Elementary Spanish/Unit1 Grammar3

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Guided Practice: Verb Conjugations - Present Tense

In this section we will learn about how subject pronouns are associated with particular verb endings in Spanish
Here, we will begin making short phrases by combining subjects and verbs in a single word.

Present Tense Practice

The general formula for creating verb conjugations is to replace the infinitive verb ending (-ar/-er/-ir) with the appropriate ending of the subject.
Although there are three verb-ending categories, -er and -ir verbs tend to share most of the conjugation endings.

Conjugated Verbs: Present Tense[edit | edit source]

Subject - Verb Ending Conjugations

In Spanish, verbs are conjugated depending on the subject they are associated with, as well as the tense.
For now, we will focus on Present Simple Tense
Each subject pronoun is associated with a particular verb-ending type.
Persona Verb ends in:
Español Inglés
Yo : I -o
Tú : You -as / -es
Él : He -a / -e
Ella: She -a / -e
Nosotros: We -amos / -emos
Ellos / Ellas: They -an / -en

Regular Verbs: Present Tense

These tables show how verbs change based on the subject pronouns used in the sentence. The ending of the verb is typically dropped, and the corresponding subject pronoun ending is added.

-Ar Verbs Table

-AR Verbs
Subject Pronoun Verb Ending Infinitive Verb Conjugated Verb Example - Spanish Example - Translation
Yo -o escuchar escucho Yo escucho al radio. I listen to the radio.
-as soplar soplas Tú soplas las candelas en la torta You blow the candels on the cake.
Él -a abrazar abrazaa Él abraza a su animal de peluche. He hugs his stuffed animal.
Ella -a quitar quita Ella quita la casca. She takes off the helmet.
Nosotros -amos mirar miramos Miramos la televisión. We watch the TV.
Ellos / Ellas -an parar paraan Ellos paran de jugar cuando la cena esta lista. They stop playing when the dinner is ready.

ER/IR Verbs Table

-ER / -IR Verbs
Subject Pronoun Verb Ending Infinitive Verb Conjugated Verb Example - Spanish Example - Translation
Yo -o correr corro Yo corro para hacer ejercicio. I run to do excercise.
-es escribir escribes Tú escribes una carta. You write a card.
Él -e leer lee Él lee la carta. He reads the card.
Ella -e vivir vive Ella vive en Nueva York. She lives in New York.
Nosotros -imos / -emos comer comemos Comemos juntos a la fiesta del Día de Independenia. We eat together at the Independence Day party.
Nosotros -imos / -emos vivir vivimos Nostoros vivimos en Mexico. We live in Mexico.
Ellos -en deber deben Ellos deben cocinar. They should cook.

Irregular Verb Patterns

Irregular Verb Type 1:Changes in Yo Form

Here, we will discuss a few common irregular verbs, and the changes that occur in their formation.
First, we will discuss verbs that are irregular in their 'Yo' form
These verbs are irregular in their conjugation for "I" forms, but continue normal conjugations for all other tenses.

These can further be divided in two categories.
"Yo forms with verb-oy" and "Yo forms with verb-go"

Verb-oy Ending
Verb Yo Él / Ella
Dar Yo doy Tú das Él da
Estar Yo estoy Tú estas Él esta
Verb-go Ending
Verb Yo Él
decir Yo digo Tú dices Él dice
poner Yo pongo Tú pones Él pone
caer caigo caes cae

Irregular Verb Type 2: Stem Changing - First Vowel Modification

In this form-change, the root of the verb includes an additional vowel, where the first vowel occurs in the word.

Unlike the previously discussed irregulars, all conjugations use this modification.

Stem Changing Verbs
Verb Yo Él
Jugar Yo juego Tú juegas Ella juega
Doler Yo Duelo Tú dueles Ella duele
Poder* Yo puedo Tú puedes Él pueda

Irregular Verb Type 3: Full Verb Change

In this form-change, the root of the verb doesn't always appear like its infinitive form.
Full Verb Change
Verb Yo Él Nosotros Ellos
Ir Yo voy Tú vas Ella va Nosotros vamos Ellos van
Ser * Yo soy Tú eres Él es Nosotros somos Ellas son

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