Elementary Spanish/Unit2 GrammarPastTense

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Guided Practice: Verb Conjugations - Past Tense

Conjugations in the Past Tense occur in the same way as the present tense, but use different endings.

Here, we will begin making short phrases by combining subjects and verbs in a single word.

Past Tense Practice

The general formula for creating verb conjugations is to replace
the infinitive verb ending (-ar/-er/-ir) with the appropriate ending of the subject.

Although there are three verb-ending categories, -er and -ir verbs tend to share most of the conjugation endings.

Conjugated Verbs: Past Tense[edit]

Subject - Verb Ending Conjugations

In Spanish, verbs are conjugated depending on the subject they are associated with, as well as the tense.
Now, we will transfer our knowledge about verb endings in relation to subject pronouns and relate it to new past tense endings.
Each subject pronoun is associated with a particular verb-ending type, that is different in the past tense.

Persona Verb ends in:
Español Inglés
Yo : I -é / í
Tú : You -aste / -iste
Él : He -ó / ío
Ella: She -o / -ío
Nosotros: We -amos / -imos
Ellos / Ellas: They -aron / -ieron

Regular Verbs: Past Tense

These tables show how verbs change based on the subject pronouns used in the sentence. The ending of the verb is typically dropped, and the corresponding subject pronoun ending is added.

-Ar Verbs Table

-AR Verbs
Subject Pronoun Verb Ending Infinitive Verb Conjugated Verb Example - Spanish Example - Translation
Yo -o hablar hablé' Ayer, hablé con mi mama. Yesterday, I talked with my mother.
-aste mirar miraste Anoche, miraste la película. Last night, you watched the movie.
Él recordar recordó Él recordó estudiar ayer. He remembered to study yesterday.
Ella comprar compró' Ella compró harina del marcado ayer. She bought flour from the store yesterday.
Nosotros -amos limpiar limpiamos Limpiamos la cocina. We clean the kitchen.
Ellos / Ellas -aron regresar regresaron Ellos regresaron a las once anoche. They returned at 11 last night.

ER/IR Verbs Table

-ER / -IR Verbs
Subject Pronoun Verb Ending Infinitive Verb Conjugated Verb Example - Spanish Example - Translation
Yo -é / í conocer conocí Yo conocí este ciudad cuando viví aquí, pero ahora no la recuerdo. I knew this city when I lived here, but now I don't remember it.
-iste caer caíste Caíste de su bicicleta. You fell from your bike.
Él -ó / ío vivir vivió Él vivió en Buenos Aires por tres años. He lived in Buenos Aires for three years.
Ella -ó / ío leer leyo Ella ya leyo este libro. She already read this book.
Nosotros -imos / -emos comer comemos Comemos juntos a la fiesta del Día de Independenia. We eat together at the Independence Day party.
Ellos -ieron comer comieron Ellos comieron pizza ayer. They ate pizza yesterday.

Irregular Verb Patterns

Irregular Verb Type 1:Stem Changes

Here, we will discuss a few common irregular verbs, and the changes that occur in their formation.

First, we will discuss verbs that are irregular stem changing verbs

These verbs are irregular in their conjugation for all forms, although the "we" form typically stays the same.

The stem of the verbs change usually with added vowels in the root.
Verbs with an 'e' in the root typically change to 'ie'
Example: Tú: Tener = tenes = tienes

Verb-Stem Changing
Verb Yo Él / Ella Nosotros Ellos / Ellas
Tener Yo tuve Tú tuviste Él tuvo Nosotros tuvimos Ellos tuvieron
Estar Yo estuve Tú estuviste Él estuvo Nosotros estuvimos Ellos/ Ellas estuvieron
Decir Yo dije Tú dijiste Él dijo Nosotros dijimos Ellas dijeron
Poner Yo puse Tú pusiste Ella puso Nosotros pusimos Ellos pusieron
Poder Yo pude Tú pudiste Él pudo Nosotros pudimos Ellos pusieron
Querer Yo quise Tú quisiste Ella quiso Nosotros quisimos Ellos quisieron
venir Yo vine Tu viniste Él vino Nosotros vinimos Ellos vinieron

Irregular Verb Type 2: Dar

Dar (to give), also changes distinctly from other
verb types, using -ir endings.

Verb Yo Él Nosotros Ellos / Ellas
Dar Yo di Tú diste Ella dio Nosotros dimos Ellos dieron
Ver Yo vi Tú viste Ella vio Nosotros vimos Ellos vieron

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