Easy Ido/Lesson seven
Verb + Infinitive
The English sentence 'I need to go home' is in the form Verb ('I need') + Infinitive ('to go'). Ido uses the same construction. Here are some verbs which can be found in sentences like this:
- povar - to be able (to do something)
- mustar - to have to (by necessity)
- bezonar - to need (to)
- volar - to want (to)
- devar - to have a duty (to), 'should'
One can talk about time using words such as the following:
- hiere - yesterday
- hodie - today
- morge - tomorrow
- horo - hour
- kloko - o'clock
- dio - day
- semano - week
- monato - month
- yaro - year
Like in many languages, the hardest to learn can be the short words. To make matters worse, some words in Ido are very similar while their translations in English are quite different. The converse can also be true. Here are a few sets of words which need special attention.
- ta - used when 'that' is an adjective, e.g. it precedes a noun. Ta libro esas granda, 'That book is big'.
- to - used when 'that' is a pronoun, e.g. it precedes a verb. To esas libro, 'That is a book'.
- ke - used when 'that' is a conjunction, e.g. it joins two clauses. Me pensas ke hundi esas animali, 'I think that dogs are animals'.
- nek - neither and nor. Me manjas nek frukti nek legumi, 'I eat neither fruits nor vegetables'.
- nur - only. Me havas nur un frato, 'I have only one sibling'.
- nun - now. Me mustas irar nun, 'I must go now'.
- nam - for, since. Me skribis la vorto, nam me ne savis olu, 'I wrote the word, for I did not know it'.
- ulo - something. Forsan ulo plu bona venos., 'Perhaps something better will come.'
- ulu - anyone, someone. Kad ulu savas ube ol esas?, 'Does anyone know where it is?'
- ula - any, some. Kad vu havas ula libri pri cienco?, 'Do you have any books about science?'
- tra - through. Me marchis tra la parko., 'I walked through the park.'
- tro - too. Mea libro esas tro olda., 'My book is too old.'
- tre - very. Ta libro esas tre interesanta., 'This book is very interesting.'
Once you have mastered the words above, try learning these last few. Also, try using them in sentences.
- dum - during
- yen - here is/are, there is/are (as in 'There is the train!')
- do - so, consequently
- ma - but
- ja - already
- se - if
- ya - indeed, truly
- tante - so (as in 'so big', 'so quickly')