Dutch Empire/Later Wars
|“||The residence of the Plymouth settlers in the Netherlands, and the later conquest of the Dutch colonies, had brought the Americans into contact with the singularly wise and free institutions of the Dutch.||”|
—Albert B. Hart
Nine Years War[edit | edit source]
In 1686 the Dutch joined The League of Augsburg along with Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire. The goal of the alliance was to resist growing French aggression in Europe. France had expected a benevolent neutrality on the part of James II's England, but after James's deposition and replacement by his son-in-law William of Orange, Louis's inveterate enemy, England declared war on France in May of 1689, and the League of Augsburg became known as the "Grand Alliance", with England, Portugal, Spain, the United Provinces, and most of the German states joined together to fight France.
At the start of the War, the French had enormous success especially in the Spanish Netherlands. They began to push into the Spanish Netherlands, until they were finally stopped at the Battle of Walcourt. The French quickly recovered from their defeat with a victory at the Battle of Fleurus. The French were also successful in the Alps in 1690, with Marshal Catinat defeating the Duke of Savoy at the Battle of Staffardand occupying Savoy. The French were also successful at sea in 1691, defeating an Anglo-Dutch fleet at the Battle of Beachy Head. The French followed up on their success in 1691 with victories Mons and Halle. Also at this time the French continued their advance into Italy. The Dutch and English, very worried about Frances success, attempted to drive the French out of the Spanish Netherlands but were defeated at the Battle of Steenkerque in 1692.
Despite astounding French success on continental Europe, they were less successful in Ireland. An Army comprised of mostly Dutch troops under the command of Godert de Ginkell, defeated the Irish and French troops at the Battle of Aughrim, which resulted in the surrender of the French and Irish troops in Ireland.
French success in the seas would soon end. After an Anglo-Dutch victory at Battle of La Hougue the French lost control of the Channel for good. The allies were now free to make full use of their own, to harass the French coast, to intercept French commerce, and to cooperate with the armies acting against France.
For the next 6 years the Dutch role in the war was very minor. The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on September 20, 1697. In the Treaty the French paid the Dutch a sum of 16,000 pagodas.
War of Spanish Succession[edit | edit source]
The War of Spanish Succession would be the last war that the Dutch would be a major power in. Spanish King Carlos II.,of the Habsburg Dynasty, died in 1700 and was without a male heir. France wanted to see a new dynasty on the throne. Europe's other powers were interested in both preventing France from extending her influence, and in preventing another long and costly war. In February 1701 Philip of Bourbon, 17 years old and named heir to the throne by Carlos II, entered a cheering Madrid; he was crowned King Philip V.
The Austrians, English the Dutch and the Portuguese, stood together against France and Spain. In 1702 the French had occupied the Spanish Netherlands in order to keep it safe for Spain. The Duke of Marlborough, commanding English-Dutch-Danish and Austrian troops, was victorious in the Battle of Blenheim 1704, Austrian forces in the Battles of Ramillies 1706, Oudenaarde 1708, and an Austro-English-Dutch force was also victorious at the Battle of Malplaquet in 1709.
The Anglo-Dutch fleet inflicted major damaged on the Spanish and French navies at the Battle of Vigo Bay.
In 1701 Austria had invaded Lombardy. Over the next six years, with the Anglo-Dutch Navies in control of the Medderteranian, the Austrians would push the French and Spanish troops off Italy.
The peace treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt formally ended the war in 1714. The Spanish Netherlands, for the most part, had gone to Austrian Control, Spain ceded most of its possessions in Italy and Philip V was still on the Spanish throne.
War of the Quadruple Alliance[edit | edit source]
On August 2, 1718, Great Britain, Austria, France and the Dutch Republic concluded the Quadruple Alliance, formed in order to contain Spain.
Spain began hostilities against the Holy Roman Empire by invading the island of Sardinia, given to Austria by the Treaty of Utrecht ending the War of the Spanish Succession. Shortly thereafter, the Spanish advanced, invading Sicily, which had been awarded to the Duke of Savoy.
The Dutch joined the war in 1719. Spain fared poorly in the war. A French army under the Duke of Berwick invaded the Basque provinces of Spain almost without resistance in April 1719, before being forced back by disease. Meanwhile, British and Dutch fleets captured Vigo and Pontevedra in October, and that same month,Messina surrendered to the Austrians.
Spain made peace with the allies at the Treaty of The Hague on February 17, 1720. Included in the terms of this treaty, the Duke of Savoy was forced to exchange his throne in Sicily for that of the less important Kingdom of Sardinia