 First Aid100% developed 

Introduction100% developedIssues in Providing Care100% developedPrimary Assessment & Basic Life Support100% developedSecondary Assessment100% developedCirculatory Emergencies100% developed

Respiratory Emergencies100% developedSoft Tissue Injuries75% developedBone & Joint Injuries100% developedEnvironmental Illness & Injury100% developed

Medical Conditions & Poisoning75% developedAdvanced Topics75% developedAppendices75% developedMeta content75% developed

A quick summary of Basic Life Support/Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (BLS/CPR) is available!100% developed

Primary Assessment & Basic Life Support
100% developed 

Emergency First Aid & Initial Action Steps75% developedA for Airway100% developedB for Breathing100% developedC for Compressions75% developedD for Deadly Bleeding100% developed

The first thing you should do in any situation requiring first aid is to follow the three C’s: Check, Call, and Care.


[edit | edit source]

Survey the scene

[edit | edit source]

Before you approach the victim, take a moment to survey the scene and prioritize your safety. Look for any potential hazards that could endanger you or others. Remember, safety should always come first.

Primary Survey

[edit | edit source]

As you approach the victim, pay attention to their position and watch for any automatic red flags. Your safety is essential, and getting hurt while trying to help could make matters worse.

Next, perform a primary survey, which can be done while walking or running to the scene. This involves checking for:

  1. Consciousness: Determine if the victim is conscious or unconscious.
  2. Breathing: Observe if the victim is breathing and if their airway is clear.
  3. Pulse: Check for a pulse to assess their circulation.

Assessing an Unconscious Victim

[edit | edit source]

When you approach an unconscious victim:

  • Look, listen, and feel for signs of breathing.
  • Place your ear over the person's mouth and observe the rise and fall of the chest.
  • Feel for breath on your face and listen for any moving air or signs of a blocked airway.

If the victim is not breathing, start CPR immediately. If they are breathing but unconscious, call 911 and continue monitoring vital signs until help arrives.

Suspected Head or Neck Injury

[edit | edit source]

In case of suspected head or neck injury:

  • Maintain the C-spine position until EMS (Emergency Medical Services) arrives.
  • If you determine a head or neck injury, assume the C-spine position to prevent unnecessary movements.

Always prioritize CPR if the individual is not breathing. If you suspect a head or neck injury and the person stays down, call EMS for immediate assistance.

Remember, quick and accurate assessment is crucial in providing effective first aid. Properly evaluating the situation and taking appropriate actions can make a significant difference in the victim's outcome.

After checking the victim, the first and most important step is to call Emergency Medical Services (EMS). If you are the only person present, you must make the call yourself. Remain calm and follow these steps to provide essential information to the 911 operator:

  1. Designate a Caller: If there are multiple people around, designate someone to call EMS. If you are alone, take charge and make the call.
  2. Dial Emergency Number: Dial 911 or the local emergency number immediately.
  3. Provide Essential Information: When speaking to the 911 operator, ensure you provide the following information:
    1. Location: Clearly state your precise location, including any landmarks or nearby streets.
    2. Situation Description: Briefly explain the nature of the emergency. For example, state if the victim is unconscious, injured, or experiencing a specific medical issue.
    3. Patient Description: Provide any relevant details about the patient's condition, age, and any visible injuries or symptoms.
  4. Personal Information: The 911 operator may ask for your name. Be prepared to provide it.
  5. Facility Access: If you are in a secure facility or building, inform the 911 operator of any access codes or instructions to enter the premises.
  6. Stay on the Line: Do not hang up the phone until the 911 operator instructs you to do so. They may need additional information or provide you with essential instructions.
  7. Update on Location: If you need to change locations or move the victim before EMS arrives, inform the operator of the updated location.

Remember, staying calm during this process is crucial, as it allows you to communicate effectively and provide the necessary information for a prompt and appropriate EMS response.

After calling the EMS, provide appropriate Care until EMS arrives and takes over. Continue monitoring the vital signs of the victim until EMS arrives.

It is important to do your best to stay calm and stay focused so that you will be able to provide the best care possible for the injured individual.